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HSC 215 Lecture Outline Urinary Physiology Short Version Chapter 14 Main kidney functions: 1. Primarily responsible for maintaining stability of ECF volume, electrolyte composition, and osmolarity 2. Main route for eliminating potentially toxic metabolic wastes and foreign compounds from the body Overview of kidney functions -Maintain H2O balance in the body -Maintain proper osmolarity of body fluids, primarily through regulating H2O balance -Regulate the quantity and concentration of most ECF ions -Maintain proper plasma volume -Help maintain proper acid-base balance in the body -Excreting (eliminating) the end products (wastes) of bodily metabolism -Excreting many foreign compounds -Producing erythropoietin -Producing renin -Converting vitamin D into its active form Urinary Anatomy OYO 1 3 Processes of Urine Formation: I. Glomerular filtration II. Tubular reabsorption III. Tubular secretion Urine results from these three processes I. Filtration-occurs in the glomerulus More permeable to water and solutes than capillaries elsewhere in the body Filtrate is forced from glomerulus into capsule Molecules too large are not filtered Blood cells and plasma proteins are too large Glomerular filtration rate = rate filtrate is formed 125 ml/min Glomerular capillary blood pressure can be controlled to adjust GFR to suit the body’s needs Via SNS and RAAS 2 II. Tubular Reabsorption: Involves the transfer of substances from tubular lumen into peritubular capillaries or “back to the blood” Most substances that need to get back to the blood get sucked back in through the first tube Highly selective and variable process 1. NA reabsorption -An active Na+/K+ pump is essential for Na+ reabsorption Of total energy spent by kidneys, 80% is used for Na+ transport Na+ is not reabsorbed in the descending limb of the loop of Henle Hormone Influence: Most important and best known hormonal system involved in regulating Na+ Renin – angiotensin – aldosterone system Aldesterone works mainly in dct 2. Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by active transport in pct If TM (transport maximum) is reached, g is lost in the urine 3. Water 65 percent of water reabsorption is obligatory in the proximal tubule. -Vasopressin In the ___________tubule and collecting duct it is variable, based on the secretion of ______. The secretion of vasopressin increases the _____________of the tubule cells to water. During a water deficit, the secretion of vasopressin_________________. This __creases water reabsorption and concentrates the urine. 3 During an excess of water, the secretion of vasopressin______________. Less water is_____________________. More is eliminated and the urine is more dilute. III. Tubular Secretion: Transfer of substances from peritubular capillaries into the tubular lumen or______________________________________________________ Kidney tubules can selectively add some substances to the substances already filtered Most important secretory systems are for ____ Important in regulating acid-base balance Secreted in proximal, distal, and collecting tubules ____ Keeps plasma K+ concentration at appropriate level to maintain normal membrane excitability in muscles and nerves Secreted only in the distal and collecting tubules under control of ___________________________ Micturition-OYO Urine stored in body is eliminated by micturition Urine in bladder stimulates stretch receptors Stimulated stretch receptors signal smooth muscle in bladder wall by parasympathetic neurons Contraction of bladder pushes urine out of the body Micturition reflex Relaxation of external urethral sphincter muscle allowing urine to pass through urethra and out of the body Under voluntary control but cannot be delayed indefinitely  4