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Development of 2D/3D Braiding

Techniques for Multi-axial Preforming
Dhaval Jetavat, Khayale Jan, Sree S Roy, B S Sugun
Academic PI: Prof Prasad Potluri
School of Materials
University of Manchester


Textile preforming
Need for Multiaxial fibre preforming
2D Braiding
3D Braiding
Development of Braiding/Winding

Textile Composites Group

Research at University of Manchester is focused on developing
manufacturing concepts for ‘near-net’ preforms that require
minimum post-processing and at the same time incorporating
multi functional materials.

Research Objectives
 Application of low cost automation and robotics in preform
 To explore novel toughening concepts through hybrid preforms

To create novel multi-functional hybrids at tow-level and preform

CT scan • Near net shape preforming – Preforming trials for creating ply contours – Combination of Braiding/Weaving/RTP processes – Fibre placement on double curvature surface with RTP – Tufting process to add through thickness reinforcement . SEM. Winding – Robotic Automation. DIC. Braiding – Robotic machine (Tow placement. Vacuum Bagging – Instron. Tripod system for pick and place) – Autoclave. Thermography. Winding machine. ZwickRowell – C-scan. RTM.Textile Composites Group • Area of Expertise: – Textile technology – 3D Weaving. 2D Weaving. 3D/2D Braiding. Machine control – Composite manufacturing methods – Mechanical and Physical Testing • Equipment Expertise – 3D Weaving.

Preforming work under CimComp NCF Tufting Pick and Place 3D woven fabric 3D woven “T” Fibre Placement Tufted 3D woven with .

Textile Preforming Classification .

e.Fibre Orientation There are three levels of orientation – Random (quasi-isotropic properties) – Cross-ply (transversely isotropic) – Unidirectional (orthotropic) Effects of fibre orientations • Aligning fibres in direction of load (i. producing unidirectional composite) produces the highest in-plane properties – Poor transverse or interlaminar properties – Can be improved by placing fibres in transverse direction .

Fabric Form 2D Woven Stitched NCF 3D Woven Braided .

mechanical properties .Nesting.Design Challenges       Define fibre orientation Fibre volume fraction in different directions Optimise process to reduce wastage Process capability to produce required structure To achieve required mechanical performance Effect of multiaxial fibre orientation on each other .

2D Braiding  Braiding is the process of diagonally interlacing three or more strands of yarn in order to create continuous rope. metal wires. fibre optics and smart actuating materials can be inserted into a braided structure  Ability to form complex shapes is one of the key features of braiding technology . tube or ribbon-like structures  Variety of tows can be combined in the axial and braid directions in order to create hybrid materials  Non-interlaced core materials such as fibre tows. foam materials.

2D Braiding     Tubular preforming using 2D braiding Complex geometrical shapes can be overwrapped Controlled fibre orientation between ± 10° to ± 80° & 0° Interlaced structures : 2/2. 1/1. 2/1  Biaxial & triaxial preforming in a single layer  Multi-layer fibre continuity can be maintained using reverse-braiding technique .

3D Braiding  3D braided textile preforms can be manufactured either by conventional horngear braiding or by modifying conventional braiding techniques  Other recognised methods are 2-step . 4-step row and column Horngear Braiding machine .

3D Solid Braiding The 3D rotary system of braiding is capable of fabricating net shape braided preforms with better adaptability for various configurations of yarn interlacements. .

3D Cartesian Braiding  Cartesian braiding machines can braid preforms with compact size. which are more economical and architecturally flexible  Preforming of thick and complex shapes. near-net shapes and delamination resistant structures are the distinguishing features of Cartesian braiding .

Reinforcing using axial tows .Herzog Braiding Machine  3D braiding machine based on horngear mechanism with 32 carrier capacity has been utilised  Required pattern or tow architecture .Sequencing of bobbin paths by defining movement paths .

Fibre path selection  Depending on part geometry fibre path needs to be selected  This can be done with the track arrangement Path Isolation Path Open .

Axial yarn arrangement  Maximum of 25 axial yarns can be inserted  Creel has been set-up under braiding bed to insert axial yarns .

25 stuffers .Various profile structures L braid : 24 carriers.17 stuffers Double solid braid : 32 carriers.

16 stuffers .Solid braid : 16 carriers. 25 stuffers T braid : 20 carriers.

12 stuffers . No stuffers Solid X braid : 32 carriers.Intertwined X braid: 16 carriers.

 3D solid braiding has been a successful step towards near-net and complex shape preforming  Different material can be integrated in form of interlacing and axial yarns  Relatively very small profile structures can be produced  Various braiding angles can be achieved by varying horngear and take-up speed .

Challenges  Key challenge is to achieve optimum fibre orientation in different direction based on structure requirement  One method is to use manual or automated lay-up process. However it is tedious and time consuming process  There are certain processes which can do multiaxial preforming. but it lacks near net shape capabilities How do we achieve near net shape preforming with multi axial Fibre preforming Purpose built technology Process Integration 2D /3D Braiding 2D /3D Weaving Fibre placement 2D /3D Winding TuftingStitching .

3D braiding through winding and z binders  A circular winding/braiding machine capable of producing tubular structures  The machine allows axial yarns and binder yarns to be introduced in the structure simultaneously whilst winding/braiding  Development of multi-layered structures along with multi-axial capabilities .

axial and binder yarns can be introduced simultaneously  “CoDeSys” provided by FESTO is used for configuration and operation of the machine .  Binding of multi-layer wound structure during preforming  Winding.Machine design  An automated prototype machine capable of producing variety of wound architectures has been developed.

Manufacturing process .

Characterisation Braid structure with Binder yarns CT-scan Images Braided structure with axial yarn .

Braid-Winding    Braid-winding for Quadriaxial Quasi-isotropic preforming(±45°/0°/90°) Combines the benefits of interlaced and non-interlaced structure Complementary processes so possible in-line manufacturing  Consolidated structure development with wrinkle minimization .

3D weaving-3D Braiding.Tufting NCF Skin Material 3D Woven “T” Section 3D Braided Noodle 5mm Tufting Pitch 10mm Tufting Pitch Tufting of “T” section to NCF material at 45° near noodle region .

Conclusion  Multiaxial fibres can be introduced in 2D/3D braiding and winding  Exploration of various profiles on 3D solid braider  3D braid profiles can be utilised to reinforce local areas in complex shape preforms  Development of novel textile preforming machine to produce multiaxial preforms with through thickness binder  Various technologies can be combined to produce near net shape preform to meet design and structure requirements .