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Subject Title : POWER PLANT ENGG.


: Question Bank with Ans-Two mark

Subject Code :ME2403

Unit : IV

Year/ Sem

Type : 100% theory


Types of diesel plants, components , Selection of Engine type, applications-Gas
turbinepower plant- Fuels- Gas turbine material – open and closed cycles- reheating
–Regeneration and intercooling – combines cycle

1. What is diesel power plant?
A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often
an alternator) to generate electrical energy.One or more diesel generators operating
without a connection to an electrical grid are referred to as operating in island mode.
Operating generators in parallel provides the advantage of redundancy, and can provide
better efficiency at partial loads. The plant brings generator sets online and takes them off
line depending on the demands of the system at a given time. An islanded power plant
intended for primary power source of an isolated community will often have at least three
diesel generators, any two of which are rated to carry the required load.
2. What are all the advantages of diesel power plants?
• They are available in standard capacities and easy to install.
• Limited cooling water requirement.
• Standby losses are less compared to other power plants.
• They can be started and stopped quickly.
• Capital cost is less.
• They respond to load fluctuations with ease.
• Less staff needed for operation and maintenance.
• Higher efficiency at part load compared to other power plants
• Less floor space and civil engineering work.
• No problem of ash or effluent handling.
3. What are all the disadvantages of diesel power plants?
• Operating and maintenance costs are high – dictated by increasing cost of fuel and
• Plant cost per kW is more compared to other power plants.
• Restricted capacity of plant. Large capacity plants noteconomical.





• Life of diesel plant is small due to large maintenancerequirements
• Noise levels are high.
• Cannot support overload
What are the essential components of diesel power plants?
(i) Engine
(ii)Air intake system
(iii)Exhaust system
(iv)Fuel system
(v) Cooling system
(vi) Lubrication system
(vii) Engine starting system
(viii) Governing system.
What is the function of engine?
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition engine) is an internal
combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel
that has been injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition
engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as
opposed to gasoline), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture.
Write about air intake system.
The air intake system conveys fresh air through pipes or ductsto (i) air intake manifold of
4 stroke engine (ii) The scavengingpump inlet of a two stroke engine (iii) The
supercharger inlet ofa supercharged engine.Air intake should be located outside the
engine room. Air intake should not be located in confined places to avoid undesirable
acoustic vibrations. Pressure drop in the air intake line should be minimum to avoid
engine starvation.
Draw the air intake system.

8. Write the function of exhaust system.
An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a
controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. The entire system conveys burnt gases
from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. Depending on the overall
system design, the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of:
Cylinder head and exhaust manifold
A turbocharger to increase engine power.

A catalytic converter to reduce air pollution.
A muffler (North America) / silencer (Europe), to reduce noise
9. Write about fuel system.
Fuel supply system is a seperate system used to deliver diesel at correct time in correct
quantity, to a diesel engine (or C.I engine), for smooth and efficient operation.The
operation of a diesel engine is different from that of a petrol engine. In a petrol engine,
air-fuel mixture is supplied by a carburetor to the engine, at the beginning of the suction
stroke. But in a diesel engine, fuel (without air) is supplied at the end of the compression
stroke, by means of a fuel supply system.
10. Write about Cooling system.
The purpose of the coolant (antifreeze or water) flowing through your diesel is to regulate
the heat within the cylinder head and engine block that's created by the combustion
process. In order to accomplish that job the coolant must be pumped around the engine
compartment, pick up heat from the engine, transfer that heat into the radiator, all while
limiting corrosion, lubricating the water pump, and not freezing.
11. Why do we use lubrication system in IC engine?.
When any two metal surfaces are in contact with each other and a relative motion takes
place between them, then force of friction is developed however smooth the surfaces may
appear to be.The frictional force developed in an I.C.Engine which consists of no. of
sliding & rotating components like bearings, pistons, valve gears etc may be so large that
it may cause excessive wear & tear due to which replacement of components is very
necessary. Therefore, in order to overcome these difficulties, a thin film of a suitable
lubricant is interposed where the metal-metal contact takes place. This thin film reduces
the friction considerably by keeping the two metal surfaces apart from each other and
thus wear, tear & temp. developed are also reduced greatly.
12. How is engine started?
A starter is an electric motor, pneumatic motor, hydraulic motor or other device for
rotating an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engine's operation under its
own power.The electric starter motor or starting motor is the most common type used on
gasoline engines and small Diesel engines. The modern starter motor is either a
permanent-magnet or a series-parallel wound direct current electric motor with a starter
solenoid (similar to a relay) mounted on it. When current from the starting battery is
applied to the solenoid, usually through a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a
lever that pushes out the drive pinion on the starter driveshaft and meshes the pinion with
the starter ring gear on the flywheel of the engine.
13. What is the function of governing system?
The governor controls the speed variation and keeps the speed within restrained limits.
Main role of the governor is not to increase or decrease the speed which can be done via
fuel control system (similar to an accelerator on your car) but once the speed of the
engine has been set, the job of the governor is to maintain that speed despite the
variations in load. A governor is used to keep the speed of diesel engines on a ship within
reasonable limits.

Write about starting of diesel engine by an auxiliary engine. the drive gear is engagedthrough the clutch and the main engine is cranked for starting. The unvarying load which occurs almost the whole day on the power plant is called the base load.At first. Two stroke engines are generally lighter weight for the same horse power due to fabrication of the engine block using steel plate instead of a casting and elimination of the valves common to four cycles engines. 19. load on the generating stations will be less. single cylinder and multi cylinder. Whereas the various peak demands of the load over and above the base load of the power plant is called peak load. naturally aspirated and super charged diesel engines. the clutch is disengaged and the auxiliary engine is started (by hand or via self-starter). The two stroke engines are available with either blowers or turbo charges. 15. Write the classification of diesel engine on the basis of configuration. Write shirt note on nursery station and stand by units.14. 18. In course of time. The diesel plant is used as a stand by unit to supply part load when required. Nursery station – In the absence of main grid. The load on any power plant can be considered into two parts namely  Base Load Plants  Peak Load Plants Load in a power system varies all the day. An auxiliary engine is closely mounted to the main engine and connected through clutch and gears. During nights. Write the classification of diesel engine on the basis of application  Peak load plant  Mobile plants  Stand by units  Emergency plant  Nursery station  Starting station  Central station 16. Electrical power generated by the generating stations depends on the demand for electrical power. According to the configuration. What do you understand from starting station in diesel power plant?  Starting stations – Diesel units can be used to run power plant auxiliaries like forced and induceddraft fans. Such diesel plantsare called “Nursery Stations”. diesel engines are classified into two stroke and four stroke. During day time demand for electricity will be more and hence all the generating units will be running under full load. 17.An overrunning clutch is used to avoid damage to auxiliary . After auxiliary engine warms up. when electricity frommain grid becomes available. boiler feed pumps etc for starting a largesteam power plant. Write shirt note on peak load plant. horizontal and vertical. the diesel unit canbe shifted to another village. adiesel plant can be installed to supply power tovillages.

Write about starting of diesel engine by compressed air system. Used for small Diesel or Petrol engines.The motor draws heavy current and is designed to workcontinuously for a short period of time (typically 30 seconds).The system includes air 23.The air tank is charged by a separate or engine drivencompressor. • To cool the surfaces by carrying away heat generated due to friction. What do you understand from central station in diesel power plant? Central stations – Diesel electric plants can be used as central station where the capacityrequired is small.c. 21. generator onthe engine serves to charge the battery.When the engine is running normally. • To clean the surfaces by carrying away carbon and metal particles caused by wear. What is the purpose of lubrication system? • To reduce friction and wear between parts having relative motion. Fuel is admitted to the remaining cylinders and ignition takesplace in the normal way causing the engine to start. 22. Write down the function of the fuel injection system? • Filter the fuel • Meter or measure the correct quantity of fuel to be injected • Time the fuel injection to cylinder • Control the rate of fuel injection • Atomise or break up the fuel to fine particles • Properly distribute fuel in the combustion chamber 25. such as space between piston rings and cylinder liner. making them work like reciprocating air motors torun the engine shaft. 20. Compressed air system is commonly used for starting large diesel engines employed for stationary power plants. mixing becomes more difficult with increase in speed and increase in cylinder diameter. What is meant by Fuel injection system? The function of thew fuel injction system are to meter small amount of oil. Classify fuel injection system. Write about starting of diesel engine use of electric motor or self-motor. consequently reduce noise. inject into a cylinder at proper time. . Following fuel injection systems are commonly used in Diesel power stations. This compressed air is initially supplied to a few of the enginecylinders. 24. atmomize and mix with the air . A storage battery of 12V to 36V is used to drive an electricmotor.The electric motor is geared to the flywheel with a provision forautomatic disengagement after the engine has started. • To seal a space against leakage. • Common-rail injection system • Individual pump injection system • Distributor injection system Atomisation of fuel can be accomplished in two ways: • Air blast • Pressure spray 26. • To absorb shock between bearings and other parts.engine after the main engine starts. a small d.Compressed air is stored at about 17 bar pressure in separate air tanks.

Classify lubrication system.27. Lubrication systems used for I. 31. The control wedge adjuts the lift of mechanical operated valve to set amount of injection. • For a given power. the weight of an air cooled engine is less than that of a liquid cooled engine. • Engine is self-contained and easier to install. Wet sump lubrication system 2. What is meant by Individual pump injection system In individual pump injection systems.Pump meters charge and controls injection timing. 32.C. 30. What is the thermo-syphon cooling? . • Absence of cooling pipes and radiator makes cooling system simpler. Air cooling 2. What are all the types of cooling system used in diesel engine? • Almost 25% to 35% of total heat supplied in the engine is removed by the cooling medium. • Engine is not subjected to problems associated with frozen coolant during winter as is the case withwater cooled engines. • Simpler engine design as no liquid coolant jackets are needed. • There are two methods of cooling I. • Noisy movement • Non uniform cooling • Output of an air cooled engine is less than that of a liquid cooled engine. Write the disadvantages of air cooling system. Write the circulating methods of coolant in diesel power plant. Liquid cooling 29. a relief valve holds pressure constant. Write about common rail injection system A single pump supplies high pressure fuel to header. An additional 3% to 5% heatloss occurs through lubricating oil and radiation. Mist lubrication system 28. • No danger of coolant leakage etc. • Smaller useful compression ratio • Maintenance is not easy • Not practical for diesel engines 33. There are several methods of circulating coolant liquid around the cylinder walls and head: • Thermo-syphon cooling • Forced or pump cooling • Cooling with thermostatic regulator • Pressurised cooling • Evaporative cooling 34. Write the advantages of air cooling system. engines may be classified as follows: 1. engines: 1. Dry sump lubrication system 3.C. individual pump or pump cylinder connects directly to each fuel nozzle.

• System is complex due to coolant jackets. 35. • In the event of failure of cooling system. • Very effective for high horse power engines compared to air cooled systems which need largequantity of air for cooling. radiator etc. • Requires periodic maintenance. • Uniform cooling of cylinder barrels and heads due to jacketing. • A dependent system which requires water / coolant for circulation in the jacket. 37. Mention the advantages of liquid cooling system. while for air cooled engines. • Cost of the system is considerably high compared to air cooled systems. List the various types of lubricating system used in diesel engine. Mention the disadvantages of liquid cooling system. pump. • Disadvantage is that the cooling depends only on temperature differences and not on engine speed. • Power absorbed by coolant pumps is considerably higher than that for cooling fans. installation isnecessarily at the front end of mobile vehicles. It is easier to reduce temperature of cylinderhead and valve seating. List any four applications of diesel power plant. • Compact design of engine with minimal frontal area. What are the important functions of a lubricating system? . • Cooling system can be conveniently located anywhere. • Fuel consumption of a high compression liquid cooled engine is lower than that for an air cooledengine. 36.  Used as peak load plants  Suitable for mobile plants  Used as standby units  Used as emergency plant 39. What are all the factors to be considered to select engine for the power plants? • Amount of fuel burned • Brake mean effective pressure • Fuel injection system • Combustion process • Fuel air ratio • Cooling method 38. What are the starting methods of diesel engine?  By an auxiliary engine  By an electric motor  By compressed air 40.pipes.  Mist lubricating system  Wet sump lubrication system  Dry sump lubrication system 41. serious damage may be caused to the engine.• The system is simple and works on the basis of convective currents of water – hot water raises within the engine water jacketdue to reduction of density and cold water drops down in theradiator due to increase in density.

 Common rail injection system  Individual pump injection system  Distributor system 45. List the various types of diesel plants. 47.. What are the working fluids in gas turbine?  Air  Helium . Based on number of strokes:  Two stroke diesel engine  Four srtoke diesel engine Based on orientation:  Horizontal diesel engine  Vertical diesel engine Based on number of cylinders:  single cylinder  Multi cylinder And other type like naturally aspirated. Lubricating  Cooling  Cleaning  Sealing  Noise absorption 42. List the methods adopted for circulating the water in a cooling system. List the reason why the cooling system is necessary for a diesel engine.  It filters the fuel  Monitor the correct quantity of fuel to be injected  Timing of the injection process  Regulates the fuel supply  Fine atomization of fuel oil  Distributes the automized fuel properly inside the combustion chamber 46. List the classification of oil injection system. List the various functions of fuel injection system. superheated etc.  Thermosiphon cooling  Forced cooling by pump  Thermostat cooling  Pressurised water cooling  Evaporative cooling 43.  To avoid detemiation of lubricating oil  To avoid damages and overheating of piston  To avoid uneven expansion which results in craking  To avoid pre-ignition and detonation or knocking  To avoid reduction in volumetric efficiency and power output of the engine 44.

55. Define regenerator efficiency. List the major components of gas turbine. What is the principle of operation of simple jet propulsion system? .  No load and Partial load efficiency is low  High sensitive to component efficiency  The efficiency depends on ambient pressure and ambient temperature  High air rate is required to limit the maximum inlet air temperature.  Compressor  Combustion chamber and  Turbine 54. List the disadvantages of gas turbine power plant. This value is determined by the % volume of cetane or hexadecane (C16H34) in isocetane that provides the identical ignition delay of the measured fuel sample. Hence exhaust  losses are high  Air and gas filter is required to prevent dust into the combustion chambers.  Open cycle gas turbine powerplant  Closed cycle gas turbine power plant 53. Define Cetane number The Cetane Number (abbreviated CN) refers to the combustion quality of diesel fuel.  Part load efficiency  Fuel consumption  Air mass flow rate  Thermal efficiency  Regeneration 49. It represents the time delay between the start of injection process and the the point where the fuel ignites. 51. List the factors which affect the performance of gas turbine power plants. Argon  Carbon dioxide 48. What are the main components of the gas Turbine  Compressor  Combustion Chamber  Turbine 52. The regenerator efficiency is defined as ratio of to regenerator efficiency = 50. List the types of gas turbine power plants.

work required to the compressor will not change. by introductingreheater the exhaust pressure can be reheated and expanded again in the low-pressure turbine. What are the effects of providing the intercooler in the gas turbine cycle?  Heat supply is increased  It decreases the thermal efficiency  Work ratio will be increased  Specific volume of air is reduced 59. Sketch the schematic arrangement of open cycle gas turbine plant and name the compoments. . These pressure drops affect to contain extend the gain in efficiency due to regeneration. The quantity of fuel required per unit mass of air is less  The work output from turbine.035 bar in exhaust gases. 60. 57. When the air fuel ratio is high.When the works output of the gas turbine plant is used to produce high velocity jet of hot gases and this jet is used to propel the vehicles in which the systems are mounted such systems are kept as jet propulsion systems. 58. What are the effects of introducing regeneration in the basic gas turbine cycle?  The fuel economy is improved.035 to 0. Regenerator causes pressure drop of 0. 56. When the reheated is employed in the gas turbine cycle. the combustion products after expansion in the highpressure turbine contain more oxygen. Is it always useful to have a regenerator in a gas turbine power cycle? Why? It is not always useful to have a regenerator in a gas turbine cycle. Thus.  Pressure drop will occurs during regeneration  It increases thermal efficiency when low pressure ratio.25 bar in compressed air and about 0. What the effects are of reheat cycle?  Thermal efficiency is less since the heat supplied is more  Turbine output is increased for same expansion ratio. 61.

How it is related to indicated power of an I.  Regenerator  Reheater. pm = 66. What are all the modifications are carried out in Brayton cycle? Why? In Brayton cycle. and  Intercooler.62. Draw the P-V and T-S diagram of Brayton cycle. engine? Mean effective pressure is defined as the constant pressure acting on the piston during the working stroke. Explain the parameter as good fuel in gas turbine  Volatility .C. 64. Define mean effective pressure as applied to gas power cycles. It is also definred as the ratio of workdone to the stroke volume or piston displacement volume. 63.  Isentropic compression  Constant pressure heat supplied  Isentropic expansion and  Constant pressure heat rejection 65. Mention the various processes of the Brayton cycle. three modification can be carried out as follows. Mean effective pressure.

What are the different types of compressors used in C.P. a pump pressures. engines?  Power and Mechanical efficiency  Mean effective pressure and torque  Specific output  Volumetric efficiency  Fuel-air ratio  Specific weight  Specific fuel consumption  Thermal efficiency and heat balance. meters the fuel and the times the injection. 72. 69.  Thermal efficiency. What are the basic measurements to evaluate the performance of an engine?  Measurement of speed  Fuel measurement  Measurement of air consumption 71.I. What is meant by supercharging? .C. What are the types of diesel engine used for diesel power plants?  Two stroke and four stroke engines  Dual fuel engines 68. What is meant by distributor system In this system fuel is metered at the center point.  Combustion efficiency  Machine efficiency 67. Combustion products  Energy contents  Engine efficiency. What are the performance parameters in I. What are the measurements used to find frictional power?  Willan’s line method  Morse test  Motoring test  Difference between I. the fuel is distributed to cylinders in correct firing orderby puppet valves.P.From there. 70. and B. engines?  Positive displacement type  Axial flow type  Centrifugal type 73.

engines is long a large amount of fuel will be injected and accumulated in the chamber. 75.I. Define the term Energy contents and Lubricating properties Fuel should have greater heating value so that fuel consumption may be less. What are all factor to be considering the Selection of Engine types • Power demand • Speed of the engine • Cooling system • Abnormal environmental condition 78. What is delay period (Ignition lag) in C. The object of supercharging is to increase the volumetric efficiency above that obtained with normal aspiration. What are the three phases of C.I.  Disposal of nuclear waste is very expensive. 79. What are the different types of governing sustem in I. Illness can . 81. This radiation harms the cells of the body which can make humans sick or even cause death. The fuel should provide a certain amount of lubrication of friction surfaces of fuel pumps.I. 80. engine?  Hir and miss government engine  Quality governed engine  Quantity governed engine.C. What are the various types of wet sump lubrication system?  Splash system  Semi-pressure system  Full pressure system 77. 76. engine? It is defined as the time immediately following injection of the fuel during which the ignition process is being in initiated and the pressure does not rise beyond the value it would have due to compression of air. 74.  Decommissioning of nuclear power stations is expensive and takes a long time. Nuclear accidents can spread radiation producing particles over a wide area. engine combustion?  Ignition delay period  Period of rapid or uncontrolled combustion  Period of controlled combustion. List out the major disadvantages of nuclear power plant. As it is radioactive it has to be disposed of in such a way as it will not pollute the environment. The auto-ignition of this large amount of fuel cause high rate of pressure rise and high maximum pressure which may cause knocking in diesel engines. What is diesel knock? If the delay period in C.The power of the engine is affected by the reduction in volumetric efficiency at increased engine speed.

appear or strike people years after they were exposed to nuclear radiation and genetic problems can occur too. List out the major disadvantages of hydel power plant. therefore. It increases silencers and connecting ducts. 85. the fuel wastage will also be more if the fuel is highly volatile. in case of aircraft gas turbines in which the quantity of fuel used is sufficiently high. Write note on fuel tank in diesel engine . The exhaust gas high temperature and so it is used to preheat the oil and air. turbine blades and vanes and cause a loss in efficiency. Write short note on exhaust system The purpose of the exhaust system is to discharge the engine exhaust to the atmosphere outside the building. Comparison of kerosene oil and gasoline Kerosene is quite commonly by used in aircraft gas turbines. But its combustion efficiency is low compared to gasoline.  The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. 83. ii) They are conducive to vapour lock to excessive loss of fuel during flight because of evaporation of certain lighter hydrocarbons. 88. 82. Define the term Combustion products The products of combustion should not be in the form of solids because they tend todeposit on the combustion chambers. 84. Therefore. 87. Define the term Availability The fuel selected should be available in large quantities so that it is cheaper.  The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed.  Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. What is meant by Volatility property in fuel They are more susceptible to fire (although they have less tendency to explode). What are the methods of cooling in a diesel engine power plant?  Thermo-system cooling  Forced or pump cooling  Pressurized cooling  Evaporative cooling  Cooling with thermostatic regulator. there is less possibility of vapour lock and fuel loss. 86. It is not as volatile as gasoline and.

89. Write down the disadvantages of Closed cycle gas turbine  Separate pre-cooler arrangement is necessary  The size and weight are more  Initial cost and maintenance cost are more. Draw with neat sketch of gas turbine cycle with inter cooling. 91.oil is drawn from the sump through filter and pumped by means of a gear pump at a pressure of 1. Write note on Full pressure system In this system oil from the oil sump is pumped under pressure to the various parts requiring lubrication . The process of governing is done by varying the fuel supply according to the engine load. Write advantages of open cycle gas turbine  No pre-cooler is required because of burned gas from gas turbine exhaust to atmosphere  For the same power developed. 90. 94. fuel filters and pumps to transfer and injectthe fuel. road. cars. The fuel oil may be supplied at the plant site by trucks. rail. tank.It consists of fuel tank for the storage of fuel. What is meant by Governing system It is used to regulate the speed of the engine.5 to 4 bar. Write down the usage of semi-pressure system The semi-pressure system is used in the heavy bearing load appliction it also called as the modification of the splash system. the size and weight of the open cycle gas turbine unit are less. 93. etc. . 92.

and a combustion chamber in-between.  Gas turbine plants can be put on load easily and they can be started quickly. Write down the disadvantages of Gas turbine power plant  Net output from the gas power plant is low. Write the advantages of combined cycles  Low operating manpower  Less down time maintenance  The combined plant is more suitable for rapid start and shutdown. 96. So. 98. also called a combustion turbine. Diesel power plant Gas turbine power palnt 1. . even at moderate pressure. Write down the advantages and disadvantages of Gas turbine power plant  The size and weight of the gas turbine plant are less for large capacities compared to the steam power plant. Cost of plat is less Cost of plat is high 3. The basic operation of the gas turbine is similar to that of the steam power plant except that air is used instead of water.  Part load efficiency is poor. this is because major portion of the energy is required to drive the compressor.  The maintenance cost of the gas turbine plant is less 99.95. Define Gas turbine power plant A gas turbine. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine. Not suitable for continuous over It can be work on over loads loads 97.No. Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings it to higher pressure.  Water needed to run the gas turbine plant is less compared to the steam plant. The work output is high The work output is less 2.  Temperature of the combustion products is too high. Compare diesel power plant with gas turbine power plant Sl. is a type of internal combustion engine. more care should be taken.

Draw and explain the construction and working principle of Open cycle gas turbine power plant? (16). The compressed air is heated by directly burning the fuel in the air at constant pressure in the combustion chamber. Part of the power developed by the turbine (about 66%) is used for driving the compressor.100. when the connecting rod is in the lowest position. air is drawn into the compressor from atmosphere and is compressed. In the open cycle gas turbine. PART-B (16) 1. the caps on the big ends bearings of connecting rods are provided with scoops which. Write short notes on Splash system It is used in four stroke stationary engines. The remaining is available as useful output. . The working fluid. Thus the entire flow comes from the atmosphere and is returned to the atmosphere. air and fuel. Then the high pressure hot gases expand in the turbine and mechanical power is developed. must be replaced continuously as they are exhausted into the atmosphere. In this case. just dip into oil troughs and thus direct the oil through holes in the cpas to the big end bearings.

producer gas coal gas and solid fuels such as pulverized coal. The main difference between the open and closed cycles is that the working fluid is continuously replaced in open cycle whereas it is used again and again in a closed cycle. the compressed air from the compressor is heated in a heat exchanger (air heater) by some external sou rce of heat (coal or oil) at constant pressure. The open cycle plant is much lighter than the closed cycle. The volatility of the fuel should be such that it is conducive to a quick and successful restart blowout of flame. Qualities of Fuel ome of the important properties to be considered while selecting the fuel for gas turbine are as follows: 1. Out of these gasoline and kerosene or blend of the two are commonly used.2. octane (gasoline) and dodecane (kerosene oil). Care should be taken that the oil fuel should not contain moisture and suspended impurities. Volatility This property has a major effect on starting and combustion efficiency of the engine particularly at low temperature and other adverse conditions. ethane. Then the high pressure hot gases expand passing through the turbine and mechanical power is developed. Hence it is widely used. Highly volatile fuels are also not desirable as they have the following disadvantages: . Briefly Explain about Gas turbine Fuels? (16) Various fuels used by gas turbine power plants are liquid fuels and gaseous fuels such as natural gas. Draw and explain the construction and working principle of closed cycle gas turbine power plant? (16) In this. The different types of oils used may distillated oils and residual oils. The exhaust gas is then cooled to its original temperature in a cooler before passing into the compressor again. propane. The various paraffins used in gas turbine are methane. 3. blast furnace gas.

4. in case of aircraft gas turbines in which the quantity of fuel used is sufficiently high. 2. Energy contents Fuel should have greater heating value so that fuel consumption may be less. Combustion products The products of combustion should not be in the form of solids because they tend to deposit on the combustion chambers. Air ratio (16) . Define the following performance terms of gas turbine? 1. Therefore. Comparison of kerosene oil and gasoline Kerosene is quite commonly by used in aircraft gas turbines. It is not as volatile as gasoline and. About 5 to 20% of a barrel of crude may be refined kerosene whereas 40 to 50% of a barrel of crude oil may be refined into gasoline which shows that gasoline can be available in large quantities. 4. Lubricating properties The fuel should provide a certain amount of lubrication of friction surfaces of fuel pumps.i) They are more susceptible to fire (although they have less tendency to explode). The lubrication properties of gasoline are poorer. there is less possibility of vapour lock and fuel loss. Availability The fuel selected should be available in large quantities so that it is cheaper. the fuel wastage will also be more if the fuel is highly volatile. therefore. 5. But its combustion efficiency is low compared to gasoline. ii) They are conducive to vapour lock to excessive loss of fuel during flight because of evaporation of certain lighter hydrocarbons. 3. turbine blades and vanes and cause a loss in efficiency.

It is the ratio of work actually developed by the turbine expanding hot power gas through a given pressure range to that would be yielded for ideal expansion conditions. Thermal efficiency 1. 5. 2. 3. It is the ratio of heat actually released by 1 kg of fuel to heat that would be released by complete perfect combustion. Work Ratio 4. Work ratio. Pressure ration 3. Compressor efficiency 5. 6.2. for example. Kg of air entering the compressor inlet per unit of cycle net output. Engine efficiency 6. It is the collective term meaning both engine efficiency and compressor efficiency of turbine and compressor efficiency of turbine and compressor. Compression efficiency It is the ratio of work needed for ideal air compression through a given pressure range to work actually used by the compressor. Engine efficiency. 4. Combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiency 8. Machine efficiency 7. It is the ratio of network output to the total work developed in the turbine or turbines. Pressure ratio. usually highest pressure-compressor discharges to the lowest-pressure-compressor inlet pressures. respectively. 7. It is the ratio of cycle’s highest to its lowest pressure. . Machine efficiency. kg/kWh. Air ratio.

It is the percentage of total energy input appearing as net work output of the cycle. (16) C : Compressor CC: Combustion chamber G : Generator f : Fuel HPT: High Pressure turbine LPT: Low pressure turbine RCC: Reheat combustion chamber Reheat gas turbine cycle arrangement is shown in figure. Thermal efficiency. . 5. In order to maximize the work available from the simple gas turbine cycle one of the option is to increase enthalpy of fluid entering gas turbine and extend its expansion upto the lowest possible enthalpy value. Explain the working of gas turbine cycle with reheater.8.

For reheating another combustion chamber may be used. inject fluid at high pressure and temperature into gas turbine and expand upto lowest possible pressure value. Generally temperature after reheating at state 5. High pressure and high temperature fluid enters high pressure turbine (HPT) for first phase of expansion and expanded gases leaving at 4 are sent to reheat combustion chamber (reheater) for being further heated. i. For further increasing in net work output the positive work may be increased by using multistage expansion with reheating in between. In multistage expansion is divided into parts and after part expansion working fluid may be reheated for getting larger positive work in left out expansion. the fluid leaves at state 5 and enters low pressure turbine (LPT) for remaining expansion upto desired pressure value. Compressed air is injected into combustion chamber for increasing its temperature upto desired turbine inlet temperature at state3. Thus reheating is a kind of energizing the working fluid. despite the increase in network due to reheating the cycle thermal efficiency would not necessarily increases. the total work of the two stage turbine is greater that that of single expansion from state 3 to state 4’. Thus reheating offers an obvious advantage of work output increase since constant pressure lines T-S diagram diverge slightly with increasing entropy. In the absence of reheating the expansion process within similar pressure limits goes upto state 4’. .. is less than temperature at state 3. Assuming perfect reheating (in which temperature after reheat is same as temperature attained in first combustion chamber). Upper limit at inlet to turbine is limited by metallurgical limits while lower pressure is limited to near atmospheric pressure in case of open cycle.e.This can also be said in terms of pressure and temperature values i.e. Here in the arrangement shown ambient air enters compressor and compressed air at high pressure leaves at 2. Therefore. Here it may be noted that the heat addition also increases because of additional heat supplied for reheating. (T3 – T4) + (T5 – T6) > (T3 – T4’).. Let us now carry out air standard cycle analysis.

W net. Explain the working of gas turbine cycle with regenerator. reheat = m {(h3 – h4) + (h5 – h6) – (h2 – h1)} W net . which shall preheat the air leaving compressor before . reheat = WHPT + WLPT . (16) The turbine exhaust temperature is normally much above the ambient temperature. T3 = T5 W net. Thus their exist potential for tapping the heat energy getting lost to surroundings with exhaust gases.Network output in reheat cycle. reheat = m cp {(T3 – T4) + (T5 – T6) – (T2 .T1)} Assuming. WLPT = m(h5 – h6). Here it is devised to use this potential by means of a heat exchanger called regenerator. WC = m(h2 – h1) W net. reheat = m cp {(2T3 – T4) – T6 – (T2 – T1)} Qin = m cp {(T3 – T2) + (T5 – T4) η reheat = W net /Qin 6.WC WHPT = m (h3 –h4).

entering the combustion chamber. Qadd = m(h3 – h2) Here it is obvious that. regen < Qadd’ Air standard cycle thermal efficiency. no frictional pressure drop occurs in either fluid stream while turbine exhaust gas gets cooled from 4 to 4’ while compressed air is heated from 2 to 2’. Regenerative air standard gas turbine cycles shown ahead in figure (a) has a regenerator (counter flow heat exchanger) through which the hot turbine exhaust gas and comparatively cooler air coming from compressor flow in opposite directions. Assuming regenerator effectiveness as 100% the temperature rise from 2 – 2’ and drop from 4 to 4’ is shown on T-S diagram. Regenerator effectiveness. where ‘h’ refers to specific enthalpy values. Thus thermodynamically the amount of heat now added shall be Whereas without regenerator the heat added. Qadd. thereby reducing the amount of fuel to be burnt inside combustion chamber (combustor). . Under ideal conditions.

. compressor work. Schematic for inter cooled gas turbine cycle is give in figure. The amount of compression work saved due to intercooling is obvious from p-V diagram and shown by area 2342’. (16) Net work output from gas turbine cycle can also be increased by reducing negative work i. Explain the working of gas turbine cycle with inter cooling. First stage compression occurs in low pressure compressor (LPC) and compressed air leaving LPC at ‘2’ is sent to intercooler where temperature of compressed air is lowered down to state 3 at constant pressure.. Area 2342’ gives the amount of work saved due to intercooling between compression. Intercooler is a kind of heat exchanger where heat is picked up from high temperature compressed air. It is based on the fact that for a fixed compression ratio is higher is the inlet temperature higher shall be compression work requirement and vice versa.e. Thermodynamic processes involved in multistage inter cooled compression are shown in figure.7. temperature at 3 and 1 are same.. In case of perfect intercooling the temperature after intercooling is brought down to ambient temperature i. Multistaging of compression process with intercooling in between is one of the approaches for reducing compression work.e.

T-S diagram for gas turbine cycle with intercooling shows that in the absence of intercooling within same pressure limits the state at the end of compression would be 2’ while with perfect intercooling this state is at 4 i..e. T2’ > T4. The reduced temperature at compressor exits leads to additional heat requirement in combustion chamber i. Use of multistage compression with intercooling in a gas turbine power plant increases the network produced because of reduction in compressor work.. more . Inter cooled compression results in reduced temperature at the end of final compression.Some large compressors have several stages of compression with intercooling between stages.e.

The lower temperature at compressor exit enhances the potential for regeneration so when intercooling is used in conjunction with regeneration an appreciable increase in thermal efficiency can result. 8. Net work output in gas turbine cycle with intercooling.amount of fuel is to be burnt for attaining certain inlet temperature as compared to simple cycle without intercooling. Thus intercooled cycle thermal efficiency may not increase with intercooling because of simultaneous increase in heat addition requirement. Write the Advantages and disadvantages of Gas turbine power plant? (16) Advantages .

The blades of the turbine require special cooling methods due to the severity of operating temperatures and pressures. 9. 2. 5. An electric motor or an I. 5. Disadvantages 1. road. 3. However the high frequency noise from the compressor is objectionable. 4. They are quick-starting and smooth running. 2. The fuel oil may be supplied at the plant site by trucks. The starting motor must bring the compressor well towards the operating speed. They offer flexibility by supplying electricity for power generation as well as by supplying compressed air for process needs. Water consumption is less compared to steam power plant. High temperatures impose severe restriction on the servicing conditions of the plant. cars. engine is necessary for starting the plant. In practice. 6. They are subjected (put) to fewer environmental restrictions than other prime movers. They are capable of using a range of liquid and gaseous fuels including synthetic fuels. So. 3. rail. 4. 7.1260C. weigh less and have low initial cost per unit output. Overall efficiency is low since two-thirds of the total power output is used for driving the compressor.1. tank. etc. Air Intake and Exhaust System (16) . They are easy to install within short periods. Gas turbine plants have less vibrations when compared with reciprocating engines of the same speed. fuel filters and pumps to transfer and inject the fuel. the temperatures at the entry of the turbine are as high as 1100C . starting is not simple as in the case of other power plants.C. Explain the construction and working principle of Diesel engine power plant? DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT SYSTEMS The diesel engine power plant consists of the following auxiliary systems: Fuel Supply System It consists of fuel tank for the storage of fuel. Hence they should be made of special metals and alloys. They are small in size.

Filters must be cleaned periodically to prevent pressure losses from clogging.) or oil bath type. The duties of the air intake systems are as follows: i) To clean the air intake supply. filters and lubricating oil cooler. The auxiliary equipment of diesel engine power plant. Filters are provided to remove dust etc. Lubrication System Lubrication is essential to reduce friction and wear of the rubbing parts. In oil bath type of filters the air is swept over or through a bath of oil in order that the particles of dust get coated. . electric motor or self-starter. ii) To silence the intake air. 4. felt. It includes lubricating oil tank. from the incoming air. Silencers must be used on some systems to reduce high velocity air noises. glass. Filters may be of dry type (made up of cloth. Pumps are used to discharge the water inside and the hot water leaving the jacket is cooled in cooling ponds or other devices and is recirculated again. wool etc. In the exhaust system silencer is provided to reduce the noise. battery. Cooling Systems This system provides a proper amount of water circulation all around the engines to keep the temperature at reasonable level. 3. The intake system must cause a minimum pressure loss to avoid reducing engine capacity and raising the specific fuel consumption. pumps. iii) To supply air for super charging.It consists of pipe for the supply of air and exhaust of the gases. 5. Starting System For the initial starting of engine the various devices used are compressed air.

What are all factor to be considering the Selection of Engine types • • • • • • • • • • • • Power demand Speed of the engine Cooling system Abnormal environmental condition Fuel quality Speed governing Control system Starting equipment Drive type Ambient temperature Altitude humidity (16) .10.