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**Gas-Liquid Separation
**

Absorption Process

Part 01

1

+

2

Content

**Types of Separation Processes and Methods
**

Equilibrium Relation Between Phases

Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages

Mass Transfer Between Phases

Continuous Humidification Processes

Absorption on plate and Packed Tower

Absorption and Concentrated Mixtures in Packed

Tower

Estimation of Mass Transfer Coefficient in Packed Tower

**+ Types of Separation Processes and Methods
**

**In order to separate or remove one or more of the component
**

from its original mixture, it must be contact with another

phase to allow solute to diffuse from one phase to the others

phase.

During the contact of the two phase, the component of the

original mixture redistribute themselves between the two

phases. The phases are then separated by simple physical

methods.

By choosing the proper conditions and phases, one phase is

enriched while the other phase is depleted in one or more

components.

The two phase pair can be:

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Gas (vapor)-liquid
**

Gas –solid

Liquid-liquid

Liquid- solid

**:absorption, distillation, etc
**

:adsorption, etc

:liquid-liquid extraction, etc

:leaching, crystallization, etc

3

+

4

**Gas-Liquid Separation
**

Absorption

A solute A or several solutes from a gas phase are absorbed into a

liquid phase.

involves molecular and turbulent diffussion or mass transfer of

solute A through a stagnant, nondifussing gas B into a stagnant

liquid C

e.g: absorbing NH3 (A) from air (B) using liquid water (C).

Stripping/desorption

reverse of absorption: separating a solute A or several solutes

from a liquid phase by contacting the liquid with a gas phase.

E.g. removal of volatile component of the oils by passing out with

the steam.

Humidification

When the gas is pure air and the liquid is pure water

transfer of water vapor from liquid water into pure air.

Dehumidification

removal of water vapor from air.

gas/mol frac. yA H ' xA 5 . yA = mole fraction of component A in gas = pA/P.liquid). H’ = Henry’s law constant (mol frac. xA = mole fraction of component A in liquid.+ Equilibrium Relation Between Phases Gas-Liquid Equilibrium – Henry’s Law Henry’s Laws: p A Hx A where. P = total pressure (atm). H = Henry’s law constant (atm/mol fraction). pA = partial pressure of component A (atm). whereas H does not. = H/P. At low concentration – a straight line on plot pA vs xA. H’ depend on total pressure.

equilibrium is reached. yA2 Gas phase inlet L1 . yA1 Liquid phase inlet Lo .xA1 Liquid phase outlet Single-stage process two different phases (liquid & gas for absorption) are brought into contact & then separated. Gas phase contains solute A & inert gas B Liquid phase contains solute A & inert liquid (solvent) C. Two exit stream L1 and V1 leave in equilibrium with each other. .xAo Single Stage V2.+ 6 Single Stage Equilibrium Contact Gas phase outlet V1 . various component diffuse and redistribute themselves between two phase long enough. Inert gas is insoluble in the solvent and the solvent does not vaporize to the gas phase.

xA1 Liquid phase outlet V = gas flow rate V’= inert/pure gas (B) flow rate = V(1-yA) L = liquid flow rate L’= inert/pure liquid (C) flow rate = L(1-xA) x= mole fraction in liquid phase y = mole fraction in gas phase 7 . yA2 Gas phase inlet L1 .+ Single Stage Equilibrium Contact for Absorption Lo +V2 = L1 +V1 = M Total material balance Component A balance on single stage equilibrium contact for absorption Lo x Ao +V2 yA2 = L1 x A1 +V1 yA1 = Mx AM Both L’ and V’ are constant and usually is known x Ao y A2 x A1 y A1 L' V ' L' V ' 1 y A2 1 x A1 1 y A1 1 x Ao To solve the value xA1 and yA1.xAo Single Stage V2. we use a Henry’s Law relationship yA H ' xA Remember the unit H’ is mol frac. yA1 Liquid phase inlet Lo .gas/mol frac.liquid Gas phase outlet V1 .

L1 = ? xA1 =? L0= 300 kg/h xAo =0 Single-stage V2= 100 kg/h yA2 =0. The inlet gas flow rate is 100 kg mol/h. with a mole fraction of CO2 of yA2 = 0.20 V1= ? yA1 =? .+ 8 Example 10. Assume that water does not vaporize to the gas phase.3-1 A gas mixture at 1.20. calculate the amounts and compositions of the two outlet phases.0 atm pressure abs containing air and CO2 is contacted in a single-stage mixer continuously with pure water at 293 K. The liquid flow rate entering is 300 kg mol water/h. The two exit gas and liquid streams reach equilibrium.

x A1 y A1 0 0.20) = 80 kg mol/h .+ 9 Solution Example 10.20 1 x A1 1 y A1 ……….(1) . Hence. V’ = V(1-yA ). The inert air flow V’ is obtained from. Substituting into equation to make a balance on CO2 (A). the inert air flow is V’ = V2 (1-yA2 ) = 100 (1-0.20 80 300 80 300 1 0 1 0.3-1 The inert water flow is L’ = L0 = 300 kg mol/h.

the Henry’s law constant from Appendix A. xA1 = 1. Substituting into.3 is H = 0. yA1 = 0. L' 300 L1 300 kgmol / h 4 1 x A 1 1 1 . 41 10 V' 80 V1 100 kgmol / h 1 y A 1 1 0 .142 x 104 mol frac.41 x 104 and yA1 = 0. gas/mol frac.142 x 104 atm/mol frac.3-1 At 293 K. Then H’ = H/P = 0.0 = 0.142 x 104 xA1 Solve simultaneous equation. 20 ………(2) .142 x 104 /1.liquid.20 To calculate the total flow rates leaving.+ 10 Solution Example 10.

total number of ideal stages = N.+ Countercurrent Multiple Contact Stage V1 V2 L1 Vn+1 Ln-1 VN+1 VN n L2 N Ln LN-1 LN Countercurrent multiple-contact stages. two streams leaving a stage in equilibrium with each other. Slope= Ln/Vn+1 in operating line is varies if the L and V streams vary from stage to stage 11 . Total overall material balance: L0 + VN+1 = LN + V1 = M Component A balance: L0 x0 + VN+1 yN+1 = LN xN + V1 y1 = MxM For the first n stages: L0 x0 + Vn+1 yn+1 = Ln xn + V1 y1 Operating line: yn+1 = Vn 2 1 L0 V3 Ln Vy −L x xn + 1 1 0 0 Vn+1 Vn+1 An operating line is an important material-balance equation because it relates the concentration yn+1 in the V stream with xn in the L stream passing it. more concentrated product. Component B&C may or may be not be somewhat miscible in each other.

+ Countercurrent Multiple Contact Stage – Number of Ideal Stages 12 .

since slope is constant . Draw equilibrium line (Henry’s law). Draw operating line. N: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Plot yA vs xA.+ 13 Countercurrent Multiple Contact Stage – Number of Ideal Stages Graphical calculation for determining number of ideal stage. Stepping upward (or downward) until yN+1 (or y1) is reached N = number of steps/trays Dilute system (<10%):flow rates V & L constant operating line = straight.

0 mol % acetone in air in a countercurrent stage tower.3-2 It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.3 kPa.53xA. . The process is to be operate isothermally at 300 K and a total pressure of 101. Determine the number of theoretical stages required for this separation.0 kg mol/h and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb the acetone is 90 kg mol H2O/h.+ 14 Example 10. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in the gas-liquid is yA = 2.

0 kg mol/h.+ 15 Solution Example 10.0) = 0.0 kg mol/h.53xA is also plotted.0030.xA0 the stages are drawn. Amount of entering acetone = yAN+1 VN+1 = 0.01(30.30) = 0.73 kg mol air + acetone/h.0 to 29.0) = 29. Starting at point yA1 .27 at the the outlet and V from 30.01)(30.7 + 0.03 = 29.yAN+1 )VN+1 = (1-0.3-2 Given values are yAN+1 = 0. and the equilibrium relation yA = 2. Since the flow of liquid varies only slightly from L0 = 90. (10% avetone enter is absorbed) V1 y1 LN xN = 29. Acetone leaving in L1 = 0.3 kg mol/h.90(0.27/90. the slope Ln /Vn+1 of the operating line is essentially constant. = (0.V’ = (1. About 5.27 kg mol water + acetone /h. .030/29.27) = 0.01.03 kg mol/h.73. Entering air.00101 = 90. xA0 = 0.30) = 0.10(0.73) = 0.0 at the inlet to LN = 90.0 + 0.VN+1 = 30. This line is plotted.7 kg mol air/h Acetone leaving in V1 = 0. and L0 =L’= 90. = (0.2 theoretical stages are required.27 = 90.27 kg mol/h.

xA 0.+ 16 Solution Example 10.012 yAN+1 Operating line 0.004 Equilibrium line 3 yA1 0 0 xA0 1 2 0.002 0.3-2 Mole fraction acetone in air.001 0. yA 0.003 xAN Mole fraction acetone in water.008 5 4 0.004 .

v. = 4.Calculate geometric average area. 2. valid only when operating & equilibrium lines are straight. Calculate N. A = absorption factor = constant = L/(mV). L.Calculate AN = LN/mVN+1 at LN &VN+1. Aave.+ 17 Analytical Equations For Countercurrent Stage Contact : Kremser equations Kremser equations calculate the number of ideal stages. A1 A N . V = molar flow rates x − (y / m) 0 N+1 In (1− A) + A x − (y / m) N N+1 N= In(1 / A) N= x0 − x N x N − yN+1 / m Procedure (for varying A): 1. 3. L have a constant value Absorption Stripping yN+1 − mx0 1 1 In 1− + y1 − mx0 A A N= InA When A = 1 y − y1 N = N +1 y1 − mx0 m = slope of equilibrium line.Calculate A1 = L0/mV1 at L0 & V1.

53xA where m = 2. L0 L 90 . V1 = 29.3-3 Repeat Example 10.20 .3-2 but use the Kremser analytical equation for countercurrent stage processes.+ 18 Example 10.001001 L0 = 90. the equilibrium relation is yA = 2. and xA0 = 0. Solution At one end of the process at stages 1.73 1 . Then. Also.0 A1 mV mV 1 2 .0.53.73 kg mol/h yA1 = 0.53 29 .

19 mVN 1 2.53( 0 ) 1 1 log 1 0 .04 log(1 . AN The geometric average.2 stages using graphical method .20 1 .195 Then.195 ) This compares closely with 5.0030. LN = 90.27 1.0.+ 19 Solution Example 10. 00101 2 .27. VN+1 =30.01.0 A1 AN 0 . 195 1 . and xAN = 0.19 1 .53 30.195 N 5 . 53 ( 0 ) 1 . 0 .3-3 At stage N. A LN 90.01 2 . yAN+1 = 0.

+ 20 Next Part Types of Separation Processes and Methods Equilibrium Relation Between Phases Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages Mass Transfer Between Phases Continuous Humidification Processes Absorption on plate and Packed Tower Absorption and Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Tower Estimation of Mass Transfer Coefficient in Packed Tower .

+ Gas-Liquid Separation Part 02 21 .

+ Types 22 Next Part of Separation Processes and Methods Equilibrium Relation Between Phases Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages Mass Transfer Between Phases Continuous Humidification Processes Absorption on plate and Packed Tower Absorption and Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Tower Estimation of Mass Transfer Coefficient in Packed Tower .

+ 23 Subtopics: Mass Transfer Between Phases Introduction Film Mass Transfer Coefficient and Interface Concentration : Equimolar Counterdiffusion Film Mass Transfer Coefficient and Interface Concentration : Diffusion of A through Stagnant & Nondiffusing B Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients: Equimolar Counterdiffusion/Diffusion in Dilute Solutions Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients: Diffusion of A Through Stagnant & Nondiffusing B .

+

24

**Mass Transfer Between Phases
**

Two phases system

**are in direct contact with each other, such as in a packed, tray or spray
**

type tower

essentially immiscible in each other

present together with an interface between these two phase

the interfacial area between faces is usually not well defined

**For absorption, the solute may diffuse through a gas phase and then
**

diffuse through and be absorbed in an adjacent and immiscible

liquid phase.

**A concentration gradient must exist to cause this mass transfer
**

through the resistances in each phase.

**The concentration in the bulk gas phase yAG decrease to yAi at the
**

interface. The liquid concentration start at xAi at the interface and

fall to xAL.

**At interface, there are no mass transfer resistance and xAi and yAi are
**

in equilibrium and related by the equilibrium distribution

relationship.

+

25

**Mass Transfer Between Phases
**

gas-phase mixture

of A in gas G

**liquid-phase solution
**

of A in liquid L.

yAi

xAL

xAi

yAG

NA

interface

**Distance from interface
**

Concentration profile of solute A diffusing through two phases.

yAG

xAL

yAi & xAi

**- average or bulk mole fraction of A in gas phase
**

- average or bulk mole fraction of A in liquid phase

- equilibrium mole fraction at interface

**+ Film Mass Transfer Coefficient and Interface
**

Concentration : Equimolar Counterdiffusion

N A k ' y ( y AG y Ai ) k ' x ( x Ai x AL )

k ' x ( y AG y Ai )

k ' y ( x AL x Ai )

If two film coefficient k’x and k’y

are known, the interface

composition

can

be

determined by drawing line

PM

with

slope

–k’x/k’y

intersecting the equilibrium

line

k’y

-gas phase mass transfer coefficient (kgmol/s.m2.mol frac.)

k’x

-liquid phase mass transfer coefficient (kgmol/s.m2.mol frac.)

**Point P is bulk phase compositions yAG and xAL
**

Point M is interface concentration xAi and yAi

26

+

**Film Mass Transfer Coefficient and Interface
**

Concentration : Diffusion of A through Stagnant &

Nondiffusing B

N A k y ( y AG y Ai ) k x ( x Ai x AL )

ky

k'y

(1 y A ) iM

(1 y A ) iM

NA

kx

k'y

(1 y A ) iM

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )

In[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )]

( y AG y Ai )

k 'x

(1 x A ) iM

(1 x A ) iM

(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )

In[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )]

k'x

( x Ai x AL )

(1 x A ) iM

k ' x /(1 x A ) iM ( y AG y Ai )

k ' y /(1 y A ) iM

( x AL x Ai )

**Trial and error need to get the slope. For first trial assume (1-yA)iM
**

and (1-xA)iM equal to 1.

27

15 0.265 0.m2 mol frac.+ 28 Example 10.131 0.052 0. Calculate the interface concentrations yAi and xAi and the flux NA. And for the liquid phase as kx = 1.4-1 The solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B in a wetted-wall tower with the liquid flowing as a film downward along the wall.35 0.380 mol fraction and the bulk liquid concentration is xAL = 0.05 0. At certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration yAG = 0.m2 mol frac.013 x 105 Pa and the equilibrium data are as follows: xA yA xA yA 0 0 0.187 0.30 0.10 0.20 0. .1. the film mass-transfer coefficient for A in the gas phase is predicted as ky = 1.25 0.385 The solute A diffuse through stagnant B in the gas phase and then through a nondiffusing liquid.967 x 10-3 kg mol A/s.087 0. Using correlations for dilute solutions in wetted-wall towers. The tower is operating at 298 K and 1.465 x 10-3 kg mol A/s.022 0.

overall mass transfer coefficient K’y and Kx’ are measured based on gas phase or liquid phase.m2.mol frac.m2.overall gas phase driving force (kgmol/s.) y*A .mole fraction that equilibrium with xAL X*A . K’y .) K’x .mole fraction that equilibrium with yAG N A = K ' y (yAG − y*A ) = K ' x (x *A − x AL ) 29 .overall liquid phase driving force (kgmol/s.mol frac.+ Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients and Driving Force Film or single phase mass transfer coefficient k’y and k’x or ky and kx are often difficult to measure As a result.

e major resistance in gas phase). so that the equilibrium curve is almost horizontal.e major resistance in liquid phase) .+ Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients: Equimolar Counterdiffusion/Diffusion in Dilute Solutions N A = K ' y (yAG − y*A ) = K ' x (x *A − x AL ) 1 1 m' = + K 'y ky ' kx ' yAi − y*A m' = x Ai − x AL 1 1 1 = + K ' x m"k y ' k x ' m" = Gas phase controlling (i.m’ is small.m” is large and A is very insoluble in liquid phase 1 1 K 'x k x ' yAG − yAi x *A − x Ai 30 . a small value of yA in the gas will give a large value of xA in equilibrium in liquid. A is very soluble in liquid phase 1 1 K'y ky ' Liquid phase controlling (i.

+ Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients: Diffusion of A Through Stagnant & Nondiffusing B ' K y' K x NA ( y AG y A ) ( xA xAL ) (1 y A )M (1 xA )M Ky K'y (1 y A ) *M (1 y A ) *M (1 y * A ) (1 y AG ) In[(1 y * A ) /(1 y AG )] K 'x Kx (1 x A ) *M (1 x A ) *M (1 x AL ) (1 x * A ) In[(1 x AL ) /(1 x * A )] 1 1 m' K ' y /(1 y A ) *M k ' y /(1 y A ) iM k x ' /(1 x A ) iM 1 1 1 K ' x /(1 x A ) *M m" k ' y /(1 y A ) iM k x ' /(1 x A ) iM 31 .

4-2 Using the same data as in Example 10. calculate the overall mass transfer coefficient K’y and the percent resistance in the gas and liquid films.4-1. . Do this for the case of A diffusing through stagnant B.+ 32 Example 10.

+ 33 Subtopics: Continuous Humidification Processes Water-Gas Interface for Water Cooling Tower Common Term in Humidification Operating Line for Water Cooling Tower Tower Height For Water-Cooling Design of Water Cooling Tower Using Film Mass Transfer Coefficient Design of Water Cooling Tower Using Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient Minimum Value of Air Flow Design of Water Cooling using Height of Transfer Unit .

The tower packing often consists of slats of wood or plastic or of a packed bed In humidification and dehumidification. The warm water enters the top of a packed tower and cascades down through the packing. . Air enters at the bottom of the tower and flows upward through the descending water by the natural draft or by the action of a fan. This done for the following purpose Typical water cooling tower Humidifying of air for control the moisture content of air in drying or air conditioning Dehumidifying air where cold water condenses some water vapor from air. leaving at the bottom. Water cooling where water is evaporated to air to cool the warm water.+ 34 Continuous Humidification Process When a relatively warm liquid is brought into direct contact with a gas that is unsaturated. Warm water flows counter currently to an air stream. some of the liquid is vaporized to the gas phase. The water is distributed by troughs and overflows to cascade over slat gratings or packing that provide large interfacial areas of contact between the water air air in the form of droplets and film of water. the gas phase resistance controls the rate of the mass transfer.

+ Water-Gas Interface for Water Cooling Tower Sensible heat flow from liquid to the interface= sensible heat flow in the gas phase + latent heat (vaporization) flow in the gas. 35 .

Partial pressure of water vapor in air-water mixture is equal to the vapor pressure pAs of pure water at given T Percentage humidity (Hp) Percentage relative humidity (HR) 36 . Saturated humidity (Hs).air in which the water vapor is equilibrium with liquid water at given P & T.+ Common Term in Humidification Chapter 9.3 Humidity (H) of an air-water vapor is the kg of water vapor contained in 1 kg of dry air.

cP water(v) = 1.005 kJ/kg dry air.005 + 1. or temperature at which vapor begins to condense when the gas phase is cooled at constant pressure.88H (SI) where. cS (kJ/kg dry air. Humid heat cS amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of dry air plus the water vapor present by 1 K. K . K and cP air = 1.K) = 1.88 kJ/kg water vapor.+ 37 Common Term in Humidification Dew point the temperature at which a given mixture of air and water vapor would be saturated.

Tref for both components = 0 ºC . Sensible heat of the airwater vapor mixture plus the latent heat. HY (kJ/kg dry air) = (1.+ 38 Common Term in Humidification Humid volume.83 x 10-3 + 4. vH . Total enthalpy of an air-water mixture. vH (m3/kg dry air) = (2.the total enthalpy of 1 kg of air plus its water vapor.005 + 1.total volume (m3) of 1 kg of dry air plus the vapor it contains at 1 atm abs pressure and the given gas temp.4 where. HY .88 H) (T ºC-0) + 2501.56 x 10-3 H) T (K).

+ Humidity Chart 39 .

187 x 103 J/kg.K. J/kg air. kg water/kg dry air – Humidity chart in Fig. = cs (T-T0) + H0 = (1. kg/s. 9.m2. assumed constant at 4187 kJ/kg.501x106H H = humidity of air. ºC or K. cL = heat capacity of water. cL is constant at 4. Hy= enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture. K G ( H y H y1 ) Lc L (TL TL1 ) Slope= LcL/G G = dry air flow.+ Operating Line for Water Cooling Tower Assumption: 1. L = water flow. kg water/s.3-2 pg. Process carried out adiabatic 2.88H)103 (T-0) + 2.005 + 1. 568. 40 . TL = temperature of water. L is constant 3.

m3 volume P = pressure in atm Slope of line from interface composition to point in equilibrium line H yi H y hL a k G aM B P Ti TL .+ 41 Tower Height For Water-Cooling Tower height for water-cooling dH y Hy 2 G z M B k G aP Hy1 H yi H y z = column height MB = molecular weight of air a = m2 of interfacial area per m3 volume of packed section kG = gas phase mass transfer coefficient ( kgmol/s. m2) kGa = volumetric coefficient in kgmol/s.

+ Temperature Enthalpy Diagram And Operating Line For Water.Cooling 42 .

+ Enthalpies of Saturated Air-Water Vapor Mixture (0C Base Temperature) 43 .

Do for various P point between (TL1. Determine Hyi-Hy by plot a line from P (TL. Hyi). The slope of this line –hLa/kGaMBP. Hy2). Hy1) to (TL2.5-1) in H-versus-T plot 2. Draw operating line with slope LcL/G. For example using graphical method. Draw equilibrium line ( Data from table 10.+ Design of Water Cooling Tower Using Film Mass Transfer Coefficient dH y Hy 2 G z M B k G aP Hy1 H yi H y H yi H y hL a k G aM B P Ti TL 1. Use numerical or graphical integration to obtain the value of integration in height tower equation. 3. 44 . plot 1/(Hyi-Hy) versus Hy. 4. Hy) to M (Ti.

H*y). For example using graphical method. Hy) to R (TL. 4. Determine H*y-Hy by plot a line from P (TL. z Draw equilibrium line ( Data from table 10. 3. plot 1/(Hyi-Hy) versus Hy. Then to determine tower height. The slope of this line –hLa/kGaMBP. Hy2). Hy1) to (TL2. Often overall mass transfer coefficient KGa (kgmol/s. 2.+ Design of Water Cooling Tower Using Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient dH y Hy 2 G z M B K G aP Hy1 H * y H y H yi H y hL a k G aM B P Ti TL 1.m3. Use numerical or graphical integration to obtain the value of integration in height tower equation.5-1) in H-versus-T plot Draw operating line with slope LcL/G. 45 . Do for various P point between (TL1.Pa) is available.

187 x 104 J/kg.207 x 10-7 kg mol/s.356 kg water/s. The entering air at 29. The tower operates at a pressure of 1. m2 to cool the water from TL2 = 43.Pa and hL a / kG aMBP as 4.4 ºC has a wet bulb temperature of 23.013 x 105 Pa.4 ºC. m2 and a water flow rate of L = 1.+ 46 Example 10.5-1 A packed countercurrent water-cooling tower using a gas flow rate of G = 1. Calculate the height of packed tower z. . The mass-transfer coefficient kG a is estimated as 1.K .356 kg dry air/s.3 ºC to TL1 = 29.9 ºC .m3.

7 x 103) = 1. The inlet air at TG1 = 29. the enthalpies from the saturated air-water vapor mixtures from Table 10.3-8).+ 47 Solution Example 10. = 71.005 + 1. The point Hy1 = 71.3 – 29.4).5-4. .0165).7 x 103 and TL1 = 29.5-1 are plotted in Fig.4 ºC is plotted. (10.88H) (T-T0) + H0 Hy1 = (1.501 x 106 (0. 10. Then substituting into Eq. Hy1 = cs (T-T0) + H0 = (1.5-1 Following the step outlined.0165 kg H2O/kg dry air.4 ºC has a wet bulb temperature of 23. The humidity from the humidity chart is H1 = 0. G(Hy2 –Hy1) = LcL (TL2 – TL1) 1.9 x 103 J/kg dry air.005 + 1.5-2) and solving.(9.356 (Hy2 – 71.356 (4.7 x 103 J/kg.88 x 0. Hy2 = 129.0165)103 (29. Substituting into Eq.187 x 103) (43.4-0) + 2.9 ºC .

+ 48 Solution Example 10.5-1 .

+ 49 .

+ 50 .

5 times Gmin is used. 51 . For the actual tower. point N. a value of G greater than Gmin must be used.3 to 1. For a minimum value of G. If the equilibrium line is quite curved. line MN could become tangent to the equilibrium line at a point farther down the equilibrium line than point N. the operating line MN is drawn through the point Hy1 and TL1 with a slope that touches the equilibrium line at TL2.+ Minimum Value of Air Flow The air flow G is not fixed but must be set for the design of the cooling tower. a value of G equal to 1. Often.

+ Design of Water Cooling using Height of Transfer Unit 52 Using Film Mass Transfer Coefficient dH y Hy 2 G z M B k G aP Hy1 H yi H y G HG M B k G aP NG Hy 2 Hy1 dH y H yi H y z= height of transfer unit X number of transfer unit Using Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient dH y Hy 2 G z M B K G aP Hy1 H * y H y H OG G M B K G aP N OG Hy 2 Hy1 dH y H *y H y .

+ Gas-Liquid Separation Part 03 53 .

+ Types 54 Next Part of Separation Processes and Methods Equilibrium Relation Between Phases Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages Mass Transfer Between Phases Continuous Humidification Processes Absorption in Plate and Packed Tower Pressure Drop & Flooding in Packed Towers Absorption of Dilute Gas Mixtures in Packed Tower Absorption of Concentrated Gas Mixtures in Packed Tower Design of Packed Towers Using Transfer Units .

Plate (tray) tower Sieve tray Valve tray Bubble cap tray 2.+Equipment for Absorption & Distillation 1. Packed tower Raschig ring Lessing ring Berl saddle Pall ring etc 55 . Structured packing 3.

+ 56 Tray/Plate Tower .

+ 57 Tray (Plate) Tower Sieve tray Valve tray .

+ 58 Tray (Plate) Tower Bubble cap tray .

+ Structured Packing 59 .

+ Structured Packing Corrugated structured packing 60 .

+ 61 Packed Tower .

+ Packed Tower 62 .

+ Pressure Drop & Flooding in Packed Towers Flooding velocity – upper limit of gas flow rate At low gas velocities the liquid flow downward through the the packing.8 power. the pressure drop is proportional to the flow rate to the 1. At a gas flow rate called the loading point. the gas start to hinder the liquid downflow. The optimum economic gas velocity is about 0ne-half or more of the flooding velocity 63 . the liquid no longer flow down through the packing and is blown out with the gas. At the flooding point. the liquid holdup or accumulation increase. and local accumulations or pools of liquid start to appear in the packing. essentially uninfluenced by the upward gas flow As the gas flow rate increased at low gas velocities. The pressure drop of the gas starts to rise at a faster rate As the gas flow arte is increased.

+ Pressure Drop in Random Packing Note: this capacity parameters is not dimensionless and that only these unit (english) should be used 64 .

+ Pressure Drop in Structured Packing 65 .

+ Packing Factors (Fp) for Random and Structured packing 66 .

It predicts all the data for flooding within +.7 67 .15% and most for +-10% for packing factor of 60 or higher. this equation is not valid and the pressure drop can be taken as 2 in H2O/ft( 166.115F 0.7 mm H2O/m) ∆Pflood = 0.+ Flooding Pressure Drops in Packed and Structured Packing Can be used for packing factors from 9 up to 60.

+ 1. Knowing the total gas flow rate and GG. the capacity parameter is read off the plot Using the capacity parameters.6-6. and using the pressure drop at flooding and either fig 10. the GG is obtained. the tower cross sectional are and ID can be calculated. 5. 4. 2. giving an Fp value A suitable GL/GG is selected along with the total gas flow rate The pressure drop at flooding is calculated The flow parameter is calculated. a new GG and GL are obtained. Procedure to Determine Limiting Flow Rate and Tower Diameter A suitable random packing or structured packing is selected. 6. 3. 7. which is the maximum at flooding Using a suitable % of the flooding value of GG for design. 68 .6-5 or 10. The pressure drop can also be obtained from the plot.

The feed rate is 1440 lbm/h (653 kg/h) and contains 3 mol% ammonia in air. calculate the pressure drop. a) calculate the pressure drop n the packing and gas mass velocity at flooding. Using 50% of the flooding velocity. The process design specifies a liquid to gas mass flaw rate ration GL/GG of 2/1 and the use of 1-in metal Pall rings. b) Repeat(a) above but use Mellapak 250Y structured packing.6-1 Ammonia is being absorbed in a tower using pure water at 25C and 1 atm abs pressure. . gas and liquid flows and tower diameter.+ 69 Example 10.

(1-x) and (1-y) can be taken as 1.+ Design of Plate Absorption Tower Operating line assumption solute A diffusing through a stagnant gas B the moles of pure air and pure water remain constant throughout the entire tower similar equation to countercurrent stages process Overall material balance Balance around the dashed-lined box If x and y are very dilute.0 and the operating line is straight with a slope L’/V’ 70 .

+ Number of Tray Graphical determination of the number of trays 71 .

3 kPa . .m2. how many theoretical trays and actual trays are needed? Assume that the tower operate at 293 K. The inert air flow rate is 150 kg air/h.+ 72 Example 10. the entering gas contains 20 mol % SO2 and that leaving 2 mol % at the total pressure of 101.m2 and the entering water flow rate is 6000 kg water/h.6-2 A tray tower is to be designed to absorb SO2 from an air stream by using pure water at 293 K. Assuming an overall tray efficiency of 25 %.

+ Design of Packed Tower for Absorption solute A diffusing through a stagnant gas B Overall material balance Balance around the dashed line box 73 give a curve line on yx plot If x and y are very dilute.0 and the operating line is straight with a slope L’/V’ . (1-x) and (1-y) can be taken as 1.

+ Location of Operating Line 74 .

For stripping. L’min – when operating line has a minimum slope and touch (becoming tangent) to the equilibrium line. To solve L’min.2-1. optimum gas flow rate is taken at about 1. which is also costly.5 times L’ min. V1.5 times V’ min. too small value give small liquid flow result in a high tower. insert the value y1 and x1max in operating line equation. x2 is always known. y2. The choice of optimum L’/V’ ratio depend on an economic balance too high ratio value require a large liquid flow and a large diameter tower. y1. An optimum liquid flow rate can be taken as 1.+ 75 Limiting and Optimum L’/V’ Ratios In absorption. The value of x1 is x1max. . Only amount of the entering liquid flow (L2 or L) is open to choice.

= /A1A2 = /A1A2 4. Aave. Used m1 in equation x2 − y1 / m In ( ) (1− A ) + A x1 − y1 / m N= In(1 / A) y1 − mx2 1 1 In 1− + A A y2 − mx2 N= InA . Calculate m1 and m2 2. Calculate geometric average area. Calculate geometric average area. Calculate A1 and A2 2.+ Analytical Equations for Theoretical 76 Number of Steps or Trays Absorption Stripping Procedure (for varying A): Procedure (for varying A): 1. 3. Aave. Calculate m1 and m2 1. Calculate A1 and A2 3. Used m2 in equation 4.

.5 times the minimum liquid flow rate. determine the number of trays needed. It is desired to recover 90% of the alcohol.+ 77 Example 10.3 kPa. The inlet gas stream flow rate is 100 kmol/h and it contains 2.68x for this dilute stream.2 mol% alcohol.6-3 A tray tower is absorbing ethyl alcohol from an inert gas stream using pure water at 303K and 101. Using 1. Do this graphically and also using the analytical equations. The equilibrium relationship is y=0.

the volume of packing in a height dz m is S dz.+ Film and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficients in Packed Towers Defining a as interfacial area in m2 per m3 volume of packed section. where S is m2 cross sectional area of tower. Also dA = aS dz The volumetric film and overall mass transfer coefficient are then defined as 78 .

+ Design Method for Packed Tower using Mass 79 Transfer Coefficient Absorption of A from stagnant B and the moles of A leaving V equal to the moles entering L (i.e d( Vy)= d(Lx) Using film coefficient Using overall coefficient The equilibrium and operating lines are usually curved. these equations must be integrated numerically or graphically . K’ya and K’xa vary somewhat with total gas and liquid flows Then. and k’xa. k’ya.

10 (10%). Operating line is straight V ( y1 y 2 ) k ' y az ( y y i ) M S V ( y1 y 2 ) K ' y az ( y y * ) M S L ( x1 x 2 ) k ' x az ( xi x) M S L ( x1 x 2 ) K ' x az ( x * x) M S L = (L1+L2)/2 V = (V1+V2)/2 80 .+ Simplified Design Method for Absorption of Dilute Gas Mixture in Packed Towers Assumptions Concentration can be considered dilute when mole fraction y or x are less than about 0.

Calculate related (y-yi)M or (y-y*)M for gas coefficient and (xi-x)M or (x*-x)M. 2. To get this . 81 . k ' x a /(1 x1 ) k ' y a /(1 y1 ) Then determine interface composition yi2. x1* or x2*. If overall mass transfer coefficient use. x1.x2 using the same method.+ Simplified Design Method for Absorption of Dilute Gas Mixture in Packed Towers 1. find intersection point by draw a line to equilibrium line with slope slope 3. y2*. xi2 at point y2. find appropriate y1*. Do trial and error if necessary. 4. Plot operating line and equilibrium line Determine interface composition yi1 and xi1 at point y1. Calculate the column height by appropriate simplified equation.

186 m2 at 293 K and 101.78 x 10-2 kg mol/s. And k’x a = 6.6 mol % acetone and outlet 0. The inlet air contains 2.3.m3. . (b) Repeat using k’x a. Film coefficients for the given flows in the tower are k’y a = 3.36 kg mol water/h.65 kg mol inert air/h. The gas flow is 13.5%.32 (1 atm).+ 82 Example 10. (c) Calculate K’y a. and the tower height. The pure water inlet flow is 45.mol frac. (a) Calculate the tower height using k’y a. Equilibrium data are given in Appendix A.m3.mol frac.6-4 Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross sectional area of 0.16 x10-2 kg mol/s.

+ Design Method for Absorption of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Tower The design equation must be integrated graphically or numerically. z Vdy y1 y2 k ' y aS (1 y ) iM z Vdy y1 y2 (1 y )( y y i ) K ' y aS (1 y ) *M (1 y )( y y ) * x1 Ldx x2 k ' x aS (1 x)( xi x) (1 x) iM z x1 Ldx x2 K ' x aS (1 x)( x * x) (1 x) *M z 83 .

Plot operating line and equilibrium line 2. Use trial and error to determine interface composition at several point between P1(y1. Calculate value k’ya and k’xa from empirical equation given 3.x1) and P2(y2. Calculate numerically or graphically area under curve to insert into design equation for height. Then plot f(y) vs. Using the value yi and xi. k ' a /(1 x ) iM slope x k ' y a /(1 y ) iM f ( y) V k ' y aS (1 y ) iM (1 y )( y y i ) 84 . y. 4.+ Design Method for Absorption of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Tower 1. calculate the value f(y) as follows.x2) by draw a line with following slope from the point to intersect to equilibrium line.

Calculate the tower height. mol frac.25 and k’xa = 0. per sec per m2 tower cross section. k’ya = 0.+ 85 Example 10.7-1 A tower packed with 25..013 x 105 Pa abs pressure. For dilute SO2 .4 mm rings.0929 m2. respectively.Gy are kg total liquid or gas.m3.53 x10-4 kg mol air /s. The entering gas contains 20 mol % SO2 and that leaving 2mol %.152GX0.0594 Gy0.the film mass transfer coefficients at 293 K are for 25.7 Gx0. and Gx . The inert air flow is 6. where k’ya & k’xa is kg mol/s. .82.4 mm ceramic rings is to be designed to absorb SO2 from air by using pure water at 293 K and 1. the tower cross-sectional area is 0.

z= Height of transfer unit (H) x Number of transfer unit (N) z= HGNG= HLNL=HOGNOG=HOLNOL 86 .+ Design Of Packed Towers Using Transfer Units: Design for Concentrated Solutions Use transfer-unit concept for designing packed tower: Height.

z = H G NG = H G ∫ dy y −y = HG × 1 2 y2 y − yi (y − yi )M y1 z = H OG N OG = H OG ∫ z = HL NL = HL ∫ dy y1 − y2 = H × G y2 y − y* (y − y* )M y1 dx x −x = HL × 1 2 x2 xi − x (xi − x)M x1 z = H OL N OL = H OL ∫ dx x1 − x2 = H × OL x2 * x −x (x * − x)M x1 87 . and if the operating lines and equilibrium line are straight and dilute. (1-x)iM/(1-x).+ Design Of Packed Towers Using Transfer Units: Design for Dilute Solutions The terms (1-y)iM/(1-y). (1-y)*M/(1-y) and (1-x)*M/(1-x) are close to one.

the number of transfer unit for absorption and stripping are N OG 1 y1 − mx2 = In[(1−1 / A)( ) +1 / A] (1−1 / A) y2 − mx2 N OL 1 x2 − y1 / m = In[(1− A)( ) + A] (1− A) x1 − y1 / m When the operating and equilibrium lines are straight and not parallel. NOG is related to the number of theoretical trays N by equation: N OG = N In A (1−1 / A) The height of theoretical trays (HETP) In(1 / A) (1− A) / A Then. z = N x HETP HETP = H OG 88 .+ Design Of Packed Towers Using Transfer Units: Design for Dilute Solutions Using the equilibrium line equation y = mx and letting A = L/mV.

And k’x a = 6.6-52 to calculate NOG and tower height d) Using analytical equations.16 x10-2 kg mol/s.6-5 Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross sectional area of 0.186 m2 at 293 K and 101.m3. theoretical steps N and tower height.+ 89 Example 10. calculate HETP. The pure water inlet flow is 45. The gas flow is 13. The inlet air contains 2.6 mol % acetone and outlet 0. Film coefficients for the given flows in the tower are k’y a = 3.m3. Equilibrium data are given in Appendix A.65 kg mol inert air/h.3.78 x 10-2 kg mol/s. a) Use HG and NG to calculate tower height b) Use HOG and NOG to calculate tower height c) Use E 10. .5%.36 kg mol water/h.mol frac.32 (1 atm).mol frac.

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