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This earthmoving and mining equipment section lists equipment that has been designed primarily to move

earth and minerals in large earthmoving and mining projects. Some of this equipment finds it place in other
applications, however, and the use of bulldozers and articulated trucks on road and highway projects are just a
couple of examples.
One area of surface mining includes giant machines such as drills, electric shovels and giant draglines, some
of which have buckets that are capable of moving 160 cubic yards of material in one scoop. Although
somewhat smaller than the electric shovel or especially the giant dragline, the mass excavator also fits here,
which is basically a large version of the excavator that is used more for mass excavation than for more limited
exaction or trenching.
Underground mining equipment is aimed at moving material in a very headroom and space environment. You
will notice similarities with some of the surface mining equipment as well as some very specialized pieces
developed specifically for the underground mining application.

An articulated dump truck has a hinge between the cab and the dump box, but is distinct from semi trailer
trucks in that the cab is a permanent fixture, not a separable vehicle. Steering is accomplished via hydraulic
rams that pivot the entire cab, rather than rack and pinion steering on the front axle. This vehicle is highly
adaptable to rough terrain.

The term bulldozer technically refers only to a shovel-like blade, over the years people have come to associate
the term bulldozer to the entire vehicle both blade and crawler tractor combined.
Bulldozers are a powerful tracked piece of equipment and the tracks give them excellent ground hold and
mobility through very rough terrain. Wide tracks help distribute the bulldozers weight over a large area
(decreasing pressure), thus preventing it from sinking in sandy or muddy ground.

Many wheel dozers were developed from wheel loaders by fitting a dozer blade in place of the loader arms and
bucket. This adaptation was only a success where the machine was used for light-duty tasks.
The first large rubber-tired dozer suitable for earthmoving applications were those produced by none other than
earthmoving pioneer R.G. LeTourneau, beginning in 1947. He developed four sizes known as the Models A, B,
C, and Tournadozers.

A cable tractor is a machine used for pulling cables which either can be an electrical cable for a mine shovel or
wire ropes during a shovel rope change.

A dragline excavator is a piece of equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining. In civil engineering
the smaller types are used as pile driving rigs. The larger types are used in strip-mining operations to move
overburden above coal, and for tar-sand mining. Draglines are amongst the largest mobile equipment ever built
on land, and weigh in the vicinity of 2000 metric tonnes, though specimens weighing up to 13,000 metric
tonnes have also been constructed.
Under 25 yd.

Nobas UB 1254


The purpose of drilling into rock is to provide a blasthole into which explosives can be loaded, and detonated
to make the site easier to work in.

Off-road dump trucks are used strictly off-road for mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs. There are two primary
forms: rigid frame and articulating frame.
The term dump truck is not generally used by the mining industry, or by the manufacturers that build these
machines. The more appropriate term for this strictly off road vehicle is haul truck and the equivalent
European term is dumper. The classification describes how loaded material is discharged from the dump body
and in this case, the load is discharged from the rear.

An off-highway hauler that dumps its load through longitudinal gates in the bottom of the bottom dump wagon.

Track loaders are capable in nearly every task, but master of none as a dozer, excavator, or wheel loader will
out perform a track loader under a set of conditions. The ability of a track loader to perform almost every task
on a job site is why it remains a part of many companies fleets.

A loader is a machine often used in construction, primarily used to load loose material (dirt, snow, feed, gravel,
logs, etc.) into or onto another type of machine, such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, or railcar.

A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, a blade, a maintainer, or a motor grader, is a machine
with a long blade used to create a flat surface. Graders are commonly used in the construction and
maintenance of dirt roads and gravel roads. In the construction of paved roads they are used to prepare the
base course to create a wide flat surface for the asphalt to be placed on. In civil engineering, the graders
purpose is to finish grade (refine, set precisely) the rough grading performed by heavy equipment or
engineering vehicles such as scrapers and bulldozers.

Mass Excavators are massively built to allow the use of the largest buckets in the industry by weight class.
These attachments are stoutly built for power, not reach. The machines are specifically designed for quickly
loading trucks with the fewest passes.

Scrapers are large motorized machines used for digging, hauling and leveling out materials in a variety of
construction jobs. Running on massive rubber tires, motorized scrapers quickly move large quantities of earth
around a construction site, unlike the less popular pull-type scraper.
A standard motor scraper is comprised of a bowl, an apron to drop down over a load of material in order to
retain it, and an ejector to hydraulically push out the load. Due to its hydraulic system, these components can
all function independently.

Scrapers can be very efficient on short hauls where the cut-and-fill areas are close together and have sufficient
length to fill the hopper. The heavier scraper types have two engines (tandem powered), one driving the front
wheels, one driving the rear wheels.

Instead of an apron, these scrapers include a hydraulically- or electrically-driven elevator made of two chains
equipped with a series of crossbars. The elevators purpose is to aid in loading material into the scrapers
elevating bowl. Dumping material is achieved by sliding the floor of the bowl backwards; the elevator can be
reversed in order to assist in dumping the load evenly.

Pull scrapers are able to move in soft, wet soils, as well as sand. Unlike the motor scraper, pull scrapers are not
motorized and must therefore be pulled by another vehicle.

CAT D10T pulling scraper

A shovel used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.
An electric mining shovel is a bucket-equipped machine consisting of a revolving deck with a power plant,
tracks, a counterweight, and a front attachment, such as a boom. The digging phase consists of crowding the
dipper into the bank, hoisting the dipper to fill it, then, retracting the full dipper from the bank. The swinging
phase occurs once the dipper is clear of the bank both vertically and horizontally. The operator controls the
dipper through a planned swing path and dump height until it is suitably positioned over the haul unit (e.g.
truck). Dumping involves opening the dipper door to dump the load, while maintaining the correct dump height.

Returning is when the dipper swings back to the bank, and involves lowering the dipper into the tuck position to
close the dipper door.

The hydraulic mining shovel has been widely used for coal and rock loading since the 1970s. The hydraulic
system of power transmission greatly simplifies the power train, eliminates a number of mechanical
components that are present in the shovel.

A machine with a large rotating steel drum equipped with tungsten carbide teeth that scrape coal from the
seam. Operating in a room and pillar system where the mine is divided into a series of 20-to-30 foot rooms
or work areas cut into the coal bed it can mine as much as five tons of coal a minute more than a miner of
the 1920s would produce in an entire day.

Photo: Atlas Copco

Photo: Atlas Copco

Personnel vehicles are used to transport miners and equipment from the surface of the mine to the
underground working locations.

Photo: Marcotte Mining Machinery Services Inc.

Photo: DUX Machinery Corp.

Scaling is a key part in the mining cycle. Scaling is the taking down of loose material from the roof, face and rib
in hard rock mining.

Photo: Atlas Copco

Scissor lifts are used as a safe way for workers in underground and surface operations to reach elevated work.

A rubber tired, battery or diesel-operated piece of equipment designed for cleaning runways and hauling

Shotcreter is a mechanized shotcrete spraying system developed specifically for underground ground support
applications. Shotcrete is concrete (or sometimes mortar) conveyed through a hose and pneumatically
projected at high velocity onto a surface, as a construction technique. Shotcrete undergoes placement and
compaction at the same time due to the force with which it is projected from the nozzle. It can be impacted onto
any type or shape of surface, including vertical or overhead areas.

In room-and-pillar systems, electric-powered, rubber-tired vehicles called shuttle cars haul coal from the face to
the intermediate haulage system.

Photo: Joy Mining Machinery

The transmixer sprays concrete in underground mines.

(Giant Mining Type)

Photo: Mine Rite Technologies, LLC

Gypsum Application through Machine

The old method to apply Gypsum manually took hours of labor and also had poor durability
due to manual errors. Now with automation in this field, application through machine is
gaining wide spread popularity as its not only faster but also cheaper in long run as very
less labor is required.
More over the results are much more stronger and durable as compared to old methods.
This is the machine which is used to apply Gypsum and we at are
thankful to Mr. Chandrahas Amin for submitting this picture to us.

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Dump Truck Construction Equipment

Dump trucks or production trucks are those that are used for transporting loose material
such as sand, dirt, and gravel for construction. The typical dump truck is equipped with a
hydraulically operated open box bed hinged at the rear, with the front being able to be lifted
up to allow the contents to fall out on the ground at the site of delivery.Dump trucks come
in many different configurations with each one specified to accomplish a specific task in the
construction chain.




The standard dump truck is a full truck chassis with the dump body mounted onto the
frame. The dump body is raised by a hydraulic ram lift that is mounted forward of the front
bulkhead, normally between the truck cab and the dump body. The standard dump truck
also has one front axle, and one or more rear axles which normally has dual wheels on each
side. The common configurations for standard dump trucks include the six wheeler and ten



For the amount of noise made when transferring, the transfer dump truck is easy to
recognize. Its a standard dump truck that pulls a separate trailer which can be loaded with
sand, asphalt, gravel, dirt, etc. The B box or aggregate container on the trailer is
powered by an electric motor and rides on wheels and rolls off of the trailer and into the
main dump box. The biggest advantage with this configuration is to maximize payload
capacity without having to sacrifice the maneuverability of the short and nimble dump truck





The semi end dump truck is a tractor trailer combination where the trailer itself contains the
hydraulic hoist. The average semi end dump truck has a 3 axle tractor that pulls a 2 axle
semi trailer. The advantage to having a semi end dump truck is rapid unloading.





A bottom dump truck is a 3 axle tractor that pulls a 2 axle trailer with a clam shell type
dump gate in the belly of the trailer. The biggest advantage of a semi bottom dump truck is
the ability to lay material in a wind row. This type of truck is also maneuverable in reverse
as well, unlike the double and triple trailer configurations.




The double and triple bottom dump trucks consist of a 2 axle tractor pulling a semi axle
semi trailer and an additional trailer. These types of dump trucks allow the driver to lay
material in wind rows without having to leave the cab or stop the truck. The biggest
disadvantage is the difficulty in going in reverse.



Side dump trucks consist of a 3 axle trailer pulling a 2 axle semi trailer. It offers hydraulic
rams that tilt the dump body onto the side, which spills the material to the left or right side
of the trailer. The biggest advantages with these types of dump trucks are that they allow
rapid unloading and carry more weight than other dump trucks.

In addition to this, side dump trucks are almost impossible to tip over while dumping, unlike
the semi end dump trucks which are very prone to being upset or tipped over. The length of
these trucks impede maneuverability and limit versatility.




Off road trucks resemble heavy construction equipment more than they do highway dump
trucks. They are used strictly for off road mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs, such as
excavation work. They are very big in size, and perfect for those time when you need to dig
out roads and need something to haul the massive amounts of dirt to another location.
This article was submitted by Er. Ankush
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Front Loader Construction Equipment

Also known as a front end loader, bucket loader, scoop loader, or shovel, the front loader is a
type of tractor that is normally wheeled and uses a wide square tilting bucket on the end of
movable arms to lift and move material around.The loader assembly may be a removable
attachment or permanently mounted on the vehicle. Often times, the bucket can be
replaced with other devices or tools, such as forks or a hydraulically operated bucket.
Larger style front loaders, such as the Caterpillar 950G or the Volvo L120E, normally have
only a front bucket and are known as front loaders, where the small front loaders are often
times equipped with a small backhoe as well and called backhoe loaders or loader
backhoes.Loaders are primarily used for loading materials into trucks, laying pipe, clearing
rubble, and also digging. Loaders arent the most efficient machines for digging, as they
cant dig very deep below the level of their wheels, like the backhoe can.

The deep bucket on the front loader can normally store around 3 6 cubic meters of dirt, as
the bucket capacity of the loader is much bigger than the bucket capacity of a backhoe
loader. Loaders arent classified as excavating machinery, as their primary purpose is other
than moving dirt.In construction areas, mainly when fixing roads in the middle of the city,
front loaders are used to transport building materials such as pipe, bricks, metal bars, and
digging tools. Front loaders are also very useful for snow removal as well, as you can use
their bucket or as a snow plow. They can clear snow from the streets and highways, even
parking lots.They will sometimes load the snow into dump trucks which will then haul it
Unlike the bulldozer, most loaders are wheeled and not tracked. The wheels will provide
better mobility and speed and wont damage paved roads near as much as tracks, although
this will come at the cost of reduced traction. Unlike backhoes or tractors fitted with a steel
bucket, large loaders dont use automotive steering mechanisms, as they instead steer by a
hydraulically actuated pivot point set exactly between the front and rear axles.This is known
as articulated steering and will allow the front axle to be solid, therefore allowing it to carry
a heavier weight.
Articulated steering will also give a reduced turn in radius for a given wheelbase. With the
front wheels and attachment rotating on the same axis, the operator is able to steer his load
in an arc after positioning the machine, which can come in quite handy. The problem is that
when the machine is twisted to one side and a heavy load is lifted high in the air, it has a
bigger risk of turning over.
This article was submitted by Er. Ankush
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Sometimes called a forklift truck, the forklift is a powerful industrial truck that is used to lift
and transport material by steel forks that are inserted under the load. Forklifts are
commonly used to move loads and equipment that is stored on pallets. The forklift was
developed in 1920, and has since become a valuable piece of equipment in many
manufacturing and warehousing operations.



The most common type of design with forklifts is the counter balance. Other types of

designs include the reach truck and side loader, both of which are used in environments
where the space is at a minimum.




Forklifts are available in many types and different load capacities. In the average warehouse
setting,most forklifts have load capacities of around five tons. Along with the control to raise
and lower the forks, you can also tilt the mast to compensate for the tendency of the load to
angle the blades towards the ground and risk slipping it off the forks. The tilt will also
provide a limited ability to operate on ground that isnt level.There are some variations that
allow you to move the forks and backrest laterally, which allows easier placement of a load.
In addition to this, there are some machines that offer hydraulic control to move the forks
together or further apart, which removes the need for you to get out of the cab to manually





Another forklift variation that is sometimes used in manufacturing facilities, will utilize
forklifts with a clamp attachment that you can open and close around a load, instead of
having to use forks. Products such as boxes, cartons, etc., can be moved with the clamp
Forklifts are rated for loads at a specified maximum weight and a specified forward type
center of gravity. All of this information is located on a nameplate that is provided by the
manufacturer and the loads cannot exceed these specifications. One of the most important
aspects of operating a forklift is the rear wheel steering. Even though this helps to increase
maneuverability in tight cornering situations, it differs from the traditional experience of a
driver with other wheeled vehicles as there is no caster action. Another critical aspect of the
forklift is the instability. Both the forklift and the load must be considered a unit, with a

varying center of gravity with every movement of the load.You must never negotiate a turn
with a forklift at full speed with a raised load, as this can easily tip the forklift over.
This article was submitted by Er. Ankush
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Various Types Of Cranes

A crane is a tower or derrick that is equipped with cables and pulleys that are used to lift
and lower material. They are commonly used in the construction industry and in the
manufacturing of heavy equipment. Cranes for construction are normally temporary
structures, either fixed to the ground or mounted on a purpose built vehicle.
They can either be controlled from an operator in a cab that travels along with the crane, by
a push button pendant control station, or by radio type controls. The crane operator is
ultimately responsible for the safety of the crews and the crane.
Mobile Cranes
The most basic type of crane consists of a steel truss or telescopic boom mounted on a
mobile platform, which could be a rail, wheeled, or even on a cat truck. The boom is hinged
at the bottom and can be either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic cylinders.



This type of crane offers a boom that consists of a number of tubes fitted one inside of the
other. A hydraulic mechanism extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the
length of the boom.



The tower crane is a modern form of a balance crane. When fixed to the ground, tower
cranes will often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are also used
when constructing tall buildings.




Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide great mobility. Outriggers that extend
vertically or horizontally are used to level and stabilize the crane during hoisting.




A crane that is mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires, designed for operations
off road. The outriggers extend vertically and horizontally to level and stabilize the crane
when hoisting. These types of cranes are single engine machines where the same engine is
used for powering the undercarriage as it is for powering the crane. In these types of











in the upper portion.



A loader crane is a hydraulically powered articulated arm fitted to a trailer, used to load
equipment onto a trailer. The numerous sections can be folded into a small space when the
crane isnt in use.



Also refered to as a suspended crane, this type is normally used in a factory, with some of
them being able to lift very heavy loads. The hoist is set on a trolley which will move in one
direction along one or two beams, which move at angles to that direction along elevated or
ground level tracks, often mounted along the side of an assembly area.

In the excavation world, cranes are used to move equipment or machinery. Cranes can
quickly and easily move machinery into trenches or down steep hills, or even pipe. There
are many types of cranes available, serving everything from excavation to road work.
Cranes are also beneficial to building bridges or construction. For many years, cranes have
proven to be an asset to the industry of construction and excavating. Crane operators make
really good money, no matter what type of crane they are operating.

Compact Excavator
The compact hydraulic excavator can be a tracked or wheeled vehicle with an approximate
operating weight of 13,300 pounds.Normally, it includes a standard backfill blade and

features an independent boom swing. The compact hydraulic excavator is also known as a
mini excavator.
A compact hydraulic excavator is different from other types of heavy machinery in the sense
that all movement and functions of the machine are accomplished through the transfer of
hydraulic fluid.The work group and blade are activated by hydraulic fluid acting upon
hydraulic cylinders.The rotation and travel functions are also activated by hydraulic fluid
powering hydraulic motors.
Most types of compact hydraulic excavators have three assemblies house, undercarriage,
and the work group.

The house structure contains the compartment for the operator, engine compartment,
hydraulic pump and also the distribution components. The house structure is attached to the
top of the undercarriage via swing bearing. Along with the work group, them house is able
to rotate upon the undercarriage without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve that
supplies oil to the undercarriage components.
The undercarriage of compact excavators consists of rubber or steel tracks, drive sprockets,
rollers,idlers, and associated components and structures.The undercarriage is also home to
the house structure and the work group.


The work group consists of the boom, dipper or arm, and attachment. It is connected to the
front of the house structure via a swinging frame that allows the work group to be

hydraulically pivoted left or right in order to achieve offset digging for trenching parallel with
the tracks.



The purpose of the boom swing is for offset digging around obstacles or along foundations,
walls, and forms. Another use is for cycling in areas that are too narrow for cab rotation.
Another major advantage of the compact excavator is the independent boom swing.


The backfill blade on compact excavators are used for grading, leveling, backfilling,
trenching, and general dozer work. The blade can also be used to increase the dumping
height and digging depth depending on its position in relation to the workgroup.
The most common place youll find compact excavators is in residential dwellings. When
digging phone lines or other things, these pieces of equipment are very common for getting
between houses. Due to their small size, they can fit almost anywhere.Over the years, the
capabilities for compact excavators have expanded far beyond the tasks of excavation. With
hydraulic powered attachments such as breakers, clamps, compactors and augers, the
compact excavator is used with many other applications and serves as an effective
attachment tool as well. Serving many purposes, the compact excavator is a great addition
to any job that requires the use of machinery.
This article is submitted by Er. Vikrant
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Bulldozer Construction Equipment

The bulldozer is a very powerful crawler that is equipped with a blade. The term bulldozer is
often used to mean any type of heavy machinery, although the term actually refers to a
tractor that is fitted with a dozer blade. Often times, bulldozers are large and extremely
powerful tracked vehicles. The tracks give them amazing ground mobility and hold through
very rough terrain. Wide tracks on the other hand, help to distribute the weight of the dozer
over large areas, therefore preventing it from sinking into sandy or muddy ground.
Bulldozers have great ground hold and a torque divider thats designed to convert the power
of the engine into dragging ability, which allows it to use its own weight to push heavy
objects and even remove things from the ground. Take the Caterpillar D9 for example, it can
easily tow tanks that weight more than 70 tons. Due to these attributes,bulldozers are used
to clear obstacles, shrubbery and remains of structures and buildings.
The blade on a bulldozer is the heavy piece of metal plate that is installed on the front. The
blade pushes things around. Normally, the blade comes in 3 varieties:

1. A straight blade that is short and has no lateral curve, no side wings, and can be used




2. A universal blade, or U blade, which is tall and very curved, and features large side wings





3. A combination blade that is shorter,offers less curvature, and smaller side wings.

Over time, bulldozers have been modified to evolve into new machines that are capable of
things the original bulldozers werent. A good example is that loader tractors were created
by removing the blade and substituting a large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which will
raise and lower the bucket, therefore making it useful for scooping up the earth and loading
it into trucks.Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making it smaller to where
it can operate in small working areas where movement is very limited, such as mining caves









The first types of bulldozers were adapted from farm tractors that were used to plough
fields. In order to dig canals, raise earth dams, and partake in earthmoving jobs, the
tractors were equipped with a thick metal plate in the front. Later on, this thick metal plate
earned the name blade.
The blade of the bulldozer peels layers of soil and pushes it forward as the tractor
advances.The blade is the heart and soul of the bulldozer, as it was the first accessory to

make full use for excavation type jobs. As the years went by, when engineers needed
equipment to complete larger jobs, companies such as CAT, Komatsu, John Deere, Case,
and JCB started to manufacture large tracked earthmoving equipment.They were very loud,
very large, and very powerful and therefore earned the nickname bulldozer.Over the
years, the bulldozers got bigger, more powerful, and even more sophisticated. The
important improvements include better engines,more reliable drive trains, better tracks, and
even hydraulic arms that will enable more precise manipulation of the blade and automated
controls.As an added option, bulldozers can come equipped with a rear ripping claw to break
up pavement or loosen rocky soil.The best known manufacturer of bulldozer is CAT,which






tough and durable, yet reliable machines.Even though the bulldozer started off a modified
farmtractor, it rapidly became one of the most useful pieces of equipment with excavating
and construction.
Submitted By : Er. Vikrant
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Backhoe Loader Construction Equipment

Also referred to as a loader backhoe, the backhoe loader is an engineering and excavation
vehicle that consists of a tractor, front shovel and bucket and a small backhoe in the rear
end. Due to the small size and versatility, backhoe loaders are common with small
construction projects and excavation type work.Originally invented in Burlington Iowa back
in 1857, the backhoe loader is the most common variation of the classic farm tractor.As the
name implies, it has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe attachment on the back.
Anytime the loader and backhoe are attached it is never referred to as a tractor, as it is not
normally used for towing and doesnt normally have a PTO.When the backhoe is
permanently attached, the machine will normally have a seat that can swivel to the rear to
face the backhoe controls.Any type of removable backhoe attachments will normally have a
seperate seat on the attachment itself.Backhoe loaders are common and can be used for
many tasks, which include construction, light transportation of materials, powering building
equipment, digging holes and excavating, breaking asphalt, and even paving roads.You can
often replace the backhoe bucket with other tools such as a breaker for breaking and
smashing concrete and rock. There are some loader buckets that offer a retractable bottom,
which enable it to empty the load more quickly and efficiently.

The retractable bottom loader buckets are often times used for grading and scratching off
sand.The front assembly on a backhoe may be either removable or permanently attached.
Often times,the bucket can be replaced with other tools or devices. In order to mount
different attachments to the loader, it must be equipped with a tool coupler. The coupler
consists of two hydraulic cylinders on the end of the arm assembly, which can expand and
retract to allow different tools to be attached to the unit. There are several types of backhoe
loader brands,including New Holland, John Deere, and Case. Some will offer you cabs, while
others wont. The newer types of backhoe loaders even offer you air conditioning, radios,
and other accessories that make you feel like you are working with luxury.Common with
excavating jobs, the backhoe can serve many purposes. It can haul equipment and supplies
in the loader bucket.Another great use is to cover up dirt when filling in trench lines or
covering up pipe that was just put in the ground.The backhoe attachment at the rear is ideal
for digging water pipes and sewer pipes.The best thing about the backhoe loader is the fact
that they are easy to operate. You dont need to be a rocket scientist to fully operate this
nifty piece of equipment.