You are on page 1of 8

Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI

INTELLIEARTH SOLUTIONS

INDUSTRIES

LEARN

SUPPORT

COMPANY

 

Learn

Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation
Indices in ENVI

FEATURED WHITEPAPER

Wednesday, December 18, 2013
Introduction

Accuracy Assessment of Passive Point
Clouds

The ability to measure electromagnetic energy at varying wavelengths as it interacts with a material
forms some of the foundation behind remote sensing and spectral science. The physical characteristics
of the material cause the electromagnetic energy to be reflected, refracted, or absorbed in a way that is
unique to each material. These interactions are measured across discrete sections of the spectrum, that
when plotted, form a unique shape that is also known as a material’s spectral signature.

10/20/2015

Vegetation interacts with solar radiation in a different way than other natural materials. The vegetation
spectrum (figure 1) typically absorbs in the red and blue wavelengths, reflects in the green wavelength,
strongly reflects in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength, and displays strong absorption features in
wavelengths where atmospheric water is present. Different plant materials, water content, pigment,
carbon content, nitrogen content, and other properties cause further variation across the spectrum.
Measuring these variations and studying their relationship to one another can provide meaningful
information about plant health, water content, environmental stress, and other important characteristics.
These relationships are often described as vegetation indices (VIs).

Geospatial Solutions in the Cloud

Passive point clouds have become a
pervasive data modality for remote sensing
analyses. A passive point ...
more »

12/2/2014

Geospatial analytics allow people to ask
questions of data that exist within a spatial
context. Usually ...
more »

Customizing ENVI with IDL
3/20/2013

Combining the large array of prepackaged
analytical tools already available in ENVI with
the programming ...
more »

Figure 1
Source: Elowitz, Mark R. “What is Imaging Spectroscopy (Hyperspectral Imaging)?”. Retrieved November 27,
2013, from www.markelowitz.com/Hyperspectral.html
Sensor Considerations

Within the electromagnetic spectrum (figure 2), the solar-reflected optical spectrum spans a wavelength
range from approximately 400 nanometers (nm) to approximately 3000nm. Of this range, the 400nm to
2500nm region is routinely measured using a variety of earth-observing satellite and airborne optical
sensors. The optical spectrum is partitioned into four distinct wavelength ranges:
Visible: 400nm to 700nm (the color blue is approximately 475nm, green is approximately 510nm and red is
approximately 650nm)
Near-infrared (NIR): 700nm to 1300nm
Shortwave infrared 1 (SWIR-1): 1300nm to 1900nm
Shortwave infrared 2 (SWIR-2): 1900nm to 2500nm

The transition from NIR to SWIR-1 is marked by the 1400nm atmospheric water absorption region in
which satellites and aircraft cannot acquire measurements. Similarly, the SWIR-1 and SWIR-2 transition
is marked by the 1900nm atmospheric water absorption region.

http://www.exelisvis.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p. m.]

zulyzami. which often require data from very specific regions of the optical spectrum. 2013. pigments. scientific basis. ENVI exposes 27 of these indices which were selected based upon their robustness. nutrients. Perhaps the most common and readily available type of remotely-sensed imagery is multispectral.exelisvis. and other properties have led to the inclusion of bands on a number of earth-observing satellites and airborne sensors that focus on the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that are sensitive to fluctuations in vegetation properties. with additional indices emerging as sensors advance and provide new information. which typically contains anywhere from 3 to 15 bands that have been chosen carefully along the optical spectrum. Images captured by a hyperspectral sensor can contain hundreds of individual bands. Zuly. There are more than 150 existing VIs. also known as VIs. from www. and applicability. “The Electromagnetic Spectrum”. remote sensing experts have come to understand how combinations of the measured reflectance properties at two or more wavelengths reveal specific vegetation characteristics.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI Figure 2 Source: Zami. Many years of published scientific research focused on the spectral changes experienced when vegetation undergoes changes in content of water. giving a near-continuous reading of the optical spectrum. http://www.] .com/The+Electromagnetic+Spectrum The ability of an optical sensor to resolve features within specific wavelengths of the optical spectrum and slice wavelengths into smaller increments is referred to as a sensor’s spectral resolution. Figure 3 Vegetation Indices in ENVI Over time and through many scientific studies. These indices are discussed in more detail below. These 27 indices are divided into seven categories described as follows: Broadband Greenness Narrowband Greenness Light Use Efficiency Canopy Nitrogen Dry or Senescent Carbon Leaf Pigment Canopy Water Content Each of the above-listed categories has one or more index that is used to estimate the presence (or absence) of a specific property.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI. The spectral resolution of a sensor can range anywhere from single-band black and white (panchromatic) to hyperspectral (figure 3). m. Retrieved December 3. Understanding the spectral resolution of your data is crucial to working effectively with Vegetation Indices.

This is useful in detecting forest disturbance because it is highly sensitive to small changes in vegetation canopy opening. Applications include precision agriculture. Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI): The ARVI is an enhancement to the NDVI that is relatively resistant to atmospheric factors such as aerosol. which is essential for understanding the state of vegetation for any purpose. It is intended for use with very high spectral resolution reflectance data. These VIs use reflectance measurements in the red and near-infrared regions to sample the red edge portion of the reflectance curve. Red Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI705): The NDVI705 is a modification of the broadband NDVI. Enhanced Vegetation Index.20 to 0. NDVI705 = (750nm . forest monitoring. This sum is then normalized by the number of bands to convert it back to units of reflectance. The ARVI is most useful in regions of high atmospheric aerosol content. Information in this portion of the spectrum can help correct for soil background signals and atmospheric influences. instead of the main absorption and reflectance peaks. They are combinations of reflectance measurements that are sensitive to the combined effects of foliage chlorophyll concentration. canopy leaf area.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI.(2RED . Sum Green Index (SG): This SG is generally used to detect changes in vegetation greenness. Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI): In areas of dense canopy where the leaf area index (LAI) is high. Modified Red Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDVI705): http://www. The NDVI705 capitalizes on the sensitivity of the vegetation red edge to small changes in canopy foliage content. NDVI = (NIR – RED) / (NIR + RED) The value range of an NDVI is -1 to 1 where healthy vegetation generally falls between values of 0. foliage clumping. Narrowband greenness VIs are intended for use with high spectral resolution imagery. Use of near-infrared measurements. where healthy vegetation generally falls between values of 2 to 8.BLUE)) The range for an ARVI is -1 to 1 where green vegetation generally falls between values of 0. such as data from hyperspectral sensors. The SG is the mean of reflectance across the 500 nm to 600 nm portion of the spectrum.445nm) The values of this index range from 0 to 30.20 to 0.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI Broadband Greenness Broadband greenness describes the vigor and health of green vegetation. It is described as the ratio of light that is scattered in the NIR range to that which is absorbed in the red range. Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio Index (mSR705): The mSR705 is a modification of the traditional broadband SR. Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index. the strong reflective properties in the NIR wavelengths are compared with the strong absorption features of vegetation in the red wavelengths. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): The NDVI is perhaps the most well known and often used vegetation index. Simple Ratio Index (SR): The SR is also well known and often used. and senescence. The NDVI705 differs from the NDVI by using bands along the red edge. ARVI = ((NIR) . These comparisons define the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). narrowband greenness VIs are designed to provide a measure of the overall amount and quality of photosynthetic material in vegetation.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p.2 to 0. with much greater penetration depth through the canopy than red measurements.] . allows estimation of the total amount of green material in the column. For these VIs. The red edge is a name used to describe the steeply sloped region of the vegetation reflectance curve between 690nm and 740nm that is caused by the transition from chlorophyll absorption and nearinfrared leaf scattering. Narrowband greenness VIs are more sophisticated measures of general quantity and vigor of green vegetation than the broadband greenness VIs. SR = NIR / RED The range of values is from 0 to more than 30.(7. Making narrowband measurements in the red edge allows these indices to be more sensitive to smaller changes in vegetation health than the broadband greenness VIs.80. The NDVI is a simple. The NDVI normalizes green leaf scattering in the nearinfrared wavelength and chlorophyll absorption in the red wavelength.exelisvis. The value of this index ranges from 0 to more than 50 (in units of % reflectance).5[(NIR – RED) / ((NIR) + (6RED) . The common range for green vegetation is between values of 0. Applications include precision agriculture. It works by using reflectance measurements in the blue wavelengths to correct for atmospheric scattering effects that register in the red reflectance spectrum. gap fraction. the NDVI values can be improved by leveraging information in the blue wavelength. Simple Ratio Index.80. but effective VI for quantifying green vegetation.5BLUE) + 1)] The range of values for the EVI is -1 to 1. mSR705 = (750nm . The common range for green vegetation is 10 to 25 percent reflectance. and stressed vegetation detection. and the Sum Green Index. forest monitoring.9.705nm) / (750nm + 705nm) The values of this index range from -1 to 1. EVI = 2.20 to 0. The common range for green vegetation is between values of 2 to 8. and vegetation stress detection. It differs from the standard SR because it uses bands in the red edge and incorporates a correction for leaf specular reflection. m. particularly in conditions of dense vegetation where the broadband measures can saturate.BLUE) / (NIR) + (2RED . where healthy vegetation generally falls between values of 0.445nm) / (705nm . Narrowband Greenness Similar to the broadband greenness VIs. These VIs are designed to provide a measure of the overall amount and quality of photosynthetic material in vegetation.80. and canopy architecture. such as that acquired by hyperspectral sensors.

NDNI = (log1 1510nm) . Applications include crop monitoring and yield prediction. m. ecosystem analysis. Structure Insensitive Pigment Index. where healthy green vegetation is from 0. or even indicating flowering in some canopies. ecosystem disturbance detection. Light Use Efficiency The light use efficiency indices provide ways to quantify vegetation’s ability to use incident light for photosynthesis. This index is particular useful for measuring vegetation health prior to senescence. canopy leaf area. Results represent the wavelength of the maximum derivative of reflectance in the vegetation red edge region of the spectrum in microns from 0. gap fraction. where healthy vegetation generally falls between values of -0.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI.1.747nm) / (715nm + 720nm) The values of this index range from 0 to 20. and vegetation productivity modeling.02 to 0. Applications include vegetation phenology studies. High measured reflectance in this wavelength indicates relatively large nitrogen concentration. precision agriculture. canopy leaf area. indicating leaf production and stress. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): The PRI takes advantage of the changes to carotenoid pigments. canopy leaf area.7 to 3. Applications include precision agriculture. and vegetation productivity modeling. The common range for green vegetation is from 4 to 8. Increased chlorophyll concentration broadens the absorption feature and moves the red edge to longer wavelengths. Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI): The SIPI is a good index to use in areas with high variability in the canopy structure. ENVI includes three vegetation indices to measure light use efficiency: Photochemical Reflectance Index. The mNDVI705 capitalizes on sensitivity of the vegetation red edge to small changes in canopy foliage content.69 microns to 0. Applications include vegetation phenology (growth) studies. The ratio measures the relative expression of leaf redness caused by anthocyanin to that of chlorophyll.8. reflectance values at 1680nm contain similar signal due to foliar biomass without the influence of nitrogen absorption. It differs from the NDVI705 by incorporating a correction for leaf specular reflection. A plant’s ability to efficiently absorb energy within this range can be a good predictor of growth rate and biomass production.7.74 microns. precision agriculture. The canopy nitrogen indices provide a measure of nitrogen concentration in remotely-sensed foliage. This range happens to fall within the visible portion of the spectrum. mNDVI705 = (750nm . Applications include precision agriculture. specifically the xanthophylls pigments (yellows) that are absorbed by live foliage. This relationship is used to measure the strong sensitivity to changing nitrogen status when the canopy is green. and senescence. Normalized Difference Nitrogen Index (NDNI): High reflectance at 1510nm indicates both high nitrogen concentration and overall biomass in foliage. The common range for green vegetation is 0.(2 * 445nm)) The values of this index range from -1 to 1. photosynthesis modeling. These pigments signify photosynthetic light use efficiency and are useful to quantify vegetation production and stress. with the common range for green vegetation falling between 0.exelisvis. which is sensed in the SWIR wavelength. where healthy green vegetation usually falls between values of 0.1 to more than 8. VOG1 = 740nm / 720nm The values of this index range from 0 to 20. Considering the broad electromagnetic spectrum. Vogelmann Red Edge Index 3 (VOG3): The VOG3 is a narrowband reflectance measurement that is sensitive to the combined effects of foliage chlorophyll concentration. and forest management. forest monitoring. Conversely. Plants experiencing rapid growth generally also contain a high concentration of nitrogen.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI The mNDVI705 is a modification of the NDVI705. SIPI = (800nm – 445nm) / (800nm – 680nm) The range of a SIPI is from 0 to 2. The common range for green vegetation is 700nm to 730nm.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p. Dry or Senescent Carbon http://www. and Red Green Ration Index. from 400nm to 700nm. Red Green Ratio Index (RGR Ratio): This index is a reflectance measurement useful for making foliage development estimations. Vogelmann Red Edge Index 1 (VOG1): The VOG1 is a narrowband reflectance measurement that is sensitive to the combined effects of foliage chlorophyll concentration. VOG2 = (734nm .2 to 0. and water content. or leaf area index.747nm) / (715nm + 726nm) The values of this index range from 0 to 20. The common range for green vegetation is from 4 to 8. VOG3 = (734nm .] . This index maximizes sensitivity to the ratio of bulk carotenoids to chlorophyll while minimizing the impact of the variable canopy structure. and water content. Applications include vegetation phenology studies. precision agriculture. PRI = (531nm . The common range for green vegetation is from 4 to 8. Red Edge Position Index (REP): The REP is a narrowband reflectance measurement that is sensitive to changes in chlorophyll concentration. and canopy stress caused by climate and other factors.570nm) / (531nm + 570nm) The range for a PRI is -1 to 1. Vogelmann Red Edge Index 2 (VOG2): The VOG2 is a narrowband reflectance measurement that is sensitive to the combined effects of foliage chlorophyll concentration. and vegetation stress detection. and water content.705nm) / (750nm + 705nm . only a small range is actually utilized by plants during photosynthesis. The range of a RGR Ratio is from 0. The red edge position refers to the wavelength of steepest slope within the range of 690nm to 740nm. RGR Ratio = mean(RED) / mean(GREEN) Where mean(RED) represents all bands with wavelengths in the red range of the electromagnetic spectrum and mean(GREEN) represents all bands with wavelengths in the green range of the electromagnetic spectrum.2 and 0.2.(log1 1680nm)/ (log1 1510nm) + (log1 1680nm) The value ranges from 0 to 1. and vegetation productivity modeling.8 to 1.

(1/700nm) The values of this index range from 0 to more than 0. the concentration of these materials can increase. and precision agriculture.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI The dry or senescent carbon vegetation indices exploit characteristics found in vegetation components during senescence such as changes to lignin and cellulose. plant physiological stress detection and crop production. analyses of canopy stress. and plant fruit ripening. Applications include vegetation health monitoring. Carotenoid Reflectance Index 1 (CRI1): The CRI1 is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to carotenoid pigments in plant foliage.] . and yield analysis. The common range for green vegetation is 0.5(2000nm + 2200nm) . Increases in ARI1 indicate changes in foliage via new growth or death. with the common range of values for green vegetation being between -0. Carotenoid Reflectance Index 2 (CRI2): The CRI2 is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to carotenoid pigments in plant foliage. plant canopy senescence.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p.1. CRI2 = (1/510nm) .(1/700nm)] The values of this index range from 0 to 0.500nm) / 750nm For this index.2. Water content is an important quantity of vegetation because higher water content often indicates healthier vegetation that is likely to grow faster and be more fire-resistant. but this value is also influenced by chlorophyll. Estimation of leaf carotenoid content from reflectance is much more difficult than estimation of chlorophyll because of the overlap between chlorophyll and carotenoid absorption peaks and because of the higher concentration of chlorophyll than carotenoid in most leaves. The common range for green vegetation is -2 to 4. Leaf Pigment The leaf pigment vegetation indices are designed to provide a measure of stress-related pigments present in vegetation.001 to 0. The CRI2 is a modification of CRI1. http://www. An increase in PSRI indicates increased canopy stress (carotenoid pigment). Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI): The PSRI is designed to maximize sensitivity of the index to the ratio of bulk carotenoids (for example. as well as in protecting plants from the harmful effects of high light conditions.1. Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI): The CAI quantifies exposed surfaces that contain dried plant material. It provides better results in areas of high carotenoid concentration. The common range for green vegetation is between values of 1 to 12. the reciprocal reflectance value at 550nm is also influenced by chlorophyll. PSRI = (680nm . ARI2 = 800nm [(1/550nm) .2. however. When vegetation undergoes or is about to undergo senescence.(1/700nm) The values of this index range from 0 to more than 15.005 to 0. alpha-carotene and beta-carotene) to chlorophyll. Canopy Water Content The canopy water content vegetation indices are designed to provide a measure of the amount of water contained in the foliage canopy. and grazing management are some applications for this index. Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments abundant in newly-formed leaves and leaves undergoing senescence. the reciprocal reflectance at 550nm is used. Normalized Difference Lignin Index (NDLI): The NDLI is designed to estimate the relative amounts of lignin contained in vegetation canopies.2100nm The value range of this index ranges from -3 to more than 4. ecosystem studies. To remove the effect of chlorophyll. CAI = 0. the onset of canopy senescence. as well as the overall foliage biomass of the canopy. The common range for green vegetation is 0. Anthocyanin Reflectance Index 1 (ARI1): The ARI1 is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to anthocyanin in plant foliage. Crop residue monitoring. The common range for green vegetation is between values of 1 to 11. High reflectance at 1754nm is largely determined by the lignin concentration of leaves. Anthocyanin Reflectance Index 2 (ARI2): The ARI2 is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to anthocyanins in plant foliage.2. The ARI2 is a modification of the ARI1 which detects higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetation. Reflectance at 1680nm is used as a reference. These increases make the vegetation material highly flammable. Increases in ARI2 indicate canopy changes in foliage via new growth or death. The Normalized Difference Lignin Index is highly experimental. The reciprocal reflectance at 700nm is used as a measure of chlorophyll content to remove the chlorophyll contribution from reflectance around 550nm. The reciprocal reflectance at 700nm is used to remove the effect of chlorophyll on the reciprocal reflectance at 510nm. Stress-related pigments include carotenoids (yellow pigments) and anthocyanins (pink.(log1 1680nm) / (log1 1754nm) + (log1 1680nm) The value of this index ranges from 0 to 1. which tend to be present in higher concentrations when vegetation is in a weakened state. At 510nm. ARI1 = (1/550nm) .(1/550nm) The values of this index range from 0 to more than 15. which is influenced more purely by chlorophyll alone. fire fuel conditions.1 to 0. CRI1 = (1/510nm) . m. Carotenoids function in light absorption processes in plants.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI. The common range for green vegetation is between values of 0.05. The reciprocal reflectance of anthocyanin is highest around 550nm. Higher CRI1 values mean greater carotenoid concentration relative to chlorophyll.001 to 0. Cellulose is used for cellular tissue structure. therefore these indices are excellent for fire fuel analyses.exelisvis. NDLI = (log1 1754nm) . values range from -1 to 1. which is instead measured using the greenness indices. the reciprocal reflectance of carotenoid is maximal. The leaf pigment vegetation indices do not measure chlorophyll. purple and red pigments). Lignin is used by plants to make structural components such as woody stems. Strong absorption features present in the 2000nm to 2200nm range indicate strong presence of cellulose. Higher CRI2 values mean greater concentration of carotenoid relative to chlorophyll. Applications for leaf pigment vegetation indices include crop monitoring.

MSI = 1599nm / 819nm The values of this index range from 0 to more than 3.8 to 1. Detecting Vegetation Leaf Water Content Using Reflectance in the Optical Domain. W. G. the strength of absorption around 1599nm increases.B. they are intended for use in geographically mapping relative amounts of vegetation components. and J.. Absorption at 819nm is nearly unaffected by changing water content. The common range for green vegetation is between values of 0. so it is used as a reference. By using the VI in any category that best models the measured field conditions for a few measurements. canopy water content indices are able to “see” more deeply into thick canopies and have a preferential sensitivity to thin as opposed to thick tissues. The Band Math tool in ENVI allows users to incorporate any VI into their analysis by creating custom algorithms based upon the VI of choice. Applications of the WBI include canopy stress analysis. fire hazard condition analysis. such as AVIRIS. Ceccato. Pp. By comparing the results of different VIs in a category.M. and I. A. 2001.6. 1998.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI Canopy water content vegetation indices use reflectance measurements in the near-infrared and shortwave infrared regions to take advantage of known absorption features of water and the penetration depth of light in the near-infrared region to make integrated measurements of total column water content. plant productivity modeling. If all spectral bands required for a specific index are available. Each category of indices typically provides multiple techniques for estimating the presence or absence of a single vegetation property. m. Exploring the Relationship Between Reflectance http://www. that VI is available for the dataset. Remote Sensing of Environment. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI): The NDWI is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content because reflectance at 857nm and 1241nm has similar but slightly different liquid water absorption properties. In addition to the 27 VIs exposed in ENVI.2.P. France. Pattey. TM. cropland management. an input dataset from a sensor that matches only the near-infrared and red spectral bands (such as AVHRR. The NDII uses a normalized difference formulation instead of a simple ratio.] . Instead. leaf area index studies in densely foliated vegetation. Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII): The NDII is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to changes in water content of plant canopies.exelisvis. Remote Sensing of Environment 77:2233. S. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing. NDWI = (857nm . P. Champagne. some indices within a category provide results with higher validity than others. For different properties and field conditions. The VIs that can be calculated on a specific dataset are determined by the spectral bands sampled in the input dataset. Moisture Stress Index (MSI): The MSI is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to increases in leaf water content.79-84.. productivity prediction and modeling.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p. The MSI is inverted relative to other water VIs. Tarantola. C. S. References Asner. WBI = 900nm / 970nm The common range of values for green vegetation is 0. and others) is only able to calculate two of the indices: the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SR (Simple Ratio).. you can assess which indices in a particular category do the best job of modeling the variability in your scene. 64:234-253. Jacquemoud. 25 of the indices will be available. Gholz. The common range for green vegetation is 0. The scattering of light by vegetation canopies enhances the weak liquid water absorption at 1241nm.J. Stratchan. which can then be interpreted in terms of ecosystem conditions. and stressed vegetation detection. and H. 1995.. As the water content of leaves in vegetation canopies increases. Flasse. and the index values increase with increasing water content. Applications include agricultural crop management.. Gregoire. New and emerging sensors with improved spectral resolution also allow scientists to modify existing indices. Bannari. Curran. Mapping Crop Water Status: Issues of Scale in the Detection of Crop Water Stress Using Hyperspectral Indices. Applications include forest canopy stress analysis. P. Aussois. and studies of ecosystem physiology.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI.1 to 0. and correlating these to field conditions measured on-site. Applications of the MSI include canopy stress analysis. The common range for green vegetation is -0.1649nm) / (819 + 1649nm) The values of this index range from -1 to 1. productivity prediction and modeling. E. Biophysical and Biochemical Sources of Variability in Canopy Reflectance. the strength of absorption around 970nm increases related to that of 900nm.1241nm) / (857nm + 1241nm) The values of this index range between -1 and 1.4 to 2.R. Windham. Water Band Index (WBI): The WBI is a reflectance measurement that is sensitive to changes in canopy water content. Conclusions The VIs provided in ENVI are not designed to quantify the exact concentration or abundance of any given vegetation component. for a high spectral resolution input dataset. fire hazard condition analysis. S. there are many additional VIs that have been published in scientific literature. higher values indicate greater water stress and less water content.02 to 0. For example. Measurements in radiance units that have not been atmospherically corrected (by using ENVI Atmospheric Correction Module: QUAC® and FLAASH® or other atmospheric correction software) are unsuitable and typically provide poor results.L. and studies of ecosystem physiology. NDII = (819nm . In comparison to greenness indices. as well as create new indices that take advantage of unique wavelengths of the optical spectrum. All VIs require high-quality reflectance measurements from either multispectral or hyperspectral sensors. forest canopy monitoring. In contrast. As the water content of vegetation canopies increases. and fire susceptibility studies. you can significantly increase the quality of the results from any further processing.4. 2001.

Rock. Remote Sensing of Environment 92:475-482. and Acer Platanoides L. Hardisky. O. S.N.] . Klemas. 2004. J. Surfus. J.B.. 1982.F.A.. 2004. Merzlyak. Chen. 1999. Elowitz. A. J. 1996.. An Investigation into robust spectral indices for leaf chlorophyll estimation. A. 1983. Surfus. Lobell. Cho.gov/pub/docs/workshops/aviris.A. C.E. Optical Properties and Nondestructive Estimation of Anthocyanin Content in Plant Leaves. Discrimination of Growth and Water Stress in Wheat by Various Vegetation Indices Through Clear and Turbid Atmospheres..com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI. J. Daughtry. Hunt. and R. T. 2003.Y.N. CA.. Normalized Difference Water Index for Remote Sensing of Vegetation Liquid Water from Space.D. Pinter. Semi-Empirical Indices to Assess Carotenoids/Chlorophyll-a http://www. J.. Mark R. and J. Chivkunova. Jackson.B.. The Photochemical Reflectance Index: An Optical Indicator of Photosynthetic Radiation Use Efficiency Across Species. Y. 1989.N. Physiologia Plantarum 106:135-141. Merzlyak. 1997. and J. Datt. J.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI Red Edge and Chlorophyll Concentration in Slash Pine Leaves. and M.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p. Ecology 63:621-626. Hunt Jr. Growth Form. Smart. Merzlyak.proceedings.T. and J. J.P. Discriminating Crop Residues from Soil by Short-Wave Infrared Reflectance. Journal of Plant Physiology 154:30-36.B. Hunt. D.S. Daughtry. Gitelson. A Comparison of Vegetation Indices Over a Global Set of TM Images for EOS-MODIS. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 49:77-83.R. Assessing Leaf Pigment Content and Activity With a Reflectometer. Li. Melillo. Vegetation Water Content Mapping Using Landsat Data Derived Normalized Difference Water Index for Corn and Soybeans. Remote Sensing of Environment 41:35-44. C. Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 66 (6): 751-761. Ramoelo. Walthall.A. V.A.A.S.jpl. The Influences of Soil Salinity. and R. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 49:77-83. 1995. Chen.B. Proceedings of the 12th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. and B.html).R. 2004. Penuelas. M. M. Non-destructive Optical Detection of Pigment Changes During Leaf Senescence and Fruit Ripening. Huete. Chivkunova. Pasadena. Smart. 1983. Aber. Klemas. Merzlyak. New Phytologist 143:105-117. A.Y. and V.J.M.. E. Tree Physiology 15:203-206. “What is Imaging Spectroscopy (Hyperspectral Imaging)?”. P. R. A. P.nasa. J. T.N.A. Batchily. Gitelson. Asner.. H. The Influences of Soil Salinity. 1999. G. and G. Li. Hyperion studies of crop stress in Mexico. and C. Vegetation Water Content Mapping Using Landsat Data Derived Normalized Difference Water Index for Corn and Soybeans.. A.R.A.. Remote Sensing of Environment 90:126-134. E. and D.. O. Rakitin.R.S. Gao. McMurtrey III. Gitelson. T. Gamon. Retrieved November 27.M. M. Tanre. J. A New Reflectance Index for Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content in Higher Plants: Tests Using Eucalyptus Leaves..markelowitz. Leaf Optical Properties with Explicit Description of Its Biochemical Composition: Direct and Inverse Problems. Zur. F. Remote Sensing of Environment 55:65-79... Gamon. F. L. S.B. 1992. and I. Anderson. M. A. Cosh. B. Non-destructive Optical Detection of Pigment Changes During Leaf Senescence and Fruit Ripening.L. Physiologia Plantarum 106:135-141. and M. 2013. Assessing Carotenoid Content in Plant Leaves with Reflectance Spectroscopy... Growth Form. Koch. M.. Main. Remote Sensing of Environment 59(3):440-451. R. Serrano. Jacquemoud. Slater. and E. M. F. A.T. and W. 1999. V. Liu. Field.. Spectral Reflectance Changes Associated with Autumn Senescence of Aesculus Hippocastanum L. Remote Sensing of Environment 30:43-54.S.L. Remote Sensing of the Environment 15:187-208. Cosh. Jackson. Assessing Crop Residue Cover Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance. Hardisky.R.B. m. D. Photochemistry and Photobiology 71:38-45. and Leaf Moisture on the Spectral Reflectance of Spartina Alterniflora Canopies. and V. A Narrow-Waveband Spectral Index That Tracks Diurnal Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Gamon. R. Penuelas. Schmuck.com/Hyperspectral. Oecologia 112:492-501. Remote Sensing of Environment 92:475-482. Remote Sensing of Environment 56:104-117. D. 1997..J. Chivkunova.R. P.C. K. Journal of Plant Physiology 143:286 292. Chivkunova.M. C. Baret. and J. Walthall. Strategy for Direct and Indirect Methods for Correcting the Aerosol Effect on Remote Sensing: from AVHRR to EOS-MODIS.D. Mathieu. Jackson.R.N. 2001. M.A. van Leeuwen. Doriaswamy. Gitelson. M. Rakitin.. Leaves. Muratore. and O. Functional Types and Nutrient Levels. C.exelisvis. 2002. 1994. Kaufman. Hunt Jr. Photochemistry and Photobiology 75:272-281.. and P. Agronomy Journal 93:125-131. and J. F. 1999. and Leaf Moisture on the Spectral Reflectance of Spartina Alterniflora Canopies. Filella.A.html Fourty. Proceedings of SPIE 2480: 225-236. Gitelson. (ftp://popo.A. Baret. B.M. 1995. Nitrogen and Lignin Control of Hardwood Leaf Litter Decomposition Dynamics. from http://www.A. Verdebout. O. and E. Anderson.And Middle-Infrared Reflectances. 1983. Detection of Changes in Leaf Water Content Using Near. M. Doriaswamy. 2001. Spectral Features and Relation to Chlorophyll Estimation. O’Kennedy. 1996. Merzlyak. Y.

Tucker. Remote Sensing of Environment 81:337-354. Photosynthetica 31:221-230. Deering. 2002. J.W. Relationships Between Leaf Pigment Content and Spectral Reflectance Across a Wide Range of Species. 2002. Red and Photographic Infrared Linear Combinations for Monitoring Vegetation. Retrieved December 3.A.com/The+Electromagnetic+Spectrum Rate this article: 4. Remote Sensing of Environment 81:355-364. Photosynthesis and Transpiration. Vogelmann.. Leaf Structures and Developmental Stages. J. Pei-Gee Peter Ho (Ed.J. Social   IntelliEarth Solutions Industries Learn Support  Company Geospatial Products Defense & Intelligence Videos Forums Mission Custom Services Environmental Monitoring Blogs Help Articles Careers IntelliEarth Marketplace Academic Reference Guides Press Room Updates & Maintenance Legal   Events & Webinars Training Case Studies Whitepapers  © 2016 Exelis Visual Information Solutions. Estimation of vegetation water content and photosynthetic tissue area from spectral reflectance: a comparison of indices based on liquid water and chlorophyll absorption features. Sims.. and S. D.] . Tuominen. 2013.N. J.. Sellers.A.E. ENVI Whitepaper Tags: ENVI vegetation analysis Environmental Montioring Number of views (45177) / Comments (0) Related articles ENVI Helps Facilitate Peanut Crop Health in Australia ENVI Used in Remote Sensing Course at Southern Oregon University French Space Agency Uses ENVI to Study Ecosystem Evolution Indiana University Uses IDL & ENVI to Enhance Geology Instruction Woods Hole Research Center Using ENVI to Promote Forest Conservation in the Northern Congo Please login or register to post comments.exelisvis.zulyzami. C. I. 1993. ISBN: 978-953-307-003-2. Remote Sensing of the Environment 8:127-150. 1985.A. Lipping. Penuelas. Remote Sensing of Forest Health. InTech. Biel.A. Kuosmanen. Zuly. V. “The Electromagnetic Spectrum”. a subsidiary of Harris Corporation Exelis. Moss.A. from http://www.L. Serrano. Rock. Red Edge Spectral Measurements from Sugar Maple Leaves. Gamon. and J. 2009. and J. D. 1973. R. 1979. The Reflectance at the 950-970 Region as an Indicator of Plant Water Status. and R. Remote Sensing of Environment 84: 526-537. Serrano. J. L. International Journal of Remote Sensing 14:1887-1905. Monitoring Vegetation Systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. T.com/Learn/WhitepapersDetail/TabId/802/ArtMID/2627/ArticleID/13742/Vegetation-Analysis-Using-Vegetation-Indices-in-ENVI. Remote Sensing of Nitrogen and Lignin in Mediterranean Vegetation from AVIRIS Data: Decomposing Biochemical from Structural Signals. Haas. Penuelas.. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Gamon. Schell. International Journal of Remote Sensing 6:1335-1372. L.Vegetation Analysis: Using Vegetation Indices in ENVI Ratio from Leaf Spectral Reflectance.aspx[06/03/2016 10:32:36 p. Sims. B. Canopy Reflectance. J.W.J. 2002..). Filella. Third ERTS Symposium. Ustin. Haapanen. 1995. Zami. International Journal of Remote Sensing 14:1563-1575.. Save. J.H. and D..M. and R. and D. Inc Resources REGISTER | ACCOUNT LOGIN http://www. NASA SP-351 I: 309-317.4 Related Topics: Whitepaper. m. P. C. Rouse.