You are on page 1of 31

Chemistry Stage 6

Syllabus Dot Points
Module 1: The Chemical Earth
Lara Le

1. The living and non-living components
of the Earth contain mixtures
1.1.1 Construct word and balanced formulae equations of
chemical reactions as they are encountered.
Phase Descriptors
(s) = solid
(l) = liquid
(g) = gas
(aq) = aqueous (dissolved in water)
1) Synthesis Reactions
A + B  AB
(i) Metal/Non-metal + oxygen  Metal/non-metal oxide
Examples
4Na(s) + O2(g)  2Na2O(s)
S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g)
(ii) Metal oxide + water  Base
Example
Na2O(s) + H2O(l)  2NaOH
(iii) Non-metal oxide + water  Acid
Example
CO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2CO3(aq)
2) Decomposition Reactions
AB  A + B
(i) Metal carbonate  metal oxide + carbon dioxide
Example
CaO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2
3) Single Replacement Reactions
A + BC  AB + C
(i) Active metal + acid  salt + hydrogen gas
Examples
Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2(g)
2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq)  Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g)
(ii) Active metal + water  metal hydroxide +
hydrogen gas
Example
2Li(s) + 2H2O(l)  2LiOH(aq) + H2(g)
4) Double Replacement Reactions

AB + CD  AC + BD
(i) Acid + base  salt + water (neutralisation)
Examples
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq)  K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(ii) Acid + metal carbonate  salt + carbon dioxide +
water
Example
2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
[CO2(g) + H2O(l)]
(iii) Precipitation Reactions
salt + salt  2 new salts
Examples
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
(iv) Combustion of Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water
Example
C8H18(l) + 25/2O2(g)  8CO2(g) + 9H2O(l)
OR without fraction
2C8H18(l) + 25O2(g)  16CO2(g) + 18H2O(l)

1.1.2 Identify the difference between elements, compounds
and mixtures in terms of particle theory.
The Particle Theory states: “All matter are made up of tiny
particles that are continually moving”.
The Particle Theory is used to explain different physical states of
matter and its properties.
An element is a chemical substance that is made up of the same
type of atoms.
 An element cannot be decomposed by either physical or
chemical means
 Examples: Calcium (Ca), Oxygen (O)
A compound is a pure substance that consists of two or more
elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio by mass.
 A compound can be decomposed into its consistuent elements
using chemical means
 Examples: H2O, CO2
A mixture is a “physical blending” of two or more pure substances
in a variable proportion by mass.

which enable these separations. air 1.1. identifying the differences in properties.1.4 Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of:  solids of different sizes  solids and liquids  dissolved solids in liquids  liquids  gases 1. The ‘sphere’ of the Earth Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Definition The rocks and crust of the Earth The waters of the Earth The gases of the Earth The regions where living things live Example of mixture found Soil Salt water Air Blood 1. in the gases of the Earth (known as the atmosphere) and in the living things of the Earth (who live in what is known as the biosphere). hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds. Separation of solids of different sizes . salt water. Lithosphere – the rocks and crust of the Earth Hydrosphere – the waters of the Earth Atmosphere – the gases of the Earth Biosphere – the regions where living things live Our world can be considered simply as one great mixture of all chemicals that we know and use. These include all the chemicals in the crust and rocks of the Earth (known as the lithosphere).3 Identity that the biosphere.  A mixture can be decomposed using physical means Examples: petrol.5 Assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials. lithosphere. in the waters of the Earth (known as the hydrosphere).1.

Separation of solids and liquids  Filtration Filtration is used when a mixture contains a liquid with an insoluble solid. Sieving Sieving separates solid mixtures based on their particle sizes. the property used for separating the materials is the difference in the ability of the particles of the substances to pass through the filter paper.  Magnetism Magnetism is used to separate certain substances such as ion fillings based on their ferromagnetism. For example. to separate sand and water. NOTE: If the solid is coarse or very dense. . the difference in size particles is the property we use to achieve the separation. the water solution is known as the filtrate and passes through the filter paper. Here. The sand left on the filter paper is called the residue. This technique uses the property of the difference in particle sizes. The smaller stones and sand particles can pass between the bars of a sieve. These ferro-magnetic substances will attach to the magnet. For example. as the liquid can easily pass through the filter paper or sieve. a mixture of sand and small stones can be separated by sieving. Here. while the larger stones are trapped on the bars. a similar process of decantation and sedimentation can be used.

Separation of dissolved solids in liquid  Evaporation Evaporation. Magnetism Magnetism is used to separate certain substances such as ion fillings based on their ferromagnetism. NOTE: This technique only retains the solid. For example. These ferro-magnetic substances will attach to the magnet. This technique uses the property of the difference in boiling points of the liquid and solid. leaving the solid residue. as the liquid evaporates. . is used when a mixed contains a liquid with a dissolved solid. we would boil the solution or leave the water to evaporate. To separate and still have both the liquid and solid. distillation must be used. This leaves the salt crystals behind. or vaporisation. to obtain salt from salt water.

The liquid in the external beaker is called the distillate . This technique uses the property of the difference in boiling points of the liquid. When the mixture is heated.Distillation can be used to separate and retain a mixture contained a liquid and a dissolved solid . It condenses back into liquid and drips into the external beaker. the more volatile liquid (the one with the lower boiling point) changes into a gas and travels up the column and through the condenser. NOTE: .Separation of liquids  Simple Distillation Simple distillation is used when a mixture contains two miscible liquids (they are able to dissolve in one another).

 Fractiona l Distillation Fractional distillation is used to separate a mixture of many liquids with similar boiling points. In the process. The substance with the lower boiling point is allowed to reach the top and is then recondensed and collected. The column is packed with material that allows the vapours to condense. . both liquids boil and move as a vapour up the distillation column. The further up the column the temperature decreases so that the liquid with the higher boiling point condenses before it reaches the top.

These liquids can be separated using a separating funnel based on the property of the difference in their densities. then they form a heterogeneous mixture with two separate distinct layers. The air is first liquefied at low temperature Summary of Methods of Separation Mixture Methods of Separated Separation Solids of  Sieving different sizes  Magnetism Solids and  Filtration liquids  Magnetism Property used in Separation  Different particle size  Ferromagnetism  Different particle size  Ferromagnetism . The liquid with the lower density will float on top of the liquid with the higher density.Separating Funnel If a mixture consists of two immiscible liquids.  Separation of gases  Fractional Distillation A mixture of gases such as air can also be separated using fractional distillation.

To find the mass of suspended solids.1. If the mass is the same. weight it and then subtract the mass of the filter paper. Gravimetric analysis – quantitative analysis using weighing. Other situations where gravimetric analysis could be required are: . An example is when river water is suspected of being polluted and it can be sampled and then analysed for both suspended and dissolved solids. the dissolved solid weighed. Quantitative analysis – calculating how much of each component is found in the mixture. we allow the residue on the filter paper to dry.Dissolved solids in liquids   Boiling Evaporation  Liquids   Simple distillation Fractional distillation Separating funnel   Gases  Fractional distillation    Differences in boiling points between the solid and liquid Large differences in boiling points Small differences in boiling points Difference in densities Differences in boiling points 1. and then subtract the mass of the filter paper. Qualitative analysis – identifying components in a mixture. Gravimetric analysis can be used to determine the:  Composition of a mixture using separation techniques  Percentage composition of a compound using chemical and physical separation techqniues Gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists. Volumetric analysis – quantitative analysis carried out by calculating its volume. dried further and weighed again. the sample is dry. To find the amount of dissolved solid. In both cases: Percentage = mass of residue/mass of sample x 100 This technique is called ‘drying until constant mass is achieved’ should alsp be used – the sample is weighed.6 Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists. the filtrate could be evaporated to dryness. This could be done by first weighing a sample of the water and then filtering it.

1. 1. and one less oxygen end in “ite”. For example: CaCl2 is calcium chloride. For example: PCl3 is phosphorus trichloride ClBr is Bromine monochloride **OF2 is oxygen difluoride . so that customers can be provided with the information. di (2). Covalent compounds  Name the element furthest to the left of the periodic table first. For example: K3PO4 is potassium phosphate. except when its with fluorine)  The prefixes mono (1). A food company wants to know the amount of fibre in a new batch of fruit. penta (5). Ionic Compounds Case 1 Rule:  Name the metal first  Then the non-metal with “-ide” ending.7 Apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory.   A mining company wants to know the composition of a particular ore sample to see if it is financially viable to mine the ore body. If both elements occurs in the same groups. tetra (4). the one lower down is named first  EXCEPTION: oxygen is always named first. A health authority wishes to know the composition of the air near an industrial site to see if the air is polluted by the site. Ca(PO3)2 is calcium phosphite. tri (3). hexa (6) are added to the front of each word to indicate the number of atoms present in each type. Case    2 Rule: Naming ionic compounds with polyatomic ions Name the metal first Then the polyatomic ion Polyatomic ions with the same elements involved but have one more oxygen end in “ate”.

(6) hex.(8) oct.  IUPAC naming is a systematic method allowing an infinite number of compounds of carbons to be named given a few rules  IUPAC naming of straight-chain hydrocarbons Using stem and suffix: Stem: tells us the length of the carbon chain (how many carbons) (1) meth.(5) pent.(2) eth.1.(9) non(10) decSuffix: tells us which family (or homologous) series the compound belongs to: -ane (Alkane) -ene (Alkene) -yne (Alkyne) .(4) but.8 Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they  The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) was established in the 1900s.(7) hept.1.(3) prop.

Alkanes CnH2n+2 Molecula r Formula n=1 CH4 Methane n=2 C2H6 Ethane n=3 C5H12 Pentane Alkenes CnH2n Molecula r Formula X C3H6 n=1 n=3 Structural Formula Name Structural Formula Name X X Propene .

1 Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element. . Although most elements are found in combinations on Earth. 2.1. some elements are found uncombined.But-1-ene n=4 C4H8 But-2-ene Alkynes CnH2n2 Molecula r Formula n=2 C2H2 Structural Formula Name Ethyne But-1-yne n=4 C4H6 But-2-yne 2.

Classification of elements according to their physical properties: Physical Property Appearance Electrical Conductivity Heat Conductivity Metal Lustrous High High Non-Metal Dull Low (semiconductors) High Ductility and Malleability Density High Moderate Low (insulators) Nil (brittle) Generally high Generally high High Magnesiu m Iron Copper Sodium Moderate Low Very high Low Variable Silicon Boron Arsenic Germaniu m Low Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Boiling Point Strength Examples         Semi-Metal Dull Nil (insulators)     2. 2. unreactive elements can exist as free elements in nature and reactive elements combine with other substances in the environment to form compounds.3 Account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties.1. non. such as potassium and magnesium.  Less reactive metals include gold. . Examples Metals  Highly reactive metals include Group 1 and 2 metals. copper and titanium.  Inert non-metals include helium and radon. which belong to the noble gases (Group 8) The more reactive an element. the less chance there is of it existing as an uncombined element.metals and semimetals according to their physical properties.1. Non-metals  Highly reactive non-metals include oxygen and fluorine.Reactivity – a chemical property that is related to the electronic structure of the element.2 Classify elements as metals. Therefore.

For example. Liquid Particles are close together and move more freely. Elements in Earth materials are present mostly as compounds because of interactions at the atomic level 3. Particle position Diagram Solid Particles are close together and vibrate in the same space. scissors. helium in weather balloons and airships. solid. This means it is their chemical properties that usually determine their use. where the physical properties of metals are relied upon. cars. for they are generally reactive. non-metals find only a few specific uses. and their good electrical conductivity. However. their strength. cables. rather than their physical properties. the main importance of non-metals is in their chemistry. Non-Metals The physical properties of non-metals means that they find much more limited use than metals. aeroplanes. cutlery and coins. wiring. Matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting and it can exist in three states.1 Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting. Gas Particles are far apart and move very freely. 3. trains. Because of their generally low melting points. liquid and gas. It is also the reason why the few elements we meet in everyday life are mostly metals. . machinery. Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space. their brittleness and lack of electrical conductivity. carbon in pencils. their hardness. and argon in light globes. This makes them able to be used in such ways as in cans.Metals Metals are used in a wide variety of situations because of their generally high melting points.1. forming compounds with each other as well as with metals.

In a neutral atom.Shape Volume Compressib ility Definite shape Definite volume Cannot be compressed Shape depends on container Definite volume Cannot be compressed Shape depends on container Fills all available space Can be compressed 3.1.2 Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons Electrons of an atom orbit the nucleus in stationary energy levels.3 Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic Mass Number (A) – is the sum of the mass of protons and neutrons of an atom. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus. An atom cannot lose or gain protons and neutrons. 3. electrons and neutrons. Each of the energy levels can accommodate only a certain number of electrons.4 Describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons. Atoms are made up of three sub-atomic particles called protons. whereas the electrons surround the nucleus in stationary energy levels. Atomic Number (Z) – is the number of protons of an atom of an element. 3. electrons are negatively charged and neutrons have no charge. Protons are positively charged particles. Atoms of the same element have the same atomic number that is unique to that element.1. . 2n2 Rule The 2n2 rule defines the maximum number of electrons that can exist within the nth energy level/shell.1. the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.

3.5 Apply the Periodic Table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals. it comes negatively charged due to the surplus of electrons. . A negatively charged ion is known as an anion.1. it becomes positively charged due to the surplus of protons.Ions – are charged particles that can be produced when atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve noble gas electron configuration. A positively charged ion is known as a cation. When an atom loses electrons. When an atom gains electrons.

all tend to lose two electrons and therefore form doubly charged cations: Be2+. Se2. Mg2+. such as. Sr2+. Ga. Al. Se. Na. Sr. such as O.IGroup VIII noble gases will not form ions. Mg. Br. I. Rb. all tend to lose one electron and therefore form singly charged cations: Li+. such as Be. Br-. besides Boron. Ba. K. tend to lose three electrons and therefore form cations: Al3+. Rb+. Ga3+ Group VI non-metas. Te-2 Group VII non-metals. 3.1. Cl-. Te. all tend to gain 1 electron and therefore form singly charged anions: F-. all tend to gain 2 electrons and therefore form double charged anions: O2-. Ba2+ Group III elements. S. Cs.6 Apply Lewis electron dot structures to:  the formation of ions  the electron sharing in some simple molecules The formation of ions . K+. Ca2+. Ca.      Group I metals. Cs+ Group II metals. such as F. such as Li. Cl.

. Ions – are charged particles that can be produced when atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve noble gas electron configuration.Covalent 3.1.7 Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge.

3. Elements in nature tend to gain or lose electrons to attain these stable electron configurations.Octet Rule: Elements with completely filled valence shells or elements with 8 electrons in the valence shell are particularly stable and unreactive.1. Ionic compounds have high melting points and boiling points and thus exist as solids at room temperature due to its strong ionic bonds. The intermolecular force between molecules is a weak force when compared to the intramolecular force holding the atoms of the molecule together. usually a metal. This weak force gives molecules the ability to move independently of each other.    An ionic compound is formed when there is a direct transfer of electrons from one element. Ionic bonds arise from the electrostatic force of attractions between oppositely charged ions. to another element.9 Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more than one atom. usually a non-metal.8 Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other. Molecules can be elements or compounds.1. Some examples include: Monatomic Molecules (the noble gases)  Helium atoms = H  Argon atoms = Ar Diatomic Molecules  Oxygen = O2  Nitrogen = N2  Carbon monoxide = CO2 Triatomic Molecules  Water = H2O  Ozone = O3  Carbon Dioxide = CO2  Sulfur Dioxide = SO2 . 3.

melting . typically only involves a change of state. Chemical Change – a change of state where new substances are formed.Tetra-atomic Molecules  Ammonia = NH3 3. Physical changes are often relatively easy to reverse. 4.10 Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons. The chemical bond arised from the sharing of electrons is called a covalent bond. usually non-metals.1.1 Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles. Physical change does not produce any new substances. Physical Change – a change of state where no new substances are formed.1. NaCl Covalent Bond 2H2 + O2  2H2O 4. only requiring a small energy input (relative to chemical change) Examples: boiling. 3.1. freezing. A covalent molecule is formed when two or more elements.11 Construct formulae for compounds formed from:  ions  atoms sharing electrons Ionic Bond Na+ + Cl. share their valence electrons to obtain a stable electron configuration. Energy is required to extract elements from their naturally occurring sources.

heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday life. such as light. Boiling of Water  No new substances are formed  Change of state from liquid to gas through the process of boiling  Less energy is required  Easily reversible through the process of condensation Electrolysis of Water  New substances. Examples of decomposition reactions that occur in everyday life:  Heat energy is used in industry in order to separate and decompose minerals to produce metals  Ultraviolet light decomposes ozone molecules into oxygen gas and oxygen radicals. A decomposition reaction only occurs when energy is added. as they typically require a larger energy input compared to physical changes.1.2 Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change. heat or electricity.1.Chemical change. 4.3 Identify light. as it prevents the most high-energy ultraviolet rays from reaching the Earth’s surface . involves a change where at least one new substance is formed. are formed as old bonds between oxygen and hydrogen are broken and new bonds are established  A larger amount of energy is required  More difficult to reverse 4. Decomposition reaction – a reaction that involves the breakdown of a complex substance into its simpler constituent element or elements. This process is important. O2 and H2. Chemical changes do not involve atoms being lost or created – the atoms are simply being rearranged into different combinations. Chemical changes are more difficult to reverse. Synthesis reaction – the formation of a compound from its elements or the formation of a more complex compound from simpler compounds. also known as a chemical reaction.

the more energy is required to separate them. it is easier to separate covalent molecular substances because the bond strength is weaker than those present in ionic substances. compounds and mixtures. 5. between them. or bond. or bond. Lightning initiates decomposition reactions in the atmosphere by providing electrical energy to various gas molecules Examples of synthesis reactions that occur in everyday life:  Rusting of a metal occurs when the metal is exposed to oxygen and water  The ammonia industry synthesises ammonia directly by combining nitrogen and hydrogen gases at high temperatures and pressures over a catalyst 4. The properties of elements and compounds are determined by their 5.1. Physical Properties Chemical Properties . the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction. bonding and structure. For example. it is difficult to separate ions in an ionic bond because the electrostatic force is strong. whereas.4 Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction.1 Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements. The stronger the chemical bond between atoms in a compound.1. between them. Therefore.

Elements Compounds Metals:  Malleable  Ductile  Found as solids (besides mercury)  Good conductors of heat and electricity  Lustrous  High density  High tensile strength Non-Metals:  Brittle  Dull  Found as solids. liquids and gases  Good insulators of heat and electricity  Low density (except for carbon in diamond form which is strong and lustrous) (except for carbon in graphite form) Semi-Metals:  Have properties of both metals and non-metals  Have intermediate density Ionic Compounds:  Formed between metals and non-metals  Solid at room temperature  Soluble  Non-conductors of electricity in solid state  Conductors of electricity when dissolved in solution Covalent Molecular Compounds:  Non-conductors of electricity  Low melting points  Soft and brittle Covalent Network Lattices:  Non-conductors in all states  Insoluble  High melting points  Very hard and brittle Metals:  Form positive ions  Form basic oxides  Form iron chlorides Non-Metals:  Form negative ions  Form acidic oxides  Form covalent chlorides Compounds:  Demonstrate different chemical properties to their constituent elements  Can be decomposed into its component elements or simpler compounds .

Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixtures:  Not chemically combined  Demonstrate the physical properties of the constituent pure substances  Do not look the same throughout the mixture Homogeneous Mixtures:  Not chemically combined  Demonstrate the physical properties of the constituent pure substances  Looks the same throughout the mixture Mixtures:  Demonstrate the chemical properties of their constituent pure substances 5. due to the weak intermolecular High. due to the strong covalent bonds . due to ing Points the strong electrostatic Covalent Molecular Covalent Network Molecules Atoms Weak intermolecular forces Strong covalent bonds Low.2 Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent Ionic Particles forming the lattice Forces holding particles in place Cations and anions Ionic bonds – strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions Melting/Boil High.1.

Molten/Aqueou s: Can conduct electricity in molten and aqueous state. as the ions are tightly bound by the strong electrostatic attraction. Poor conductor of electricity in all states.3 Distinguish between metallic. forces Poor conductors of electricity in all physical states due to the lack of charge carriers or free moving charged particles. as the weak intermolecular forces are easily overcome.1. Soft. Hard and brittle. causing repulsion. charge carriers. and therefore. lack of charge carriers. 5. . due to the strong covalent bonds held rigidly in a tetrahedral manner. Hard and brittle. ionic and covalent Metallic Bonds Metals consist of a lattice of positive ions (cations) surrounded by a ‘sea of delocalised electrons’. due to the strong covalent bonds. as the ionic bonds are broken and there are free moving ions. they do not conduct electricity. as distortion of the crystal brings like charges together.Electrical Conductivit y Hardness force Solid: As a solid.

2D 3D In ionic compounds. Covalent bonds are different to ionic bonds. with a ‘sea’ of delocalised electrons across the lattice. as ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons. Thus. there are no discrete molecules. Covalent bonds are the strong forces that hold atoms together in molecules.The metallic bond is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between the positive lattice ions and the sea of delocalised electrons. Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds are electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. whereas covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms. the chemical formula specifies a simple whole number ratio in which the ions are present. This is called the empirical formula. Covalent Bonds Covalent bonding exists in covalent compounds and in non-metals. ions are arranged in a regular 3D structure called an ionic lattice.1. all held together by strong metallic bonds. . three-dimensional lattice. In an ionic compound. but rather an infinite 3D array of positive and negative ions.4 Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions The structure of a metal consists of positive metal ions (cations) arranged in a regular. 5.

This is made up of positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions).5 Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions. there are no discrete molecules.1. O2. ionic compounds consists of a three-dimensional. In the solid state. 5. CO2)  Tetratonic molecules (NH3. Cl2)  Triatomic molecules (O3. H2O.1. F2. held together by strong ionic bonds. PO3. H2O2) Examples of covalent lattices:  Graphite and diamond (carbon) . This is called the empirical formula.5. the chemical formula specifies a simple whole number ratio in which the ions are present.6 Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an In ionic compounds.1. 5. Thus. but rather an infinite three-dimensional array of positive and negative ions.7 Identify common elements that exist as molecules or Examples of molecular substances:  Diatomic molecules (H2. ionic crystal lattice.

This means that a large energy input is required to break these ionic bonds. This means that there are no free moving electrons. they can conduct electricity because the ionic bonds are broken and there are free-moving ions that act as charge carriers. In molten or aqueous state.1. and thus. . Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points because the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged particles is strong.5. This forces the crystal to shatter. Ionic Structure Property Non-conductivity of electricity when in solid state Conductivity of electricity when in molten or aqueous state Hard and brittle High melting and boiling points Explanation As a solid. covalent molecular and covalent network structures. causing repulsion. no charge carriers. Ionic compounds are hard and brittle. as distortion of the crystal brings like charges together. ionic compounds do not conduct electricity because the ions are tightly bound by the strong electrostatic attraction.8 Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic.

They are extremely hard and brittle due to the strong covalent bonds held rigidly in a tetrahedral manner. as there is a lack of charge carriers due to the presence of strong covalent bonds.Covalent Molecular Structure Property Non-conductivity in all states Soft Low melting and boiling points Covalent Network Structure Property Non-conductivity in all states Hard and brittle High melting and boiling points Explanation Covalent molecular substances are poor conductors of electricity in all physical states due to the lack of charge carriers or freemoving charged particles. Explanation Covalent network substances are poor conductors of electricity in all states. All covalent network lattices have extremely high melting and boiling points due to the strong covalent bonds. Solid molecular substances are usually soft because the weak intermolecular forces are easily overcome. They have low melting and boiling points due the weak intermolecular forces. This is the reason why many covalent molecular substances exist as gases. meaning that a low energy input is required to break these forces. . This means that a large energy input is required to break these bonds.