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Peopling the Americas

-When: ca 33,000- 10,500 B.C.E.
-Two theories of arrival: Walking across a land bridge connecting Eurasia and North
America due to poor farming land, following game across the land bridge.
-Inca and Aztecs: Two of the earliest and most powerful nation states during the
settlement of the Americas.
Earliest Americans
-Nation-states: An organized settlement with dense populations that had primitive laws and
-Notable societies:The Incas, Aztecs, Mound Builders, Pueblos, and the Anasazi.
-Farming techniques: Three-sister farming, which was when beans grew on the trellis of
the cornstalks and squash covered the planting mounds to retain moisture.
-Role of women:The women tended the crops, which conferred them substantial authority.
Many societies developed matrilineal cultures.
Indirect Discoverers
-First European discoverers of North America: L’Anse aux Meadows(Scandinavian)
-Indirect discoverers: Christian Crusaders, Marco Polo
Europeans Enter Africa
-Portuguese and slavery: The Portuguese enslaved many Africans to work on their sugar
islands, and while doing this, developed a primitive plantation system.
When Words Collide
-Columbian Exchange: The reverberations that resulted from the introduction of two fragile
ecosystem, that of the New World and that of the Old World.
-Germs: Germs carried over to the Americas by the Europeans caused many native people
to die because their bodies immune systems had not developed a defense against diseases like

. Florida in 1565 -Battle of Acoma: A battle between the Pueblos and and the Spanish military man Don Juan de Oñate.smallpox. The Spanish Conquistadores -Treaty of Tordesillas: A treaty between Portugal and Spain that divided “heathen lands” of the New World. -Pizarro:Crushed the Incas of Peru. It was basically slavery. Spread of Spanish America -First Spanish settlement in the present US: A fortress erected at St. yellow fever. The Conquest of Mexico (Cortes. -Pope’s Rebellion: A rebellion in which native americans destroyed many Catholic churches and killed many priests. -Ponce de Leon: Explored Florida. looking for gold. and malaria. -Important conquistadores: -Balboa:Hailed as the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean. killed by an Indian arrow. He discovered the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. claimed Panama for his king. got as far east as Kansas. -de Soto: Discovered the Mississippi River and abused many Indian tribes. New Mexico and Arizona. -Coronado: Explored. -Extent of Spanish settlement in the present day US: The Spanish set up settlements in Texas and California. -Encomienda system: A system that allowed the government to commend Indians to certain colonist in return for the promise to try Christianize them. Augustine. -Capitalism: An economic system that is popular worldwide and is used in the US. crushes Moctezuma) -Mestizos:People of mixed Indian and European culture.

-Black Legend: A false concept in which the conquerors tortured the Indians. and left little but misery behind. stole their gold. . infected them with smallpox.