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**International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43
**

www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

**Finite element modeling of transverse impact on a ballistic fabric
**

Y. Duana,, M. Keefeb, T.A. Bogettic, B. Powersc

a

**Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
**

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA

c

US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005, USA

b

**Received 5 August 2004; received in revised form 14 July 2005; accepted 17 September 2005
**

Available online 26 October 2005

Abstract

A 3D ﬁnite element analysis model is created using LS-DYNA to simulate the transverse impact of a rigid right circular cylinder onto a

square patch of plain-woven Kevlar fabric. The fabric is modeled to yarn level resolution and relative motion between yarns is allowed. A

frictional contact is deﬁned between yarns and between the fabric and the projectile. Three different boundary conditions are applied on

the fabric: four edges left free; two opposite edges clamped; four edges clamped. Results from the modeling effort show that during initial

stage of the impact, the projectile velocity drops very quickly. There exists an abrupt momentum transfer from the projectile to the local

fabric at the impact zone. When the impact velocity is low, the fabric boundary condition plays an important role at later stages of the

impact. It signiﬁcantly affects the fabric deformation, stress distribution, energy absorption and failure modes. When the impact velocity

is high enough to cause the yarns to break instantaneously, the fabric fails along the periphery of the impact zone and the fabric

boundary condition does not take any effects.

r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Ballistic fabric; Transverse impact; Energy absorption; Finite element analysis

1. Introduction

Weight and ﬂexibility are two important design parameters for soft body armors that offer protection against

bullets and munitions fragments. Fabrics made from highstrength ﬁbers, also called ballistic fabrics, have the

attractive properties of low density, high ﬂexibility, high

strength-to-weight ratio, and outstanding ballistic resistant

property. Therefore, they have been widely used in making

soft body armors since their introduction to market. The

high-strength ﬁbers used in making ballistic fabrics include

aramid (Kevlar, Twaron, Technora), polyethylene (Spectra, Dyneema), and Polybenzoxazole (Zylon) [1,2]. These

ﬁbers are essentially elastic in tension and have very high

tensile modulus. They have relatively low tensile failure

strain and are generally not sensitive to strain rate.

Hundreds of the high-strength ﬁbers are grouped together

to make a yarn and yarns are woven to produce a single

layer ballistic fabric.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 302 831 0376; fax: +1 302 831 8525.

**E-mail address: duan@ccm.udel.edu (Y. Duan).
**

0020-7403/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.09.007

**Typically, a soft body armor is constructed of a ballistic
**

panel, which is assembled from multiple layers of ballistic

fabric, and a carrier made from conventional garment

fabric. When a projectile impacts into such a fabric

structure, it is gradually slowed down and ﬁnally caught

by the ballistic panel. The impact energy is converted as

fabric kinetic energy, fabric strain energy, projectile

deformation energy and energy dissipated in frictional

sliding. The impact resistance of a ballistic panel depends

on its capability to absorb energy locally at the impact zone

and disperse energy quickly out of the impact zone. It is

affected by a number of factors, which include ﬁber

density, ﬁber tensile elastic modulus, ﬁber tensile failure

strain, fabric weave style, fabric areal density, number of

fabric layers, fabric boundary condition, projectile shape,

mass and material property, impact velocity, and interfacial friction characteristics within impact system.

To optimize the design of a soft body armor, in other

words, increasing its ballistic resistance and at the same

time keeping or even reducing its weight and rigidity, one

must understand the impact behavior of the ballistic panel.

To understand the impact behavior of the ballistic panel,

The tensile strain. joints or bulk continuum. the transverse wave speed is also zero. the interaction between ﬁbers in a yarn is generally ignored and the yarn is assumed to be an elastic continuum. and Shockey et al. (4) and (5). the strain of yarn material does not change. During the past several decades. The longitudinal wave speed c is given by sﬃﬃﬃﬃ E c¼ . . and Field and Sun [6] studied the response of yarns to high-speed transverse impact while Wilde et al. a constant tensile strain is developed. It can be seen from Eq. can be obtained from Eq. denoted as . Duan et al. yarn material moves longitudinally toward the impact point. two mechanical waves are generated by the impact. r (5) where. According to Refs. It is implicitly given by pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rv2 . 1. and the impact velocity v. which propagates away from the impact point at the sound speed of the yarn material. Behind the transverse wave front. [11] investigated the transverse impact behavior of single layer fabrics. Fig. sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 2 E E k ¼ At . (1) r v time = 0 v time = t Fig. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 one should ﬁrst understand the impact behavior of its construction units such as single layer fabric. single yarn. and into Eqs. (3) u¼c 1þ 2 Across the transverse wave front. 2. It is larger with a larger tensile strain. the yarn kinetic energy and the yarn strain energy at any time t can be obtained. One is a longitudinal wave. The yarn kinetic energy E k and the yarn strain energy E s during the impact can be obtained from Eqs. (4) 32 1þ r sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ E3 E s ¼ At2 . A wedge-tipped projectile transversely impacts on a long straight yarn at a constant velocity of v. [10]. the yarn in a ballistic fabric is composed of hundreds of high-strength ﬁbers. In this paper. The impact velocity v is 200 m/s. [3. however. a ﬁnite element analysis (FEA) model is created using LS-DYNA to simulate the transverse impact of a right circular cylinder (RCC) on a single layer plainwoven Kevlar fabric. For simplicity in analysis. Fig. Shim et al. a lot of experiments and theoretical work have been conducted to understand the transverse impact behavior of single yarns and single layer fabrics [3–11]. [3]. The yarn tensile elastic modulus is E and volumetric density is r. Morrison [5]. (4) and (5). A 3D FEA model is created using LS-DYNA to simulate the impact. and a cross-section area A of 5:83 108 m2 . Ahead of the transverse wave front but behind the longitudinal wave front. yarn material moves transversely in the impact direction.2. Substitute the values of E. A is the yarn cross-section area and t is the time after impact. yarn material strain is zero. Roylance [4]. (3) that the transverse wave speed positively correlates with the yarn tensile strain. It is a very complex structure. Smith et al. respectively. and single ﬁber. behind. The yarn is modeled as a continuum and the yarn cross-section is deﬁned by a pair of symmetric arcs. The two formulas may be obtained from the above analysis of wave propagations in yarn material. The yarn tensile strain generated by the impact. Briscoe and Motamedi [9]. is determined by the yarn tensile elastic modulus E. When the yarn tensile strain is zero. r. A. (2) by using iteration method.8]. . Existing theory on transverse impact on a long straight yarn As stated previously. The transverse wave speed u is given by rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ .1. 2. [7. and vice versa.ARTICLE IN PRESS 34 Y. (2) ð1 þ Þ 2 ¼ E The other mechanical wave generated by the impact is a transverse one. 1 shows a heavy wedge-tipped projectile transversely impacting on a long straight yarn. volumetric density r. Comparison of FEA modeling results and predictions from the existing theory Consider an impact case: a heavy wedge-tipped projectile transversely impacts on a long straight Kevlar yarn that has a tensile elastic modulus E of 74 GPa.440 kg/m3 .4]. Transverse impact on yarns 2. Ahead of the longitudinal wave front. 2 shows the FEA model for the straight Kevlar yarn. The model allows for deﬁnition of contact between yarns and therefore takes into account the physical interaction between yarns. which propagates away from the impact point at a relatively lower speed. It more realistically describes the woven fabric structure than those computational models in which yarn crossovers are described as links. a volumetric density r of 1. the motion of yarn material experiences an abrupt change. The impact velocity is v and it is not high enough to cause the yarn to break.

4 shows the yarn deformation when both of its ends are clamped. Effect of yarn ends boundary condition In the above analysis and modeling. the stress/strain wave generated by the impact soon arrives at the yarn ends. The yarn is broken at the impact point when its two ends are clamped while it is not broken when its two ends are left free. while Fig. 35 2. Therefore. As stated previously.148 0.02 0. 4. both the yarn ends are clamped. analytical Energy (J) 0.74 0. it is also reﬂected back and propagates toward the impact point. It can be seen from Table 1 that the yarn longitudinal elastic modulus is much larger than its shear moduli and transverse elastic moduli. The reﬂected longitudinal waves meet at the impact point where the tensile stress is superimposed on each other. it is reﬂected back and propagates toward the impact point. yarn material moves longitudinally toward the impact point. For a real impact situation.3. 3 shows a comparison of the modeling results and the analytical results obtained from Eqs. a maximum principal stress failure criterion is used in the modeling. Fig. the yarn has locally orthotropic elastic material property.03 0. two mechanical waves are generated by the impact: a longitudinal one and a transverse one. . is broken. FEA Yarn strain energy.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y. The 3D FEA model for the straight Kevlar yarn. To explore the effect of yarn ends boundary condition.05 Yarn kinetic energy. The good agreement indicates that the FEA modeling approach and the orthotropic elastic material data listed in Table 1 describe well the transverse impact behavior of the Kevlar yarn. the stress at the impact point reaches the failure criterion and the yarn. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that the FEA modeling results agree well with the analytical results. In the FEA model. The maximum principal stress failure criterion is equivalent to a maximum tensile strain failure criterion with a failure strain of 3. The release wave resulted from deleting the element is taken into account in subsequent deformation process. [12] have shown that an orthotropic elastic continuum has yarn behavior if its Poisson’s ratios are zero and the shear moduli and transverse elastic moduli are very small with respect to the longitudinal elastic modulus. Table 1 lists the nine orthotropic elastic material data. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 Gasser et al. the Kevlar yarn is assumed to be inﬁnitely long. Fig. (4) and (5). Each element in the model deﬁnes a referential coordinate whose three axes are determined by the nodes of the element. When the longitudinal wave reaches the clamped ends. the material fails and the corresponding element is deleted automatically from the mesh. In this situation.148 0. the value of the maximum principal stress is very close to that of the tensile stress along ﬁber direction. The yarn ends boundary condition inevitably plays a role in the yarn impact behavior. The different yarn behavior is a result of the different yarn ends boundary condition.3 GPa. when the longitudinal wave reaches the free ends. For convenient implementation in LS-DYNA. Table 1 Orthotropic elastic material data (GPa) for the Kevlar yarn E11 E22 E33 G12 G13 G23 n12 n13 n23 74 0. Behind the reﬂected wave front.01 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (µs) Fig. It can be seen from the two ﬁgures that the yarn ends boundary condition signiﬁcantly affects the yarn deformation. The orthotropic elastic material data is deﬁned in the local referential coordinates. while in the second case both the yarn ends are left free. When the maximum principal stress at a material point exceeds 2. In the ﬁrst case. The longitudinal wave propagates away from the impact point at a very high speed while the transverse wave propagates at a relatively lower speed. Ahead of the transverse wave front but behind the longitudinal wave front.1%. yarn material moves transversely in the impact direction. FEA Yarn kinetic energy. 5 shows the yarn deformation when both of its ends are left free. two cases are modeled where a heavy wedge-tipped projectile transversely impacts at 200 m/s onto the center of a Kevlar yarn that has a length of 49 mm. Fig. yarn material stops moving longitudinally and the tensile stress is doubled. A comparison of the FEA modeling results and the predictions from theory. Duan et al. Behind the transverse wave front. the effect of yarn ends boundary condition is not taken into account. 3.74 0. After three reﬂections of the longitudinal wave. 2. analytical Yarn strain energy. Similarly. The yarn kinetic energy and the yarn strain energy as a function of time are obtained from the FEA modeling.04 0.148 0 0 0 0. as shown in Fig.

Fig. The transverse wave stops propagating when the reﬂected longitudinal wave meets the transverse one. 6 shows the initial geometry of an impact event: a rigid RCC projectile transversely impacts onto the center of a patch of plain-woven Kevlar fabric. the impact velocity is v. 5. Deformation of the straight Kevlar yarn at various instants of time when both of its ends are clamped. with reﬂection of the longitudinal wave the two ends of the yarn move longitudinally toward the impact point. y RCC projectile x 3. therefore only a quarter of the entire system needs to v f f f Kevlar fabric z Fig. It is composed of 39 yarns in each of the warp direction (along the x-axis) and the weft direction (along the z-axis).ARTICLE IN PRESS 36 Y. 6.7 mm. As can be seen from Fig. the rigid projectile can only move along the y-direction and the other ﬁve degrees of freedom are constrained. A 3D FEA model is created using LS-DYNA to simulate the aforementioned impact. and its impact velocity v is 200 m/s. the yarn tensile stress becomes zero and the velocity of the yarn material moving longitudinally toward the impact point is doubled. its mass is 2 g. 4. The fabric is ﬂat and aligned with the x–z plane. During the impact. the arrows indicate the transverse wave fronts at 20 ms. The projectile diameter is 8 mm. behind the reﬂected wave front. and both of its side length is 32. The fabric four edges are left free. Modeling transverse impact on a ballistic fabric Fig. be modeled. A rigid RCC projectile transversely impacts onto the center of a square patch of plain-woven Kevlar fabric. The material properties of the Kevlar yarn have been given in the . the arrows indicate the transverse wave fronts at 20 ms. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 Fig. Duan et al. However. 7 shows a part of the 3D FEA model for the plain-woven fabric. The fabric is modeled to yarn level resolution and the yarns are modeled as continuum with locally orthotropic elastic material property. The impact system has symmetry with respect to both the x–y plane and the y–z plane. The fabric maximum thickness is 0. Fig.23 mm. 5. Deformation of the straight Kevlar yarn at various instants of time when both of its ends are left free.

3 to 3 ms. Time history of the projectile velocity for the case with four fabric edges left free and v ¼ 200 m/s. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that within a very short period of time ð0:3 msÞ. the projectile velocity is 197. The crimped proﬁles of the warp and the weft yarns are identical and are deﬁned by a series of connected arcs. between yarn and yarn.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y.9 m/s. After the initial momentum transfer. The arrow on the projectile velocity versus time curve indicates the stage of deformation shown in Fig. The 3D FEA model for the plain-woven fabric deﬁnes yarn–yarn contact and allows for relative motion between yarns. Fig. yarn material is strained and moves longitudinally toward the impact zone.7 m/s during the initial 0:3 ms while it is only reduced by 0. During the process.3 m/s. At 1:0 ms. Fig. 8 shows time history of the projectile velocity for the case with four fabric edges left free and impact velocity v ¼ 200 m/s. behind the wave front. 4. Duan et al. to explore the effect of impact velocity on the fabric ballistic performance. With propagation of the mechanical waves. previous section. .14. In one case.15]. all the four edges of the fabric are clamped. At this moment. yarn material moves transversely in the impact direction. mainly the principal yarns are affected. the fabric absorbs energy from the projectile and the projectile gradually slows down. A friction coefﬁcient of 0. in the other case.1. three cases are modeled where the impact velocity v is 400 m/s instead of 200 m/s and the three different types of boundary conditions described previously are applied on the fabric. The cross-section of the crimped yarn is the same as that of the straight yarn shown in Fig. it is worth noting that the friction between projectile and fabric. 10 shows contour maps of the fabric resultant displacement at initial stages of the impact. The initial momentum transfer is responsible for the abrupt drop of the projectile velocity from 200 to 198. the projectile gradually slows down and at 50 ms its velocity is 188 m/s. The longitudinal wave propagates away from the impact zone at a very high speed. At 3:0 ms when most of the fabric has been affected by the impact. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that the local fabric that directly contacts the RCC projectile abruptly moves with the transverse impact.3 m/s. 9 depicts contour maps of the fabric transverse velocity and transverse displacement at 0:3 ms when the projectile velocity is 198. and between ﬁbers themselves might have signiﬁcant effects on the impact behavior of ballistic fabrics. The 3D FEA model for the plain-woven Kevlar fabric. Due to the sudden transverse motion of the local fabric. Afterwards. which is obtained from experiments on Kevlar fabrics. yarn–yarn interactions cause the secondary yarns (those yarns that do not directly contact the projectile) to move.3. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 37 Projectile velocity (m/s) 200 197 194 191 188 185 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (µs) Fig. The projectile velocity is reduced by 1. the projectile velocity drops from 200 to 198. The transverse wave propagates away from the impact zone at a relatively lower speed. the fabric transverse displacement coincides with the projectile-fabric contact zone and is in a pie shape. two additional cases are modeled where all the conditions described previously are maintained except that different boundary conditions are applied on the fabric. the local fabric in the impact zone moves together with the projectile. Finally. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that at 0:5 ms. the impact-affected zone takes a square form. respectively. 2. Results and discussion 4. two opposite edges of the fabric are clamped and the other two edges are left free. Fig. The inﬂuence of interfacial friction on fabric impact behavior will not be discussed in this paper. Simple Coulomb friction is introduced between yarns and between the projectile and the fabric. 7. behind the wave front. and with time going on it gradually expands outward. However. 9. is used for both the types of friction [13]. 8. a longitudinal wave and a transverse wave are generated in the principal yarns (those yarns that directly contact the projectile). In order to comparatively investigate the effect of fabric boundary condition. especially when the projectile is in spherical shape [9. Projectile-fabric interaction and energy transfer Fig. The momentum transfer occurs so quickly that the fabric located out of the impact zone is not affected at all.4 m/s during the period from 0.3 m/s. The projectile momentum is transferred to the local fabric.

It is evident that yarn kinetic energy is the dominant energy . At that instant of time. (b) Contour map of the fabric transverse displacement (mm). 9. the four fabric edges slightly bow toward the impact zone but most of the fabric is not affected by the transverse wave yet. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that during the impact. no other yarns in the fabric are broken. 11 for the case with four fabric edges left free and impact velocity v ¼ 200 m/s. the fabric at the impact zone conforms to the ﬂat round nose of the RCC projectile. of which 80% is absorbed by the fabric in the form of yarn kinetic energy. Except for the three yarns. 12 shows time history of the energy transfer between the projectile and the fabric. The corresponding projectile velocity for each of the deformed conﬁgurations of the fabric can be found in Fig. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 Fig. Deformed conﬁgurations of the fabric at various instants of time are illustrated in Fig. Duan et al. There is no external force acting on the system during the impact. 10. It can be seen that at the initial momentum transfer. 19% is absorbed by the fabric in the form of yarn strain energy. Lim et al [16] have observed by using highspeed camera the conformation of fabric to the nose shape of a ﬂat-nosed projectile during transverse impact. The fabric deformation at 0:3 ms. It is noted that the fabric transverse wave front evolves during the impact. and the remaining 1% is dissipated as heat through friction between the projectile and the fabric and between yarns themselves. the four fabric edges gradually bow toward the impact zone and the fabric transverse wave gradually propagates outward.ARTICLE IN PRESS 38 Y. The energy in the system is therefore conserved. Contour maps of the fabric resultant displacement (mm) at the initial stage of the impact (v ¼ 200 m/s. Fig. the projectile loses 0.68 J of kinetic energy. (a) Contour map of the fabric transverse velocity ð103 m/s). The lost projectile kinetic energy is completely absorbed by the fabric. 8. It is in the form of a circle at 10 ms while it is in the form of a round-ﬁlleted square at 30 ms. four fabric edges left free). It is found from the deformed conﬁgurations of the fabric that two warp yarns and one weft yarn are broken during the impact. Bowings of the fabric edges indicate that the longitudinal wave has been reﬂected back from the fabric edges. With time going on. 11 that the fabric transverse displacement is in the form of a conical frustum at 10 ms. It can be seen from Fig. Fig.

the projectile velocity is the same for all the three cases. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 39 Fig. the fabric boundary conditions take effect and the projectile velocity becomes different for the three cases.1 m/s for the case with two opposite fabric edges clamped and 195. 12. 11. .0 m/s for the case with four fabric edges left free while it is 196. As can be seen. It can be seen that at 10 ms.4 m/s. around 67% of the lost projectile kinetic energy is absorbed by the fabric in the form of yarn kinetic energy. After 5 ms. At 50 ms. the projectile punches through the fabric at 12 ms and moves away at a constant velocity of 194. This result indicates that the fabric boundary conditions do not play a role in decelerating the projectile during that period of time. four fabric edges left free). it loses function at the earliest time. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that within the initial 5 ms. four fabric edges left free). 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 Time (µs) 40 50 Fig. the projectile velocity is 188. the projectile velocity drops most slowly when all the four fabric edges are left free while it drops most quickly when all of the four fabric edges are clamped.2. 4. Duan et al.1 m/s for the case with four fabric edges clamped.0 m/s when the four fabric edges are left free while it is 193. the projectile velocity is 197. Time history of energy transfer between the projectile and the fabric (v ¼ 200 m/s. Though the fabric most quickly decelerates the projectile when its four edges are 6 Loss of projectile kinetic energy Yarn kinetic energy Yarn strain energy Friction dissipated energy 5 Energy (J) absorption mechanism during the impact. Effect of fabric boundary condition Two additional cases with different fabric boundary conditions (two opposite edges clamped. When two opposite edges of the fabric are clamped.1 m/s when two opposite edges of the fabric are clamped and 194. 13 shows the projectile velocity as a function of time for the three cases that have the same impact velocity v of 200 m/s but different fabric boundary conditions. four edges clamped) are modeled to comparatively study the effect of fabric boundary condition.4 m/s when all of the four fabric edges are clamped. Top and side view of the fabric deformation at various instants of time (v ¼ 200 m/s. the projectile gradually slows down until 45 ms when the fabric is punched through and loses its capability to decelerate the projectile. Fig. while 25% in the form of yarn strain energy and 8% in the form of friction dissipated energy. the fabric most effectively slows down the projectile when all of its four edges are left free. clamped. at 50 ms.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y.

Behind the reﬂected wave front. the transverse wave front is in the form of a circle when all the four fabric edges are left free. while it is in the form of an ellipse with the long axis Projectile velocity (m/s) 200 196 192 Four fabric edges left free Two opposite fabric edges clamped Four fabric edges clamped 188 184 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (µs) Fig. the yarn tensile stress fades away and the velocity of the yarn material moving toward the impact zone is doubled. 14 shows the maximum principal stress distribution in the fabric at 8 ms for the three impact cases. The longitudinal wave propagates away from the impact zone at a very high speed while the transverse wave propagates at a lower speed. 15 shows contour maps of the fabric transverse displacement at 10 ms for the three cases.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y. behind the reﬂected wave front. The fabric boundary condition signiﬁcantly affects the stress distribution pattern in the fabric. As can be seen. the yarn tensile stress is doubled and the yarn material stops moving longitudinally toward the impact zone. two mechanical waves originate in the impact zone. while behind the transverse wave front. the interactions between yarns gradually produce bowings along the free fabric edges. The projectile velocity as a function of time for the three cases that have the same impact velocity of 200 m/s but different boundary conditions. it is reﬂected back and propagates toward the impact zone. the transverse wave speed in a yarn is determined by the sound speed of Fig. (3). (b) Two opposite fabric edges clamped. yarn material is tensioned and moves longitudinally toward the impact zone. along the clamped yarns when two opposite fabric edges are clamped and a ﬁlleted square when all the four fabric edges are clamped. However. (c) Four fabric edges clamped. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 40 Fig. Distribution of maximum principal stress (103 GPa) in the fabric at 8 ms for the three cases that have the same impact velocity of 200 m/s but different boundary conditions. As stated previously. 15. Fig. (b) Two opposite fabric edges clamped. it is also reﬂected back and propagates toward the impact zone. (a) Four fabric edges left free. Fig. As shown by Eq. yarn material moves transversely. The different stress distributions and the different transverse displacements are due to the different fabric boundary conditions. When the longitudinal wave arrives at the clamped edges. When the longitudinal wave arrives at the free fabric edges. Therefore. with the transverse impact. the stress in the clamped principal yarns is much larger than the stress in the unclamped principal yarns and the secondary yarns. . (c) Four fabric edges clamped. the longitudinal wave has been reﬂected by the fabric edges and propagated back to the impact zone. 13. (a) Four fabric edges left free. Behind the longitudinal wave front. 14. It can be seen that the maximum principal stress mainly distributes in the clamped principal yarns and it is very small in the unclamped principal yarns or in the secondary yarns. Duan et al. At 8 ms. Contour maps of the fabric transverse displacement (mm) at 10 ms for the three cases that have the same impact velocity of 200 m/s but different boundary conditions.

It is higher with a larger strain and lower with a smaller strain. Fig. 13 shows. 20 shows the projectile velocity as a function of time for the three cases with the same impact velocity of 400 m/s but different boundary conditions. The fabric boundary condition does not take any effect when the impact velocity is 400 m/s. For the case with four fabric edges left free. it accounts for around 63% of the total absorbed energy.3. the fabric loses capability to decelerate the projectile at later stages of the impact when two or four of its edges are clamped. 399 398 397 396 395 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (µs) Fig. Fig. The fabric energy absorption as a function of time is shown in Fig. most of the clamped yarns are broken. 13 and 16). Therefore.7 m/s. (c) Four fabric edges clamped. The abrupt drop of the projectile velocity is due to the initial momentum transfer from the projectile to the 400 Projectile velocity (m/s) the yarn material and the tensile strain in the yarn. 11). for the case with two opposite fabric edges clamped. Effect of impact velocity Three cases with an impact velocity of 400 m/s and different boundary conditions (four fabric edges left free. large bowings are produced along the four edges. The local fabric at the impact zone is punched out while most of the fabric does not move transversely. It can be seen that the time history of the projectile velocity is the same for all the three cases and the fabric deformed conﬁgurations show little difference for the three different boundary conditions. the integrity of the fabric is maintained well and only a few yarns are broken along the periphery of the impact zone. As Fig. 22 for the six cases that have different impact velocities . Duan et al. The fabric fails along the periphery of the impact zone. the projectile velocity drops from 400 to 396. The phenomena are very different from those with an impact velocity of 200 m/s (see Figs. bowings are produced along the two free edges. Within 0:3 ms. the fabric most effectively slows down the projectile when all its four edges are left free. 16. For the case with four fabric edges clamped. all the principal yarns are broken at the impact zone. four fabric edges clamped) are modeled to comparatively study the effect of impact velocity. Due to the local failure at the impact zone. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 41 Fig. 17 shows time history of the projectile velocity while Fig. 18 shows the fabric deformed conﬁgurations at various instants of time for the case with four fabric edges left free. 21 depicts contour maps of the fabric transverse displacement at 10 ms. 16 illustrates the deformed conﬁgurations of the fabric at 40 ms for the three cases. 17. For the case with two opposite fabric edges clamped. Fig. The energy transfer between the projectile and the fabric is illustrated in Fig. with its long axis along the clamped yarns and its short axis along the free yarns. the transverse wave propagates much quicker along the clamped yarns than along the free yarns. the transverse wave front is in the form of an ellipse. local fabric at the impact zone. 19 for the case with v ¼ 400 m/s and four fabric edges left free. 4.3 to 4 ms when the fabric completely loses capability to decelerate the projectile. while Fig.5 m/s during the period from 0. two opposite fabric edges clamped. The fabric deformation is very different from that with an impact velocity of 200 m/s (see Fig. It can be seen that yarn kinetic energy is the dominant energy absorption mechanism. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that the fabric boundary condition signiﬁcantly affects the fabric deformation at later stage of the impact. It can be seen that the projectile is decelerated very quickly at initial stage of the impact. The reason for the high performance of the fabric is that only few yarns are broken during the impact when all the four fabric edges are left free. The projectile velocity drops by 0.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y. The fabric deformation at 40 ms for the three cases that have the same impact velocity of 200 m/s but different boundary conditions. Due to reﬂection of the longitudinal wave from the fabric edges. (b) Two opposite fabric edges clamped. Time history of the projectile velocity for the case with four fabric edges left free and v ¼ 400 m/s. (a) Four fabric edges left free.

6 400 Energy (J) 5 4 Projectile velocity (m/s) Loss of projectile kinetic energy Yarn kinetic energy Yarn strain energy Friction dissipated energy 3 2 Four fabric edges left free Two opposite fabric edges clamped Four fabric edges clamped 399 398 397 396 1 395 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 Time (µs) Fig. when the impact velocity is 400 m/s. 20. Conclusions A 3D FEA model is created using LS-DYNA to simulate the transverse impact of a rigid RCC projectile on a single layer plain-woven Kevlar fabric. the fabric boundary condition does not have any effect on the fabric energy absorption. When the impact velocity is high enough to 2 4 6 Time (µs) 8 10 Fig. 19. When the impact velocity is 200 m/s. 18. and different fabric boundary conditions. the fabric boundary condition signiﬁcantly affects the fabric energy absorption. Top and side view of the fabric deformation at various instants of time (v ¼ 400 m/s. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that the fabric responses under 200 and 400 m/s are very different. Duan et al. 5. The projectile velocity as a function of time for the three cases that have the same impact velocity of 400 m/s but different boundary conditions. The fabric is modeled to yarn level resolution and relative motion between yarns is allowed. four fabric edges left free). The results indicate that fabric boundary condition plays an important role only when the impact velocity is low. Time history of energy transfer between the projectile and the fabric (v ¼ 400 m/s.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y. Further modeling work shows that the transition takes place at around 300 m/s. However. A frictional contact is deﬁned between yarns and . four fabric edges left free). the fabric deformation is localized at the impact region and the fabric far ﬁeld boundary condition does not take any effects. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 42 Fig. cause yarns to break instantaneously.

40(24): 6723–65.ARTICLE IN PRESS Y. 1990. Text Research Journal 1973. [7] Wilde AF. [15] Duan Y. Rodriguez J. 3D simulations versus biaxial tests. Friction and wear behaviour of Kevlar fabrics. between the fabric and the projectile. energy absorption. Modeling deformation and damage characteristics of woven fabric under small projectile impact. [4] Roylance D. the fabric boundary condition plays an important role. Bogetti TA. Porwal PK. [8] Wilde AF. Keefe M. [10] Shim VPW. [14] Duan Y. editors. Text Research Journal 1974. (c) Four fabric edges clamped. Tan VBC. International Journal of Impact Engineering 2005.27(6):577–91. Ballistics of transversely impacted ﬁbers. References Energy absorbed by fabric (J) 7 v=200 m/s. Proceedings of the 19th international congress on high-speed photography and photonics. There exists an abrupt momentum transfer from the projectile to the local fabric at the impact zone. [3] Smith JC. Sun Q. Cortes R. UK. four fabric edges left free v=200 m/s. Blandford JM. 21. Cheong CH. University of Surrey. [5] Morrison C.16(4):585–605. The ballistic impact characteristics of aramid fabrics: the inﬂuence of interfacial friction. Part II: retarding force on missile and transverse critical velocity. Journal of Materials Science 1993. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 33–43 43 Fig. all boundary conditions 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (µs) Fig. stress distribution. Part VI: velocities of strain waves resulting from impact. The reason for the high performance of the fabric is that only few yarns are broken during the impact when all the four fabric edges are left free. .44(10):772–8. Text Research Journal 1977. Composite Structure 2005. Stress-strain relationships in yarns subjected to rapid impact loading. Rogers JM.28(5):1305–11. [2] Jacobs MJN. A high speed photographic study of impact on ﬁbers and woven fabrics. Modeling results show that during initial stage of the impact. PhD thesis. four fabric edges clamped v=400 m/s. Keefe M. [6] Field JE. Navarro C. Federal Aviation Administration. p. Photographic investigation of high-speed missile impact upon nylon fabric. US Department of Transportation. four edges clamped. Van Dingenen JLJ. 703–12.47(10):679–84. Roylance DK. Photographic investigation of high-speed missile impact upon nylon fabric. two opposite edges clamped.17(1):7–20. Simons JW. [16] Lim CT. two fabric edges clamped v=200 m/s. Ballistic protection mechanisms in personal armour.43(12):753–61. The mechanical response of an aramid textile yarn to ballistic impact. Duan et al. [9] Briscoe BJ. and failure modes. Motamedi F.68(3):331–7. International Journal of Impact Engineering 1995. Journal of Materials Science 2001. Hanklar S. It signiﬁcantly affects the fabric deformation. 158(1–2):229–47. Text Research Journal 1960.31(8): 996–1012. [1] Phoenix SL. Mechanical behavior of dry fabric reinforcement. The fabric most effectively slows down the projectile when all its four edges are left free. Wear 1992. In: Garﬁeld B. Tay TE. Part I: energy absorption and cone radial velocity in fabric. [12] Gasser A. Composite Materials Science 2000. Tan VBC. [13] Martinez MA. Schiefer HF. [11] Shockey DA. International Journal of Impact Engineering 2002. Bogetti TA. Modeling the role of friction during ballistic impact of a high-strength plain-weave fabric. Boisse P. Contour maps of the fabric transverse displacement (mm) at 10 ms for the three cases that have the same impact velocity of 400 m/s but different boundary conditions. (b) Two opposite fabric edges clamped. Time history of the fabric energy absorption for the six cases with different impact velocities and boundary conditions. 22. Cheeseman CA.30:752–60. (a) Four fabric edges left free. 2001. Cheeseman BA. Perforation of high-strength doubleply fabric system by varying shaped projectiles. Improved barriers to turbine engine fragments. the fabric deformation is localized at the impact region and the fabric far ﬁeld boundary condition does not take any effects on the fabric ballistic performance. Erlich DC. DOT/FAA/AR-99/8 III.36(13): 3137–42. 1984. Rendell J. Acknowledgements The support of the US Army Research Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground and the Center for Composite Materials at University of Delaware (UD-CCM) during this research is gratefully acknowledged. Sanchez-Galvez V. the projectile velocity drops very quickly. When the impact velocity is low. Three boundary conditions are applied on the fabric: four edges left free. When the impact velocity is high and causes yarns to break instantaneously. A new membrane model for the ballistic impact response and v50 performance of multi-ply ﬁbrous system. International Journal of Solids Structure 2003. Modeling friction effects on the ballistic impact behavior of a single-ply high-strength fabric.

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