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# 3.6.

Exercises
1. Human voice frequency ranges from 16 Hz to about 20 KHz. Telephone companies use
the most-significant 4,000 KHz portion of this spectrum to deliver voice conversation
between two users. This downgrade in the quality of conversation allows the transmission
links to save bandwidth remarkably. Using a three-level hierarchy of multiplexing (12:1,
5:1, and 10:1):
a. How many voice conversation can this system carry?
b. What would be the final transmission capacity of this system?
Jawab :
a. Jumlah kanal ¿ 12× 5× 10=600
b. Kapasitas ¿ 600 ×4 KHz=2400 KHz=2,4 MHz

2. Consider the integration of three analog sources and four identical digital sources through
a time-division multiplexer that uses its entire 170 Kb/s maximum capacity. The analog
lineswith bandwidths of 5 KHz, 2 KHz, and 1 KHz, respectively are sampled,
multiplexed, quantized, and 5-bit encoded. The digital lines are multiplexed, and each
carries 8 Kb/s.
a. For the analog sources, find the total bit rate.
b. For the digital sources, find the pulse-stuffing rate.
c. Find the frame rate if a frame carries eight sampled analog channels, four digital data
channels, a control channel, and a guard bit.
Jawab:
a. Total bit-rate dari analog links
¿ ( 5 KHz +2 KHz +1 KHz ) ×2 sample per cycle× 5 bit per sample
¿ 80 Kbps

b. Total bit-rate dari digital links ¿ 170 Kbps−80 Kbps=90 Kbps
90 Kbps
Total bit-rate tiap saluran digital ¿ 4 saluran =22,5 Kbps
Pulse stuffing tiap saluran digital ¿ 22,5 Kbps−8 Kbps=14,5 Kbps
c. Bit tiap frame = (kanal analog + kanal digital + kanal control) x 5 bit/ channel + 1
guard bit
Bit tiap frame=( 8+ 4+ 1 ) × 5bit per kanal +1 guard bit
Bit tiap frame=66 bit /frame

b. Jawab : a. and one synchronization character is inserted for every 99 data characters. Determine the number of 150 b/s terminals that can be accommodated.3 Framerate= bit rate 170 ×10 bps = =2. Pulse stuffing ¿ 4800 bps × 3 =144 bps Jumlah karakter ¿ 1 ( sync ) +99 ( data )=100 4800 bps Bit-rate sinkronisasi ¿ 100 =48 bps Jumlah dari terminal 150 bps 4800−( 2 ×600+5 × 300+48+144 ) bps ¿ =12. sehingga kita perlu 3 karakter sinkronisasi. and 3 percent of the line capacity is allocated for pulse stuffing to accommodate variations in the terminal clock rate.75 frame per detik bit tiap frame 66 bit / frame 3.72 ≈ 12terminal 150bps b. How many user channels can be accommodated on the line? b. assuming three characters per 150 b/s terminal. a.9 that a source is busy.575.800-b/s digital line. What is the clipping probability? Jawab : a. Each user channel has 6 bits. Consider ten sources in this system. Contohnya. five 300 b/s terminals. format frame dalam bit adalah : 2× ( 12 char × 10 bit per char ) +5 × ( 6 char × 10bit per char ) +12 (3 char × 10 bit per char ) +3 ×10 bit p 4. Jumlah karakter untuk sinkronisasi sebanding dengan laju data (bit rate). All the terminals are asynchronous. a. Sketch a possible framing pattern for the multiplexer. and a number of 150 b/s terminals are to be time-multiplexed in a character-interleaved format over a 4. Bit/frame (total) ¿ 2 Mbps ×26 μs per frame=52 bit per frame Bit/frame (data) ¿ 52bit per frame−10=42 bit per frame . Assume that the transmission line carries 2 Mb/s of information. and each frame has 10 bits of overhead information. The terminals send 10 bits/character. and assume a probability of 0. Consider a time-division multiplexer having a frame time of 26 µs. kita butuh 12 karakter untuk terminal 150 bps. Assume that two 600 b/s terminals.

Find the average number of used channels in the frame. Find the probability that three channels of the frame are in use. d. b. c. a. Find the blocking probability for this multiplexer. Frames can receive four channels only. n=7. each becoming an average of 2 µs active and 6 µs inactive. Consider a synchronous TDM with eight inputs. Jawab . a. b. ( ) P[clipping ]= ∑ m−1 pi (1−p)m −i −1 i i=n m=10.9 p [ clipping ] =0. p=0.1 Kanal ¿ n=42 bit per frame 6 bit per kanal =7 kanal per frame m−1 b. Find the probability that a source is active. ρ= ta 2 = =25 t a +t d 8 2 6 ¿ ¿ ¿3 ¿ 2 6 ¿ ¿ ¿i 8 ¿ 1 8 ¿ 3 j m ( ti ) j ta () () ( ) =¿ P= t ∑ (mj)( t ) j j i=0 i i d .947 5.

each showing the clipping probability versus ρ= 0.c.8 untuk ρ=0. 0. Sketch one set of three plots.4 untuk ρ=0.32 ) +3 ( 0.8  m=4 n=3 3 () 3−3 Pclipping =PC =∑ 3 ρ3 ( 1−ρ ) i=3 3 PC =0 untuk ρ=0.4 PC =64. 0.4.0889)≈ 1.6.6 untuk ρ=0.213 ) + 4( 0.2. 0.94 () () () () 4 j 6. 1 3 ¿ ¿ ¿4 ¿ 1 3 ¿ ¿ ¿i 8 ¿ i 8 ¿ 7 n m 1 ( ) n 3 B=P j=n=4= n =¿ i m (1) ∑ i 3 i=0 d.2 PC =6.6 untuk ρ=0. E [ C ] =∑ j pj =1 ( 0.275 )+ 2 ( 0.8.2 PC =35.6 PC =89.4 PC =21. consider two different frame sizes of 2 and 3.2 untuk ρ=0.6 .4 untuk ρ=0. Jawab :  m=4 n=2 3 () 3−i Pclipping =PC =∑ 3 ρi ( 1− ρ ) i =2 i PC =10. For a four-input statistical TDM.

8  n=4 P4 =100 7. A string of 110011101 arrives at the line coder of a modem. Find the average clipping time for each burst of information in statistical TDMs.9 that a given source is busy.9 t a +t d Untuk m=11 dan n=10 PC = peluang clipping 1−ρ ¿ ¿ m−1 ρi ¿ i ( ) m −1 PC = ∑ ¿ i=n 8. Give the output form if the line coder is designed by: a. Polar NRZ c. Manchester NRZ Jawab: 1 Natural NRZ Polar 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 . Consider a statistical TDM in which 11 sources and 10 channels are present. Jawab : 1 η =(1− m) μ ρ 9. assuming a probability of 0. Natural NRZ b.PC =51. Find the clipping probability.2 untuk ρ=0. Jawab : t ρ= a =0.

FSK c.NRZ Manchester 10. PSK Jawab : . ASK b. Give the output signal if the modulator is designed by: a. A string of 100101011 arrives at the modulation unit of a modem.

To achieve the highest possible speed: a. Is propagation delay in the switch fabric significant compared to D? Why? Jawab : . with each segment consisting of d bits data plus 50 bits of header.11. Incoming packets to IPP are fragmented into smaller segments. The switch fabric requires segments to be transmitted at r b/s. We want to design the input port processor of a high-speed router and analyze the delay. Is there any way to optimize the transmission delay D of each segment in terms of d and r?How? b.

jika switch fabric mempunyai 5 tahapan routing dalam internal networknya. Sebagai perbandingan.a.4 µs. . Misalkan paket yang akan diterima pada port input dari IPP mempunyai panjang L bit. Misalkan dengan menggunakan CMOS transistor yang mana merupakan cara yang paling lambat dalam switching transistor untuk switch fabric ini. Misalkan waktu switch 50-80 ns untuk gerbang CMOS AND. Sebaliknya. 2 d+50 ∂T sehingga T = r ⇒ ∂ d ∂r =0⇒ d opt . delay pada IPP (D) bergantung pada fragmentasi paket dan waktu delay enkapsulasi. Sehingga delay pemrosesan pada switch fabric tidak begitu signifikan dibandingkan dengan delay pada IPP. delay pemrosesan akan bergantung pada waktu switch gerbang AND dari gerbang pada fabric.r opt Jadi usaha untuk mengoptimalkan delay transmisi antara lain:   Meningkatkan laju transmisi (r) dengan mengurangi waktu clock cycle dari CPU Nilai d harus sama dengan panjang paket yang mempunyai probabilitas/peluang terbesar b. delay total propagasi pada switch fabric ini = 80 ns x 5 tahapan = 0. Nilai dari waktu delay ini biasanya sekitar 10-100 ms untuk paket berukuran 512 bit.