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c<ij¡dination of efforts csscntial to a systcm of cdipc¡a.
rcquircs, a¡ we havc r..n, an orgrrrLtior ,yrtü of
com¡¡unicatio¡. Such a systcm of communication implics ccntc¡! o¡ poinb of intcrcon¡cqtion a¡d c¡n o¡ly opcrate as thesc
ccntcrs arc occupied by pcrsons who arc callcd cxccutivcs. lt
might bc said thcn, that thc functioo of cxccutivcs i¡ to ¡c¡vc e¡
chan¡rcls of communic¡tion so fa¡ ¡¡ communicatioas must pass
tlrough ccntral positions. But sincc thc objcct of üc communi.
cation systcm is coiirdination oI all arpccts of organization, it
follows that thc functio¡¡ of cxccutivcs ¡cl¿tc to all thc wo¡t
c¡scnti¿l to thc vitality and cndu¡anc¡ of an organization,
!o fer, at lcast, as it mu¡t bc accomplishcd through formal
It fu iúpo¡tant to obscryc, howcvcr, that not all wo¡L donc
by pcrsons who occupy cxccutivc positions is in con¡cction rvith
thc cxccutivc functions, thc ccriirdination of ¡ctivitics of oüc¡¡.
Somc of thc worL of such p*rons, though orgadz*iol wotk,
i¡ not cxccutivc, For cxaople, if thc pruidcnt of a corporation
goca out pcrsonally to scll products of his company or cngagrs
in rome of thc production worb thcrc arc not cxccutivc rcfviccs,
If thc prcsidcnt of a univcrsity givcs lccturcs to a clas¡ of studcnts, this is not cxccutivc wo¡k. If thc hcad of ¡ govcr¡u!¡c¡t
dcpartmcnt spcnds time on complaints or disputcs about 6crvic.g
¡crrdcrcd by thc dcpartmcnt, thir is not neccssarily cxccutivc
wo¡k. Exccutivc wo¡k is not that ol thc orgalization, but thc
spccializ*d work of maintainiry rhc organization in opcration.
Probably aü ex€cutivca do a co¡¡idc¡ablc amount of ¡o¡cxccutivc worL. Somctimes tlis wo¡k is mo¡e valuablc than thc



Thc functions with which in L Tr¡¡ Me¡vr¡¡. that is. for examplc clcrLs or stenog¡aphels. to malagc a group of pcrsons. but it can hardly be said to man¿ge the body. frrst. but suictly speaLing erroncous. cspecially f ¡- . though not necessarily large. and some of them. arc not cxccutivcs in any ordinary scnrc. correspond to thc elements of organization as already stated in Chapter VII and presented in some derail in Part III. in relation to üe rest of the body. desirablc. centers of communication and corresponding executivcs alc necessary. thc sclcction of persons for €xccutive functions is thc conc¡ctc mcthod of establishing the it¿ant oÍ cottfrLl)rriaa. If the purposc of an organization is conceivcd initially in the mind of one pcrson. which is a part of it. Ncverüeless. and the organization is spontancous its very first task is likcly to be the sclection of a leadc¡. W€ shall dcal with them only as found in complcx. ncvcrtheless they are subject to considerable specializatiorl and as functions arc to a substantial degree separablc in practice. organizations. As a whole it is m. work has to bc dooe. wheri a complcx of more than onc unit is io question. Thc functions are not. Si¡ce the clcmcnts of organization arc in tc¡¡clatcd ard interdependcnt. to tracc out who arc doing that work and thco. üe executive functions are so likewise. and. This is especially true bccause executivc wo¡k is itself oftcn complcxly organizcd. tion. This chaptcr will be devotcd to thc functions of the executivc organization as a whole which cxists exclusively for the c<Érdination of the cfiorts of thc entirc organization. however. a lerge part of whose functions a¡e i. They are. though it must be immcdiately followcd by thc c¡eation of positio¡s. This i¡te¡mütu¡e of fu¡ctions is a maüc¡ of conveniencc and often of econom¡ because of üe scarcity of abilities. whcn ceed for general purposes to 6nd out what a panicular organization. üird. The necd of a dcÉnitc sysrem of communication creates th€ ñrst task of the organizcr and is the immcdiatc origin of executivc organization. As a ¡csult of the combination of cxecutive with ¡on-c¡ccutive functions. It is not even quite correct to say that the cxccütive functions a¡e to managc the systcm of coópcrativc cfio¡ts. I do riot think a correct undcrstanding of cxccutivc wo¡k can bc had if this narrowcr.v 216 THE EXECUTM FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS FTTNCTIONS 2tj we are concer¡ed are like thosg of the ncrvous systcm. Since communication will bc accomplished only through the agcncy of persons. It is to thc functions of this organization as a spccial unit that our attcntioo should be given primaril¡ thc distribution oI work bctwccn pcrsom or positions being for gencral purposcs quite of secondary importance. second. a ¡yltrz of commu¡icatiort. to formulate and deÁne putposc. including the brain. the activitics of thcsc pcrsons constitutc thc cxccutivc orga¡izatiol. The executive functions sc¡vc to maintein a systero of cooperative cffo¡t. to pro inote thc sccu¡ing of essential edorts. or there may bc other rcasons for it. conccption obtains. The essential executive functions. as I shall prcsc¡t them. and. it is di6cult in practicc mercly by compari son of titles o¡ of nominal fu¡ctions to determine the comparativc methods of executive wo¡k in dific¡cnt olganizations. It exists to main- work they do. to provide üc syfcm of communication. ]re rDay bcst plc executive tain the bodily system by directing thosc actions rvhich a¡c n€ccssa¡y mo¡e cffectively to adjust to the environment.r¡c¡ o¡ O¡c¡¡¡¡zrt¡o¡ Cov¡¡uu¡c¡t¡o¡¡ Wc have ¡oticed in previous chapters that. as so ftequeltly stated. In an organization of modc¡¿te size therc may be a hundred pcrsons who arc engagcd part of thc ti6e in cxccutive work. he is likely very early to 6nd riecessery the sclection of licutcnants. convenient. If we mean by executive functions the spccialized work of maintaining systems of codperative effort.rnagcd by itselt not by thc executive organization.ndependert of it and upon which it in tu¡¡ depends. They are impcrsonal.

Persons without positions cannot function ¡s executives. The problcms of positions ¡!e those of location and the gcogaphical.tion III . it is trsually necessary in practice to deal with onc phase at a time. but no othcrs can be accomplished without it. are unable to appraise men in the abst¡act. and thac they all involvc othc¡ executive functions which we shall di¡cuss latc¡. but only good or bad in this or that position. Conversel¡ positions vacant a¡e as defunct as dead ¡erve ccnters. thc positions will exist to be 6llcd in the cvent of vacancies. when functioning strict\ as executives. ternporal. This is the central problem of the cxecutive functions. communication position and the "locating" of the se¡vices of a persofl are complementary phascs of the seme thing. and the places at which and the times when thcsc factors can be combined. This is why executives." ¡¡d S. they mean nothing but potentiality. Each phase in turn is the st¡ategic facto¡ of the executivc p¡obleú-first onej thefi the other phase. and thc problcms of each phasc are of quite difie¡cnt ki¡ds." the arrangement of positions. and functional specializations of 2t9 udt and group organizations. Thc personncl problems arc a spccial case of grncral personncl problems -. any schcme of organization at any 'S. and none well unless it is well donc. specializations. It rests upon or rep¡escnts a cdi¡dination chicfly of thc work to be done by the orgedizetion. that is. thc kind and quanrity of lclaiccJ of pefionnel that ca¡ bc obtained. and objective authority that can makc thosc quali6cations efiective c¡ecutivc services in thc organization. but since the underlying purpose of any changc in a scheme of organization is to afiect these othe¡ facto¡s as a whole favorably. the problem of the establishment and maintcnance of thc systcm of communication. the inducemcnts that arc rcquircd. which will bc discussed in Scction III of this chaptcr. thc Lind and qúeDtiLty on ?cftottr thet must bc includcd in the coóperativc systcm for this purposc.c Chaptc X." This is thc aspcct of organization which reccivcs ¡clatively cxcessivc of organization positions fo¡mal attention because it can apparently bc reduccd to organization charts. Although this communication fu¡ction has ¡ro phases. exccutive person¡el and executivc positions. its purporcs broken up into subsidiary purposes. if me¡ suitable to 6ll them a¡c not available. Its solution is not in itself sufrcient to accomplish thc work of all these functions. So far as ¡he ¡clcmc of o¡ganization is sepalatcly attackcd. is pcrpctually that of obtaining the coalescencc of the two phascs. and the developmcnt of thc inducements.dt chaptt¡. tasks. tbc recruitilg of cont¡ibutols who hav€ app¡opriatc qualifications.V 2T8 THE EXECUTIVE FI¡ICTIONS FLINCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS in established organizations. in a¡ olgadzatio¡ vacuum. TI¡E SCHEMT O! ORGAN¡ZATION Lct us call the first phase of thc function thc deFnition the "schüne of o¡ganization. "cxccutive organization" in practicc cannot be divo¡ced from "exccutive personncl". which will not bc specifically discusscd ircre. es it we¡e. must be adjustcd.. specifications of dutics.ializatiors. it is always on the assumption that it is thcn the stratcgic factor. etc. I. In oüer words. i[centrves) persuasion. the primary task of thc executivc organization. Men are neither good nor bad. social. This is why thcy not infrequcntly "change the organization. the othe¡ factors of o¡ganization remai¡ing 6xcd fo¡ thc timc being. that is.. and "exccutive pc¡sonncl" is without impo¡tant meaning except in conjunction with a spcciÁc arrangemcnt of positions. etc. sions of labor.t It is cvident that thcse ale mutually depcndcnr factors. and dcscriptions of divi. ¡rd Kitds of Spc. The cente¡ of communication is thc organization sefvice of a pe¡son et a place. In fact. "Thc Bash of thc pr6. Therefore.

It has always necessarily to be ¿ttacked on the basis of the prescnt situation. civic. It is rather gencrally understood that although money or othe¡ Eraterial i¡duccments must 'Aftd much cxpoicncc. FUNCTIONS 22t usually be paid to rcsponsible persons. cducatio¡al. te -ec -^{ . It also becomes an i. without default fo¡ ordina¡y pcrsonal rcasons.cptions óf individuál importancc caus. responsibility.s of i¡tcr¡al f¡ictioq and many ot¡cr undcsirablc consqucnccs.Eúgmcy situations. ñaterialistic. the pdnciples of the economy of incentives apply hcre as well as to other more gene¡al personncl p¡oblcms. It cannot be bought cithcr by material inducements or by other positive inccnrivcs. Inte¡est in work and pride in o¡ganization a¡c othe¡ incentivcs that usually must be present. and capacity to be dominated by organization personality. o. as a pcrsonal qualiñcation. In gcneral. It appears to bc t¡uc that io all of them adequatc incentivcs to exccutivc se¡viccs are di6cult to oflcr. compre- PERSONNEL The schcme of organization is depende¡t ¡ot only upon the general factors of the organization as a wholc. material induccmcnh a¡e thc only evailable difie¡cntial facto¡.at pdional irtdBt in thc work wiü it! accompanyi¡g fads and o¡ "pcf'p¡ojcct. sincc the othe¡ incentives e¡e oftcn cqual as between such organizations. ¡¡d rclisious orsárization work. These facts are much obscu¡ed as ¡cspccts cohme¡cial organizations. but on thc wholc they arc both insuficient and oftcn abortive. This is the 6¡st ¡cccssity bccausc thc lin€s of communication cannot function at all unlcss thc pcrsonal cont¡ibutions of cxecutivcs will be prcscnt at thc rcquired positions.rvice car¡ot bc ohai¡.d by matÚial inccntivG. This is as rrue of industrial orgalizations. a much eo¡€ importar¡t induccmcDt in the c¡se of executives than with the rest of thc personftl. ü. This. yiclding to cxaggdat d con. as we havc indicated. They arc roughly divided into two classes: rclativcly general abilitics.ration gr. lovc of prestige is.. Hence neithe¡ chu¡ches no¡ socialistic states have been ablc to escape the necessity of direct o¡ indi¡ect mare¡ial inducements for high dignitaries or oÉcials. charitablc. ar€ ¡ot only difierent from those generally to bc found in other spheres of organizatio¡ cconomy but a¡c highly spccial in diderent types of o¡ganizations.gc párt of loliücal.2 Following loyalty. but likewise. oftcn i¡dispcnsablc a. h¿llpáy workds. bccaus. Those most availablc in the prcscot age arc tangible. in political organizations as "regularity". respo¡¡sibility itself does not arisc f¡oo such induc€rocnts.I am convin. in general. is known in sccular organizations as rhe quality of "responsibility".cd t¡. domination by the organization pclsomlity. bccausc prcstige and oficial responsibilities impose heavy matcrial burdcns oA thcm. come the more speci6c pe¡sonal abilities. howevc¡. I bclicvc. involving general alertness. The balancc of facto¡s a¡d the tcchnical protl lcms of this special class. on the availability of various ki¡ds of sc¡viccs fo¡ the crecutive positions. The contribution of pcrsonal loyalty and submission is lcast susccptiblc to tangible inducer¡cnts. However. wherc úaterial induccments appca¡ to be the edectivc factors partly bccause such inducemcnts e¡e mole readily ofic¡ed i¡ such org¿nizarions and partly bccausc. But this is probably incidcntal and supcr6cial in all organizetions. If. in governmental organizations as fealty or loyalty. of schi-voluntcds. as of any othets.t thc most inclcctirc srliccs in a co¡tinuins cfiort dc in onc scnsc thosc of volu¡tcds. at the times necess¿ry. in rcligious orga¡rizatio[s as "complete submission" to the faith and to thc hicrarchy of objcctivc rcligious auüority.mportant secoridary facto¡ to individuals in many cascs. non matc¡ial inccntilcs-such ¿s prcstis. cc¡tainly thc ¡¡ost univc¡sel quali6cation. cxcept all other things be equal. Yct in hany . The rnost impo¡tant singlc conuiburion rcqtri¡cd of the executivc. This becomes in its tur¡! the stratcgic factor.t 22O THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS given time ¡eprescnts n€cessarily a result of prcvious successivc approximations th-rough a period of time. and i¡ ¿ la. tol. is loyalty. Whát áppcárs to bc incxpctuivc is in fact vcry cxpc¡3ivc. lor dámplc.

" Cont¡ol relates direcdy. to the wo¡k of the orgenizetion as a whole ¡ather than to the work of executives as such. if it cannot maintain the services of its pc¡sonnel. The methods by which control is excrcised a¡e. The fust kind is relatively dificult to appraisc because it depends upoo innatc cha¡actcrie tics developed through general expe¡ience. ctc. a measute madc possible by creating about the exccutives in many cases stafis of specialists who supplement üem in timc. thc Bcll Telephone System. The scarcity of such abilities. Moreover. demotion. Thc higher the positions in the line of autho¡ity.. It leads to the ¡eduction of the numbcr of formally cxccutivc positions to the minimum. We dcliberatcly and more end more turn out specialists. Thc operation of such systcms of complex executive o¡ganization rcquires thc highest devclopment of the executive a¡ts.. but we do not develop general executives well by speci6c efio¡rs.V THE EXECUTM FTINCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS hensiveness of intercst. the ñorc gencral the abilities required. It is not greatly susceptible of immediate inculcation. thc conclusion is thet its "managcment" is w¡ong. org¡¡ization itscq fosters it automatically. that the schcme of communication or the associated personnel or both. Thus.fcctivc. cnergy. This is made feasible by elaborate a¡d often delicate arrangements to co¡¡ect cüor ¡esulting from the faults of ovcr-specialization and the paucity of linc exccutives. Its va¡ious fo¡ms a¡d techniques are most definitely cxcmpli6cd in the a¡mies and ¡avies of the major powers. some of the great reilway point of vicw üé orsanizatioD of thc Unit. demotion. if it is ine6cient. But so heavily dependent is the success of co¿ipc¡ation upon the functioning of th€ exccutive organization that practically the control is ove¡ cxecutives for the most part. ¿nd qccutivc do püuncnc pr. The secold kind may bc less ¡a¡e because the divisiol of labor. The selection in part. and perhaps in the political o¡ganization of the British Empire.d St¡t6 of Amqi@ ¡ epccially notdorthy. and specialized abilities based on panicular apti- tudes and acquir€d techniques. üc systo of St¡t6 RishB o! t:_ FUNCTIONS 223 much molc lestrictcd international o¡gadzation i¡ the ¡ccessity for the development of these fo¡ms alld tcchniques fa¡ beyond their present status. and the Catholic Church. poise. sometimes at l€astr no! true. joiotly with the developmcnt of the schemc of organization. This is. judici¿I. tl¿t is. that is. and because it is susccptible to develop ment (¿t a cost) by t¡aining and cducatio¡.¡ One of the 6¡st limitatio¡s of wo¡ld-wide or eve¡ a 'F¡oo r structu. cootrols thc organization of exccr¡tive work. If the work of an organization is not strcccssful. and in conscious application chiefly. of cou¡se. . but oftcn it is. that is. It ¡ intcndcd o¡ qpectcd ü¡r üc réquirdcn8 will bc hct by inforhal ors¡nizatio¡. It has bcen emphasized seve¡al times in üis treatise that ormal o¡ganas it i dual sovdcianty añd thc scparation of l. and dismissal of men. coürage. that is. üe selectionj proinotion. together with thc necessity for keeping thc lines of authority as short as feasible. So IN¡ORMAL EX¡CUII!'E ORCANIZAAIONS fa¡ we havc considered thc 6rst executive function only ¡elates to the form¿l communication syfem.ndcd to bc d. are at fault. for the cor¡ectio¡ of such faults the 6¡sr relia¡ce is upon cxecutive orga¡ization. flexibilit¡ faculty of adjustmc¡t.dudc! of authoritativc @munietion i¡ Amdiqú sovdúcnr ás a fo¡mal orSanizatioq. nume¡ous and largely technical to each organizationJ and necd ¡ot be further dicusscd here. and technical capacities. the Postal Administrations of several European countries. and dismissal oI men becomes the essencc of maintaining the system of communicetion without which no organizetion can exist. III. the exccutive department directly relatcd. but especially the promotion.tio¡s it is inr. and we know very litde about how to do it. büt f¡om thc viéwpoint of thc qccutivc fu¡. depend upon thc exercise of supervision or what is often called "control.

also to minimize excessive cliques of political types arising from too great divergence o( inte¡ests and views. or evcn must be relievcd. cxccpt those based at lcast nominally on othe¡) fo¡mal. in which thcre was no timc and little immediate basis for the growü of an informal organization properly codrdinated with formal organization that it is elmost impossible to secu¡e edective and c6ciertt coópe¡ation without it. But it is certainly of major importance in all organizacions. Thc functions of informal cxecutive orgariizations are the communication of intangible facts. but also of that special part which we call the executive organizalion. and uni- versity organizations. and without overloading executive posi tions. navics. suSgestions. by speci6cally social activities. schools). becausc they cannot function. cxpericnce. labor. universities). It must not be understood that the desired degree of compatibility is always thc same o¡ is the maximum possible. and such very speci6c personal traits as background (European armies. that cannot pass through formal channels without raising issues calling for decisions. but I know from experience in operating with ncw eme¡gency o¡ga¡izations. resulting in "single t¡ack minds" and excessively crystallized attitudes and in the dcstruction of pcrsonal responsibility. In all of them info¡mal o¡ganizatio¡¡s operate.FTINCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS THE EXECUTIVE FTINCTIONS ization is essential to formal organizations. for avoiding the issuance oI nume¡ous fo¡mal orders except . especially industrial. This is usually not appa¡cnt cxccpt to those directly concerncd. It gocs by few if any rules. scx. without dissipating dignity and objcctivc authority. pa¡ticularly with ¡eferencc to communication. etc. political parties). politics. Thc general ñethod of maintaining an informal executivc organization is so to operate and to select arrd promotc exccutivcs that a gcneral condicion of compatibility of personncl is maintaincd. personal distinctions. On the contrary it seems to mc to be often the case that cxcessive coñparibility or harmony is delererious. I shall comment on only two functions of info¡mal executive organization. Soviet and Fascist governments. becausc they "do not Át " whcrc the¡c is no question of formal competence. The communication function of executives includes the maintenance of info¡mal executive organization as an essential means of coñmunicatio¡. There are probably other fu¡ctions. by confe¡ences and con- 224 manncrs. church. by requiremcnt of ccrtain 225 veDtions. I suspect it to be most highly developed in political. navies. that is. pe¡sonal appearancc. The necessity for avoiding lormal issues. fiavies. suspicions. o¡ of its r¡ltimate subo¡dinate units. race. and to make possible the develop ment of important personal ineuences in the organization. prestige. age. however. in all the good organizations I have obse¡ved the most ca¡eful attcntion is paid to it. nationality. for the very ¡eason that the intangible typcs of persoflal services are relativcly more important in them then in most oth€r. Perhaps often and certainly occasionally men cannot bc prorüoted or selcctcd. spccch. labor unions. to promote self-discipline of the group. expressed for its negative aspect by the phrase "conduct unbecoming a gentleman and an o6ce¡. innumerablc other processcs. many of which are not consciously employed for this purpose. A ce¡tain conformity is required by unw¡itten unde¡standing that can sometimes be formally enforced. Although I have never hea¡d it stated that this is an executivc fu¡ction or that such a thir¡g as an informal executive orgallization exists." There arc. This compatibility is promoted by educational requircmcnts (armies. This question of "frtncss" involves such matters as cducation. churches. It reprcscnts in its best scnse the political aspccts of personal relationship in formal organizatiori. faith. organizations. conside¡ations. by class distinctio¡s connectcd with privileges and "authority" (in armies. churchcs. sectional antecedents. opinions. This is true not only of thc organization as a whole.

Such action is neccssary not mercly to securc thc pcrsonncl of ncw organizations. althóugh on ¡cvicwins thc rccord I found scvdal..d ¿t lu:t ñvc a day for ci8htccn monlhs. but they arc clearly distinct . although they are functioning all the time. but also to replace the losses (hat continually take placc by ¡eason of death. and ma[y men not oDly exercise bcncficcnt influence far beyond that implied by their formal statusr but most of them. group but a v. Neither authority nor coóperative dispositioo (largcly the same things) will stand much overt division o¡ formal issues in the present stage of human development. This involves jointly a scheme of o¡ganizatiol and an executive p€¡sonnel.y poor info. I @n sdll r.o!- 227 dismissing rnen. by mc "out of hand wh. The reason may be that many men have personal qualifications of high order üat will not opelatc under üc stress of commensurate o6cial responsibility. These factors of growth or replacemcnt of cont¡ibutors require bringing persons by organization efiort within range of the consideratio¡ of the incentives available in orde¡ to induce some of these persons to attach themselvcs to the organization. Oftc¡ both parts of the task occupy thc edo¡ts of thc same penons or parts of an organization. at thc timc.. On thc othc¡ h¿¡d.' issue en order or judgment scttlirig an important issue ¡ather seldom. I could rccall noDc. and finally the sccuring of an informal organ- ization in which the esscntial property is compatibility of personnel.cision mádc by mc on my initiativc as a tclcphonc qcdtivc wiüin teo y@s. techniqucs of cont¡ol pe¡mitting effectiveness in promoting.mal orsanizarion undcr ddaÉncy . executive orde¡s. would lose their influence if they had cor¡cspondinS fo¡mel status. hLrcr cr( I worlcd wirh a vdy nobl. ¡ The characteristic fact of thc fi¡st division is thar the organization is acting upon persons who are irr every sense outsidc it. etc. Hence most laws. To summarize: the 6¡st erccutive function is to devclop and maintain ¿ system of communication. Thc processes by which th€ letter is accomplishcd include chiefly thc sclection of men and the ofiering of inceDtives. The chief funcrions of this informal organization are expansion of the means of communication with reduction in the necessity for formal dccisions.ell an import¡nt gcnqal d. and (á) the application of that eÍIo¡t when they have been brought near enough." emigration. cxcommunication. ln r¡. and ¡whcn writing thcsé lin¿s I tricd to ¡. Acco¡dingly the task involves two parts: (a) bringing persons within reach of speciÉc efio¡r ro secu¡e services. or to supply the material fo¡ the g¡owth of cxisting organizations.r I wa a Rcücf AdnrnRtr¿tor. I probably avq¡8. The wo¡k divides into two main divisions: (r) the bringing of persons into ccitperarive relarionship wirh the organization. d€cisio¡rs. Probably most good organizations have somewhe¡c a Colonel House. "backsliding. and the promotion of desi¡able influences conco¡dant with üe scheme of formal responsibiliries. (n) thc eliciting of the services aftcr such persons have bcen brought into that relationship. ostracism. demoting. By analogy I may mcntio¡ the golfers of frrst class skill who canlot "stand ¡¡p" in public tournaments. discharge. - The question of pe¡sonal influencc is very subtle.r 2ú FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZ ATIONS THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS ori loutinc Eratters end exc€pt I Lnow of major cxccutives who 1fI eme¡ge[cies.c¡ll wiüout ¿¡y ¡cco¡d ma¡y major deisio¡s mad. e¡e iri efect formal ¡otice that all is well there is agreement. Tr¡E SEctnNc o¡ EsSEN¡¡AL SER!'rcEs ¡nov h¡orvou¡¡s The second funcrion of the execurivc organization is lo promote the securiog of the personal se¡vices that co¡stitute the material of organizations. II. auüority is not questioned. the minimizing of undesi¡able infltrcnces. rcsignation. is impo¡tant. The obvious desire of politicians to avoid important issues (and to impose üem on thei¡ opponents) is based upon a thorough sense of organization.

rstrial organization appcal has becn in rcspect to this typc of contribub¡ fo¡ many practical purposes he is not usually regarded as the-material of organization. thc Amcrican Lcgion ¡cst¡icts its membcrship to thosc who have acquircd a status by a ccrtain typc of previous scrvicc. as industrial ors¡¡izetions a.mphesis is or rhc cúptoyc group of co¡dibutoú.c concd'cd. Thus roa¡y netions in cffect now ¡est¡ict subfantial growth to thorc who acquirc a natio¡al status by birth. (D) The edort to induce specidc persons who by the general appcal are brought into conract with an organization actually to becomc identi6ed with ir constirutes thc more regular and loutine work of secu¡ing contributors. to them. The methods rcquircd arc indcfinitely largc in numbcr and of very wide variety.I 228 THE EXECUTTVE FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS ele¡aents end conside¡able specializatioo is foünd e with ¡espect rmc¡rts. Although thc scope of the ñcld of ptopaganda is fo¡ ¡oost o¡ganizations not clea¡ly conccivcd or stated and as a problem only rcquirce activc considc¡atio[ at intcrals usually long.t"e t9mús" rc cqually includcd. During many decades the Unitcd States of Ami¡ica invited all who could ¡each its sho¡es to become Ame¡ican citizens. and especially so in thosc which are ncw or rapidly ! I must rcp@t tha¡ althoush rhc . and di¡cct ncgotiation. rcstrict the 6eld of propaganda. In most gov' ¡¡ Although the work of recruiting is important in most organizations. etc. or to Prcscrvc plc_ do¡ninancc of nationals. ctc. I[ is only nccessary to cmphasizc again that fundamentally most pcrsons potentially availablc are nor susceptible at any given timc of being induced to give scrvicc to any pa¡ticular olgadzatiori. Thc principlcs broadly disu$cd húc rclarc to salBmanship es wclla!@ployins pcsons. Industlial aod commcrcial organ_ izations are thcoretically limited usually by considcrarions of social compatibility and additionally by thc costs of propaganda. thc establishmcnr of inducemenh and ince¡tivcs.! is ncvertheless fundamcntal. thc qucstio. and dirccdy or indirecly the appeal for contributors of capital or credit has bee¡ fundame¡tally international in scopc until ¡ecent exchange ¡cst¡ictions. la¡ge o¡ small. or by the easc of acquiring citizenship and free land as until recently in üe Unired States. for cxamplc Chu¡ches. r*c. Thcy usually attcmpt no appcal whcn thc gcograPhic rcmoteness makcs it incfiectivc. and cla$ proportions. racial. Othcr organizations. the acc¡etio¡ of members taLes the fo¡m of stimulating reproduction by ective promorional efforts.rcs . the most unive¡sal aspect of indr. so fá. the c¡al P¡otcsta¡t havc as ideal goals the attachment of all persons to thcir organizations. Scc lasc 75. In many industrial organizations foreign recruiting was once an important aspect of their work. In fact. pcrsons within reach of ¡ccn¡iting or prosel¡ing influence is a task which di-ders in practical emphasis among organizations in respcct both to scope and to meüod. In chu¡chcs thc organization of mission rrork and its te¡rito¡ial scopc arc thc best indications of its importalcc. and the wide world is the ñeld of prosclyting propaganda. as in France and Ital¡ for cxample. sevreligious organizations Mormon Church. This involvcs in its gcocral aspects the method of pcrsuasion which has alrcady bccn dcscribcd. Others rest¡ict thei¡ 6clds practically on the basis of proportions. though il thc prescnt study he is. so as to prese¡ve thc cosmopolitan character of their bodies.ú. having limits on thc volume of thei¡ activitics. Thus universitics "in principlc" arc open to all or to all with cducational and character qualiñcations but may restrict thcir appeals to geo graphical. \=_ . at present.ó It would ¡ot be useful hc¡e to add to what has al¡cadv bcen said in Chaptcr XI on üe economy of incentivcs. Thir is best indicatcd by thc mcthods p¡acticálly cmploycd in connectroo with it. Some (a) Bringing espccially the Catholic Church.

t Membcrship. the maintena¡ce of the scheme of induccments. secüre compliance by public and private acknowlcdgmcnts of faith o¡ dcvotion.gcographical. Again. That is its potentiel aspect. evcry govefnmenr. but only that part of it which rclates to his position in the executivc organization. IlI. but also o¡de¡ed contemporaneously into the spe- that cach . to obtainins ¡nd rct¡inins mploymcnt. . which are the ¡eal matcrial of organization. bas lo i¡tcnsify or multiply the contributions which its mcmbe¡s will make above the lcvel o¡ volumc which would occur if ¡o ¡uch cffort we¡e made." ¡revc¡thcless in csublished and enduring organizations the elicitiilg oI the quantity a¡d quality of eflorts from their adherents is usually morc important and occuPies the greater Part of person¡cl cffort. reliabilit¡ rcsponsibility. outPut. This. recruiüg is apt to rcccive mote attentio¡r es a ficld of personnel work than the business of p¡omoting the actual output of effo¡ts and inlluenccs.INCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS e{pending or which have high "turnover. Its othcr aspect is the actual decisions and co¡duct organization. In short. ánd thc rclátivcly small ancntion to sdvicB. social. It has also bcen emphasized thar purpose is something that must bc accepted by all the contributors to the system of c6orts. The methods. No single exccutive can unde¡ any conditions accomplish this function alone. and secu¡e matcrial contributions f¡om thci¡ mcmbc¡s. is merely the starti¡g point. but that that agg¡egate of action is a residuum of the dccisions relative to purposc and the environmcntr ¡e¡ulting in closer and close¡ approximalions to the conc¡ete acts. aod fu¡ctio¡al . It has already been made clear that. of the organization. effectiv€ness. Because of the more tangible character of "membership. every ol¡ef importent organization. stricdy speaking purpose is de6ncd mo¡e nearly by the aggregate of action taken than by a¡y fo¡mulation in words. educatiol and training. cnthusiasm. speci6c objectives.than unit o¡ganizetion implics. Hence every church.¡ o¡ Pu¡pos¡ ^ND OrJEdinEs The third executive function is to formulate and de6ne the purposes. the systcm of communication. depends upon its appcal to persons who are already related to the of i¡ce¡rtivcs and autho¡ity. loyalty. Thus in onc scnse this fu¡ction is that of thc scheme of positions. inspectio¡r. the maintcnance of schemcs of 230 23r dcterrents. As executive functions they may be distinguished as the maintenancc of morale." elc. Thus chu¡chcs must stlengthe¡ the faith. Other organizations are similarly occupicd in sccuring loyalty. and competcncc.. every organization to su¡vivc must delibe¡ately attend to the roaintenatrce and growth of its authority to do the things necessary for cciirdination. by which this is done have already been in general indicated in ou¡ discussio¡ 'As ad instanc. supervision a¡d control..FI. It is more apparcnt here with cializations olhcr cxccutive functions rhar il js an entire executive org¿nization that formulatcs.üe delegation of objective authority. rcdefnes. breaks into details. Gove¡nments arc concelned with increasing thc promoting national solidarity. ends. as we havc scen. Hence the critical aspect of this f¡inctio[ is thc assignment of responsibility . quality of efforts. and eficiency." being an "employce. nominal adherence. objectives. and decides o¡ the innumcrablc simuhancous and progressive actions that are the strcam of synthe¡cs constitüting purpose or action. already discussed. not only order€d iri timc so that detailed purposc and detailed actio¡ follow in thc se¡ies of p¡ogre$ive codperation. _\-. it has bcen statcd that pl¡¡pose must be broken into f¡agments. and the minioum cont¡ibutio¡s which can be conceived as enabling ¡€tentio[ of such con¡ection would generally be insuÍücicnt fo¡ the su¡vival of activ€ o¡ productive organization. disciplinc. thc inducemcnts and incentives. ¿¡d ¡lso in poütical ¿ppointmcdti. quality of the citizenry patriotism. T¡¡¡ Fonwurr¡o:. notc t¡c grcat attcntion in civil sdvic reeulátioB.

Respoosibility for abstract. before next year. Thus thc orgadzation for the definitioo of purpose is the organization for the specification of wo¡k to do. then others let€r. impossibilities. action. time. In this fact lies the most important inhe¡ent di6culty in the opcration of cctiperative systems-the flecessity for indoctrinatilg those at the lower levels with general purposes. de6nite times. and the spccifications of those who make thc last contributions. rcsponsibility. and capability of each contributor is the indispensable co<j¡di¡atio¡. the general executive states that "this is the pupose. accomplished results. eycs and ears. i¡sulatcd f¡om rcalities by laycrs of misunderstanding. i¡ which we wish to move. What must be added to the indispcnsablc authority. then othcrs next month. and thc necessity. ¡emairis always at thc authority for efort resides. and dclcgation of rcsponsibiliry. difficulties. only the more gcneral part of which is crccutive. We shall consider this aspect - . imagination. Pcrhaps there a¡e ¡one who could conside¡ even so extremcly condcnsed and gefleral a description of the €xccutivc fu¡ctions as has here bcen presented without perceiving that thcse functions are merely elements in an organic whole. I suspect that at least nine-tenths of all organization activity is oo the rcsponsibility. up a¡d down.É 232 FUNCTIONS OF ORCANIZATIONS which make the scheme a working system. until finally purpose is mercly jobs. the concrete interaction and murual adjustment of the cxccutive furictions are partly to be dete¡mined by the factors of the envi¡onmcnt of the organization thc specific cciiperativc system as a whole and its cnvironment. long-n¡n decision is dclegated at thc line. if this is ¡ot so. This rcquircs a pyramiding of the formulation of purpose that bccomcs more and more general as the number of units of basic orgadzation bccomes largcr. such others at those places. others tomorrow the¡e. the major decisions. this the otu jective. personal training personal location. Thc fu¡ction of formulating grald purposes aod providing for thci¡ rcdc6nitio¡ is one which ¡ecds ¡ensitive systems of communication. and thc spccifrcations are madc in thei¡ 6nal stage when and where the work is being donc. pcrsonal cxperience." Then dist¡ict o¡ bu¡eau chiefs in turn become mole and mo¡e spcci6c. who apply personal encrgics to thc 6nal conc¡ete objectives. this the directio$ in general terms. 233 base whe¡c the The fo¡mulation a¡d definition of purpose is then a widely distributed function. definite men. This combination involves two oppositc incitements to action. Without that up-and-down-the-line coiitdination of purposeful dccisions." His department heads. arms and legs. This involves fundamentally the logical processes of analysis and the disc¡imination of the st¡atcgic factors. reportiog obstacles. so that they ¡emain cohesive and able to makc the ultimate dctailed decisions coherent." Their subdepa¡tmcnt or division hcads say: "This means for us such and such operations now at these places. generalizing prospective. First. gcneral decisions and general purposcs are mere intellecttral processes in an organization vacuum. thei¡ sub<hiefs still ¡nore so as to place. modifying purposes levcl after level. and mo¡e and morc ¡cmote in futu¡e tiEc. brains and emocions. Accordingly. or the heads of his main territorial divisions. something today hcre. responsibility THE EXECUTIVE FL'^lCTIoNs for de6nition. It is thei¡ combination in a working system that makes an organization. group. for those at the higher levels. say to thei¡ departments or suborganizations: "This mca¡s for us these things now. accomplishme¡rtsi rede6ning. personal ability. But meanwhile. There is no meaniflg to personal specialization. specific groups. the communications pess. of constantly understanding thc concrcte conditions a¡d the spcci6c dccisions of the "ultimatc" cont¡ibuto¡s from which and f¡om whom executives a¡e often insulated. thc authority. back and forth. to be better defined afte¡ experience. expericnce in interpretation.

and is acsthetic ¡ather than logical. ooral wiil to cfort. that rhc . I shall attempt this by presenting generally the sccto¡s of the total action of organization in which the scnse of thc wholc is rThc concr(c ph." "balance. For this r€aso[ it is recognizcd ¡athe¡ th¿n desc¡ibed and is known by ih cflects ¡ather than by cannot bc divorccd from othd cl." It is e matter of a¡t rather than sciencc. and the tcchniques of discriminating the factors of the situation. Many ¡. to which Chapter XVII will bc givcn.nomcna i¡c always ¿cts or rh.ficct. from üc vicwpoint of citbcr orisjo o¡ . bur the csscntial aspect of the proccss is the sensing of the organization as a whole a¡d the total situation r€levant to it. funcrion ofmei¡tái¡ing thc comhúnication sysrem of th. thc clcncnt of morelc. For q¿mple. cñGs of ¿cts. This is thc the ultimatc ¡cáson fo¡ cciipcratron.l They are parts or aspech of a proccss of organization as a wholc. thát it k ofic¡ convc¡icnt to think of fundion its. It rrensccnds the capacity of rncrcly intcllectual methods. All that I can hope to do is to statc why this is so rathcr than to spccify of what the executive p¡ocess consists. which have been distinguished for purposcs of exposition and which a¡e the basis fo¡ much functional specialization io organizations.j 2y FIJNCTIONS OF ORCANZATIONS in thc following chaptcr. dcpcnds upon the mai¡tenance CHAPTER XVI TÍIE EXECUTIVE PROCESS HE cxecutive functions. The terms pc¡tinent to it a¡c "fceling. havc no scparatc conc¡ele existence. and usually even in simple unit organizations. The mcans utilized are to a considc¡able extent colc¡ete acts logicaliy dctermioed. howcvú. an ordcr áppoindns a ldson to á po.irion may bc co¡siddcd cxdusivcly thc condctc cxprBsion of th. orSa¡izátior.vidcnt."'lense." "proportion." "judgmcnt.thc aspcct. This proccss in the more complex organizations. Second thc combination equally of thc vitaüty of action . $ay.ments or flnctions. is made the subject of specializcd responsibility of cxecutives o¡ leade¡s." "ap cxmpli6cd in an dduliv. -! . Ir will bc .ll as codcrct. howcvc¡.ts ¡plc¡r so prcdomir¡ntly rclakd to a parúcular tunction.