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Flame

test is
applic
able
for
Group
1 and
group
2
metal
s
includ
ing
coppe
r
ions.

Na+

K+

Test for Ions
Test for the positive ions Na+ K+ Ca+
Sr+ Ba+ Cu2+
Apparatus
Take nichrome wire and and dip it with
concentrated HCl acid and bring it to the roaring
flame. Keep doing it until no colour is produced.
This is done to clean the nichrome wire and to
make sure that no other chemical Is present. Next
we will do fame test take the acid with nichrome
wire arain and dip with the unknown solid. Place the
nichrome wire in the roaring flame. (Remember to
clean nichrome wire before before each experiment
by concentrated HCl acid).
Nichrome
Roaring

Unknown
The resulting flame will produce different colour

Ca+

Sr+

Ba+

Cu2+

Bunsen

Yelloworange    Lilac flame Brick red flame Red flame Light green flame Blue flame Lithum ions : red Sulphur ions : blue Carbon ions : orange Test for Transaction metal ion For transaction metal ion we can add Sodium hydroxide to a unknown transaction ion. .

Red-brown precipitate White precipitate .Cu2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Zn2+ Blue prcipitate Green precipitate but become redbrown upon standing because Iron (II) hydroxide gets oxidized.

but this doesn’t happen if you use nitric acid because all nitrates are soluble. It reacts with hydroxide to form ammonia and water Ammonia can be tested by putting holding damp red litmus paper which turns blue.NOTE. Some acid-carbonate combinations can produce an insoluble salt that coats the solid carbonate and stops the reaction. Or dip a glass rod into the concentrated HCi vessel and dip it into the solution and this will produce Ammonium chloride with white smoke that confirms Ammonia is present. Carbonate + acid  salt + water + carbon dioxide . or an aqueous solution of the solid. Test for negative ions Carbonate ions CO32Test: To either the solid. under test add dilute hydrochloric acid. It is best to use dilute nitric acid. Test for Ammonium ions Ammonium ions is dipped in sodium hydroxide.Copper ions can be tested in either flame test way or precipitation test. Result: This will for bubbles of gas (carbon dioxide). This gas will turn limewater milky.

Test for Halide Ions Apparatus Unknown Solid is taken Unknown Solid is Disssolved in Water Dilute Nitric acid is added to to remove any Impurities in order to give a clear result. add dilute hydrochloric acid followed by a few drops of barium chloride solution.Sulphate ions SO42Test: To an aqueous solution of the solid under test. . Result: This will form a white precipitate (of barium sulphate).

Then Add few drops of Aqueous Silver Nitrate and Silver halides precipitate will form which gives different colours for different Halide ions. .

Chlorine Cl- .

Bromine Br- .

Iodine I- .

Problems ADD Dilute Aqueous Ammonia dissolve Silver chloride but not silver bromide But concentrated Aqueous Ammonia will dissolve both Silver chloride and Silver bromide .

But .