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Problem 1:

172.30.1.33

255.255.255.0

8 Bits or 28 or 256 total hosts

Number of Subnets

28 = 256

28

172.30.1.0

172.30.1.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

172.30.1.254

172.30.1.255

Step 1 : Translate the Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into Binary Notation.

=
=
=
=

172
10101100
11111111
10101100
172

30
00011110
11111111
00011110
30

1
00000001
11111111
00000001
1

33
00100001
00000000
00000000
0

Step 2 : Determine the network (or Subnet) where this host Address belongs.
1. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask.
Note: 1 AND 1 results is 1. But 0 AND Anything is 0.
2. Express the result in dotted decimal notation.
3. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet, is 172.30.1.0
Step 3 : Calculate the Number of Hosts Bits.
1. Given the Subnet Masks is 255.255.255.0, or 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000.
The total 0 in the Subnet Masks is 8, so automatically 28 or 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 is equal to
256.
Step 4 : Determine the number of Subnets.
1. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range.
Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.
a. 28 = 256
Subnet

10101100

00011110

00000001

00000000

*The red number is Major Divide (M.D), The Blue number is Subnet Divide (S.D)
Step 4 : Determine the number usable hosts per Subnet.
1. The Number of hosts per Subnet is determined by the number of host bits and minus by
2.
a. 28 - 2 = 256 2 = 254 Hosts per Subnet.
Step 5 : Determine the First Host and Last Host in this subnet.
1. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 1. This will give you The First Host
172.30.1.0 = 172.30.1.1
2. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 0. This will give you The First Host
00011110
00000001
00000000
Last Hosts
= 10101100
00011110
00000001
11111110
=
172
30
1
254
1. In the host partion (to the right of the S.D) make the host bits all 1s.
00011110
00000001
00000000
00011110
00000001
11111111
=
172
30
1
255
Problem 2 :

172.30.1.33

255.255.255.252

2 bits or 22 or 4 total host

Number of Subnets

22 = 4

22

Number of Usable Host per Subnet

4 -2 = 2 usable host

172.30.1.32

172.30.1.33

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

172.30.1.34

172.30.1.35

Step 1 : Translate the Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into Binary Notation.

=
=
=
=

172
10101100
11111111
10101100
172

30
00011110
11111111
00011110
30

1
00000001
11111111
00000001
1

33
00100001
11111100
00100000
32

Step 2 : Determine the network (or Subnet) where this host Address belongs.
4. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask.
Note: 1 AND 1 results is 1. But 0 AND Anything is 0.
5. Express the result in dotted decimal notation.
6. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet, is 172.30.1.32
Step 3 : Calculate the Number of Hosts Bits.
2. Given the Subnet Masks is 255.255.255.252, or 11111111 11111111 11111111
11111100
The total 0 in the Subnet Masks is 8, so automatically 22 or 2x2 is equal to 4.
Step 4 : Determine the number of Subnets.
2. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range.
Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.
b. 22 = 4
Subnet
10101100
00011110
00000001
00100000
*The red number is Major Divide (M.D), The Blue number is Subnet Divide (S.D)
Step 4 : Determine the number usable hosts per Subnet.
2. The Number of hosts per Subnet is determined by the number of host bits and minus by
2.
b. 22 - 2 = 4 2 = 2 Hosts per Subnet.
Step 5 : Determine the First Host and Last Host in this subnet.
3. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 1. This will give you The First Host
172.30.1.32= 172.30.1.33

4. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 0. This will give you The First Host
00011110
00000001
00100000
Last Hosts
= 10101100
00011110
00000001
00100010

172

30

34

2. In the host partion (to the right of the S.D) make the host bits all 1s.
00011110
00000001
00100000
00011110
00000001
00100011
=
172
30
1
35
Problem 3 :

192.192.10.234

255.255.255.0

8 bits or 28 or 256 total host.

Number of Subnets

28 = 256

28

256 2 = 254

192.192.10.0

192.192.10.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

192.192.10.254

192.192.10.255

Step 1 : Translate the Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into Binary Notation.

=
=
=
=

192
11000000
11111111
11000000
192

192
11000000
11111111
11000000
192

10
00001010
11111111
00001010
10

234
11101010
00000000
00000000
0

Step 2 : Determine the network (or Subnet) where this host Address belongs.
7. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask.
Note: 1 AND 1 results is 1. But 0 AND Anything is 0.
8. Express the result in dotted decimal notation.
9. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet, is 192.192.10.0.
Step 3 : Calculate the Number of Hosts Bits.
3. Given the Subnet Masks is 255.255.255.0, or 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
The total 0 in the Subnet Masks is 8, so automatically 28 or 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 is equal to
256.

Step 4 : Determine the number of Subnets.

3. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range.
Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.
c. 28 = 256
Subnet
10101100
00011110
00001010
00000000
*The red number is Major Divide (M.D), The Blue number is Subnet Divide (S.D)
Step 4 : Determine the number usable hosts per Subnet.
3. The Number of hosts per Subnet is determined by the number of host bits and minus by
2.
c. 28 - 2 = 256 2 = 254 Hosts per Subnet.
Step 5 : Determine the First Host and Last Host in this subnet.
5. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 1. This will give you The First Host
192.192.10.0 = 192.192.10.1

6. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 0. This will give you The First Host
11000000
00001010
00000000
Last Hosts
= 11000000
11000000
00001010
11111110
=
192
192
10
254
3. In the host partion (to the right of the S.D) make the host bits all 1s.
11000000
00001010
00000000
11000000
00001010
11111111
=
192
192
10
255

Problem 4 :

172.17.99.71

255.255.0.0

16 bits or 216 or 65,536 total host

Number of Subnets

216 = 65,536

216

172.17.0.0

172.17.0.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

172.17.255.254

172.17.255.255

Step 1 : Translate the Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into Binary Notation.

=
=
=
=

172
10101100
11111111
10101100
172

17
00010001
11111111
00010001
17

99
01100011
00000000
00000000
0

71
01000111
00000000
00000000
0

Step 2 : Determine the network (or Subnet) where this host Address belongs.
10. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask.
Note: 1 AND 1 results is 1. But 0 AND Anything is 0.
11. Express the result in dotted decimal notation.
12. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet, is 172.17.0.0.
Step 3 : Calculate the Number of Hosts Bits.
4. Given the Subnet Masks is 255.255.0.0, or 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
The total 0 in the Subnet Masks is 16 , so automatically 216 or
2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 is equal to 65,536.
Step 4 : Determine the number of Subnets.
4. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range.
Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.
d. 216 = 65,536.
Subnet

10101100

00010001

00000000

00000000

*The red number is Major Divide (M.D), The Blue number is Subnet Divide (S.D)
Step 4 : Determine the number usable hosts per Subnet.
4. The Number of hosts per Subnet is determined by the number of host bits and minus by
2.
d. 216 - 2 = 65,536 2 = 65,534 Hosts per Subnet.
Step 5 : Determine the First Host and Last Host in this subnet.
7. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 1. This will give you The First Host
172.17.0.0 = 172.17.0.1

8. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 0. This will give you The First Host
00010001
00000000
00000000
Last Hosts
= 10101100
00010001
11111111
11111110
=
172
17
255
254
4. In the host partion (to the right of the S.D) make the host bits all 1s.
00010001
00000000
00000000
00010001
11111111
11111111
=
172
17
255
255
Problem 5 :

192.168.3.219

255.255.255.0

8 bits or 28 or 256 total host

Number of Subnets

28 = 256

28

192.168.3.0

192.168.3.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

192.168.3.254

192.168.3.255

Step 1 : Translate the Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into Binary Notation.

=
=
=
=

192
11000000
11111111
11000000
192

168
10101000
11111111
10101000
168

3
00000011
11111111
00000011
3

219
11011011
00000000
00000000
0

Step 2 : Determine the network (or Subnet) where this host Address belongs.
13. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask.
Note: 1 AND 1 results is 1. But 0 AND Anything is 0.
14. Express the result in dotted decimal notation.
15. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet, is 192.168.3.0.
Step 3 : Calculate the Number of Hosts Bits.
5. Given the Subnet Masks is 255.255.0.0, or 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
The total 0 in the Subnet Masks is 8 , so automatically 28 or 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 is equal to
256.
Step 4 : Determine the number of Subnets.
5. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range.
Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.
e. 28 = 256 .
Subnet
11000000
10101000
00000011
00000000
*The red number is Major Divide (M.D), The Blue number is Subnet Divide (S.D)
Step 4 : Determine the number usable hosts per Subnet.
5. The Number of hosts per Subnet is determined by the number of host bits and minus by
2.
e. 28 - 2 = 256 2 = 254 Hosts per Subnet.
Step 5 : Determine the First Host and Last Host in this subnet.
9. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 1. This will give you The First Host
192.168.3.0 .= 192.168.3.1

10. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 0. This will give you The First Host
10101000
00000011
00000000
Last Hosts
= 11000000
10101000
00000011
11111110
=
192
168
3
254
5. In the host partion (to the right of the S.D) make the host bits all 1s.
= 11000000
10101000
00000011
00000000
10101000
00000011
11111111
=
192
168
3
255

Problem 6 :

192.168.3.219

255.255.255.252

2 bits or 22 or 4 total host

Number of Subnets

22 = 4

22

Number of Usable Host per Subnet

4 2 = 2 usable host

192.168.3.216

192.168.3.217

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

192.168.3.222

192.168.3.223

Step 1 : Translate the Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into Binary Notation.

=
=
=
=

192
11000000
11111111
11000000
192

168
10101000
11111111
10101000
168

3
00000011
11111111
00000011
3

219
11011011
11111100
11011000
216

Step 2 : Determine the network (or Subnet) where this host Address belongs.
16. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask.
Note: 1 AND 1 results is 1. But 0 AND Anything is 0.
17. Express the result in dotted decimal notation.

18. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet, is 192.168.3.216.

Step 3 : Calculate the Number of Hosts Bits.
6. Given the Subnet Masks is 255.255.0.0, or 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111100
The total 0 in the Subnet Masks is 2 , so automatically 22 or 2x2 is equal to 4.
Step 4 : Determine the number of Subnets.
6. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range.
Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.
f. 22 = 4 .
Subnet
11000000
10101000
00000011
11011000
*The red number is Major Divide (M.D), The Blue number is Subnet Divide (S.D)
Step 4 : Determine the number usable hosts per Subnet.
6. The Number of hosts per Subnet is determined by the number of host bits and minus by
2.
f. 22 - 2 = 4 2 = 2 Hosts per Subnet.
Step 5 : Determine the First Host and Last Host in this subnet.
11. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 1. This will give you The First Host
192.168.3.216 = 192.168.3.217

12. In the host partition (to the right of the S.D), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least significant bit), which you make a 0. This will give you The First Host
10101000
00000011
11011000
Last Hosts
= 11000000
10101000
00000011
11011110
=
192
168
3
222
6. In the host partion (to the right of the S.D) make the host bits all 1s.
= 11000000
10101000
00000011
11011000