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Math 494 • Homework 1 • Due January 12

Homework is due at the beginning of class. Late homework is not accepted. I encourage you to work
with others on homework problems, but you must write up your own solutions. Solutions must be
presented clearly, or will be marked down.
Problem 1 (4 points) [10.1.1]. Prove the following identities in an arbitrary ring R: (a) 0a = 0;
(b) a = ( 1)a; (c) ( a)b = (ab). Here a means the additive inverse of a.
Problem 2 (6 points) [10.1.9]. In each case, decide whether the given structure forms a ring. If
it is not a ring, determine which of the ring axioms hold and which fail.
(a) U is an arbitrary set, and R is the set of subsets of U . Addition and multiplication of elements
of R are defined by the rules A + B = A [ B and A · B = A \ B.
(b) U is an arbitrary set, and R is the set of subsets of U . Addition and multiplication of elements
of R are defined by the rules A + B = (A [ B) \ (A \ B) and A · B = A \ B.
(c) R is the set of continuous functions R ! R. Addition and multiplication are defined by the
rules (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) and (f g)(x) = f (g(x)).
Problem 3 (6 points) [10.1.11]. Describe the units in each ring: (a) Z/12Z; (b) Z/7Z; (c) Z/8Z;
(d) Z/nZ.
Problem 4 (4 points) [10.1.12]. Prove that the units of the Gaussian integers are {±1, ±i}.
Problem 5 (4 points) [10.1.13]. An element x of a ring R is called nilpotent if some power of x
is zero. Prove that if x is nilpotent then 1 + x is a unit.
Problem 6 (6 points) [10.3.3]. For which integers n does x2 + x + 1 divide x4 + 3x3 + x2 + 6x + 10
in Z/nZ[x]?
Problem 7 (4 points) [10.3.4]. Prove that in the ring Z[x], (2) \ (x) = (2x).
Problem 8 (6 points) [10.3.19]. Let p be a prime number, and let R be a commutative ring in
which p = 0. Show that the map R ! R defined by x 7! xp is a ring homomorphism.

24]. (a) Prove that IJ = I \ J. a0 )(b. y] ! R defined by f 7! f (0.7].8]. (a. The object of this exercise is to prove a converse. (a) Prove that if e is idempotent then e0 = 1 e is also idempotent.Math 494 • Homework 2 • Due January 26 Homework is due at the beginning of class.] (c) Let e be an idempotent. Prove that the principal ideal eS is a ring. Let I and J be ideals of a ring R such that I + J = R and IJ = 0. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. and Z. (b) Prove the Chinese remainder theorem: for any pair of elements a. Z/(n). 0) is idempotent. or will be marked down.8]. but you must write up your own solutions. Let I and J be ideals of a ring R such that I + J = R. Prove that N is an ideal. (b) Let e be an idempotent of a ring S. Problem 1 (4 points) [10.34].4. Note that in a product R ⇥ R0 of rings. a0 ) + (b. a0 + b0 ). (a) The nilradical N of a ring R is the set of its nilpotent elements. Describe the kernel of the following ring homomorphisms: (a) R[x. b0 ) = (ab. Problem 2 (6 points) [10. (a) Prove that R is isomorphic to the product (R/I) ⇥ (R/J).) Problem 6 (4 points) [10. b0 ) = (a + b. [Note: it is typically not a subring of S. the element e = (1. and let e0 = 1 (eS) ⇥ (e0 S). (The notation x = a (mod I) means x a 2 I.4. since it won’t contain 1 unless e = 1. Prove that S is isomorphic to the product ring Problem 5 (6 points) [10. b 2 R there is an element x 2 R such that x = a (mod I) and x = b (mod J).3. (b) Determine the nilradicals of Z/(12).14]. Problem 3 (2 points) [10. Solutions must be presented clearly.1. (b) R[x] ! C defined by f 7! f (2 + i). An element e of a ring S is called idempotent if e2 = e.3. a0 b0 ) This ring is called the product ring. Prove that the product set R ⇥ R0 of two rings is a ring with component-wise addition and multiplication: (a. Problem 4 (6 points) [10.3. e. 0). with identity element e. Late homework is not accepted. .

Let R be an integral domain.1]. g(x) be polynomials with coefficients in a ring R with f 6= 0. g be polynomials in C[x. Let f.3].10].5].15].7.misc.6. Suppose that every element of R that is not in M is a unit of R. Problem 15 (6 points) [10.6. Problem 8 (4 points) [10.7]. Prove that if the product f (x)g(x) is zero. with M an ideal of R. g) is a finite dimensional vector space over C.6. Problem 11 (2 points) [10. Is there an integral domain containing exactly 10 elements? Problem 10 (4 points) [10. then there is a non-zero element c 2 R such that cg(x) = 0. Problem 7 (4 points) [10. Prove that the ring R = C[x. Prove that R0 is the zero ring if and only if a is nilpotent. Prove that the maximal ideals of the ring of integers are the principal ideals generated by prime integers. but that F3 [x]/(x3 + x + 1) is not a field. Prove that the ring F2 [x]/(x3 + x + 1) is a field. and let R0 be the ring obtained from R by adjoining an inverse of a. Let f (x). Problem 14 (6 points) [10. Problem 12 (4 points) [10. Let a be an element of a ring R. Problem 9 (2 points) [10. Prove that an integral domain with finitely many elements is a field.21].5. Let R be a ring. Problem 13 (4 points) [10.misc. .(b) Describe the idempotents corresponding to this product decomposition (see the previous exercise).23].7.7.2]. y]/(f. Prove that the polynomial ring R[x] is an integral domain. Prove that M is a maximal ideal and that moreover it is the only maximal ideal of R. y] with no common factor.

5. (a) Let f (x) 2 F [x] be non-zero. Problem 4 (2 points) p [11. .3]. p 0 Problem p 3 (2 points) [11. but you must write up your own solutions. In particular.1].) Let p 6= 3 be a prime integer. Late homework is not accepted. i. Show that there is an element c of F ⇥ . Let R be an integral domain and let ⇡ be a non-zero non-unit of R. Prove that Z[x] is not a PID.e. maximal ideals are prime. (a) Show that R is a Euclidean domain. . (ii) p can be written in the form a2 + ab + b2 with a. (iv) p = 1 (mod 3). an ) = 1. A polynomial f (x) = an xn + · · · + a0 in R[x] is primitive if gcd(a0 . and f (x) is primitive if and only if c(f ) is a unit of R. (iii) the polynomial x2 + x + 1 has a root in Fp . Show that f (x) 2 R[x] if and only if c(f ) 2 R.7. Prove that 2 and 3 and 1 + elements of the ring Z[ 5].2]. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. Prove that Q( d) and Q( d0 ) are di↵erent subfields of C. Factor 30 into primes Z[i].. The element c is called the content of f . The ideas we used in analyzing Z[i] can be used to do this problem. and thus a UFD. .1b]. and denoted c(f ). or will be marked down. (This is sometimes called the ring of Eisenstein integers. (c) Show that the following conditions are equivalent: (i) p factors as ⇡⇡ in R. Problem 8 (16 points) Let R be a UFD with field of fractions F .Math 494 • Homework 3 • Due February 2 Homework is due at the beginning of class. An ideal I of a commutative ring R is called prime if the following condition holds: given elements a. . Problem 2 (2 points) [11. unique up to multiplication by units of R. (d) Factor 30 into primes in R. (b) Show that either p is prime in R or p = ⇡⇡ for some prime ⇡ of R. . Problem 6 (2 points).6. b 2 R such that ab 2 I. Problem 1 (2 points) [11. such that c 1 f (x) belongs to R[x] and is primitive. Let d and d be distinct square-free integers. and thus a PID. Show that I is prime if and only if R/I is a domain. p 5 and 1 p 5 are irreducible Problem 5 (2 points). Let ⇣ = e2⇡i/3 and R = Z[⇣]. Problem 7 (12 points). no element of R properly divides all the ai . b 2 Z.2. either a 2 I or b 2 I. (b) Let f (x) 2 F [x]. Solutions must be presented clearly. Show that ⇡ is prime if and only if the principal ideal (⇡) is prime.

[Hint: reduce to the case c(f ) = c(g) = 1. The section of the textbook on Gauss’s Lemma (or the Wikipedia article) could be helpful. (ii) Show that f (x) is irreducible in F [x]. g(x) 2 F [x] be non-zero. conclude f (x) divides either g(x) or h(x) in F [x]. show that f (x) divides either g(x) or h(x) in R[x]. Show that c(f g) = c(f )c(g). choose a prime ⇡ of R dividing c(f g). (iii) Supposing f (x) divides g(x)h(x) in R[x]. [Hints: (i) Show that f (x) is primitive. Use the fact that (R/⇡)[x] is a domain to obtain a contradiction. and reduced mod ⇡. If c(f g) 6= 1.(c) Let f (x).] (d) Show that an irreducible element f (x) of R[x] is prime.] (e) Show that R[x] is a UFD. and thus prime in F [x]. . (iv) Finally.

but you must write up your own solutions. 1 + 3). Factor (6) into primes ideals explicitly.Math 494 • Homework 4 • Due February 9 Homework is due at the beginning of class.7.4]. This is not the ring of integers in Q( 3). A = {n↵ + m | n. Determine whether or not 11 is an irreducible element of R and whether or not (11) is a prime ideal of R. and let A be a non-zero ideal of R. and so the Key Lemma is not true for R. (a) Show that A and B are coprime if and only if A + B = (1).) Problem 3 (4 points) [11. . Show that AA is not a principal ideal.2]. (That is. Let R be the ring of integers in an imaginary quadratic field and let A and B be non-zero ideals of R. Determine whether or not the subgroup of R Problem 2 (4 points) [11. p Let A be the ideal (2.1]. p p Problem 4 (4 points) [11. Let R = Z[ p 5]. Solutions must be presented clearly. Let R be the ring of integers in an imaginary quadratic field and let P be a non-zero prime ideal of R. Factor (14) into prime ideals explicitly.3]. Let R = Z[ 3]. Problem 1 (6 points) [11. [Hint: HW2 may be useful!] Problem 8 (4 points). Let R be the ring of integers in an imaginary quadratic field. (a) Show that there exists an element ↵ 2 R such that P divides (↵) but P 2 does not divide (↵). (b) Show that every ideal of R/P n is of the form (↵i ) for some 0  i  n. Let R = Z[ 5].8. Let R = Z[ generated by the given elements is an ideal: p (a) 5 and 1 + 5 p (b) 7 and 1 + 5 p p p (c) 4 2 5 and 2 + 2 5 and 6 + 4 5 p 5]. Show that R/AB is isomorphic to R/A ⇥ R/B.8. Problem 7 (4 points). or will be marked down.7.6]. Let R = Z[ p 6]. We say that A and B are coprime if there exists no non-zero prime ideal dividing both of them. Prove that there exists an integer ↵ 2 Z and an element 2 R such that A is generated as a subgroup of R by ↵ and .8. Problem 6 (4 points) [11. Late homework is not accepted. (b) Suppose A and B are coprime. m 2 Z}.8. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems.3]. p Problem 5 (4 points) [11.

(a) Suppose that S and T are rings in which every ideal is principal. every ideal of R is generated by at most two elements. Show that there exists y 2 A so that A = (x. . y). Let R be the ring of integers in an imaginary quadratic field and let A be a non-zero ideal of R. [Hint: apply (b) to the ring R/(x).] In particular. (b) Show that every ideal of R/A is principal. [Hint: factor A into prime ideals and use problems 7 and 8.Problem 9 (6 points).] (c) Let x 2 A be a non-zero element. by the same proof. This is true whenever R is the ring of integers in a number field (not just an imaginary quadratic field). Show that the same is true for S ⇥ T .

. Let : Zk ! Zk be a homomorphism given by multiplication by an integer matrix A. Prove or disprove: If R/I is a free R-module then I = 0. Find a ring R and an ideal I of R that is not finitely generated. depending only on R.4].3]. Determine the number of isomorphism classes of abelian groups of order 400.misc. Let R be a ring and let V be a free R-module of finite rank. Show that there exists an integer n > 0. Determine all module homomorphisms R ! R. where M is a maximal ideal.1. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. Let I be an ideal of a ring R. is either zero Problem 3 (2 points) [12.5. Prove or disprove: M is a free R-module.4]. such that if x 2 R is nilpotent then xn = 0. Solutions must be presented clearly. Problem 10 (4 points). Show that the image of has finite index if and only if A is nonsingular and that if so. Let R be a noetherian ring. Problem 1 (2 points) [12.6.9]. but you must write up your own solutions. considered as an R-module. Problem 4 (2 points) [12. Let R = C[x. or will be marked down.4. Let R be a ring.1]. Problem 5 (4 points) [12. Problem 9 (2 points) [12.1. Late homework is not accepted. y] and let M be the ideal (x. Problem 2 (4 points) [12. (b) Prove Schur’s lemma: if : S ! S 0 is a homomorphism of simple modules then or an isomorphism. (a) Prove that any simple module is isomorphic to R/M .2. Prove that the multiplicative group Q⇥ of rational numbers is isomorphic to the direct sum of a cyclic group of order 2 and a free abelian group with countably many generators. Problem 7 (4 points) [12. Problem 8 (2 points) [12. y). then the index is equal to | det A|.10].2]. Prove or disprove: (a) Every set of generators contains a basis.6].2.2. (b) Every linearly independent set can be extended to a basis. A module is called simple if it is not the zero module and if it has no proper submodule.1].Math 494 • Homework 5 • Due February 16 Homework is due at the beginning of class. Problem 6 (2 points) [12.

Problem 11 (4 points). Suppose that R/I is noetherian and that every ideal of R contained in I is finitely generated. This example shows that a subring of a noetherian ring need not be noetherian. Show that R is not noetherian. zn ] for some n. . (c) Assume ↵ is irrational. (a) Show that R is a subring of C[x. and therefore noetherian. . . Let ↵ be a positive real number. . Let R be a ring and let I be an ideal of R. Let R ⇢ C[x. . Show that R is a quotient of C[z1 . y]. y] be the C-span of all monomials of the form xi y j with j  ↵i. Problem 12 (6 points). Prove that R is noetherian. (b) Assume ↵ is rational.

where ⇣ = e2⇡i/3 . (That is. Prove that 1 cannot be written as a sum of squares in K.] (b) Suppose that F has characteristic 0. Let K/F be a field extension. Let ⇣ = e2⇡i/7 and let ⌘ = e2⇡i/5 .3.3. and let K = Q( ). Let R be an integral domain containing a field F as a subring and which is finite dimensional when viewed as an F -vector space. Show that there exists an irreducible separable polynomial g 2 F [t] n such that f (t) = g(tp ) for some n. Let ↵ and are algebraic then ↵ and are algebraic. Let ↵ be the real cube root of 2. Prove that ⌘ 62 Q(⇣). Let = ⇣ 3 2.1.1]. in the ring K[t]. p Problem 3 (4 points) [13. Prove that if ↵ + and ↵ Problem 8 (14 points).3]. Prove that R is a field. Prove that F (↵2 ) = F (↵). This means that if K/F is any field extension then. An element of an extension K/F is separable if it is algebraic and its minimal polynomial is separable.3. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. Problem 4 (4 points) [13.2. give a commutative ring R containing a field F such that R is finite dimensional over F but R is not a field.2. . ) where ↵ and have relatively prime degrees n and m over F . Problem 5 (4 points) [13. Problem 2 (2 points). Let F be a field. Problem 1 (4 points) [13. but you must write up your own solutions. Let K/F be a field extension such that K = F (↵.2]. A polynomial f 2 F [t] is separable if it has no repeated roots. Compute the minimal polynomial of 1 + ↵2 over Q. Prove that f 0 = 0. Solutions must be presented clearly. (a) Let f 2 F [t] be an irreducible polynomial that is not separable.10]. Thus separability is not an interesting property in characteristic 0.6]. Late homework is not accepted. or will be marked down. Problem 7 (4 points) [13. we assume F has characteristic p. Give a counterexample to Problem 1 when R is not assumed to be an integral domain. Then f is the minimal polynomial of a but f 0 (a) = 0 too.. Problem 6 (4 points) [13. (c) Let f 2 F [t] be irreducible. and let ↵ be an element of K such that F (↵) has degree 5 over F . be complex numbers.8]. e. f (t) = tp has f 0 = 0. Note that f 0 = 0 does not imply f is a constant in characteristic p.g. where f 0 denotes the derivative of f . Show that any irreducible polynomial in F [t] is separable.1]. For the remainder of this problem. [Hint: pick K/F and a 2 K such that (t a)2 divides f .Math 494 • Homework 6 • Due March 16 Homework is due at the beginning of class.) Problem 2 (4 points) [13. the element f is not divisible by (t a)2 for any a 2 K. Prove that [K : F ] = nm.3.

Show that if F is perfect then any irreducible polynomial in F [t] is separable.] n (e) Let K/F be an extension. (f) Let F = Fp (u).g. Give an example of an extension K/F and an element a 2 K that is algebraic but not separable over F . [Hint: show that if g 2 F [t] is any polynomial then g(tp ) = h(t)p for some other polynomial h 2 F [t]. . for some n > 0.. Fp ). and let a 2 K be algebraic over F . and apply (c). Show that ap is separable over F .(d) The field F is called perfect if every element is a pth power (e.

In particular. (ii). K does not contain xy. (b) Show that condition (iv) is implied by the other four conditions if the characteristic of L is not 2. You can use this to inductively prove statements about elements of K. for each of these conditions. y 2 K then xy 2 K. and (v) are essential by way of example. and (v). (ii) If x. Explicitly construct an isomorphism between them. let Kn+1 be the subspace of L spanned over F2 by Kn and the elements 1/f with f 2 Kn non-zero. Let K0 be the F2 -span of 1. In this problem. (v) If x 2 K and x 6= 0 then 1/x 2 K. where @x and @y are the partial derivatives with respect to x and y. you will examine the logical interdependence of these conditions. or will be marked down. but that satisfies all the other conditions. Solutions must be presented clearly. Problem 1 (10 points). Let K be a field of characteristic p. Hint: K be obtained inductively as follows. and let ⇣ 2 K be a pn th root of 1. That is. (iii) If x 2 K then x 2 K. Having defined Kn . Neither 3 nor 5 is a square in the field F7 . p p Problem 2 (4 points). and thus does not satisfy (iv). x. (d) Assuming L has characteristic p > 0. but you must write up your own solutions. Then K is the union of the Kn . Then K is a subfield of L if and only if it satisfies the following conditions: (i) 1 2 K. . by the classification of finite fields. for some n 0. and y in L. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. Problem 3 (2 points). (iv) If x. Show that if f 2 K then @x (@y (f )) = 0. Show that ⇣ = 1. (a) Show that conditions (i). (ii). and so F7 ( 3) and F7 ( 5) are degree 2 extensions of F7 . show that condition (iii) is implied by the other conditions.Math 494 • Homework 7 • Due March 30 Homework is due at the beginning of class. Let K be the smallest subset of L containing x and y and satisfying conditions (i). Let L be a field and let K be a subset of L. (iii). y). They are therefore isomorphic. construct a subset K of a field L that is not a subfield. y 2 K then x + y 2 K. Late homework is not accepted. (iii). (c) Let L = F2 (x.

. Show that x(q 1)/2 2 {±1} and that x(q 1)/2 = 1 if and only if x is a square. an ) 2 F n such that f (a1 .Problem 4 (2 points). and so can be thought of as an extension field of C((t)). Show that there exists a point (a1 . (a) Show that C((t)) is in fact a field. Show that 1 is a square in Fq . . . an ) = 0. A Laurent series is a formal series of the form a nt n + ··· + a 1t 1 + a 0 + a 1 t + a 2 t2 + · · · where the ai are complex numbers and n is an integer. . Let q be a power of an odd prime p. the union of the C((t1/n )) is the algebraic closure of C((t)). The set of Laurent series is denoted C((t)). . In fact. Problem 5 (4 points). . and let x 2 F⇥ q . and this makes C((t)) into a ring. xn ] be a nonconstant polynomial. One defines addition and multiplication of Laurent series in the obvious manner. Problem 7 (4 points). . . Let q be an even power of a prime p. This contains C((t)). . Problem 9 (8 points). . Let F be an algebraically closed field and let f 2 F [x1 . . Show that every element of Fq is a sum of two squares. (d) Show that C((t1/2 )) is the unique degree 2 extension of C((t)). Problem 6 (2 points). Let C((t1/n )) be the field of Laurent series in t1/n . (c) Show that every element f 2 C((t)) has the form g n for some g 2 C((t1/n )). Let q be a prime power. but only finitely many negative powers are allowed. a Laurent series is a power series where the powers of t are allowed to be both positive and negative. . Let q be a power of an odd prime p. (b) Show that C((t1/n )) has degree n over C((t)). In words. . How many elements of Fq are cubes? Problem 8 (4 points).

(b) Prove that the minimal polynomial for ↵ + is cubic. y i ⌧ (y) = and ⌧ of the field C(y) as follows: i(y 1) . (b) (y) = iy. Problem 2 (4 points) [14. For each of the following sets of automorphisms of the field C(y). K = F ( a.4. i.e.misc. Let ↵ = p 3 2 and ⇣ = e2⇡i/3 and = ↵⇣.15]. (c) Gal(K/L) ⇠ = Z/4Z? Problem 5 (6 points) [14.1. 1 Problem 3 (4 points) [14.15]. (a) Prove that for all c 2 Q the element ↵ + c is a root of a sixth degree polynomial of the form x6 + ax3 + b with a.1. Problem 6 (10 points) [14. y+1 Show that the subgroup G of Aut(C(y)) they generate is isomorphic to A4 . I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. Problem 8 (4 points) [14. where ⇣ = e2⇡i/3 .4]. determine the group of automorphisms they generate and find the fixed field explicitly: (a) (y) = y 1 . (c) (y) = y and ⌧ (y) = y 1 . . b 2 Q. Define automorphisms (y) = y+i . Suppose that K/F is a Galois extension with p Galois p group the Klein 4-group (i. Then determine the fixed field C(y)G . (b) x3 2.4]. How many intermediate fields L are there such that (a) [L : F ] = 4. Let K/F be a Galois extension with group G.. (e) (y) = iy and ⌧ (y) = y 1 .1.2]. Late homework is not accepted.4. Show that K/F is biquadratic.8]. (c) Prove that the minimal polynomial for ↵ has degree 6. Prove that there exists 2 K whose stabilizer in G is exactly H.e. but you must write up your own solutions. (c) x4 + 1. Problem 1 (6 points) [14. Determine the degrees of the splitting fields of the following polynomials (over Q): (a) x4 1.Math 494 • Homework 8 • Due April 6 Homework is due at the beginning of class. b 2 F . Let ⇣ = e2⇡i/5 . b) for some a. Problem 7 (6 points) [14. Problem 4 (6 points) [14. and let H be a subgroup of G. (b) [L : F ] = 9. Prove that Q(⇣) is the splitting field of x5 over Q and determine its Galois group. Z/2Z ⇥ Z/2Z).1..6]. Solutions must be presented clearly. Let K/F be a Galois extension with Gal(K/F ) ⇠ = Z/2Z⇥Z/12Z. or will be marked down.4.3]. (d) (y) = ⇣y and ⌧ (y) = y 1 .

Problem 3 (4 points) [14.Math 494 • Homework 9 • Due April 13 Homework is due at the beginning of class. For each of the following polynomials. (b) u21 u2 + u22 u3 + u23 u1 with n = 3. ↵2 . Problem 2 (2 points). Give an example of fields F ⇢ K ⇢ L such that L/K and K/F are Galois but L/F is not Galois. Let f be an irreducible cubic polynomial with rational coefficients with exactly one real root. Give a Galois extension of Q that has Galois group Z/6Z.4].2. and let be the square root of the discriminant.3]. ). Problem 1 (4 points) [14. Solutions must be presented clearly. . Let f = x3 + px + q be an irreducible cubic polynomial over F . [Hint: Z/6Z is the product of Z/2Z and Z/3Z. and let square root of the discriminant of f . I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. Show that the compositum L1 L2 ⇢ E is Galois over K and that the natural map Gal(L1 L2 /K) ! Gal(L1 /K) ⇥ Gal(L2 /K) is an isomorphism. determine if it is a symmetric function. Problem 9 (8 points) [14.3]. be the Problem 4 (6 points) [14. Give explicit formulas for ↵2 and ↵3 in terms of ↵1 and (and p and q. (c) (u1 + u2 )(u1 + u3 )(u2 + u3 ) with n = 3.] Problem 7 (4 points) [14. but you must write up your own solutions. Then K = F (↵1 . Prove that f remains irreducible over F ( ).2. Show that there exists some Galois extension K/F with Galois group isomorphic to G.5]. and if so. or will be marked down. express it in terms of the elementary symmetric functions. Show that the splitting field of f (over Q) has Galois group S3 .1]. Problem 5 (4 points).3. and negative if not. Prove that the discriminant of a real cubic polynomial is positive if all the roots are real. Problem 8 (4 points). and ↵3 be the three roots of f in K.2. and whatever other elements of F you’d like).5. Let G be a finite group. Problem 6 (4 points). Late homework is not accepted. let K be its splitting field. (a) u21 u2 + u22 u1 with n = 2. Let E/K be a finite Galois extension and let L1 and L2 be intermediate fields that are Galois over K and satisfy L1 \ L2 = K. (d) u31 + u32 + · · · + u3n . Let f be an irreducible cubic polynomial over F . let ↵1 .

↵4 be the roots of f in a splitting field K.7. Next show that the orbit of a root of f under Gal(K/F (⇣)) must have either 1 or p elements.6. or will be marked down. (d) Finally.6. Show that there is some c 2 Z/pZ such that f ( ) = (i( ) 1)c for all 2 G. and therefore f ( ) = (i( ) 1)c for some c 2 Z/pZ. Define a function f : G ! Z/pZ by (u) = ⇣ f ( ) u. Suppose that f : G ! Z/pZ is a function satisfying the identity f ( ⌧ ) = i( )f (⌧ ) + f ( ). (b) x4 + 2x2 + 4. Prove that the discriminants of f and of its cubic resolvent are equal. (d) Describe the situation where some of the products ↵i ↵j are equal. Prove that h(x) is irreducible. show that ⇣ c u is a root of f (x) in F . (c) Z/4Z. Show that f ( ⌧ ) = i( )f (⌧ ) + f ( ).17]. Determine the Galois groups of the following polynomials over Q: (a) x4 + 4x2 + 2. Late homework is not accepted. (a) Prove that ⌘ is the root of a sextic polynomial h(x) with coefficients in F . Now let G be the Galois group of F (⇣)/F . (c) Describe the possibilities for Gal(K/F ) in the following three cases: h is irreducible. it must have one element. h is the product of an irreducible quadratic and an irreducible quartic.Math 494 • Homework 10 • Due April 20 Homework is due at the beginning of class. or else it has an irreducible quadratic factor. Let ⌘ = ↵1 ↵2 . Problem 5 (10 points) [14. and h is the product of three irreducible quadratics. (c) Let u be a root of f (x) in F (⇣).10].12].6.6. where ⇣ is a primitive pth root of unity. Suppose that f (x) = xp a is reducible in F [x]. I encourage you to work with others on homework problems. (a) Show that the splitting field of f is F (⇣). (c) x4 2. but you must write up your own solutions. ↵3 .14]. Recall that there is a natural injective homomorphism i : G ! (Z/pZ)⇥ characterized by (⇣) = ⇣ i( ) for 2 G. (b) D4 . Problem 4 (2 points) [14. Problem 2 (6 points) [14.] (b) Let G be a group and let i : G ! (Z/pZ)⇥ be an injective homomorphism. (b) Assume that the six products ↵i ↵j are distinct. Solutions must be presented clearly. Since f is reducible. ↵2 . Let a be a non-zero element of a field F and let p be a prime number.2]. Find a quartic polynomial over Q whose Galois group is (a) S4 . as follows. [Hint: let K be the splitting field. Problem 1 (6 points) [14. and let ↵1 . Problem 3 (10 points) [14. First show that K contains F (⇣). Prove f (x) has a root in F . Let f (x) be a quartic polynomial. Let f be an irreducible quartic polynomial over F of the form x4 + rx + s. . Use this to conclude K = F (⇣).

Q( 1) does not sit inside a Z/4Z extension of Q. Conclude a2 db2 = c2 d for some c 2 F . The goal of this problem is to show that a quadratic extension p F ( d) sits inside a Z/4Z extension if and only if d p is a sum of two squares. be sure to prove them in your solution. and use this to express d as a sum of two squares. (a) Let F be a field that is not of characteristic 2. b. and that every quadratic extension of F sits inside of a Z/4Z extension. but is a sum of two squares.p Problem 6 (10 points). but Q( 2) does. Prove directly (without using the other parts of this problem) that every element of F is a sum of two squares. b 2 F . where d is some element of F .] p (d) Suppose that 1 2 F . Show that d is a sum of two squares in F . [Hint: p Find a. Let F ( d) be the unique intermediate field of degree 2 over F . . Let G be the set of all non-zero elements a 2 F such that a = b2 + c2 for some b. The generator of the Galois group carries p p a +p p p p a + b d to a b d. p p Hint: K = F ( b d) for some a. c 2 F . Show thatp there exists a Galois extension K/F with group Z/4Z containing the quadratic extensionp F ( d). If you use any of the assertions in this hint. For example. Thus F ( a2 db2 ) is an intermediate field of K of degree 2 over F . p (b) Let K/F be a Galois extension with group Z/4Z. and so their product a2 db2 is in K. Show that G is a subgroup of F ⇥ . and use the extension F ( a + b d). (c) Let d be an element of F that is not a square. c 2 F with c 6= 0 such that a2 db2 = c2 d.