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Hernandez Maila E.


Poverty is still the most critical social problem that needs to be addressed.
Philippines' poverty line marks individuals earning less than 16,841 Peso a year. Based on the data from the
National Statistical Coordination Board, more than one-quarter (26.5%) of the population falls below the poverty
line in 2009. This figure is a much lower figure as compared to the 33.1% in 1991. The decline has been slow and
uneven, much slower than neighboring countries who experienced broadly similar numbers in the 1980s, such as
People's Republic of China (PRC), Thailand, Indonesia (which poverty level lies at 8.5%) or Vietnam (13.5%).
This shows that the incidence of poverty has remained significantly high as compared to other countries for
almost a decade now. The unevenness of the decline has been attributed to a large range of income brackets
across regions and sectors, and also unmanaged population growth.
The government planned to eliminate poverty as mentioned in the Philippines Development Plan (PDP). The PDP
for the next six years are an annual economic growth of 7-8 % and the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). Under the MDGs, Philippines committed itself to halving extreme poverty from a
33.1% in 1991 to 16.6 % by 2015.
Given that the population of the Philippines is increasing at a rapid rate of 2.36% per year, it can be translated as
an increase of more than 5,000 people daily in a country, which already has an increase of more than four million
poor people since 1985. In 1985, the absolute number of people living in poverty was 26.5 million. This increased
to 30.4 million in 2000 and from 2006 to 2009, increased by almost 970,000 Filipinos from 22.2 million to 23.1
million. As the Philippines has financially limited resources and a high poverty rate, the rapid increase in
population has become a problem because there is already insufficient resources to support the population, which
leaves much fewer resources to improve the economy. From 2003 to 2006, even though the Philippines
experienced above-average economic growth, the poverty incidence actually increased as a result of its
population growth rate.
Poverty reduction has not kept up with GDP growth rates, largely because of the high unemployment rate, high
inflation rate and wide income inequality. From 2000 to 2009, the economy of Philippines grew by 3.2% on
average annually, which was on par with the economic performance of its neighbors. However, this recent growth
did not get more jobs. Unemployment in the Philippines has been high in comparison to its neighbors, at around
7.5% to 8.0% since 2006.
As the world’s second largest archipelago, the Philippines have faced difficulty in job creation due to its inability to
attract more foreign, direct investments. Diwa Guinigundo, whom is the Central Bank Deputy Governor,
mentioned that while capital flows are turning to the emerging markets, foreign, direct investments to the
Philippines remain relatively low due to the weak investment climate. The Philippines have hefty business
procedures, poor tax and customs administration, weak protection against expropriation and high-energy cost.
This poor investment climate has limited the Philippines ability to grow and create jobs. Therefore, the poverty
rate remains constant over the years.

Climate change impacts in Philippines
Climate change impacts in Philippines - what the IPCC 4th Assessment Report has found:

Increase in mean annual, maximum and minimum temperatures by 0.14°C between 1971-2000.
Increase in annual mean rainfall since 1980s and in number of rainy days since 1990s [10.2.2].
Increased occurrence of landslides and floods in 1990 and 2004 [10.2.3].

6.3]. with an increase of 4. including climate change. Friends of the Reef enacts local stakeholders and decision makers to develop. Decrease of rice yield associated with increase of temperature (0. current.2 in the frequency of cyclones entering PAR during the period 1990-2003 [10. It focuses on building the resilience and resistance of coral reefs in the Asia-Pacific region so that reef biodiversity is maintained and the reef ecosystem continues to support livelihoods. test and implement plans to increase coral reef resilience to major threats in the region. Friends of the Reef also provides collaborative management mechanisms.3. enabling the governments of major reef countries to enhance the management and network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).1]. and future coral bleaching in major reef countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region then using this information to call for emission reduction in regional countries. .  On average 20 cyclones cross the Philippines Area of Responsibility (PAR) with about 8-9 making land fall each year.13°C for maximum and minimum respectively during 1979-2003) [1.2.35 °C and 1. WWF work What WWF is doing on the ground in Philippines to protect against climate change: Friends of the Reef is collaborative project lead by WWF-Indonesia Climate Change Program and partnering WWF offices across the Asia-Pacific region. This project also aims to increase awareness and advocacy activities by highlighting stories and show-cases from previous.

in 2015. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity.[18] The age of the Earth is about 4. [29] [30] According to one of the researchers.[3] Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth. One of the most widely used definitions defines it in terms of the variability within species.Biodiversity. and weighs 50 billion tonnes.[12] that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct.[1] It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. and between ecosystems. etc. mammals.000 species of plants are known till date. a contraction of "biological diversity. insects. or planet. then it could be common in the universe.[6][7] but will be likely to slow in the future. The richness of biodiversity depends on the climatic conditions and area of the region. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific. [5] and has been increasing through time. fish.[19][20][21] The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3. the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC (trillion tons of carbon).. or species variation (number of species)[1] within an area. amounting to over five billion species. crustaceans. molluscs.5 billion years ago. All species of animals taken together are known as fauna which includes birds. This can refer to genetic variation.[2] which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. fuel. "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth .[25][26][27] Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3. animals and other organisms that exist is known as biodiversity.[9][10][11] More than 99 percent of all species.[17] In comparison.48 billion-yearold sandstone discovered in Western Australia. between species.0 x 1037.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. All species of plants taken together are known as flora and about 70.54 billion years old.[13][14] Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described."[29] Since life began on Earth.[4] Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots. [16] The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5. biome.7 billion-year-oldmetasedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland." generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. It is an essential component of nature and it ensures the survival of human species by providing food. "remains of biotic life" were found in 4. medicines and other resources to mankind. five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon (the last 540 million years) marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via . where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans.[28] More recently. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3. shelter. ecosystem variation.[15] of which about 1. reptiles.[22][23][24]during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon.[8] The number and variety of plants.. It is richest in the tropics.

This one of the biggest social problem of the country. As of 2011. rainforest collapse led to a great loss of plant and animal life. The group believes that the government's efforts to prosecute former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo may positively affect the perception on corruption as this shows the government means business. the Philippines came in at 129 with a 2. compared to 2. massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. Conversely.[31] The next 400 million years included repeated. nepotism.[33] The most recent. Means of corruption include graft. patronage. The Philippines ranked 139th among 180 countries included in the index. backdoor deals. occurred 65 million years ago and has often attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs. the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. embezzlement. The CPI score indicates the perceived level of public sector corruption on a scale of 0 .the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared. corruption in the Philippines is considered to be the worst among East Asia’s leading economies and the country has sunk even lower among those seen to be lagging in governance reforms.10. where 0 means that a country is perceived as highly corrupt and 10 means that a country is perceived as very clean. Bangladesh and the Baltic state of Belarus. showed that the situation in the country had improved slightly but still remained serious. was the worst. and cutting red tape. Named the Holocene extinction. In the Carboniferous. 251 million years ago. the reduction is caused primarily byhuman impacts. which ranked it equal to Pakistan.3 in 2008. This is better than the Philippines' 134th ranking in 2010 with a 2.6 CPI in Transparency International's list that ranks 178 countries and territories based on how corrupt their public sector is perceived to be. up from its previous 141st ranking in 2008. vertebrate recovery took 30 million years. According to a World Bank study in 2008. bribery.[32] The Permian–Triassic extinction event.4 CPI.6) slight jump are the improvement in government service. Transparency International-Philippines said some of the factors that contributed to the Philippines' (2. The nation scored 2. The 2009 Corruption Perceptions Index published by global watchdog Transparency International. . particularly habitat destruction.[34] The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. BSA-1 Corruption The Republic of the Philippines suffers from widespread corruption. both positively and negatively Macalalad Emerie C.4 in the TI index. biodiversity impacts human health in a number of ways.

but they may not be as promising as the ones in Silicon Valley (e. working elsewhere will always be more financially rewarding. Economic and Political Challenges in the The Philippine economy has grown by about 5 percent a year on average over the last ten years. In addition. John Nye. significantly higher than in the previous two decades. particularly software. What does the administration of President Benigno “Nonoy” Aquino III — now in office for nearly two years—need to do to be able to maintain rapid economic growth while making it more inclusive? On the eve of the bilateral strategic dialogue between the Philippines and United States on April 30. Yet the number of people living below the poverty line has actually increased. unlike other democracies. Brain drain and lack of local opportunities to promising graduates. The Philippine economy has grown by about 5 percent a year on average over the last ten years. with the advent of the call centers that can pay higher than some local managerial positions. the Philippines has always had large populations of migrant workers abroad. joined Carnegie’s Vikram Nehru to discuss the economic and political prospects and challenges facing the Philippines.g. In fact. From a purely economic perspective. Chief Economist for the East Asia and Pacific Region at the World Bank. significantly higher than in the previous two decades. many doctors go back to school to study BS Nursing. Country Representative for the Philippines and Pacific Island Nations at the Asia Foundation. For decades. and Steven Rood.The Philippine political arena. rather than organised around the voting for political parties. hoping to work abroad in a lower level. many college graduates (even the board passers in nursing. and engineering) choose to take a dead-end path.. Bert Hofman. is mainly arranged and operated by families or alliances of families. Frederic Bastiat Chair in Political Economy at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. accountancy. Yet the number of people living below the poverty line has actually increased. Other business processes are outsourced here. software enhancements/maintenance instead of building a new and exciting product from scratch). .

They want roughly the same things. length and coverage. the economic issues the candidates vow to pursue should indicate with clarity their action program. At this time. The candidates. One major candidate – Grace Poe – faces a cloud of doubt: potential disqualification on the basis of the natural-born citizenship issue.The presidential candidates and the economic issues With the presidential campaign having started in earnest. pagematch: 1. Disqualification rearranges the votes among the four major candidates – Mar Roxas. Business ( Article MRec ). the people go to the polls to vote for their choice of the next national leader. But in general. the decision of the Supreme Court (which is likely to be announced soon) will definitely influence for good or ill the vote for the presidency. In less than three months. . Given that election time is near and she is already on the election ballot being printed. Rodrigo Duterte. there are five candidates competing for the presidency. and Miriam Defensor. sectionmatch: 1 Non-disqualification firms up already expressed voters’ preferences among the five candidates. Jejomar Binay. the campaign platforms on economic issues are strikingly similar. The economic platforms of the candidates should differ in detail. with Poe apparently competing strongly.

Should the Supreme Court rule in her favor. the administration candidate. strong and popular candidates attract campaign contributions. that seems not to be enough to catapult him to the top. she would likely divide the political support for the administration and swamp the Roxas candidacy. and the mobilization of campaign finance. Therein also lies the problem of the election system in the country. is the dark horse in this election with a minimalist program. or one who had traded support for large concessions on issues. Political parties are important in that they provide the wherewithal for the ground game to get the voters to vote on election day. Winnability is a magnet for more funding support. but they significantly do. is quite popular and has personal roots that connect him to the masses. he continues to enjoy a nationwide following that has been unshaken by the charges made against him. In a personality-driven contest. the protection of the vote through the election watchers. the mayor of Davao. drugs and against criminality and his reputation as a man of action has captivated part of the electorate. as always in the past. A weak leader. It is hard to know how campaign contributors undermine the public welfare. has been unable to take the lead in the periodic pre-election voter surveys. However. Philippine presidential elections are notoriously personality driven. Yet Roxas’s reticence in speaking his mind on issues has projected an inability to distinguish himself from the face of the administration. He inherits the mantle of continuity for a fairly popular political administration. has weakened his once insurmountable advantage. voter perception of the personalities involved – not so much the issues they represent which are hardly any more different in the large – will determine how they react to the candidates. They influence the leader in the conduct of the presidency. has succeeded in positioning herself as an option to the Daang Matuwid program of the administration. Nonetheless. The result is that he inherits also the undistinguished failures (many of them in the infrastructure bottlenecks of the country) of an otherwise successful administration. allegations of corruption in his long tenure as mayor of Makati. This involves mobilization of logistics to bring the voters to the precincts. The cost of campaigning is large and candidates can afford only a very tiny fraction of the financial burden of a candidacy. could be prevented from undertaking reforms the country truly needs. His strong stand on public safety. the sitting vice president. Although his candidacy has received rising support.In this contest. His main strength is in . The winning candidate might yield to pressure when large. Jejomar Binay. Grace Poe. Rodrigo Duterte. Mar Roxas. dominant contributors make their demands for spoils of victory. a first term senator.

the Nacionalista and the Liberal parties The economic issues. is essentially a candidate in the past. In a competitive race. the work of those on the ground level could be significant in the overall scheme of things. the enlargement of free trade zones involving the high income nations beckons the country to move more boldly. In terms of party organization. only Roxas and Binay are backed up by a strong network of party supporters. especially good employment opportunities for the population. Miriam Defensor. the more jobs could be created. The other candidates should elaborate and not hide. a long time senator. The extent of job generation depends on how labor-intensive are the investments being made and on the volume of investments that are established in new enterprises and expansion of existing industries. lower taxes and improved business environment. these dimensions and their wide implications on deeper economic reforms could be neglected. can only be produced by investments. the more poverty is conquered. They are a shadow of the two dominant parties of yesteryears. but he is very popular in Metro Manila. Jobs. . Fidel V. She lost a close electoral contest against presidential victor. This means jobs that are sustained and which. In the current election. All these are found in varying degrees in the statement of economic goals of the candidates. Only Binay has stressed the importance of amending the restrictive provisions of the Philippine constitution in order to open the economy to more foreign investments like in other countries. But his loose. agriculture and in infrastructure facilities that are essential in supporting the capacity to produce goods. in general. The expansion of the ASEAN free trade area brings in more competition with our regional neighbors. however. she attracts only a small percentage of voters. She could. The main economic problems facing the next leader can be compressed into a few that focus on the satisfaction of the aspirations of most Filipinos. The goal of jobs generation unifies most of the economic platforms. and irreverent talk is alarming supporters. Moreover. spoil the chances of others of major candidates in a tight presidential race. Thus. however. In the myopic view of the candidates trying to impress an electorate that only wants subsidies. There are many economic issues across sectors of the economy and various industries. fearsome. In general. however. substantial investments are made in industry. More jobs can be achieved only if the economy grows at a good and respectable rate. the more investments. provide sufficient income for the worker. In the post-People Power politics of the country. Ramos.Mindanao and parts of the Visayas. Foremost among these is the generation of more jobs. political parties have splintered.