You are on page 1of 4

aim

The aim of the experiment is to perform tests to determine the presence of
phytochemicals
flavonoid compounds, steroids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, saponins and tannins
present in the sample
plant.
Learning outcomes
Conducting tests to determine the presence of phytochemical compounds in
secondary metabolites
in plant samples.
theory
Most of the plants used in traditional medicine to treat
a disease. Among natural compounds contained in the plant is
flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, saponins and tannins.
In these experiments, tests were conducted to determine the presence of
phytochemicals, natural compounds
found in samples of leaves or plant extracts.
Procedure
Exam to Alkaloids
1. Add 5 mL of 10% ammonia chloroform (pH 9) into 2 g of leaf samples
which have been pounded.
2. Turas extract through cotton into a clean test tube (which ensured
with stopper).
3. Add 1 mL of 2N H2SO4 to the extract and jiggle with strong
for 15 times.
4. Leave the moment until two liquid phases formed.
5. Remove 1 mL of aqueous extract into another test tube and add 23 drops reagent Mayer into it.

Testing for steroids 1. Dissolve the crude extract samples into methanol. 5. Put the pieces of magnesium into the test tube and instill 2-3 drops Concentrated HCl. Tests for Flavonoids: Test Shinoda method A 1. Enter the 5 g samples are cut into small leaves in a beaker and add 15 . Add 20% sodium hydroxide (5 mL) to a solution of the extract. Note the color change occurs. 2. 3. 3. Dissolve the crude extract samples into methanol. 2. Then add sufficient methanol to the sample sink. Transfer 1 mL of the filtrate into a test tube. Weigh 5 g samples are cut into small leaves. 4.5 g of crude methanol extract. 2. method B 1.6. Establishment of a yellow color indicates the presence of flavonoids. Then. Change the color of the solution from violet to blue or green point the presence of steroids. 3. heat for 30 minutes on the heating element and the filter. Establishment of a red color indicates the presence of flavonoids. method C 1. Tests for Terpenoid: Test Salkowski method A 1. 3. Put the pieces of magnesium and instill 2-3 drops of concentrated HCl. Add 2 mL of acetic anhydride to 0. Establishment of a white precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. slowly add 2 mL H2SO4. 2.

method B 1. 4. Note the color change occurs. Note the formation of foam / emulsion which indicates the presence of saponins. Time foaming / Emulsion Category Saponin 1 hour foaming +1 2 hours foaming +2 3 hours +3 foaming 4 hours or more foaming +4 method B 1. 2. 3.mL of methanol. Heat over the heating plate until almost dry. 2. True filtrate. . The formation of a red color indicates the presence of terpenoids. Establishment of a brownish red color indicates the presence of terpenoids. 5. True filtrate and add 10 mL of diethyl ether. 2. Add 10 ml of diethyl ether and 20 mL of distilled water. Instill 2-3 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride. 5. Transfer the aqueous layer to a test tube. Put 5 g of sample into a beaker and add 15 mL of ethanol. Add 2 ml of chloroform and concentrated sulfuric acid (3 mL) slowly to in 5 mL of methanol extract. Weigh 2 g of sample leaves and heat in 20 mL of distilled water in the water bath. 4. Transfer 1 mL to a test tube. 3. Heat over the heating plate until almost dry. The test for saponin method A 1. shake and let it mix moment.

The filter and transfer 10 mL of the filtrate into a beaker. Tests for Tannin 1. 3. Boil the mixture of 0. Establishment of a blackish blue or green precipitate indicates the presence tannin. Questions 1. 4. 5. alkaloids ii. The filter and add a few drops of Ferrik chloride (FeCl3) in 1 mL of filtrate. Add 3 drops of olive oil and shake.5 g of sample and 20 mL of distilled water on the heating element.2. Note the formation of emulsions. In addition to the above test method phytochemicals. 3. describe two other methods used to determine the presence of the following compounds: i. Flavonoids. 2. Add 5 mL of distilled water and shake vigorously to form a foam stable. .