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Test on a centrifugal pump

The primary objectives of this experiment is to measure the performance of a centrifugal pump
and compare the results to the manufacturer’s specifications. Secondary objectives are to
familiarize the student with the characteristics of a centrifugal pump and to introduce the
student to the homologous scaling relationships. In addition, this experiment gives the student
further exposure to the use of computerized data acquisition systems.

To measure and plot the Head-Discharge and Efficiency-Discharge characteristics for a centrifugal
pump when operated at a constant speed.
To re-plot the characteristics in normalized form using the values of head, discharge and efficiency
corresponding to the peak efficiency to perform the normalization.
To determine the specific speed of the pump N s

The most common machine for causing liquids to flow through piping systems is the
centrifugal pump. The centrifugal pump is well suited to situations requiring moderate to high
flow rates and modest increases in head (or pressure). Typical applications include municipal
water supply systems, circulating water heating and cooling system for buildings, pumps in
dishwashers and clothes washing machines and the cooling water circulating pump in an
automobile engine. For very high pressure, low flow applications, positive displacement pumps
are more suitable. Positive displacement pumps move fluids with pistons, gears or vanes and
flow rate is a function of rotational speed and has little if any dependence on the pressure rise.
A common application of a positive displacement pump is that used to supply high pressure oil
for hydraulic actuators such as those on a large earth moving machines.

A sketch of a typical centrifugal pump is shown in Figure (1). Fluid which flows
into the impeller at the inner radius is given significant angular momentum
and kinetic energy as it flows radially outward. After the fluid leaves the outer
radius of the impeller, it is diffused or slowed down resulting in a significant
increase in pressure. The actual head rise (H) produced by a centrifugal pump
is a function of the flow rate (Q). It is possible to determine the head-flow
relationship by appropriate selection of the geometry of the impeller blades.

pumps are designed so that the head decreases with increasing flow since such a design results in a stable flow rate when the pump is connected to a piping system. A typical head flow curve for a pump is shown in Figure (2).Normally. Figure (2). If the mechanical energy equation is applied between two points in a piping system on opposite sides of the pump. Figure (1). 2 .

The result is: Figure (3). 3 . Theory Figure (4).

Flow and Blade velocities at inlet and outlet of impeller Here you can see fluid velocity increases from inlet to outlet due to energy addition to fluid. Here Q is the flow rate and V(Theta) represents tangential velocity component of flow. Also flow rate through impeller is given as flow area time’s radial velocity. can be derived in terms of flow rate. From here we can find what the head rise in meters of fluid is. For a centrifugal pump. Please note that this is energy head rise. So head rise in a centrifugal pump. The work required for changing inlet velocity condition to outlet is given by following equation. So tangential component of velocity at inlet is zero. It comprises of both pressure head and velocity head. Details of such turbo machinery analysis will be discussed in a separate article. inlet velocity will be parallel to radius. Outlet blade angle beta can be derived in terms of velocities. 4 .

Tachometer (for measuring and setting r. 5 . and a means of measuring the torque being applied to the pump drive shaft). 3) Pressed ‘SELECT’ until ‘Centrifugal Pump’ is displayed and pressed ‘ENTER’. 2) The suction and delivery valves were checked. 7) Gradually close the delivery valve and take 8 readings of the same parameters at different discharges. Pressure across the pump. There can be 3 different pump characteristics depending upon value of this angle. Most important parameter in this equation is. Flow rate.p. Input power. Apparatus The TecQuipment centrifugal pump test rig (This includes suction and delivery pressure gauges. 5) The pump speed was increased up to t 100% (2000 rpm). blade outlet angle. 6) The following parameters were recorded.Using this equation we can predict what’s the head rise.) Procedure 1) The electrical main supply was switched on to the apparatus.m. Input torque. as we change the flow rate for particular pump geometry and for a particular impeller angular velocity. It need to be fully open. beta. 4) Pressed ‘SELECT’ until ‘Pump Speed’ was displayed.

Results 6 .8) Pump speed was increased up to 3000 rpm and done the above procedure again. 9) Conclude the experiment by pressing ‘EXIT’ to stop the pump.

7 .

[Retrieve 2nd of March 2016] Prentice Hall White. brake horsepower. M. efficiency.Wear of Advanced Materials. and net positive Suction head all plotted over the capacity range of the pump. Reference Paulo Davim J. and Wiggert. A typical characteristic curve shows the total dynamic head. et al: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. B.: Mechanics of Fluids. [Retrieve 2nd of March 2016] Wiley Potter. Google books. D.. and efficiency plotted as a percent of their values at the design or best efficiency point of the pump. F.Conclusion The performance of a centrifugal pump can be shown graphically on a characteristic curve. [Retrieve 3rd of March 2016] Munson. McGraw-Hill. They show the head. The head curve for a radial flow pump is relatively flat and that the head decreases gradually as the flow increases.: Fluid Mechanics. [Retrieve 3rd of March 2016] 8 . Note that the brake horsepower increases gradually over the flow range with the maximum normally at the point of maximum flow. brake horsepower. Non-dimensional curves which indicate the general shape of the characteristic curves for the various types of pumps.