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EBSD Analysis of Friction Stir Welded 7136-T76
Aluminum Alloy
DOI: 10.4028/



K. Muszka

M. Wrobel

AGH University of Science and Technology i…

AGH University of Science and Technology i…





S. Dymek

Carter Hamilton

AGH University of Science and Technology i…

Miami University





Available from: Izabela Kalemba-Rec
Retrieved on: 02 December 2015

the process offers numerous environmental advantages and cost-reducing benefits [1. Thus the texture of the welded plates was typical for cold rolled metals with a face-centered cubic crystal structure which deforms only by slip (Fig. Mickiewicza MUSZKA Krzysztof 1. 203-204 (2013) pp 258-261 Online available since 2013/Jun/05 at www. The plates were friction stir welded in a butt joint configuration at the Edison Welding Institute in Columbus.16:18:09) . which was invented by The Welding Institute in Cambridge. The process is widely used for welding light metals. The texture gradually weakens on moving from the thermo-mechanically affected zone toward the weld Experimental details The material used in this research was a 7136-T7651 aluminum alloy supplied by Universal Alloy Corporation. It is also heated by friction between the shoulder and the welded plates bmuszka@agh. This induces significant microstructural changes in the weld area and results in the development of distinct microstructural zones: stirred zone (SZ). Al. Ohio. The process was carried out at a tool rotation speed of 250 rpm and welding velocity of During friction stir welding material is mixed by a rotating pin and undergoes intensive plastic deformation. 30-059 Krakow.112. WROBEL Miroslaw 1. Ti.99%). The investigations were carried out on heat-treatable 2xxx and 6xxx aluminum alloys [4. The stirred zone is characterized by very weak texture and is dominated by high angle boundaries. (ID: 149.4028/ Cu (1. FSW constitutes a thermal and deformation process. sound welds with good mechanical properties.1 mm/s with a down-force of 21. thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) [1-3]. state of precipitates. USA.scientific. is a solid-state joining process that achieves high-quality. The 6. a kalemba@agh. Though the alloy was hot extruded the strong deformation texture was retained due to the presence of zirconium which hampers the recrystallization process. On the other hand. knowledge regarding grain size. dgmdymek@cyf-kr. Introduction Friction stir welding (FSW) has become a popular joining technology used in many branches of the manufacturing industry. EBSD. crystallographic texture and character of grain boundaries is important. the thermo-mechanically affected zone exhibits a high frequency of low angle boundaries.Solid State Phenomena mm thick plates of the alloys were hot © (2013) Trans Tech Publications. character of grain boundaries in the stirred and thermo-mechanically affected zones.2]. This research addresses the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) analysis of friction stir welded age-hardenable aluminum alloy of 7xxx series. e hamiltbc@muohio.ttp.c DYMEK Stanislaw 1. The alloying elements of this alloy are following: Zn (7.94%). This research addresses the EBSD analysis of friction stir welded 7136-T76 aluminum Keywords: FSW. The All rights reserved. Only a few investigations dealt with texture development during FSW.258 EBSD Analysis of Friction Stir Welded 7136-T76 Aluminum Alloy KALEMBA Izabela 1. especially those which are difficult to weld by traditional fusion welding.5] and on non heat-treatable 5xxx series [6].pl. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the grain size and their shape. Therefore. USA.scientific. Switzerland doi:10.14%) and also Fe. aluminum alloy. Oxford. It is common knowledge that the weld microstructure influences its mechanical properties.b. texture Abstract. Cr and Ni.203-204. The studies of the texture development in friction stir welded aluminum alloys are not numerous. Si.94%).7 kN applied to the tool.1). Zr (0. 2 Miami University.d. FSW. HAMILTON Carter Results of texture analysis indicate the complexity of the friction stir welding process. Poland.a. cmwrobel@agh. Additionally. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of 1 AGH University of Science and Technology. Mn. Mg (1. both on the advancing and retreating side as well as to investigate changes in the crystallographic texture.

Solid State Phenomena Vols. Fig. cracking. 203-204 259 direction of joining was parallel to the extrusion direction. Results and discussion The FSW weld was fairly homogeneous and free of defects like discontinuities. Figure 3b presents orientation image maps of tested areas.7.3 mm. The color triangle shows poles aligned with the normal direction of the plate.8 in diameter and a threaded truncated cone pin with dimensions: upper diameter . The investigated surface was mechanically ground and electropolished in a solution of nitric acid/methanol (1:2) at 12 V and a temperature of 30°C. The weldment regions of particular interest were the stirred and thermomechanically affected zones as well as the boundary between them. A schematic of the FSW and tool design are shown in Fig. porosity etc.5 µm and covered the area of 563 µm × 284 µm.7 mm and the length .. The EBSD patterns were measured with a step of 0. . Fig. (111) pole figures for base Fig. 2. both on the advancing and retreating sides.extrusion direction). Microstructure and texture characterization was performed by means of Electron Backscaterred Diffraction.10. material. a) Macrograph of cross-section of the FSW weld. EBSD patterns were obtained on the FEG SEM (FEI Inspect F) operated at 20 kV on the cross-section perpendicular to the weld direction. 3a. The electropolishing time was 60 seconds.1 mm. 3a. a) A schematic of the FSW process and tool design. which are marked in Fig. b) Tool. lower diameter . 1. (ED . 3. The FSW tool consisted of a convexscrolled shoulder 17.2. A macrostructure of the weld cross-section is shown in the Fig.6. b) orientation image maps of boundaries TMAZ/SZ on advancing and retreating sides. The HKL Channel 5 software was used for the analysis.

The texture weakens on moving from the TMAZ toward the weld center (both on the advancing and retreating sides). The crystallographic texture was characterized in detail by means of pole figures. Regions of the same crystal orientation are marked with an unique color according to the orientation code triangle. intensity averages 8. In order to accurately analyse changes in texture the EBSD was measured in the 6 characteristic regions: TMAZ. The change in texture as well as the variation of grain size on the RS occurs on the wider area. on the advancing side grains are strongly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the plate surface. The maps show individual grains. recrystallization of this region. Grain size distribution in the SZ. The changes are located in the very narrow area. The shape of grains depends on the location in relation to the weld center. The EBSD analysis also permitted the analysis of the grain boundary character. which are colored according to their crystallographic orientation relative to the normal direction. The close proximity to the SZ is characterized by larger grains (on the AS grain size is 30-40 µm and aspect ratio – 3). On the retreating side grains are approximately equiaxed. The differences between the sides are also visible on orientation maps (Fig. The TMAZ is dominated by low angle boundaries.1). 3b). The TMAZ/SZ boundary on the AS is sharp and well-defined.4 on the advancing side and 5. The grain size in the TMAZ was evaluated based on orientation maps. The tested zones differ in grain boundary misorientation. The texture transition occurs on the boundary TMAZ/SZ. the TMAZ consists of larger. Fig. This is caused by different extent of plastic deformation and temperature increase in these regions occurring during FSW. 4. However. b) retreating side. Figure 4 shows grain size distribution in the SZ. (111) pole figures for particular regions of joint: a) advancing side. The area of the SZ is characterized by very weak texture (max intensity does not exceed 3. The difference in texture intensity is observed on the advancing and retreating sides. For this region max. whereas in the TMAZ the significantly stronger texture was observed. Pole figures reveal changes in texture on the cross-section of FSW weld. Figure 6 shows histograms of grain boundary misorientation in specific zones (TMAZ and SZ) together with the MacKenzie plot [8] (characterizing misorientation angle distribution for a randomly textured cubic polycrystal).4 on the retreating side. The texture is weaker on the RS compared to the AS. The stirred zone is characterized by a fine-grained structure resulting presumably from dynamic recrystallisation occurring during the FSW process.1) comparing to the base material (Fig. 3b). The pole figures calculated from EBSD investigations are fully consistent with the authors' earlier studies [7]. The elongated grains indicate partial Fig. The stirred zone and thermo-mechanically affected zones differ in size and shape of grains (Fig. 5.260 Applied Crystallography XXII The maps comprise areas between the stirred zone and the thermo-mechanically affected zone. respectively on the advancing (AS) and retreating sides (RS). On the other hand. . where texture characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction. but on the RS it is more diffuse. Figure 5 displays (111) pole figures for the particular regions. especially on the advancing side. boundary TMAZ/SZ and SZ on both weld sides. The diameter was about 2-4 µm. The pronounced variation of grain size also occurs in this area. The aspect ratio for such grains averages about 3. Distributions of boundary misorientation are similar on the AS and the RS. elongated grains.

elongated grains and a high frequency of low angle boundaries. Eng.R. Histograms of boundary misorientation distributions for a) the TMAZ on the advancing side. The TMAZ exhibits larger.. 75 [4] K. Y. S. C.143) for their support of this research. M. 6. 1962 [6] N. M.F. In the TMAZ distributions of boundary misorientation are not correspond to the MacKenzie plot. 1657 [7] Kalemba. which corresponded to the MacKenzie plot. the advancing side (Fig. I. Mater.S.S. The distribution of boundary misorientation in this case mimics the course of the MacKenzie plot. G. 11. Vol. Rev. Vol. C. Texture examination proved the complexity of the FSW process. in press.K. Leonard. This was confirmed by the distribution of boundary misorientation. 6b) has high frequency of high angle boundaries (22-60°). p.H. Technol. Design. c) the TMAZ on the retreating side.L. 527 (2010). MacKenzie: Biometrika Vol. 229 . 54 (2009) p. p. S. b) the SZ. Blicharski: Arch.W. Mishra and M.11. This manifests itself through differences in grains and texture on the advancing and retreating sides. 203-204 261 However. Hamilton. Sci. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Project No. A Vol. Pandey. Threadgill.J. Dynamic recrystallisation takes place in this zone. Dey and K. Wrobel. Schaper and R. p. Metall. Pawlak. The SZ is characterized by fine-grained structure and is dominated by high angle boundaries. Mironov. but the retreating side (Fig. Shercliff and P. Vol.T.Solid State Phenomena Vols. 49 [3] Kalemba. S. Samajdar. Dymek. 32 (2011) p. Dymek. Fig. 747 [5] U.K. Ohio 2007 [2] P. Sahoo. The FSW microstructure development was clearly asymmetric. (2012).R. p. Suhuddin. 26 (2010). Sato and H. Vol. The advancing side is characterized by the well-defined boundary between TMAZ and SZ and higher intensity of pole figures compared to the retreating side.S. 6c) was characterized by a higher proportion of low-mid angle (2-20°) boundaries. S. Mater. Sci.K. H. This suggests that the grains in the SZ exhibit nearly random crystallographic orientation. Arora. Hamilton and J. S. Kokawa: Material. M. 54 (2009).J. Kumar: J. References [1] R. Kumbhar. S. [8] J. A. suggesting that full recrystallisation has not occurred in the zone. Summary The stirred zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone differ in size and shape of grains and boundary misorientation distributions. ASM Inter.110. Bhanumurthy: Mater. Mahoney: Friction Stir Welding and Processing. 45 (1958). The SZ (Fig. The EBSD revealed very weak texture in the stirred zone. Withers: Int. Bonarski: Steel Res. 6a) exhibits a higher frequency of low angle boundaries (<10°).

net/SSP.203-204 EBSD Analysis of Friction Stir Welded 7136-T76 Aluminum Alloy 10.scientific.Applied Crystallography XXII 10.4028/www.203-204.258 .4028/