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Types of electric motor starter

Direct on Line

Is the most commonly used form of starter. The determining
factors in the use of this starter are the load demand on generators and
distribution boards, and for some equipment such as purifiers, start up time.
The starting current is 5 to 8 times full load, heating of the winding being
proportional to this current squared. There is also no windage or radiation on
starting so no cooling. Repeated starts without periods for cooling is
undesirable.

Star-Delta

Delta connected. Power reduced in same ratio so this starting only suitable for large motors requireing low starting torque. The disadvantage of this system is that starting torque is reduced by 1/3 of direct on line torque.Run. if there is an appreciable line drop the torque will proportionally lower. With single and double cage rotors of average performance this is about 80% of full load torque. These factors must be taken into account when deciding if the star delta starting is to be used.'s in the stator windings. Position 2 . Starting voltage reduced to 1 / (31/2 of line voltage (0. this will be about 3 Н time full load current. With centrifugal loads when starting the motor is run up to about 80 to 85% full speed on the star connection at this point the motor must be switched to the running or delta position. When transferring from star to delta connections transient effects may occur. at 80% full speed. This must be done quickly as with the usual type of starter the motor is momentarily disconnected during the transition and therefore develops no torque. This assumes that the supply voltage is normal.Position 1 (as shown). When the motor is disconnected the rotor field does not collapse instantaneously and it induces e. . Starting characteristics for Star-Delta starters. When star connected the line current is only 1/3 of delta connected value.58 VL) No overload coils (O/L) connected during starting. When the motor is reconnected to the supply the delta connection will draw a line current corresponding to its speed. O/L coils in circuit.'s and dependant on the displacement violent current surges may be set up.m.f.Start. When the starter is reconnected in delta the supply may be out of phase with relation to the induced e. Suitable for centrifugal fans and pumps which do not require a large starting torque.m.f. Low voltage (L/V) coil gives cut out at reduced voltage.

5625 . 60% or 75%.L current = (0.75VL tapping then start current / F.L.Torque (F. Start current = Start torque = (Start voltage) 2 F.G.L. Voltage)2 E.L. Usually only one tapping is made but this may be at 30%.75)2 = 0. if starting on 0. 45%. Voltage tappings can be made on the auto transformer. current F.Auto-transformer The starter contacts are shown un the start position with the centre tappings of the transformer in use.

C. in the field. The motor will therefore stall.C. all running plant should be inspected immediately.f.With shunt connection here. Except in the case of sequential start up.Low voltage protection No voltage coils are fitted to motor starters to prevent simultaneous and uncontrolled start up of machinery after a black out or other loss of power.f. If a drastic reduction in voltage is experienced. Once on load they will operate on voltages down to 2/3 of normal and in some cases even lower. causing a considerable increase in starter current. Face plate starter. Control gear and controllers are designed so that they will function to start the motor with 80% normal voltage for D.if the shunt winding is connected here and the main isolator is opened the sudden collapse of flux will induce a very high e.m. if the starting handle is returned to off the kinetic energy in the machine armature maintains rotation and acting as a generator the field current reduced slowly with no risk of excessive e. This would cause a heavy sparking at the isolator and possible break down of field insulation. Correct connection.'s being induced . and 85% of normal voltage for A. With an induction motor torque is proportional to voltage squared so that at 2/3 voltage available torque available has fallen to about 40%. circuits. Incorrect connection.m.