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State of the Industry in Reliability

Centered Maintenance

Presented by Marius Basson
Global Head of Reliability at CH2M HILL
Xenia, OH
June 5, 2014
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Maintenance Paradigms
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The Primary objective of maintenance is to optimize plant
availability at minimum cost
Maintenance is all about preserving physical assets
Most equipment becomes more likely to fail as it gets older
Proactive maintenance is all about preventing failure
Generic maintenance programs can be developed for most types
of physical assets
Comprehensive data about failure rates must be available before it
is possible to develop successful maintenance strategies
The probability of catastrophic failures can be almost eliminated
by fitting suitable protection
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lasting maintenance program 12. The frequency of predictive tasks should be based on the frequency of the failure and/or the criticality of the item 10.Maintenance Paradigms (continued) 8. The maintenance department on its own can develop a successful. There are three basic types of maintenance: predictive. Equipment manufacturers are in the best position to develop maintenance programs for new physical assets 3 . preventive and corrective 9. Maintenance policies should be formulated by managers and maintenance schedules drawn up by suitably qualified specialists or external contractors (a top-down approach) 11.

Primary objective of maintenance Old Paradigm The primary objective of maintenance is to optimize plant availability at minimum cost New Paradigm The primary objective of maintenance is to ensure that any physical asset continues to do what its users want it to do The development of any maintenance program should therefore start by defining what the users want the assets to do (in the present operating context) – we call this the asset functions or user requirements. The RCM process considers the primary and secondary functions of assets. 4 .1.

Examples of secondary functions may be to generate an alarm when wet well level rises above normal operating conditions or to shut down the motor in the event of an 5 electrical overload. .1. Primary objective of maintenance Primary Function This is normally the reason why the asst exist Secondary Functions • Environmental integrity • Safety requirements • Structural integrity • Control requirements •Containment • Comfort • Appearance • Protection • Economy and Efficiency • Superfluous function Example: The primary function of a wastewater pumping station is transfer wastewater from the collection system to the treatment pant at a minimum rate of 600 MGD.

6 . Defining maintenance Old Paradigm Maintenance is all about preserving physical assets New Paradigm Maintenance is all about preserving the functions of physical assets throughout their useful lives We have seen that every asset (system or subsystem) has at least one and normally several functions (primary and secondary). Preserving asset functions leads to optimization of the maintenance program where on the other hand preserving physical asset could lead to over maintenance and superficial maintenance.2.

Defining maintenance If we are to apply a process used to determine what must be done to ensure that a physical asset continues to do whatever its users want it to do in its present operating context we need to:  Know exactly what its users want it to do  Be certain that the asset is capable of doing what its users want from the start Built-in capability (what the asset can do) Maintenance must cause the asset to continue to function in this zone Desired performance (what the user wants it to do) Maintenance cannot raise the performance of the asset beyond its built-in capability (or inherent reliability) 7 .2.

Defining maintenance Example: When we maintain an oil pipeline 800 miles long (by doing the same maintenance along the entire length). We need to understand the user requirements and asset capability to optimize the maintenance program. 8 . we are maintaining what it is (asset focused) rather than what it should be (functional focus).2.

Intrusive maintenance may increase the likelihood of failure. and most maintenance programs were based on this belief. 9 . Characteristics of failure Old Paradigm Most equipment gets more likely to fail as they get older New Paradigm Failure characteristics indicate that for less than 20% of all failures there is a direct relationship between the age of the equipment and the likelihood of failure. It is also true that for many failures there are no effective form of proactive maintenance (predictive or preventive). The traditional view was that most failures occur on or at about the same age.3.

Characteristics of failure (Traditional view) Conditional Probability of Failure LIFE Most items wear out at about the same age Time (age) Failure Pattern B 10 .

Third Paradigm – Reality of failure A Pattern A: The "Bathtub Curve" High infant mortality. then a low level of random failure. then a wear-out zone B Pattern B: "The Traditional View" Random failure then a wear-out zone 2% C Pattern C: Steady increase in the probability of failure 5% D Pattern D: A sharp increase in the probability of failure settling down to random failure E Pattern E: Random Failure No relationship at all between how old it is and how likely it is to fail F Pattern F: The "Reversed J" Curve High infant mortality then random failure 4% 7% 14 % 68 % 11 .

12 . Proactive maintenance Old Paradigm Proactive maintenance is all about preventing failure New Paradigm Proactive maintenance is about preserving asset functions (ensure equipment continuous to do what its user want it to do) All proactive maintenance (routine maintenance) is planned but not all planned maintenance is routine. In some cases reactive maintenance (repair or corrective) may be more effective.4.

4. Proactive maintenance – Preventive maintenance for “age related” failures Conditional Probability of Failure Preventive maintenance – Scheduled restoration and scheduled discard tasks may be feasible for age related failures Carry out scheduled overhaul (scheduled restoration) or planned replacement (scheduled discard) just before reaching the wear-out zone Life Wear-out zone Time (age) 13 .

Proactive maintenance – Predictive maintenance OK Point where failure starts to occur (not necessarily related to age) Performance or Condition (Resistance to Stress) • P • P = Potential Failure (point where we can find out that it is failing) Functional Failure Time 14 .4.

The human senses Sight. etc. touch. hearing. pressures. power consumption. Proactive maintenance – Predictive maintenance . taste and smell 15 .failures that give us a warning On-condition techniques fall into 4 basic groups: Condition monitoring Use specialized equipment to monitor the condition of other equipment 3 Product quality monitoring Such as Statistical Process Control X 1 000 Machine performance monitoring Temperatures.4.

4.equipment (protective devices) fail in such a way that no one knows whether they are still working or not during normal operation Hidden failures only become evident when something else also fail…… Fails Protected Function (Duty Pump) Protective Device (Standby Pump) Failed Multiple Failure 16 . Proactive maintenance – Functional checks for hidden failures Hidden functions .

the consequences of failure and the appropriate maintenance program The Operating Context must be clearly defined at the start of the RCM analysis (before maintenance strategy is defined) 17 . Generic maintenance programs Old Paradigm Generic maintenance programs can be developed for most types of physical assets (similar assets) New Paradigm The Operating Context determines the way equipment fail.5.

5. Generic maintenance programs Stand alone A Failure of pump A affects operations Try to prevent it from failing Preventive/ Predictive maintenance) Duty Stand-by B C If pump B fails switch to C and repair B No direct consequences if C fails while B is still working Run to failure (“Breakdown Maintenance”) Check periodically if C has failed (failure finding) Traditional thinking will suggest a generic maintenance program but the from the above it is clear that identical items should have different failure management policies if they are applied differently 18 .

In our continuous effort to improve availability and reliability we “destroy” data required for developing failure management strategies.6. Failure history and data Old Paradigm Comprehensive data about failure rates must be available before it is possible to develop successful maintenance strategies GOOD New Paradigm It is more important to understand the failure mechanisms and characteristics. FAIR POOR 19 .

7. Adding protection also increases maintenance 20 . A suitable failure management strategy with adequate protection will reduce the risk of catastrophes. Protective devices Old Paradigm The probability of catastrophic failures can be almost eliminated by fitting suitable protection Electrical circuit protection Standby sump pump New Paradigm Adding protective devices only is not enough.

Protective devices 21 .7.

preventive and corrective New Paradigm There are four basic types of maintenance: predictive. preventive.8. Maintenance Activities Old Paradigm There are three basic types of maintenance: predictive. functional checks and corrective maintenance 22 .

9. Predictive maintenance task frequency Old Paradigm The frequency of predictive tasks should be based on the frequency of the failure and/or the criticality of the item New Paradigm The frequency of predictive task should be based on the P-F Interval Maintenance should be worth doing (deal with consequences) and technical feasible. Criticality determines weather maintenance is worth doing. 23 . technical characteristics determine the frequency of maintenance.

9. Predictive maintenance task frequency OK Point where failure starts to occur (not necessarily related to age) Performance or Condition (Resistance to Stress) • P • P = Potential Failure (point where we can find out that it is failing) P-F Interval Functional Failure Time 24 .

10. Formulating maintenance strategies Old Paradigm Maintenance policies should be formulated by managers and maintenance schedules drawn up by suitably qualified specialists or external contractors (a top-down approach) New Paradigm Maintenance policies should be formulated by operations and maintenance personnel working together with anybody else who have something legitimate to say about the asset. FACILITATOR OPERATIONS SUPERVISOR MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR OPERATOR MAINTAINER SPECIALIST 25 .

lasting maintenance program FACILITATOR OPERATIONS SUPERVISOR MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR OPERATOR New Paradigm Maintenance policies should be formulated by operations and maintenance personnel working together with anybody else who have something legitimate to say about the asset. Formulating maintenance strategies Old Paradigm The maintenance department on its own can develop a successful.11. MAINTAINER SPECIALIST 26 .

12. the OEMs cannot develop sustainable maintenance programs…… 27 . On their own. Formulating maintenance strategies Old Paradigm Equipment manufacturers are in the best position to develop maintenance programs for new physical assets New Paradigm The expertise of the equipment manufacturers should not be ignored but in most cases the OEMs ignore the operating context and will provide generic maintenance programs.