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Electrical Safety Guidelines

To avoid electrical shock, follow these recommendations:
Check for possible hazards in the work area, such as moist floors, ungrounded power extension cords,
and missing or doubtful safety grounds.
Do not work alone if potentially hazardous conditions exist in your work space.
Never assume that power is disconnected from a circuit. Always check the circuit before starting work
Locate the emergency power-off switch for the room in which you are working so that if an electrical
accident occurs, you can quickly turn off the power
Ensure equipment is correctly protected with a fuse or circuit breaker.
The power supply battery can have a short-circuit current capacity of many hundreds of amps. If short
circuited before the fuse or circuit breaker, the resultant flashover can cause serious burn injuries.
Ensure battery terminals and leads are suitably shielded against accidental short circuit.
Install equipment in compliance with the international or national electrical codes.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection and Handling Guidelines

. Your body can easily pick up a static charge. also known as static electricity. Handle ESD-sensitive items only when you are properly grounded at a static-safe work area or when connected via a skin-contact ESD grounding strap to a ground on the equipment. Static charges can cause damage to sensitive electronic components during installation and servicing. Caution: Personnel and equipment must be properly grounded when ESD sensitive assemblies are handled. and assemblies within a closed electronic housing are sensitive to ESD. ESD can cause immediate terminal equipment failure but can also cause latent damage. follow these guidelines: Assume that all components. To prevent ESD damage. Ensure these handling procedures are maintained during the process of swap out/in of ESD-sensitive assemblies from/to their ESD protecting transport bags or containers. Restrict handling of ESD-sensitive PCBs and sub-assemblies. is the sudden transfer of electricity between objects at different potentials. which while showing no immediate or obvious effect. which can discharge to components or assemblies when touched. Where practical handle assemblies via a front panel or the edges of a PCB. may lead to premature failure.Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). PCBs. Store and transport ESD-sensitive items in static-shielding bags or containers.

meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. Traditionally. array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel. and other components of a computer. hardware registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results.Central Processing Unit (CPU) A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic. the term "CPU" refers to a processor and its control unit (CU). control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The instructions are kept in some kind of computer memory. On the other hand. source: youtube In One Lesson The fundamental operation of most CPUs. Most modern CPUs are microprocessors. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations. distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and peripherals. logical. An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory. The form. with no one unit considered central. . but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. regardless of the physical form they take. and decodes and executes them while relying on the ALU and registers as necessary to perform decomposed operations. Some computers have multi-core processors with two or more CPUs (which are then called "cores") within a single chip. peripheral devices. and the control unit that fetches instructions from the main memory. The term has been used in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. is to execute a sequence of stored instructions called a program. such devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC). design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history.

In more complex CPUs. in such processors a "compare" instruction evaluates two values and sets or clears bits in the flags register to indicate which one is greater or whether they are equal. It largely ignores the important role of CPU cache. multiple instructions can be fetched.There are three steps that nearly all CPUs use in their operation: fetch. If a jump instruction was executed. since they often indicate the outcome of various operations. For example. After the execution of an instruction. with the next instruction cycle normally fetching the next-in-sequence instruction because of the incremented value in the program counter. and therefore the access stage of the pipeline. called an instruction set. Hardwired into a CPU's circuitry is a set of basic operations it can perform. the program counter will be modified to contain the address of the instruction that was jumped to and program execution continues normally. which is quite common among the simple CPUs used in many electronic devices (often called microcontroller). for example. the entire process repeats. Each basic operation is represented by a particular combination of bits. decode. These flags can be used to influence how a program behaves. or jumping to a different part of a program. comparing two numbers. decoded. adding or subtracting two numbers. This section describes what is generally referred to as the "classic RISC pipeline". Such operations may involve. and execute. In some processors. and executed simultaneously. conditional program execution (through the use of a conditional jump). one of these flags could then be used by a later jump instruction to determine program flow. known as the machine . Some instructions manipulate the program counter rather than producing result data directly. some other instructions change the state of bits in a "flags" register. such instructions are generally called "jumps" and facilitate program behavior like loops. and existence of functions.

such as those for loading data from memory and storing it back. and then storing the result to memory. In general. using its ALU to perform an operation. while executing instructions in a machine language program. wikipedia . various other machine instructions exists. Going up the complexity scale. the CPU decides which operation to perform by "decoding" the opcode. branching operations. the numbers to be summed in the case of an addition operation).language opcode. A complete machine language instruction consists of an opcode and. a machine language program is a collection of machine language instructions that the CPU executes. additional bits that specify arguments for the operation (for example. Beside the instructions for integer mathematics and logic operations. a CPU executes an instruction by fetching it from memory. and mathematical operations on floating-point numbers performed by the CPU's floating-point unit. The actual mathematical operation for each instruction is performed by a combinational logic circuit within the CPU's processor known as the arithmetic logic unit or ALU. in many cases.