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Electricity is either connected in single phase or three phase. In single phase, wire is connected in phase to neutral with supplying 230 or 240 volts of electricity. Single phase power is commonly used in households. While, in three phase, wire connected in phase to phase with supplying 400 volts of electricity. Three phase power is commonly used in commercial premises. In single phase: P = VI cos Ɵ In three phase: P =VI cos Ɵ 3 Electrical wiring composes of electrical equipment such as cables, switch boards, main switches, miniature circuit breakers (MCB) or fuses, residual current devices (RCD), lighting points, power points, lightning arrestors, etc.. Example 1 of a single phase consumer electrical wiring is as shown in Figure 3.2 From figure 3.2, we can see that 100mA ELCB is connected to lighting general power circuits, such as lamp, fan, motor (D.O.L - Direct On Line), alarm and air-conditioner. While, 30mA ELCB is connected to socket outlets. Direct On Line The Direct On Line Motor Starter (DOL) consist a MCB or circuit Breaker, contactor and an overload relay for protection. Electromagnetic contactor which can be opened by the thermal overload relay under fault conditions. DOL has several built-in protective features (a) Short-circuit protection (b) Overload protection (c) Under-votage protection DOL as :1) Main circuit/Power circuit 2) Control Circuit Overload protection for an electric motor is necessary to prevent burnout and to ensure maximum opeer rating life. Under any condition of overload, a motor draws excessive current that causes overheating. Since motor winding insulation deteriorates due to overheating, there are established limits on motor operating temperatures to protect a motor from overheating. Overload relays are employed on a motor control to limit the amount of current drawn. For TNB 3Φ Load Filament Light Maximum Current (Amount of the Load x Power Required by the Load x 1.8) / (230 x 0.85) Estimate Current 66% of its maximum current Light Bulb (Amount of the Load x Power Required by the Load) / 230 66% of its maximum current Socket Outlet (S.A.K) (2 S.A.K x Power Required by each Load x Half the Amount of the Load) / 230 100% x (2 S.A.K x Power Required by each Load) / 230 + 40% x [Max. Current- 100% x (2 S.A.K x Power Required by each Load)] / 230 Air Conditioner (Amount of the Load x Power Required by the Load) / (230 x 0.85) Same as its maximum current Water Heater (Amount of the Load x Power Required by the Load) / 230 (100% x Max. Current / Amount of the Load) + (100% x Max. Current / Amount of the Load) + (25% x Max. Current / Amount of the Load) Cooker Control Unit (Amount of the Load x Power Required by the Load) / 230 10 A + 30% x (Max. Current 10 A) Load Socket Outlet (S.A.K) Air Conditioner & Motor (3 phase) Maximum Current (2 S.A.K x Power Required by each Load x Half the Amount of the Load) / 230 (Amount of 3 the Load x Power Required by the Load) / ( x 400 x 0.85) Estimate Current 100% x (2 S.A.K x Power Required by each Load) / 230 + 40% x [Max. Current- 100% x (2 S.A.K x Power Required by each Load)] / 230 100% x 1st Highest Max. Current for each Unit + 80% x 2nd Highest Max. Current for each Unit + 60% x [Total Max. Current of 3 phase Load - (100% x 1st Highest Max. Current for each Unit) - (80% x 2nd Highest Max. Current for each Unit)]