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Dark  Energy,  HETDEX  and  

machine  learning  

Dr. Viviana Acquaviva
Assistant Professor of Physics
CUNY City Tech
vacquaviva@citytech.cuny.edu

The  most  amazing  fact  ever  

The  most  amazing  fact  ever  

Looking  far  away  means  looking  back  in  time  

The  sky  is  the  limit!  

AS  WE  MAKE  BETTER  AND  BETTER  TELESCOPES,  
WE  GET  A  PEEK  AT  INCREASINGLY  REMOTE  TIMES.  

This  gives  us  the  chance  of  observing     the  history  of  the  Universe.   .

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It’s  all  a  balance  of  two  forces…   “section”   of  the  young.   hot   Universe     The  balance  between  pressure  and  gravity  tells  us            the  rate  of  the  expansion  of  the  Universe   Can  you  predict  what  happens  with  more/less  matter?   Do  you  think  that  the  expansion  would  be  accelerating  or  slowing   down?   .

B=20   B=20   B=20   Stars  have  different   luminosities.  and  measuring   how  bright  they  appear     is  not  enough  to  know  their  distance  :(   slower  expansion    ⇔    smaller  distance     However.  measuring  distances  is  not  easy…   .

  ARE  THERE  ASTRONOMICAL  LIGHT  BULBS?   60  W   .  instead  of  stars?   60  W   60  W   Would  he  be  able  to  know     how  far  the  light  bulbs  are   from  the  numbers  in  the  book?   YES!     Because  he  knows  that  all  the  light  bulbs     have  the  same  luminosity..What  if  he  had  light  bulbs.   and  so  the  dimmer  ones  must  be  farther  away.

 and  it  is  visible  for  months  or  years.YES!  They  are  called  SUPERNOVAE  Type  Ia.     But  why  is  it  so  special?   .   A  supernova  is  an  explosion  from  either   a  massive  star  or  from  a  white  dwarf  (Type  Ia)   It  is  really  bright.

  .THE  SPECIAL  THING  IS  THAT  THEY  ARE  ALL  BORN  EQUAL   SN  Type  Ia  all  have  the  same  mass   when  they  explode.     Astronomers  call  them     STANDARD  CANDLES.   they  are  equally  bright.  and  therefore.

SUPERNOVAE  TYPE  Ia  AS  STANDARDIZABLE  CANDLES   Violent  explosions  of     white  dwarf  stars   Have  similar  absolute  magnitude   because  of  similar  birth  process   Very  bright!   .

 THIS  WAS   A  BIG  SHOCK.   suggesting  that  the   expansion  was   proceeding  at  a  much   higher  rate  than   previously  thought.Astronomers  decided   to  use  these  SNe  to   measure  the  rate  of   the  expansion…   And  found  that  they   were  ALL  dimmer   than  expected.   NOW.   observed   expected   .

h"p://hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/dark_energy/   .

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    stretching  the  very  fabric  of  the  spacetime.     .     DARK  ENERGY:       something  that  speeds  up  the  expansion.Supernovae  data  forced  us  to  think  about   a  new  component.   accounting  for  ~  75%  of  the  total   current  energy  density  of  the  Universe.

  .   But  he  might  have  been  right.  sometimes  also  called  vacuum  energy.   “It’s  my  biggest  blunder”   Einstein  had  predicted  it.   and  rejected  it.Entering  the  realm  of  speculation…   WHAT  IS  THE  DARK  ENERGY?   Maybe  it  is  something  called  a  Cosmological  Constant:                          A  uniform  layer  of  energy  that  cills  space   everywhere.

Paradox  #  1  about  the  dark  energy   Level of matter density Lower level of matter density expansion matter matter Bigger radius of Universe Radius of Universe Level of Dark Energy density Dark Energy Radius of Universe expansion SAME level of Dark Energy density Dark Energy Bigger radius of Universe .

Paradox  #  2  about  the  dark  energy   We  are  used  to  forces  that  can  be  attractive  or  repulsive.     For  example…   But  could  this  just  be  anti-­‐gravity?   No.  because  it  does  not  depend  on  the  involved   masses  (or  any  other  property.  like  every  well-­‐ behaved  force!)   .

Supernovae data then… now ← time →past .

and now! now ← time → past We have since then learned that the acceleration only started a few billion yrs ago (as expected from Λ) .

What comes next? We have a long way to explore…. .

mapping one million galaxies at a median look-back time of 10 billion yrs ago expect: no Λ .HETDEX Observations starting later this year.

    .HETDEX  uses  an  instrument  called  a   spectrograph  to  cind  distant  galaxies.

  .     They  come  from  electron  transitions  between   different  energy  levels  of  common  elements.The  spikes  are  easier  to  cind     and  are  called  emission  lines.  like   hydrogen  and  oxygen.

  .  since  every   element  emits  light  at  specicic  wavelengths.It  might  seem  simple  to  detect  these  emission   lines  and  know  what  they  are.

…  but  things  are  complicated  by  the  expansion   of  the  Universe  and  the  Doppler  effect!   .

The  Doppler  Effect  in  space   .

So  when  you  detect  an  emission  line.3 Flux (µJy) bottom: LAE at z = 3.305 galaxy.0 101 100 104 ˚) Observed-frame ( A Figure 1: Left: The Lyman-↵ line from a z = 3 galaxy is observed at exactly a z = 0.     you  can’t  be  sure  of  what  it  is  unless  you   are  sure  of  the  distance  (redshift)  of  the  galaxy        102 top: OII at z = 0. The emission line flux (shown by the circle) is the same for these tw .

5 Discrimination on the basis of line flux only is difficult..102 top: OII at z = 0. There are many more ancillary datas in one of the two regions. as shown in the middle panel of Fig. it’s likely that the first one is much closer to us (i. Imaging survey to detect continuum (luminosity on either side of the line) will help. 2. but the first one has a much higher continuum than the second. Main contaminants are OII emitters (rest frame λ= 3727 Å) at redshift < 0. LAEs have high emission line fluxes and dim continua (because they are farther away). LAEs have much higher EWs than OIIs. The emission line flux (shown by the circle) is the same for these two galaxies in this example. This key ratio of (number of photons detected at the wavelength of the line)/(average number of photons detected at the wavelengths of the continuum) is called “equivalent width” (EW). we will use them as a baseline to determine what additional data are needed to separate LAEs and OIIs in the other field. Right: Footprint of the two HETDEX survey areas. also showing overlap with other existing or planned data sets.3 Flux (µJy) bottom: LAE at z = 3. . but further optimization is required proportional to the square of its distance from us. but simulations show that this criterion induces a contamination fraction of over 4%. but the intensity of the continuum (and therefore the equivalent width. so they have on average much higher equivalent widths.e. On average. EW) is di↵erent.0 101 100 104 ˚) Observed-frame ( A The Ly-α line is at rest frame λ=1216 Å Figure 1: Left: The Lyman-↵ line from a z = 3 galaxy is observed at exactly at the same wavelength as the OII line from a z = 0. it is an OII emitter).305 galaxy. Thus if we are looking at two galaxies in which the number of photons detected at the wavelength of the emission line is the same. The classification procedure so far adopted by the HETDEX team is to use a cut at EW = 20 ˚ A (with objects whose EW is > 20 ˚ A being classified as LAEs).

A  classicication  problem   OUTPUT INPUT DATA (fluxes at different wavelengths) LAE   METHOD   OF   CHOICE   OII   OPTION  1:  WRITE  A  FORMULA  (“RULE”)     THAT  PREDICTS  WHETHER  THE   GALAXY  IS  RED  OR  GREEN   .

OPTION  II:  MACHINE  LEARNING     USE  SET  OF   OBJECTS   WITH  KNOWN   OUTPUT   (TRAINING  SET)     KNOWN   INPUT   OUTPUT   DATA I LAE DATA II OII DATA III OII DATA IV LAE DATA V LAE DATA VI LAE DATA VI ? ALGORITHM     LEARNS  THE    RULE  WITHOUT     NEEDING  TO  KNOW     THE  PHYSICS   # # .

Our  brain  machine-­‐learns   ? ? .

Accuracy  is  limited  by  size   and  quality  of  training  set.   .  AND  TRIALS  WITH   DIFFERENT  ALGORITHMS.   INPUT 1 2 3 OUTPUT 3 INPUT OUTPUT one 3 two 3 three 5 four 4 five 4 six ? 3 ? SO  THIS  ALSO  REQUIRES  LOTS  OF  WORK   WITH  SIMULATED  DATA.

    Stuff  to  play  with:   K e r n e l (functional form of function describing the boundary) Gamma (shape f a c t o r o f G a u s s i a n boundary) C = Penalty function for misclassifications Class weight i.ML:  Support  Vector  Machines  (SVM)   Figures from Ben-Hur & Weston (2010) Idea   is   to   transform   the   data   to   higher   dimensional   spaces   (so   they   are   more   separated).e.  called  decision  boundary. .   and   cind   the   hyperplane   that   maximizes   the   separation   between   classes. different penalty for each class.

    Left:   LAEs   and   OIIs   are   processed   through   the   SVM   with   equal   importance  (1:1  class  weight)     Right:    OIIs  are  given  more  weight  during  processing  (1:5  class  weight)     .  Any  objects  who  falls   into  the  blue  area  is  classicied  by  the  SVM  as  an  LAE.Some  preliminary  results   Cyan   dots   represent   LAEs   and   yellow   ones   represent   OII   emitters.     The   separation  between  colors  is  the  decision  boundary.

  here  is  a  real  cly-­‐through  the  galaxies  in  an  area  of  the   sky  called  Hubble  Deep  Field!   .Summary   Galaxies  are  awesome!     We  have  no  clue  about  what  Dark  Energy  is     You  can  do  lots  of  fun  stuff  with  Big  Data  in   Astrophysics  these  days     I  like  to  use  fun  computer  science  techniques  to  look  at   the  data  in  original  ways     To  apologize  for  the  lack  of  pretty  pictures  in  my  talk.