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# Source Fundamental of vehicle dynamic Pages 217-218

Recourse Vehicle Handling Dynamic theory and application pages 30-33

3. Tire Dynamics

127

3.5.4 F Eﬀect of Camber Angle on Rolling Resistan ce
When a tire travels with a camber angle γ, the component of rolling moment Mr on rolling resistance Fr will be reduced, however, a component of aligning mome nt Mz on rolling resistance will appear. Fr = −Fr ˆı 1 1 Mz sin γ M cos γ + Rh r Rh (3.91) (3.92)

Fr =

Pr oof. Rolling moment Mr appears when the normal force Fz shifts forward. However, only the component Mr cos γ is perpendicula r to the tireplane and prevents the tire’s spin. Further more, when a moment in zdirection is applied on the tire, only the component Mz sin γ will prevent the tire’s spin. Therefore, the camber angle γ will aﬀect the rolling resistance according to Fr Fr = −Fr ˆı 1 1 = Mr cos γ Mz sin γ h h

(3.93)

where Mr may be substitute d by Equatio n (3.66) to show the eﬀect of normal force Fz . ∆x 1 Fr = Fz cos γ Mz sin γ (3.94) h h Source Vehicle Dynamic Theory and applications - page 127

Camber Angle Theory
Effects
This means that the wheel camber angle can be reduced considerably, leaving a small angle to compensate the axis deformation caused by the load in rigid-axle vehicles, at the same time, this would lead to a reduction in the kingpin offset and the negative effects this has on the steering, in fact, it can be seen that the wheels tend towards a zero camber angle under the effect of the deforming load, With improvements in construction techniques, and with the introduction of independent-arm suspension, the wheel camber angle tends towards a value very close to zero under the most common use or load conditions, it should be taken into account, however that the camber angles of the wheels will tend to vary as the vehicle is jolted about, When the suspension is in compression, the bump position of the wheel will be higher relative to the body, with the release however, the bump position of the wheel will be lower relative to the body, during these movements the wheel, with it’s ideal position being perpendicular to the ground, will take on a negative camber angle during compression, and a positive camber angle during release, this is created by the combination of factors related to the de-formability of the parallelogram formed by the upper and lower suspension arms and the wheel kingpin, This was one of the many factors that led to independent-arm suspension being preferred to rigid-axle suspension, the benefits of this effect is most apparent on bends, where the compression of the suspension on the outer wheel on the bend caused by centrifugal force, produces a negative camber on the wheel itself that acts against the overturning of the vehicle, this does not occur with rigidaxle suspension systems, Another positive aspect of independent suspension systems, is as follows, with reference to the distance between the elastic reactions of the two systems, with independent suspension, this distance has the same value as the impact of the wheels on the ground, thus giving

greater stability and increased elasticity to the system, as compared to rigid-axle suspension, The de-formability of the parallelogram formed by the upper and lower suspension arms and the wheel kingpin is linked to a series of well defined dimensional ratios, The ratio between the lengths determine the degree of angular variation in the camber of the wheel, either positive or negative, according to the vertical bump or jolt movement, the bigger the bump, the bigger the variation in the camber angle.

Positive or negative camber angle is determined by the distances ‘A’ and ‘B’, depending on whether or not these two distances are the same, and by the position of the arms relative to the ground under normal use conditions of the vehicle, if, for example, it is decided that the wheel should have a zero camber angle under normal load conditions, then obviously it must be at the mid-point in the range of movement between complete compression and complete release, the camber will then tend towards positive when empty, and negative when fully loaded, when the suspension system is in a classical position, the condition described above will be satisfied, In fact, with the suspension system in this arrangement, which means that the distance ‘A’ will be different to distance ‘B’ for any minimum upward or downward, movement the wheel camber angle will inevitably change, for a large number of reasons, it is not always possible for the manufacturer to follow the classical arrangement rules, and a complex number of possibilities arise from this regarding the geometrical arrangement of the suspension systems, Source http://www.blackboots.co.uk/tech-cambertheory.php

Effects of Camber • Tire wear - Camber is a tire wear angle. Correct camber keeps the tire tread in good contact with the road. Zero camber while driving is the ideal position for this purpose, but wheels and tires seldom maintain zero camber under actual driving conditions. Too much positive camber makes the tire wear out faster on the outside, and too much negative camber makes it wear out on the inside. • Steering stability - Camber is also a directional control angle. If camber is unequal side-to-side, the auto pulls toward the side with more camber. • The reason both for the tire wear and the steering pull is that a cambered tire rolls like a cone - as if one side of the tire had a larger diameter than the other (Fig. 120). The tread on the smaller side gets pushed under the tire and makes that side of the Source Assoc. Prof. Nguyen Van Nhan - Theory of Motor Vehicles