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March 2005

Volume 74
Number 3
United States
Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Washington, DC 20535-0001

Robert S. Mueller III


Contributors’ opinions and statements Features

should not be considered an
endorsement by the FBI for any policy,
program, or service.
Child Pornography Cases A successful interview strategy has
The attorney general has determined
that the publication of this periodical is helped law enforcement officials obtain
necessary in the transaction of the By Randy Bowling
confessions in child pornography cases.
public business required by law. Use and Dave Resch
of funds for printing this periodical has
been approved by the director of the
Office of Management and Budget.

The Cybersex Offender Law enforcement agencies must strive
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin and Children to fully understand and investigate
(ISSN-0014-5688) is published online criminals that sexually victimize
monthly by the Federal Bureau of By Arthur Bowker children.
Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania and Michael Gray
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20535-0001. Periodicals postage paid
at Washington, D.C., and additional

Use of Force, Civil Litigation, The use of less lethal force poses
mailing offices. Postmaster: Send
address changes to Editor, FBI Law challenges for the law enforcement
Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy,
and the Taser
Madison Building, Room 201, By Steve Hougland,
Quantico, VA 22135. Charlie Mesloh,
and Mark Henych
John E. Ott
Associate Editors
Cynthia L. Lewis
David W. MacWha Departments
Bunny S. Morris
Art Director
Denise Bennett Smith 8 Police Practice 22 Bulletin Reports
Assistant Art Director
MassMostWanted Crime
Stephanie L. Lowe
Web-Based Resources
This publication is produced by 10 Video Reviews Corrections
members of the Law Enforcement Autism and Law Enforcement Police Wellness
Communication Unit, Training and
Development Division.
18 Notable Speech 31 Book Review
Internet Address The Start of a New Lifestyle Officer-Involved Shootings
and Use of Force
Send article submissions to Editor, 21 Unusual Weapon
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
FBI Academy, Madison Building, Pager-Style Gun
Room 201, Quantico, VA 22135.

ISSN 0014-5688 USPS 383-310

Obtaining Confessions
with an Effective
Interview Strategy

© John Foxx Images

n effective interview interview and increase the like- using the Internet to facilitate
strategy is paramount lihood of eliciting a confession.1 their criminal activities.2 The
in gaining a confession Most subjects in child following interview strategy has
during a child pornography victimization image cases are proven successful when dealing
investigation. But, interrogative preferential sex offenders— with preferential sex offenders
techniques can prove difficult many of these individuals have in child pornography cases.3
because they require the exhibi- molested children; however,
tion of compassion for individ- their backgrounds often do Investigative Interview
uals that investigators may con- not identify a molestation con- Preparation
sider contemptible. Developing viction. While most of the In addition to basic investi-
a comprehensive interviewing subjects possess and distribute gative practices, investigators
strategy will make investigators child pornography, only a few can prepare for a successful
feel more comfortable at the produce it. Further, child por- interview strategy by obtaining
critical initial stages of the nographers are increasingly information from the FBI’s

March 2005 / 1
Innocent Images National investigators, the subject will that denial by the guilty usually
Initiative program, search know that his illegal activities weakens over time, whereas an
warrants, and informants or have been discovered and innocent person likely will
witnesses. Investigators should thoroughly investigated.4 become more enraged at each
obtain personal information accusation of criminal activity.
regarding the subject’s marital Initial Approach The subject also may protest his
status, criminal and employ- After investigators show innocence through such state-
ment history, and, especially, appropriate identification and ments as “I could not have done
community service because detail the purpose of the inter- this; I am a religious man” or “I
many subjects actively seek view to the subject, they should would not have done that; what
occupations and volunteer state their accusation. A direct would my family think?” Inves-
opportunities where contact accusation statement must be tigators should not interrupt
with children is certain to occur. convincing in its delivery. these types of protests because
Further, investigators can con- Typically, the suspect then will they usually are based, in part,
duct ruse telephone calls, as deny involvement and protest on the truth. Following the
well as trash and mail covers, to his innocence. If the subject subject’s protests, investigators
determine whether the subject states his denial (e.g., “I didn’t should incorporate these partial
listed on a particular Internet do it”), investigators immedi- truths into the interrogation
account under investigation ately should interrupt him. For process by using statements,
actually resides at a specific example, they can turn their such as “I’m glad to hear you
residence. These types of heads, possibly raising their say that; I know you’re a good
thorough preparation increase hands with palms facing the man” or “You are a religious
the probability of gaining a subject in a dismissive motion. man who is devoted to his
confession. Once confronted by Investigators should remember family.” After clearly accusing
the suspect, interviewers should
detail evidence against the
individual. Further, investiga-
tors should follow the accusa-
tion, denials, and protests with a
series of theme-development
Theme Development
Many child pornography
suspects fear that their activities
will be revealed. Therefore,
investigators should address
this concern through theme
development as they approach
Special Agent Bowling is Special Agent Resch is assigned the interview. Interrogation
an instructor in the Law to the Behavioral Analysis Unit
Enforcement Communication in the FBI’s Critical Incident themes consist of rationalizing
Unit at the FBI Academy. Response Group. the crime, projecting blame
onto others, and minimizing

2 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

the offense (RPMs). Investi- your best efforts, but now is ordering me to conduct a
gators can use the following your opportunity to stand up, be search of your property for
examples as a guide in theme a man, and do the right thing for child pornography. I know
development: these kids and your family.” that you possess child
• Rationalization: “I under- Once investigators have pornography. This is not an
stand your situation; you given the subject a reason to arrest warrant. I am not
love kids so much that you confess, they can present a bad- putting handcuffs on you,
were just reaching out to good option, initially presenting and you are not in custody.
help any way you could. a choice unacceptable (or bad) We are not interviewing
Things just got out of hand.” to the subject followed by an your wife at work, and, as
acceptable (or good) one. The you can see, we are not
• Projection of blame: “The bad-good option leads the sub- knocking on your neigh-
problem is that parents do ject toward either a partial or bors’ doors. Nor have your
not spend enough time full confession. For instance, family and friends been

with their children. Once contacted at this time. Right
neglected, kids will do now, this matter is between
anything for attention.” you and me. I have no inter-
• Minimization: “We’re not est in contacting anyone
talking about hurting ...investigators must else until we talk. Child
children here. We’re respond with pornography has been
only talking about a few compassion and detected on your computer,

photographs. You’ve never understanding.... and, shortly, I will show you
harmed anyone.” a sample of the captured
Investigators should avoid images. I will do this so that
judgmental terms during the you can assure me that these
presentation of RPMs to pre- investigators can make state- are children simply from the
clude an eventual molestation ments, such as “Either you’re Internet and not kids you are
confession. After presenting a monster who preys on little hurting in the neighbor-
RPMs, investigators should children or you just possess a hood. My primary concern
look for signs of receptivity by few photographs of kids. Which today is to determine if any
the subject, such as crying, is it?” If the suspect rejects the children in the neighbor-
bowing the head, averting the bad-good option, investigators hood are being harmed. My
eyes, taking deep breaths, and then should start anew with priority today is to identify
slouching, suggesting that the RPMs, looking again for signs any child who may need
individual wants to admit his of receptivity before presenting help.
involvement in the crime. Once a reason to confess and another These statements establish
investigators observe signs of bad-good option. Investigators that investigators 1) are not the
receptivity, they should offer a can use the following example adversary; 2) have no doubt that
reason to confess, which deals to structure a child pornography the subject possesses child
with the subject’s present interrogation: pornography; 3) already have
situation and offers him hope. Mr. Doe, my name is Agent conducted surveillance of the
For example, “I know things Smith, FBI, and this is a subject’s computer; 4) poten-
have gotten out of hand despite warrant from a federal judge tially have sparked the subject’s

March 2005 / 3
Case Examples of Investigators Successfully Using Various Themes
to Obtain Child Pornography Confessions

S ubject #1 possessed, distributed, and pro-

duced pornography in conjunction with
four other subjects who were members of a
Then, investigators presented the scenario of
the possibility of computer examiners find-
ing alarming material and gave the subject
volunteer search and rescue group. He em- the opportunity to explain that material up
braced the theme that the children he was front. Subject #3 admitted that bathtub pic-
assaulting were not babies or virgins and that tures of his daughters might be found. Fur-
in the end, he was trying to help them finan- ther, he admitted that he was having sex with
cially. Investigators allowed the subject to his daughters and videotaping the acts. He
blame the children’s parents for lack of affec- led investigators to the tapes and disks.
tion and attention, which the children subse- Subject #4, a 20-year-old female, initially
quently sought from him. At the interview, all confessed to possessing child pornography.
five subjects provided confessions; four pled Progressively, she admitted to involvement
guilty and one was convicted at trial. Subject in the production of child pornography. Ulti-
#1 thanked investigators for being decent and mately, she confessed to seducing a 35-year-
professional during their initial approach. The old woman to gain access to the woman’s 12-
empathy shown to him successfully elicited year-old daughter and using that girl and
his confession and cooperation. other minor females for sex and the produc-
Subject #2 was an unmarried male el- tion of child pornography.
ementary school teacher who quickly admit- Subject #5 possessed 30,000 images of
ted to the possession of child pornography. child sexual victimization and was involved
Under the progressive method of obtaining in distribution. He was a 45-year-old white
the complete confession, the teacher admitted male, a geological engineer, and married
to a sexual desire for the boys in his class. He with two teenage boys. He admitted that he
then admitted that every time he touched, spent hours each evening downloading child
hugged, comforted, or consoled a child in his pornography and masturbating. He con-
class, he felt sexually stimulated. He progres- fessed while rationalizing that he was not
sively confessed that the only reason he be- harming children, just feeding his sexual
came a teacher was to have access to young desire for children via the Internet. Subject
boys. #5 was a prior Boy Scout troop leader. He
Subject #3 was a divorced, 45-year-old admitted at the end of the interview that the
male employed as a manager of a halfway lack of condemnation and the validation of
house. He quickly confessed to possessing his long-held rationalizations aided in his
and then distributing child pornography. willingness to confess. He pled guilty.

interest in viewing some of the may molest neighborhood the full confession. Investiga-
evidence; and 5) have mini- children, the goal at this time is tors should continue to present
mized the child pornography as to achieve admissions through RPMs and observe the subject
being less serious than harming the usage of interrogative to give him a reason to confess
children. Although the subject techniques as a foundation for and a bad-good option.

4 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

We both know that things Often, at this stage, the progressively admit the more
have gone on too long and subject will admit to the crime serious violations. Scenarios,
cannot continue. It’s time to and latch onto the minimization such as “Is there anything my
put an end to this and move offered by the investigator. computer examiners will find
on. I have worked these Numerous cases have occurred alarming on your computer that
cases for years and have where the subject blurts, “I we can clear up now? Pictures
dealt with two types of don’t have sex with children; I of kids in your class? Pictures
people: those who hate and just download pictures and of kids in the bathtub?” may
hurt children and are utterly masturbate.” Often, investiga- lead to an admission. If so,
evil, and others who hon- tors must respond with compas- investigators should press
estly care about children and sion and understanding, sug- forward, inquiring about the
are affectionate toward gesting that all men look at porn possibility of finding pictures
them, but get caught up in a and that it was not the subject’s of the offender with the children
mess they need help getting choice to have a preference for in situations not designed to

out of. I don’t think you’re harm the children. Investigators
evil. But, I have to leave should have the subject initial
here today convinced that the images, verifying those that
while I know you are look- came from the Internet versus
ing at pictures of kids on the ...confessions keep children in his neighborhood.
Internet and masturbating, communities and The subject then reinforces his
you are not a monster living residents safe by confession in his attempt to
in the middle of an unsus- ensuring that deny activity with children.
pecting neighborhood. Are subjects no longer Then, investigators should
you hurting the neighbor- address the topic of actual
hood children or just down-
can victimize contact with children and

loading Internet child porn innocent children. identify victims with the intent
for your own sexual needs of distinguishing the subject’s
in the privacy of your own “young friends.” The subject
home? likely will identify children he
Investigators have given the children. Once they obtain the has not molested, but those
subject the option of confessing initial confession, investigators children can be interviewed
to the crime or confessing to then can continue to build on later to identify their friends
being a monster, not the option the same interview strategy to who may be victims.
of denying the crime. The acquire details regarding the With these admissions,
admission of masturbation or extent of the subject’s criminal investigators should remember
other sexual activity connected activity. the increased significance of
to the child pornography is child pornography as peripheral
important—subjects may be Confessions material in other violent crimes.
detained based on their admis- Investigators should build This method has resulted in the
sions that they actively used the from initial to complete confes- progressive admissions of
child pornography in a sexual sion. From possession to distri- individuals, starting with the
way, thereby creating a threat to bution to production, investiga- possession of pornography and
their communities. tors should guide the subject to ending with the confession that

March 2005 / 5
Elements of Interrogation
Convincingly Accuse the Suspect • Accept the protest and incorporate it into
• Tell the suspect you are aware he is involved providing reasons to confess.
in the crime.
Prevent Mental Withdrawal
• Show case facts and refer to real or implied
evidence to convince the suspect of the • Recognize that withdrawal often is a re-
futility of denial. sponse to failure of the denials and protests.
• Observe the suspect’s reaction. If he denies • Move closer and use the suspect’s name;
involvement, restate the accusation. If the force the suspect to listen.
suspect makes no denial, this is a strong • Present a sincere demeanor.
indicator of guilt.
Watch for Signs of Receptivity
Interrupt Denials by the Suspect • Observe telltale signs, mostly nonverbal in
• Interrupt and prevent any additional denial nature (e.g., subject establishing barriers,
attempts. drooping his head, leaning his body
• Realize that the guilty’s attempts at denial forward, crying).
will weaken; the innocent’s will get stronger • Reduce reasons to confess to a succinct
and angrier. concept.
• Tell the suspect it is his turn to listen.
Present a Bad-Good Option
Provide Reasons to Confess • Describe one option despicable in nature.
• Tell the suspect why he committed the crime: • Present another acceptable option that
rationalize, project, minimize (RPMs). follows with the reasons provided to
• Conduct a monologue with the subject if confess.
possible. • Suggest that the suspect’s actions were based
• Give acceptable reasons for the suspect to on the good option, rather than the bad.
admit the truth. • Ask the suspect to confirm this suggestion
• Remember that patience, persistence, and (a mere nod of the head will suffice).
patter are the keys to success. • Begin to elicit the confession if confirmed.
Spend more time developing the RPMs
Redirect Protests and reasons to confess if denied.
• Understand that protests are reasons for
innocence that the suspect provides. Investigators must refine and personalize this
template for each subject. It has proven most suc-
• Realize that usually only the guilty will cessful with preferential sex offenders who have
present protests because denials have failed. not been through the criminal justice system. In-
• Remember that protests usually have some vestigators may contact the FBI’s Behavioral
factual basis and, therefore, can be defended Analysis Unit at 703-632-4400 for assistance with
comfortably by the suspect; do not try to interview and investigative strategies, trial assis-
refute them. tance, and expert warrants and testimony.

Source: Edgar M. Miner, “The Importance of Listening in the Interview and Interrogation Process,” FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, June 1984, 12-16.

6 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

the only reason the subject they will elicit admissions from
became an elementary school guilty subjects. Confessions Wanted:
teacher was to have access to eliminate lengthy trial prepara- Notable Speeches
young boys. Additionally, this tions, help the case rapidly
approach has gained initial move to sentencing,6 and allow
admissions of possession, pro- the investigators to move on to
gressing to the subject eventu-
ally leading investigators to the
another assignment, focusing
critical resources in other direc-
T he FBI Law Enforcement
Bulletin seeks transcripts
of presentations made by crim-
videos and disks documenting a tions. Further, confessions keep inal justice professionals for
subject’s sexual assault of his communities and residents safe its Notable Speech depart-
own daughter. Investigators by ensuring that subjects no ment. Anyone who has
should avoid displaying judg- longer can victimize innocent delivered a speech recently
ment and anger. Rather, they children. and would like to share the
should show sympathy, under- information with a wider
audience may submit a trans-
standing, patience, and accep- Endnotes cript of the presentation to the
tance, allowing the subject to 1
For a more in-depth discussion of Bulletin for consideration.
offer any excuses and explana- the characteristics and traits of subjects in As with article submis-
tions along with admissions. child pornography investigations, refer to sions, the Bulletin staff will
Kenneth V. Lanning, National Center for edit the speech for length and
Conclusion the Analysis of Violent Crime, Sexual clarity, but, realizing that the
Children are at increased Victimization of Children (FBI Academy,
information was presented
risk for crime victimization.5 2
Philip Jenkins, Beyond Tolerance: orally, maintain as much of
Child sexual victimization cases Child Pornography on the Internet (New the original flavor as possible.
often prove mentally over- York, NY: New York University Press, Presenters should submit their
whelming even to the most 2001); Carlos A. Arnaldo, Child Abuse transcripts typed and double-
seasoned investigator; compas- and the Internet: Ending the Silence (New spaced on 8 ½- by 11-inch
York, NY: United Nations Educational, white paper with all pages
sion for subjects in these cases Scientific and Cultural Foundation and
is difficult, but developing a numbered. When possible, an
Berghahn Books, 2001); and Heather electronic version of the tran-
plan for the investigative inter- Jacobson and Rebecca Green, “Computer
script saved on computer disk
view can lead to quicker resolu- Crimes,” American Criminal Law Review
39 (Spring 2002): 225. should accompany the docu-
tions to cases. 3 ment. Send the material to:
The authors based this article on their
Investigators often can experiences investigating child pornogra-
obtain confessions in child phy cases. They recommend that investi- Editor, FBI Law
pornography investigations gators tailor this strategy as needed to Enforcement Bulletin
using constructive interrogative particular cases and use it in conjunction FBI Academy
techniques. By carefully con- with other interrogation methods. Madison Building,
For illustrative purposes and to Room 201
ducting investigative interview maintain clarity, the authors employ
preparation; using an effective masculine pronouns for subjects.
Quantico, VA 22135
initial approach; developing a 5
D. Finkelhor and R. Ormrod, Child telephone: 703-632-1952,
theme (rationalizing, projecting Abuse Reported to the Police, May 2001, e-mail:
blame, and minimizing); pursu- retrieved on July 13, 2004, from http://
ing a progressive confession; 6
R.A. Leo, “Inside the Interrogation
and identifying victims, agen- Room,” Journal of Criminal Law and
cies increase the likelihood that Criminology 86, no. 2 (1996): 266-304.

March 2005 / 7
Police Practice
MassMostWanted other officers. As more banks updated their sur-
An Online Tool veillance cameras by installing digital systems,
this process became easier and more effective.
for Law Enforcement Unfortunately, only people on the e-mail lists re-
By William G. Brooks III, M.A. ceived these pictures.
The working group recognized the need for a

S ince early 2002, a partnership has existed

between the banking and law enforcement
communities of Massachusetts. The Bank Robbery
Web-based solution that served the entire state.
Four officers from the Wellesley and Westwood
Police Departments designed MassMostWanted,
an easy-to-use Web site with an easy-to-remember
Working Group, consisting of Massachusetts
Bankers Association (MBA) executives and bank name, for law enforcement and the general public.
security officers joined by representatives from the While bank robberies generally make up a large
FBI, Massachusetts State Police, Massachusetts portion of the cases posted on MassMostWanted,
Chiefs of Police Association, and the Boston and the site also features crimes, such as fraud, assault,
Wellesley Police Departments, has explored ways and other types of thefts.
to prevent bank robberies and apprehend subjects Each page of MassMostWanted features 15
responsible for committing these crimes in the thumbnail photographs of criminals caught in the
state. act by surveillance cameras. By clicking on each
The effectiveness of the working group is evi- image, the user can view the “case page,” which
denced, in part, by the centerpiece of its efforts, includes a larger version of the picture, any avail- This easy-to-use able additional images, a description of the offense
Web site provides a central source of information (including date, time, and location), and the name
pertaining to subjects and their crimes and serves and telephone number of the investigator. A “tool
the community as a whole—from the uniformed box” on the screen allows the viewer to e-mail a tip
police officer to the civilian who may recognize to the officer or send the page to a friend. Investiga-
someone on the street from a picture posted on the tors update the case status when they obtain a
site. subject’s identity; out of concern that criminals can
check the site, authorities normally do not add this
The Web Site information until they have the individual in cus-
Because many bank robbers are serial offend- tody. In one instance, officers did not even have to
ers, catching them after the first or second robbery identify a subject; after seeing his picture on
serves as a primary goal of law enforcement agen- MassMostWanted, the individual became fright-
cies, as this prevents future occurrences. Many of ened and turned himself in, even bringing the
these individuals become photographed, so offi- money with him.
cers who disseminate the pictures widely enough Recent upgrades include new search and data
often learn the identities of subjects and capture collection capabilities. Users now can navigate
them. MassMostWanted’s numerous cases according to
Before computer use became common, investi- desired criteria. For instance, an officer investigat-
gators mailed photographs to counterparts in other ing a bank robbery can browse by gender, com-
jurisdictions or traveled to show the pictures in plexion, and type of crime. Further, civilians can
person. Facsimile machines allowed officers to search the site for occurrences in their own
distribute images widely, but the quality of the cities.
pictures suffered. Users also can subscribe to a newsletter—
Upon the arrival of the Internet, investigators an e-mail containing cases added since the pre-
began scanning photographs and e-mailing them to vious edition; this feature allows recipients to stay

8 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

abreast of investigations posted on the site from bordering states began sending investigations
without even logging on. However, because for inclusion on the Web site. For a time,
MassMostWanted requires little time to browse, MassMostWanted staff posted some of those
many people prefer to check the site for updates. cases. However, concern arose that because the
Often, law enforcement officers and bank security site’s primary focus on Massachusetts gave users
officials set it as their home page. an expectation that they may recognize a subject,
Law enforcement personnel investigating bank posting investigations from other states could di-
robberies rely on MassMostWanted as a standard minish that anticipation and, thus, discourage use
investigative tool. In addition to of MassMostWanted.
using it to help identify subjects, The officers who adminis-
officers have found that they can ter the Web site determined that
link robberies throughout the re-
gion. Also, authorities have re-
ceived important tips from the
public—even within a few days of
“ The working group
recognized the
they could replicate it else-
where at less expense as the de-
sign work already was done.
Therefore, MassMostWanted
a crime—because photos of rob- need for a Web- staff approached representa-
bers become posted on the site based solution that tives in other states. Soon,
daily. On one occasion, a rail served the entire Maine-MostWanted was up
commuter recognized an indi- state. and running. Additionally, New
vidual from the Web site and Hampshire now has its site
alerted the nearest officer, who ar-
rested the subject on the spot.
The Tip Program
” online and Rhode Island shortly
will follow. These sites are
linked together, with access
provided by a “drop-down box.” And, they look
In 2002, as the working group prepared for and function alike—which makes them equally
MassMostWanted to go online, the MBA reacti- user-friendly.
vated a program that—before going dormant for
several years—provided funds for cash rewards to Conclusion
citizens who helped identify a bank robber and for Together, the banking and law enforcement
payments to confidential informants who worked communities of Massachusetts continue to fight
with authorities on bank robbery cases. Funded by bank robberies in the state. One of the successes of
member banks and administered by the MBA and this partnership is the Web site www.Mass-
the Worcester County Fraudulent Check Associa-, an important tool that officers
tion, the MassMost-Wanted Tip Program is adver- have come to rely on and that other states have
tised on every case page of the Web site pertaining begun to replicate. This central, easy-to-use source
to a bank robbery. When police departments sub- of information pertaining to these crimes serves
mit documentation attesting that a citizen has pro- investigators and citizens alike and continues
vided information leading to the arrest of a subject, to prove its value in the fight against bank
the program provides the funds to the agency. robberies.
The Network Deputy Chief Brooks serves with the Wellesley,
The success of MassMostWanted has drawn Massachusetts, Police Department.
interest from authorities outside Massachusetts.
Shortly after it went online, police departments

March 2005 / 9
Video Reviews

Autism and Law Enforcement, produced well as the desire to please others, can create
by Dennis Debbaudt and directed by Dave confusion for investigators.
Legacy, April 2004. The segment on restraint and arrest high-
The video Autism and Law Enforcement pro- lights risks associated with physical control.
vides a quick and engaging education in autism People with autism typically lack the under-
that can help increase safety for both officers and standing that continued struggling may require
individuals with autism, as well as minimize the officers to use a higher level of force to restrain
potential for litigation that could occur as a result them. Lights and sirens can create too much
of a misunderstanding. Interviews and vignettes sensory input, causing even greater problems
involving people with autism concretely convey with communication and control. Approxi-
the reality of how challenging they can be to mately 40 percent of people with autism have
interact with and how vulnerable to crime and seizures, which stress can trigger. Additionally,
exploitation they are. Approximately 1 in every they may have underdeveloped trunk muscles
250 children born will be affected by some form making them unable to support their airways,
of autism, a developmental disability that usually which creates a high potential for positional
appears before the age of 3. Each will have asphyxia.
difficulty interacting socially and communicat- The 21-minute video has a break to accom-
ing, which will challenge police attempting to modate viewing at two roll calls. It provides an
help them or investigate crimes. accurate start in broadening the understanding of
The first challenge is recognizing that some- autism, which can only serve to increase offic-
one has autism. Only about 50 percent of people ers’ safety and that of people with autism. After
with autism speak, and they do so in non- viewing this video, officers will be better
conventional ways. In one segment of the video, equipped to consider autism when assessing be-
a young woman speaks rapidly, stringing to- havior during personal encounters. Officers who
gether her address and phone number as a result take the initiative to become acquainted with the
of rote memorization. People with autism typi- people in their communities who have autism
cally lack social skills and an understanding of will be even more prepared. The video’s pro-
societal norms. Consequently, others may per- ducer has an adult son with autism and is a
ceive them as belligerent. This is demonstrated committed advocate for people with autism and
in a segment with a young man who seems to a friend of law enforcement. His realistic expec-
mock an officer when he repeats back the tations, belief in police officers’ skills and well-
officer’s exact words and commands due to an meaning intentions, and interest in the safety of
associated behavior called echolalia. officers and people with autism come through
The video also illustrates how open to sug- with sincerity. To obtain ordering information,
gestion autistic individuals can be when inter- readers should call 772-398-9756 or visit http//
viewed. Four young adults are questioned indi-
vidually about Miranda and their understanding
of its meaning. When asked if they would “waive Reviewed by
their rights,” all four, with tentative smiles on Mary Otto
their faces, raise their right or left hand to wave Oregon Police Corps
at the interviewer. This literal interpretation, as Boring, Oregon

10 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Autism and Law Enforcement, produced particular disability may result in an inappro-
by Dennis Debbaudt and directed by Dave priate response or, worse, an unnecessary
Legacy, April 2004. arrest or excessive use of force.
Chief executives in the 21st century face The medical profession continues its ef-
incredible challenges meeting training needs forts to identify the cause of autism. In the
of their respective agencies. Since September meantime, however, research had indicated
11, 2001, federal, state, and local training man- that it is the fastest growing developmental
dates have warranted tremendous attention for disability in the United States, affecting 15 out
chief executives. Nonetheless, meeting the of 10,000 people. It is four times more com-
seemingly endless needs of other in-service mon in boys than in girls, and children are
training issues cannot be ignored. Short-dura- diagnosed within the first 3 years of life.
tion videos viewed at roll calls represent one Because people with autism have a propen-
avenue law enforcement agencies can consider sity to wander and sometimes do not respond to
to meet training requirements. This type of questions, they can be misjudged and viewed
media provides officers with the latest tech- as suspicious in nature. Consequently, officers
niques and information on any number of sub- often fail to recognize some of the behavioral
jects that do not necessarily require a hands-on traits of an individual with autism when re-
approach. sponding to calls for service. The sensory over-
My review of Autism and Law Enforce- load that the person experiences often is inten-
ment, a 21-minute video, not only enlightened sified by the officer’s command presence,
me as a police chief but made me immediately shiny badge, radio, and firearm. The officer’s
recognize it as a valuable resource for all law mere presence in an interview scenario may
enforcement officers. The producer, a law result in the person responding in a manner that
enforcement veteran and father of a son with is unfamiliar to the officer. The video provides
autism, maintains viewer interest by providing invaluable lessons on how to identify, inter-
clear, concise bullet points about the nature view, and successfully resolve an encounter
of the disability; how officers should approach with such an individual.
an individual with autism; and what to Autism and Law Enforcement is an excel-
expect as a response from an officer’s field lent tool that can raise awareness to promote
interview. successful encounters with people who have
After viewing the tape, I immediately rec- autism. The complexities in the mission of
ognized the importance of familiarizing offi- today’s street officer demand an astute re-
cers with this particular disability. A startling sponse to the differing needs of citizens. This
statistic especially caught my attention: a training video helps accomplish that goal.
greater likelihood exists for encountering a
person with autism in an officer’s daily assign- Reviewed by
ments than that of many other forms of disabil- John M. Skinner
ity. Failure on the part of the officer to recog- Chief, Port St. Lucie, Florida,
nize the inherent characteristics of this Police Department

March 2005 / 11
The Cybersex Offender
and Children

© Digital Stock

T he law enforcement
community increasingly
faces situations involv-
ing explicit chat discussions and
lurking in the Internet’s shad-
ows, these individuals are
particularly threatening to the
community. From the safety of
for purposes that may include
viewing, storing, producing,
sending, and receiving child
pornography; contacting,
other disturbing online activities their homes, pedophiles can use grooming, and enticing juve-
that victimize minors. Officers the Internet to anonymously and niles for victimization; and
encounter troubling images and simultaneously prepare numer- communicating with (and, thus,
dialogue during undercover ous children for future molesta- helping to validate) each other.
operations, as well as other tions. With the click of a Upon their apprehension, these
types of efforts, such as com- mouse, child pornographers individuals often will attempt
puter forensic examinations easily can distribute their to justify their actions. Law
targeted at locating missing collections to many other enforcement officers must learn
children. offenders or even to juveniles. to identify and understand such
Because of the capabilities Cybersex offenders who tar- offenders to effectively diffuse
that computers offer criminals get young people use computers their defenses and lay the

12 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

groundwork for a successful
A recent study of 1,501
Internet users ranging from 10 to
17 years of age revealed the fol-
lowing disturbing information:
• Approximately 1 in 5
received a sexual solicita-
tion over the Internet in the
past year. Mr. Bowker serves as a computer Mr. Gray is a probation officer
crime specialist with the U.S. District with the U.S. District Court,
• One in 33 experienced an Court, Northern District of Ohio Northern District of Ohio
aggressive approach—an Probation Office in Cleveland. Probation Office in Cleveland.
individual who requested
a meeting; telephoned; or
sent regular mail, money,
or gifts. retrieve and control. Because of juveniles to participate in
• One in 4 had unwanted these factors, digital porno- inappropriate conduct. This
exposure to explicit pictures graphic images have a longer exposure serves to desensitize
in the past year. duration of harm for victims young people and make them
than nonelectronic materials. think such behavior is normal.
• One in 17 faced threats or Through the Internet, For these victims, finding
harassment. cybersex offenders can affect justice can prove difficult. Of
• Youths reported less than victims without any physical course, no one country or
10 percent of sexual solici- contact. Individuals easily can authority governs the Internet’s
tations and only 3 percent of forward explicit images to content; issues of child por-
unwanted exposure episodes juveniles. Subjects also can nography and exploitation fre-
to authorities, such as law obtain innocent pictures of quently transcend jurisdictional
enforcement agencies, children via the Internet or boundaries. This causes not
Internet service providers other sources and then “morph” only legal problems but also dif-
(ISP), and appropriate those images into pornography.2 ficulties for juveniles and their
hotlines.1 Until the pictures begin surfac- families when seeking redress.
Cybersex offenses have a ing online, these juveniles may
lasting and, thus, devastating not become aware of this type THE CYBERSEX
effect on victims. For instance, of victimization. OFFENDER
electronically maintained Additionally, these offend-
images do not deteriorate. They ers use electronic images, as Background
also can become dispersed they would with hard copy Research consistently
easier, faster, and to a wider materials, of child pornography revealed a troubling aspect of
audience than hard copy materi- and even favorite cartoon sex offenders—that they held
als. Once distributed on the characters engaged in sexual responsibility for numerous
Internet, they are harder to acts to encourage or entice victimizations beyond those for

March 2005 / 13
which they were convicted. One interests. Thus, the behavior would prove harder and riskier
study described a ratio of nearly becomes reinforced, perhaps to accomplish in the real
30 additional similar crimes to emboldening them to commit world.
each offense.3 Evidence also acts, such as sex with a child, Three, digital equipment
pointed to a comparative fre- in the real world. greatly enhances the ability to
quency of reoffending among Cybersex offenders find the store, catalog, and retrieve the
individuals guilty of child computer and the Internet com- offender’s collection. A com-
pornography. Specifically, a pelling tools in their deviant puter can maintain thousands
study of 54 federal offenders behavior for four general rea- of pornographic files and keep
convicted of possession or sons. One, the Internet provides them hidden from family mem-
distribution found 1,371 victims them with anonymity. They can bers and employers yet readily
of contact sexual crimes never communicate with whomever available for the subject’s
detected by the criminal justice they want with little fear that viewing and other purposes.
system.4 someone will discover or iden- Four, advanced technologies
Offenders who misuse the tify them. Further, individuals permit anyone to produce
Internet to commit lewd acts can portray anyone (e.g., some- pornography. Offenders easily
involving juveniles have found one from the opposite sex, can morph innocent pictures
a sense of validation from one single, more attractive, less into explicit ones; they even can
another. Before the advent of overweight, or similar in age put themselves into the images.
the Internet, individuals with to the victim) in their attempts These individuals also can take
deviant tendencies usually were to entice juveniles online. digital photos of their victims
isolated. Today, however, Two, using computers, sex without worrying about the
offenders feel normal because offenders can groom multiple risks associated with having
they see from chat rooms and victims not only over an ex- the film developed.
Web sites that many other tended period of time but
individuals have the same simultaneously. Such activity Types of Offenders
Three types of offenders
exist: 1) the dabbler (curious
individuals with access to child
Sample Online Chat pornography or to a dealer);
2) the preferential offender
Man4y: Hi, babe! (the person with deviant sexual
Girl11: Hi. interests involving juveniles);
and 3) the miscellaneous of-
Man4y: Are we still meeting tonight?
fender (pranksters or misguided
Girl11: For sure! My parents think I am going to individuals who possess these
a friend’s house. materials as a result of their
Man4y: Kool! I can’t wait to be your first lover. own investigations).5 Deter-
Will pick you up in my blue truck at the mining which category a subject
mall at 5 p.m. I have a room reserved so falls under involves examining
we can explore together in private! the files found in the offender’s
possession, the individual’s
equipment and ISP, the

14 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

subject’s online behavior, and child7rape) enlightening. Au- files were sent to or received
the person’s other activities. thorities also should consider from others? Were they sent to
Looking at these areas—both the similarities (e.g., pertaining juveniles? Did the subject use
individually and in conjunction to a particular age group or them to outdo others who
with one another—helps to fetish) among the images. collect child porn (i.e., to have
assess offenders’ levels of The types of files also prove a larger or better collection)?
deviance, diffuse any possible important. Specifically, do they To barter for other types of
justifications for their actions include still pictures (e.g., files materials (e.g., adult, incest, or
(e.g., they downloaded them by with extensions of .jpg; .bmp; fetish)? Did the individual sell
accident, a hacker was respon- or .gif) or moving images (e.g., child pornography? This infor-
sible, it was just for fantasy, or names ending in .avi or .mpg)? mation provides insight into the
they did not know it was child A collection of movies may offender’s involvement with the
pornography), and, possibly, indicate a deeper level of community of deviancy and
influence sentencing. involvement as downloading may serve as a source of inves-
these files requires more time tigative leads (perhaps, to other
Files and storage space. offenders).

Investigators should exam-
ine the files found in the Equipment and ISP
offender’s possession to gain An examination of offend-
insight into the subject’s level ers’ equipment also provides
of interest and deviancy and Because of the insight into their activities.
foreclose several defenses. capabilities that Top-of-the-line hardware (e.g.,
Areas of consideration should computers offer... computers, scanners, and digital
include file quantity, themes, these individuals cameras) may reflect an interest
types, organization, locations, are particularly in producing or viewing high-
and uses. threatening to quality pornographic images.
Obviously, the quantity of Large hard drives could reveal

files according to theme will
the community. an individual’s desire to store a
reveal an individual’s level of library of image files, as they
interest and deviancy in par- take a lot of space. State-of-the-
ticular areas. Officers should art equipment not only provides
compare the number of porno- A system of well-organized faster access to images for
graphic images containing files also proves significant viewing but the ability to
children with the overall size because it indicates active produce and distribute child
of the subject’s collection. And, offender participation. For pornography as well.
authorities should see if the example, did the subject leave An ISP also can reveal the
individual possesses violent them in temporary Internet offender’s ability to download
materials (e.g., rape and torture folders or intentionally save images. For instance, cable
themes); this provides further them in specific locations connections will offer faster
insight into what type of of- according to areas of interest? Internet speeds and better
fender investigators are dealing Finally, how did the offend- capabilities to subjects than
with. In this regard, officers er use the images (e.g., as mas- dial-up services. Certainly, an
may find file names (e.g., turbation material)? How many individual who spends a lot of

March 2005 / 15
Common Defenses axe, gasoline, and garbage bags
• I downloaded them by accident. to his meeting with an investi-
• I did not know it was child pornography. gator posing as a minor.
• It was just fantasy. I never intended to have sex Other Activities
with a minor. Officers also should exam-
• I just had dirty pictures. I did not hurt anyone. ine the offender’s real world
activities. For instance, does the
• A hacker put these files on my computer.
subject’s current or prior em-
• I have them so I will not abuse children. ployment involve juveniles?
Has the person volunteered in
activities involving children
(e.g., coaching little league)?
Does the individual reside near
time downloading files with a with the offender? How many places where juveniles frequent
slow service has demonstrated names were regular contacts or do children live in the home?
willingness and commitment in (e.g., in a chat buddy list or in Offenders who organize their
obtaining them. the e-mail address book), and lives around young people
did these include other adults indicate that they may be drawn
Online Behavior or juveniles? If grown-ups, were to minors and that additional
Investigators also must they other individuals interested victims may exist.
examine an offender’s online in child porn? How many Also, does this person have
activities. For instance, how messages, with and without an extensive record of foreign
many screen names does the attachments, did the subject travel (perhaps, to a country that
subject use? Do any of them send and receive? What were does not aggressively enforce
suggest some deviant interest? the offender’s favorite Web laws prohibiting sex acts with
Does the individual have a sites, and did the individual pay minors)? And, does the
screen profile? If so, what for access to online porn? Did individual’s prior record include
interests does it mention? Does the subject use file-sharing sex crimes? In this regard,
it include the offender’s photo? programs to obtain and trade probation and parole agencies
Is the profile accurate? Or, did images? increasingly use monitoring
the person provide false infor- What was discussed in software and hardware that
mation (e.g., pertaining to age messages and chats involving records released offenders’
or gender) to entice the child? the offender? If involved with activities and, where appropri-
Investigators also must con- any meetings with juveniles or ate, provides investigators with
sider how long the offender has undercover officers, did the additional evidence as to a
had access to the Internet and, subject bring any suspicious subject’s online behavior.
in that period, how much time items (e.g., digital cameras,
the individual has spent online, condoms, sex toys, weapons, or CONCLUSION
particularly during hours when drugs)? One chilling example The cybersex offender poses
juveniles would be logged on involved an offender arrested in a unique and troubling risk to
(e.g., after school). Also, how an undercover sting operation in juveniles. The law enforcement
many people communicated which he brought a shovel, an community must learn to fully

16 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

understand and investigate these both online and in the real “Self-Reported Sex Crimes of Nonincar-
individuals and their crimes. world. cerated Paraphiliacs,” Journal of Interper-
sonal Violence 2, no. 6 (1987): 3-25.
Knowledge of such predators’ 4
Andres E. Hernandez, Self-Reported
habits can serve as a crucial Endnotes Contact Sexual Crimes of Federal Inmates
factor in diffusing possible 1
Convicted of Child Pornography Offenses,
University of New Hampshire, Crimes
defenses. Once investigators Against Children Research Center, Online
presentation given at the 19th Annual
peel back these layers of decep- Research and Treatment Conference of the
Victimization: A Report on the Nation’s Association for the Treatment of Sexual
tion and rationalization, they Youth (Durham, NH, 2000). Abusers, San Diego, CA, November 2000.
will reveal these subjects for Through morphing, an individual can 5
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
who they really are and take a combine one picture with another to create Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
a new image.
fundamental step in the success- 3
G. G. Abel, J. V. Becker, M. S.
Prevention, Use of Computers in the Sex-
ful prosecution of these cases ual Exploitation of Children (Washington,
Mittelman, J. Cunningham-Rathner, DC, 2000).
and the protection of children— J. L. Rouleau, and W. D. Murphy,

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March 2005 / 17
Notable Speech
The Start of a New Lifestyle are women, bringing the number of women in the
A Police Officer’s Mission department to 136, a 14 percent average, which is
By Debbie Kuidis
slightly above the national average of 13 percent.
This class began on January 12 with 13 women and

ended with 13 women. Just to give you something
ood afternoon, graduates of the 89th cadet to strive for, there are 200 female police chiefs in
class, families, and friends. Thank you for the United States, one happens to be my current
asking me to be a part of your celebration. I will chief. She has been a police officer for 30 years,
keep my comments brief because I know you all making her one of the pioneers who smoothed the
have waited 23 long, hard weeks to get your waters for us as we continue to make our mark on
badges and to be called officers instead of cadets. I this profession. But, this is not going to be a speech
remember this day like it was yesterday, and I on gender because, as everyone knows, we wear
know your heart is beating just as hard as mine the same uniform, complete the same training, and
right now, but for different reasons. This is your meet the same standards as the men in this class.
day, but it is the honor of a lifetime for me to share Another distinction is that this class began with
it with you. I wanted to be a police officer ever 36 people and only lost 3. Losing only 3 cadets is
since I was a child, and, as you can see, no matter unheard of, and I believe it speaks directly to the
how hard you try, when you retire, it never leaves character of the men and women in this class.
your blood. It is a very personal mission—one that Members of the 89th cadet class, today you
requires a deep commitment from the heart. begin a new career and a new life as an Albuquer-
Before I direct my remarks solely to the 33 que police officer. You have proven yourselves
members of this class, I want to say something to
the family and friends of these cadets because they
Commander Debbie Kuidis,
also share your accomplishments today. They have a retired deputy chief of the
encouraged you through these difficult months of Albuquerque, New Mexico,
training, and they will continue to stand by you Police Department who
currently serves with the
and, in many ways, live the job as you live it. University of New Mexico
Family and friends, I know that your emotions are Police Department,
running wild right now, going from extreme pride delivered this speech at
the Albuquerque Police
to concern, but, let me assure all of you, this staff Department recruit
did everything possible to make sure that these graduation exercises
new officers come home safe every night. For the on June 18, 2004.

families, there was no training for the nights of

worry or the missed holidays. Today, you also
become a part of the police family and all we ask is
that you continue to give your love and support.
I also would like to relate a significant distinc-
tion that this class shares with no other in the
history of the Albuquerque Police Department
(APD). The 89th cadet class has the highest per-
centage of women in its graduating class. Thirteen
members (40 percent) of those graduating today

18 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

physically, emotionally, and psychologically pre- firefighters of that city. I watched as they recovered
pared for one of the most demanding professions. bodies from the site. I watched as they cleaned up
You have the look of people who have chosen a 1.6 million tons of debris that once was a living
calling and have faith that you can make a differ- symbol of our dedication to world peace. I listened
ence in people’s lives. Don’t ever lose that faith or to story after story of loss. I went to police officer
desire. I want you to have that same look at your and firefighter funerals. It was painful for me to
retirement party 20 years from now. Few people witness the horrific loss of life and destruction of
get the honor and privilege of serving their com- property. I never will forget what happened that
munity as a police officer. To be successful, there day, and it is a daily reminder of what my purpose
must be a sincere partnership between law enforce- is in life. And, don’t ever think that it can’t happen
ment and the community. This alliance requires here. You always must be ready for what may
that you mutually care about, trust, and respect come.
each other. You will witness the worst that a per- Albuquerque citizens have granted us a tre-
son can do to another. This will dishearten you, but mendous level of trust and responsibility, and they
remember the majority of the have a right to expect high stan-
people we serve are honest, de- dards from us. That trust has

cent citizens. Do not let the few taken a lifetime to achieve, but it
who are not influence your opin- can take only seconds to destroy.
ion of the community that is de- ...remember the Unfortunately, the public retains
pending on you to protect it. You majority of the memories of bad incidents con-
also will see the good in people, people we serve are cerning police far longer than it
from acts of kindness to acts of honest, decent remembers favorable ones. You
courage. People will look up to citizens. were carefully chosen because
you as their hero because what APD believed you already had

sets us apart is that we are ex- good values instilled in you since
pected to risk our lives, not only childhood. What you once knew
for each other but for a total to be right and wrong is still right
stranger. Law enforcement is and wrong. We all are expecting
one of the more self-sacrificing occupations in you to do the right thing even when nobody is
society. Thousands of officers have given their looking or, in these days, videotaping you. Trust
lives for this profession—never blemish their me, it takes less time to do the right thing than to
reputations. explain why you did it wrong. So, when you get out
Not only is our fight against crime anymore; there on the street and you experience the expecta-
we have an additional focus that we never had tions, the challenges, the discouragements, and the
before—the fight against terrorism. The events of temptations and you forget what your academy
September 11th have called upon us to make the instructors told you to do in a certain situation, just
world safe and free. You are guardians of freedom think back to the morals your family taught you
and our cherished freedom does not come without and everything will work out on its own. The
a price. You are what stands between good and police academy can teach you a lot, but they can’t
evil, right and wrong. One month after the Septem- teach you integrity, good judgment, or how to be
ber 11th attacks, I went to New York to conduct compassionate. Either you have it or you don’t and
grief counseling for the police officers and APD is betting its reputation that you have it.

March 2005 / 19
Someone once said, “If you have integrity, nothing man’s character, give him power.” Your biggest
else matters. If you don’t have integrity, nothing and greatest weapon is not your gun—it’s your
else matters.” discretion. This profession calls for free thinking,
You always are expected to treat every single open-mindedness, and innovation in responding to
person with whom you come in contact, and I mean community needs. A U.S. Supreme Court justice
from the mayor to the homeless, with the utmost said that an officer makes more decisions daily
respect and dignity. We are reminded of this by the affecting the lives of people than a judge will in a
sentiment on former president Ronald Reagan’s week. Twenty years from now when you retire, it is
crypt, which reads, “...there is purpose and worth not going to matter how many tickets you gave or
to each and every life.” Now, I am not saying that arrests you made; what is going to matter was
all people you come into contact with will return whether or not you compromised your integrity
the favor. There is a term known as “contempt of and how you did your job. Some of you will rise
cop,” and you will know it the minute it happens to through the ranks and become supervisors, even
you. Someone is going to do something to disre- chiefs, someday. Start being leaders and role mod-
spect you. We all have had it happen to us; but, I els today. And, when you do get those stripes, bars,
am telling you right now, let it go. Because if you or stars, remember what my chief told me recently,
don’t, you are going to do something you will “People should know what rank you are by the way
regret. It’s not worth it. Master your anger. Rise you act, without even looking at your collar brass.”
above it. Besides, it’s not you personally they are In a few moments, you will raise your hand and
disrespecting, it is what you represent. repeat words contained in your oath of office.
This department also demands that you will I have been where you are, and you are just so
never abuse your power or use excessive force. excited to be here that you don’t realize the impact
Abraham Lincoln said, “...if you want to test a of those words. Those words will change your life.

Commander Kuidis’ Guiding Principles

• Do your job the way you were trained and don’t deviate from it.
• Have a blast; this is the best job in the world.
• Seek a balance between work and your home life, and don’t ever forget your family
and loved ones because they will help you keep your sanity.
• Take care of each other.
• Don’t lie. Your word is everything in this profession. Mark Twain said, “If you tell the
truth, you don’t have to remember anything.” You see, liars need good memories.
• Always have the courage to do the right thing. It’s been said that to know what is right
and not do it is the worst cowardice.
• Don’t be lazy in the way you do your job. Everything you do is a self-portrait of who
you are.
• Don’t ever embarrass the Albuquerque Police Department.

20 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

You are promising that the words in the police community without regard to their status, sex,
officer code of ethics will govern not only how you race, religion, political beliefs, or sexual
will conduct yourself on duty but how you live preference. I will not engage in any act of
your life off duty as well. Some officers think that corruption or bribery, and I will maintain a
once they take that uniform off, they can do what- level of integrity in both my private and my
ever they want. That’s absolutely not true. I know professional life, which will be above re-
that you had classes on the code of ethics, but I am proach. I recognize the badge of my office as
going to read you parts of the code of ethics again. a symbol of public faith, dedicating myself
That’s how important it is to you from this day before God to my chosen profession—law
forward and it never hurts for all of us to hear them enforcement.
again. Don’t just listen to the words, remember I get the chills every time I read that. You see,
them, feel them, live them. This is your promise to this is not a job, and it’s not even a career. It is a
the community. lifestyle. Leave this community a better place for
My fundamental duty is to protect the weak what you have done and who you have been.
against oppression and serve all people of this

Unusual Weapon

Pager-Style Gun
This pager-style gun is a metal firearm in a plastic grip. It is a .22-caliber revolver that fires
five shots and is designed with a clip to be carried on a belt or in a pocket.

March 2005 / 21
Bulletin Reports

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) presents Crime and the
Nation’s Households, 2003, which features national estimates for
the percentage of households with one or more persons victimized
by crime as measured by the National Crime Victimization Survey.
Information is provided on homes experiencing violent and prop-
erty crimes, vandalism, and intimate partner violence. Findings are
presented by race; region; type of location (urban, suburban, or
rural); and household size. Overall trends since 1994 are included
and comparisons with 2002 are made. Highlights include the fol-
lowing: between 2002 and 2003, the percentage of homes experi-
encing crimes (about 15 percent) did not change significantly; in
2003, about 3 in 1,000 households included a member victimized
by an intimate partner, such as a
current or former spouse, boyfriend,
or girlfriend; and in 2003, about 1 in
every 26 homes was either burglar-
Web-Based Resources
ized or had a member aged 12 or older The Police Assessment Resource Center
who experienced a violent crime (PARC) supports the wide spectrum of people who
committed by a stranger. This report perform police oversight—those inside law en-
is available electronically at http:// forcement, such as police executives and adminis- trators of internal affairs units and risk manage-
cnh03.pdf or by contacting the ment bureaus, and those outside, such as
National Criminal Justice Reference government officials, court-appointed monitors,
Service at 800-851-3420. inspectors general, police commissioners, and
review board members. PARC provides resources,
advice, and assistance to those who have responsi-
bilities to their communities or constituents in deal-
ing with the consequences of police misconduct. Its
Web site,, includes an over-
view of the center, descriptions of its current
projects, publications and reports, a staff list,
upcoming events, and related links.

22 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons pro-
vides a description of the general characteristics of prison popu-
lations serving time for nonviolent crimes (property, drug, and
public order offenses not involving a threat of harm or an actual
attack upon a victim) as they exit state facilities. To conduct this
analysis, the Bureau of Justice Statistics used information col-
lected under the National Recidivism Reporting Program, which
last collected data on those discharged from prisons in 15 states
in 1994, and the Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facili-
ties, last conducted in 1997. The report examines the responses
of inmates who indicated to interviewers
that they expected release within 6 months.
This publication is available online at
Police Wellness
Tired Cops: The Prevalence and Poten- pnoesp.pdf or by contacting the National
tial Consequences of Police Fatigue reports Criminal Justice Reference Service at 800-
on a study that examined the prevalence and 851-3420.
effects of officer fatigue, exhaustion, and ex-
treme drowsiness and their impact on perfor-
mance, health, and safety to identify effective
strategies for measuring fatigue among law
enforcement personnel and to better under-
stand its widespread effects on officers in the
field. This report is available online at http://

Bulletin Reports is an edited collection of criminal justice studies, reports, and project findings. Send your
material for consideration to: FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Room 201, Madison Building, FBI Academy,
Quantico, VA 22135. (NOTE: The material in this section is intended to be strictly an information source and
should not be considered an endorsement by the FBI for any product or service.)

March 2005 / 23
Use of Force, Civil Litigation,
and the Taser
One Agency’s Experience

© Charlie Mesloh

L aw enforcement’s
mission—to maintain
peace and order—is a
tenuous one complicated by a
while protecting citizens,
themselves, or other officers
from harm. This force, when
legitimately and properly
consequences may include civil
disturbances, riots, property
damage, political jeopardy, and
civil liability for all interested
myriad of factors that seem applied, represents an essential parties.1 Thus, use of force
unique to every situation offic- element in maintaining an frequently may impact the
ers must handle, whether quell- ordered society. development of public policy
ing a disturbance or apprehend- and how it is administered in
ing a suspect. This being the THE PROBLEM practice. Current public policy
case, officers of the law some- Use of force has tremendous requires officers in the field to
times are required to use force implications for law enforce- use the minimum amount of
in the course of their duties, ment officers and their agencies. force necessary to effect an
whether during an arrest or Some of the unintended arrest or quell a disturbance.

24 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

However, even when such uses of is attributed to two North lawsuits for actions by its
force are ruled justifiable, they still, American trends: 1) higher officers.6 This figure, however,
nonetheless, are subject to litiga- standards of accountability for represents a conservative
tion, which appears to be on the public institutions and 2) an estimate as another 70 currently
rise. increasing willingness on the are pending. Less quantifiable
A common theme in the part of the public to file law- costs of lawsuits include sala-
extant literature concerning suits. Society as a whole ex- ries for legal staff; legal fees
lawsuits against the police is pects law enforcement to be paid to outside lawyers; and
that citizens are filing such legal more accountable, and legal other costs, such as court
actions more than ever before. changes have broadened the reporters and copying charges.
Due to a number of court deci- definition of police negligence. Lawsuits fall into five general
sions, the litigious contempo- Law enforcement’s response categories: false arrest, exces-
rary society, and a trend of has varied, from adding new or sive force, shootings, wrongful
holding public officials more rewriting existing policies to death, and federal civil rights
accountable for their actions, hiring full-time lawyers on staff. violations.7 The city has re-
lawsuits against the police have These responses, however, have sponded by changing proce-
continued to rise since 1961.2 failed to reduce the number of dures to improve documentation
According to the National lawsuits filed against the police. of events and increasing train-
Center for State Courts, be- The city of Miami, Florida, ing for its officers.
tween 1984 and 2000, the has paid more than $19 million Some agree that lawsuits
number of lawsuits filed nation- in civil liability claims to con- and associated verdicts against
ally increased 40 percent in stituents since 1990 to resolve officers across the country are
some courts and 21 percent in more than 110 federal and state growing.8 For many decades,
others.3 It ranked Florida fourth
nationally behind only Califor-
nia, Texas, and New York in
total number of civil filings for
2000. And, between 1975 and
2000, the center reported that
the number of torts filed in
Florida Circuit Courts doubled.
Other research has contended
that police administrators and
local government units are
plagued by the likelihood of
lawsuits and should expect this
trend to continue.4
Contributing factors include
Captain Hougland serves with Dr. Mesloh, a former law
legal and social changes over the Orange County, Florida, enforcement officer, currently is an
the past 20 years that have made Sheriff’s Office. assistant professor at Florida Gulf
lawsuits against the police more Coast University in Fort Myers.

commonplace.5 The growth of

Dr. Henych works with a private research firm in Orlando, Florida.
civil litigation against the police

March 2005 / 25
© Charlie Mesloh

The public’s perception of

the law enforcement community
historically has been negatively
impacted by the profession’s
use of force.12 As the perceived
level of force increases, public
support significantly decreases.
This reiterates the supreme
importance of the development
of policy because it frequently
comes under public scrutiny,
more often than not as a result
of a use-of-force incident.
While a substantial amount
of literature on police use of
deadly force exists, much less
juries were predisposed to municipalities. This, in turn, attention has been given to less
believe the police. High-profile opened the door for a dramatic lethal force. Use of force is the
incidents that cast the law increase in the number of law- core role of policing and is the
enforcement profession in a suits filed against the police “distribution of nonnegotiated
negative light, however, have and in the resultant monetary coercive remedies.”13 This force
increased the public’s skepti- awards, with the amount of can take several forms, includ-
cism. Those events, as well as damages reaching as high as ing “a simple verbal command
the increased use of handheld $42 million.9 One example lies or a light touch on the arm to
video cameras by citizens, have in the U.S. Supreme Court encourage someone to move
contributed to jurors holding decision of 1971 regarding along or comply with an order,
law enforcement officers in- Webster Bivens, wherein a the use of a baton or Mace to
creasingly accountable for search of his apartment was control an individual, the use of
personal injuries, deaths, and considered unconstitutional, the carotid restraint, or the use
civil rights violations. The trend thus allowing the officers to be of deadly force.”14
of disbelieving the police also held personally accountable for One problematic aspect
appears to have led to swifter a constitutional tort.10 As for of law enforcement involves
and larger pretrial settlements. monetary settlements, “the dealing with individuals or
One study traced the evolu- average award for the wrongful groups where more than a show
tion of lawsuits against the death of an adult male reached of force is required, yet deadly
police and attributed their rise an all-time high of $3.5 million force is not the appropriate
to several court decisions in 2000.”11 With so much at method of resolution.15 To fill
stemming from the 1960s, stake, research in this area will this gap, many agencies have
1970s, and 1980s that effec- continue to be not only a worth- turned to the development and
tively peeled away the layers of while endeavor but also a nec- use of less lethal technology.
protection afforded individual essary tool for criminal justice According to the British Home
officers, their supervisors, law agencies to make sound policy Office, less lethal technology
enforcement agencies, and decisions. “is a term carefully defined to

26 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

encompass weapons and equip- administers an electric charge Rise in the Use of Taser
ment, which, although less that causes muscular dysfunc- Today, 5,400 law enforce-
likely than firearms to result tion and temporarily incapaci- ment agencies employ this
in a serious or fatal injury, tates a suspect. An officer can electro-muscular device as a
nevertheless carry some degree fire two darts from the pistol- less lethal weapon.21 The state
of risk.”16 The growing unac- like weapon, causing 50,000 of Florida has followed this
ceptability of deaths and inju- volts of electric current to pass trend. In the Orlando area alone,
ries caused by or inflicted on into the subject’s body.18 The the majority of the law enforce-
law enforcement officers re- darts can reach from 15 to 21 ment agencies, including the
quire new ways of handling feet. Early studies indicated that University of Central Florida
conflict situations. Innovations this weapon’s effectiveness Police Department, employ this
in technology in the realm of ranged from 50 to 85 percent.19 technology.
less lethal weapons have be- However, significant improve- In the Orange County
come a significant part of the ments in design appear to have Sheriff’s Office (OCSO), the
response to this trend.17 One increased the weapon’s effec- rise in the application of the
popular response has been the tiveness significantly because it Taser has been dramatic. Since
implementation of the Taser. does not rely on the convention- its implementation in 2000, it
al pain compliance approach of has become the agency’s most
TASER AS AN police tactics.20 Currently, sev- frequently used less lethal
ALTERNATIVE eral models of the Taser with weapon. For example, chemical
The Taser (Thomas A. varying power levels exist in the agents, physical force, and
Swift’s Electric Rifle) law enforcement marketplace. impact weapons accounted for

Breakdown of Weapons
2001 2002 2003
Weapon Type No. Percent No. Percent No. Percent

Chemical agent 221 41.9 103 14.1 51 7.76

Physical force 52 9.87 49 6.73 29 4.41
Impact weapon 13 2.47 8 1.10 13 1.98
Firearm 4 0.76 0 0.00 9 1.37
Impact munitions 2 0.38 0 0.00 3 0.46
K9 48 9.11 57 7.83 67 10.2
Taser 228 43.3 535 73.5 510 77.63
Total uses of force 527 728 657

Note: Weapon type does not add to total uses of force because more than one weapon may have been
employed in the incidents.
Source: Orange County, Florida, Sheriff’s Office

March 2005 / 27
less than 13 percent of the deployments at this level. This opportunity (i.e., already having
weapons used in 2003, while begs the question: Is the Taser a Taser drawn), but they cer-
Taser use rose to almost 78 an appropriate response to a tainly warrant further research.
percent. This is important to level three threat?23 Clearly, even in deadly force
note because the other less The majority (69 percent) situations, officers considered
lethal tools were available, yet of OCSO Taser deployments the Taser an effective weapon.
officers chose the Taser. Al- occurred in response to level This bodes well for law enforce-
though no current studies exist four (active physical) resistance. ment professionals who, along
that explain this shift, it seems This suggested that officers the same line as medical doc-
that officers may have perceived might not have believed that tors, take an oath to protect
the Taser as more effective and the Taser was an appropriate lives, not take them.
less likely to cause injury.22 response to level three (passive
An analysis by OCSO reported physical) resistance, but, in- Recent Research
a reduction of 50 percent in stead, most advisable in situa- In an attempt to examine
officer injuries, as well as 23 tions involving level four student perceptions of local law
incidents where officers did (active physical) resistance. enforcement and its effective-
not have to use deadly force to Unexpectedly and of great ness, the University of Central
bring a confrontational situation importance, 18 Taser deploy- Florida Police Department
to a peaceful resolution. ments by OCSO personnel in conducted a study in the spring
OCSO policy allows Taser 2003 took place when suspect of 2004 as part of its annual
use at a level three (passive resistance merited the use of assessment of services. The
physical) resistance, such as deadly force, authorized both study included key questions
when a subject refuses to com- by law and OCSO policy. It examining student perceptions
ply with a verbal command. remained unclear whether these of the use of force, including
However, the agency noted deployments were a result of less lethal weapons.24
only a small number of conscious decision or by The researchers obtained a
total of 1,200 completed sur-
veys from the student popula-
tion of approximately 41,000. In
Taser Deployments by Level of Resistance addition to the basic assessment
of service, a number of ques-
No. Percent tions relating to the appropriate-
ness of specific less lethal force
Level three: passive physical 31 6 responses to a hypothetical law
Level four: active physical 332 69 enforcement encounter were
Level five: aggressive physical 100 21 offered. One example stated, “A
Level six: deadly force 18 4 suspect violently resists arrest
and attempts to injure law
Total Incidents 481 enforcement officers. How
appropriate are the following
Source: Orange County, Florida, Sheriff’s Office responses on the part of the
police?” The students reviewed

28 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

the options and selected a CONCLUSION as a proverbial “magic bullet,”
number on the scale of 1 (very In this time of community- which has the ability to solve
appropriate) to 9 (very inappro- oriented policing, the use of less a wide range of law enforce-
priate) that best reflected their lethal technology clearly is the ment’s problems.
opinions or checked a box most socially acceptable and Along with the rise in the
indicating their unfamiliarity humane means of maintaining use of the Taser, however,
with the particular weapon peace and order. In the event comes criticism. Because a
employed in the number of sus-
scenario. pects have died in
Perceptions custody after a
toward less lethal Taser deploy-
weapons varied Student Perceptions of ment, agencies
considerably. Less Lethal Weapons must acknowl-
Students tended Weapon No. Mean Median edge the limita-
to consider the tions and inherent
use of Mace and Mace 1,112 3.33 3.0 liability associ-
the Taser as more Taser 1,090 3.66 3.0 ated with the
acceptable when Dog trap 1,102 4.18 4.0 technology,
compared against Choke hold 1,098 4.47 4.0 despite its ability
other less lethal Baton 1,104 4.47 4.0 to reduce deadly
force options. Beanbag 1,006 4.55 4.0 force scenarios
Surprisingly, this Empty hand 1,109 4.57 5.0 and confronta-
seemed to sup- Dog bite 1,113 5.58 6.0 tions to less lethal
port the place- engagements and
ment of the Taser Note: Mean scores do not correspond to force continuum situations. While
at a level three resistance levels. Response categories range from 1 (very this effective tool
appropriate) to 9 (very inappropriate).
resistance cat- offers more flex-
egory, which Source: University of Central Florida Police Department ibility to the
Student Assessment (2004).
remained consis- officer in the
tent with its field, it also
application by carries the same
the OCSO. The potential hazards
researchers could not determine that officers employ less lethal of chemical and impact weap-
why students viewed other force technology and an injury re- ons and, thus, the need for
options in a negative light. It sults, the least offensive type of appropriate officer restraint.
may result from cultural or injury would be one of minimal While current studies have
psychological perceptions that severity. The use of the Taser provided a degree of justifica-
the “hands-on” approach, either and its placement on the force tion for a number of policy
with baton or empty hand, may continuum appears consistent choices, substantial quantitative
possibly inflict more serious with public perception and law research must occur for proper
injuries. This finding will enforcement application. Both policy analysis on this complex
require additional study. seem to view this technology issue. This article constitutes a

March 2005 / 29
precursor to future less lethal Crime and Delinquency 44, no. 2 (1998): K. Peak, Justice Administration:
research findings that the 295-313. Police, Courts, and Corrections
Supra note 2 (Bell). Management (New York, NY: Prentice
authors currently are examining. 6
Supra note 2 (Christensen). Hall, 2000), 248.
They hope that their endeavors 7
Supra notes 2 (Christensen) and 4 15
National Institute of Justice, National
will offer insight to the nuances (Ross); and M.R. Smith, “Integrating Security Research, Inc., Department of
of the force continuum and the Community Policing and the Use of Force: Defense Nonlethal Weapons and Equip-
resulting impact on law en- Public Education, Involvement, and ment Review: A Research Guide for Civil
Accountability, American Journal of Police Law Enforcement and Corrections
forcement officers and their 13, no. 4 (1994). (Washington, DC, 2002); retrieved on
agencies. 8
Supra note 2 (Fisk). June 29, 2004, from
Supra note 2 (McCoy). pdffiles1/nij/grants/200516.pdf.
10 16
403 U.S. 388 (1971). T. Donnelly, Less Lethal Technolo-

Endnotes gies Initial Prioritization and Evaluation
Mark Blumberg, “Police Use of (Hertfordshire, UK: Police Scientific
Deadly Force: Exploring Some Key Development Branch, 2001), 1.
Issues,” in Thomas Barker and David B. Rappert, Nonlethal Weapons as
Carter, Police Deviance (Cincinnati, OH: Legitimizing Forces? Technology, Politics,
Anderson Publishing, 1993). and the Management of Conflict (London,
J. Bell, “Lawsuits Against Police
The use of the Taser UK: Frank Cass Publishers, 2003).
Rising,” The Hamilton Spectator (Ontario, and its placement 18
D. Laur, Canadian Police Research
Canada), April 18, 2001, sec. A, p. 8; D. on the force Center, Taser Technology Research Paper
Christensen, “Blood Money,” Miami Daily continuum appears (Victoria, BC, 2000).
Business Review, November 15, 2001, sec. Supra note 16.
A, p. 1; M. Fisk, “Juries Turning Sour consistent with 20
Supra note 18; and Taser Interna-
Toward Police,” Broward Daily Business public perception and tional Web site at
Review, July 5, 2001, sec. A, p. 12; and law enforcement Taser International; retrieved on

C. McCoy, “Lawsuits Against the Police— August 5, 2004, from http://
What Impact Do They Really Have?”
Criminal Law Bulletin 20, no. 1 (1983): The authors recognize that contro-
49-56. versy recently has arisen regarding safety
B. Ostrom, N. Kauder, and R. issues surrounding Taser use. However,
LaFountain, Examining the Work of State such concerns fell outside the parameters
Courts, 2001: A National Perspective from Cincinnati Enquirer, June 23, 2002; of their research, which focused primarily
the Court Statistics Project (Williamsburg, retrieved on August 5, 2004, from http:// on the type of force used, deadly versus
VA: National Center for State Courts, less lethal, in response to the level of
2001). loc_settlements_in.html. resistance.
4 12 23
D. Ross, “Emerging Trends in Police Supra note 7 (Smith); A. Pate and L. Recently, a number of chiefs of
Failure to Train Liability,” Policing: An Fridell, Police Foundation, Police Use of police in Orange County decided to raise
International Journal of Police Strategies Force: Official Reports, Citizen Com- the level of resistance from three to four
and Management 23, no. 2 (2000): 169- plaints, and Legal Consequences (Wash- for Taser use. See Pedro Ruz Gutierrez,
193; A.R. Stafford, “Lawsuits Against the ington, DC, 1995); and P. Montgomery, “Taser Use Reined in by Policy Changes:
Police: Reasons for the Proliferation of “Anger Long Is Rising Among Miami Bar Raised on When to Use Stun Guns,”
Litigation in the Past Decade,” Journal of Blacks,” New York Times, May 19, 1980, Orlando Sentinel, July 15, 2004, sec. B,
Police and Criminal Psychology 2, no. 1 sec A., p. 1. p.1.
13 24
(1986): 30-34; and R. Worrall, “Adminis- E. Bittner, National Institute of In some cases, OCSO provides ser-
trative Determinants of Civil Liability Mental Health, The Functions of the Police vice to the University of Central Florida,
Lawsuits Against Municipal Police in Modern Society (Chevy Chase, MD, which is located in Orange County.
Departments: An Exploratory Analysis,” 1970), 36.

30 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Book Review

Officer-Involved Shootings and Use of existing one. The author also provides infor-
Force: Practical Investigative Techniques by mation on alternatives to the use of deadly
David E. Hatch, CRC Press, Washington, force supported with a case study.
D.C., 2003. A model policy is likewise presented in-
Officer-Involved Shootings and Use of volving shooting incidents requiring a multi-
Force: Practical Investigative Techniques pro- jurisdictional investigation, including venue
vides investigators and administrators at all determination, legal representation, team com-
levels of the criminal justice system with state- position, evidence retention, required docu-
of-the-art model policies and investigative pro- mentation, administrative reviews, and presen-
tocol techniques for conducting an effective tation to the prosecutor. Further, excellent
and well-documented investigation of shoot- information is supplied for jurisdictions on
ing incidents involving law enforcement per- proper responding to and handling of the
sonnel. The book, a comprehensive compila- media, as well as an excellent model on
tion of experiences, includes case studies responding to post-traumatic stress disorders
supported by well-thought-out documentation. concerning law enforcement members. Strong
It allows concerned agencies at all levels in the points of the book include, but are not limited
criminal justice system to improve existing to, the various contained models and templates
policies and procedures or to use the contents that can be written and tailored to any law
of the book and its models as a benchmark to enforcement level in all jurisdictions and a use-
check established investigative techniques. of-force continuum model for investigations
The book contains an outstanding presen- assisted by a comprehensive outlined policy of
tation of guidelines, authority, and assignment an overall incident investigation.
responsibility to establish the best organiza- Content in Officer-Involved Shootings and
tional team structure to investigate shootings, Use of Force: Practical Investigative Tech-
use-of-force incidents, in-custody deaths, and niques can apply to all city, county, state, and
other high-profile events involving law federal law enforcement jurisdictions, includ-
enforcement members. The author sets forth an ing their direct and indirect support functions
exemplary protocol concerning incident scene in the criminal justice system. It is a book
investigation of deceased, injured, and unin- of high concern with critical information and
jured suspects and witnesses, as well as the models that investigators, administrators, in-
proper techniques of interviewing and protect- service and academy training development
ing an involved employee’s welfare and civil members, and policy and procedure writers
rights. will find extremely useful.
In addition, the book offers an outstanding
chapter on investigating forced and assisted Reviewed by
suicide incidents laced with strategies for crisis Larry R. Moore
negotiators and first responders. A model of Certified Emergency Manager
a community review board is included for International Association of
review or adoption by those local boards Emergency Managers
attempting to create a policy or update an Knoxville, Tennessee

March 2005 / 31
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Author Guidelines

GENERAL INFORMATION leb.htm for the expanded author guidelines,

The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is an which contain additional specifications, detailed
official publication of the Federal Bureau of examples, and effective writing techniques.
Investigation and the U.S. Department of Justice. PHOTOGRAPHS AND GRAPHICS
Frequency of Publication: Monthly.
Purpose: To provide a forum for the ex- A photograph of the author(s) should
change of information on law enforcement-related accompany the manuscript. Authors can submit
topics. photos and illustrations that visually enhance
Audience: Criminal justice professionals, and support the text. The Bulletin does not
primarily law enforcement managers. accept responsibility for lost or damaged photos
or illustrations.
Length: Feature articles should contain 2,000 Judging Manuscripts: The Bulletin judges
to 3,500 words (8 to 14 pages, double-spaced). articles on relevance to the audience, factual
Submissions for specialized departments, such as accuracy, analysis of the information, structure
Police Practice and Case Study, should contain and logical flow, style and ease of reading, and
1,200 to 2,000 words (5 to 8 pages, double- length. The Bulletin generally does not publish
spaced). articles on similar topics within a 12-month
Format: Authors should submit three copies period or accept articles previously published or
of their articles typed and double-spaced on 8 ½- currently under consideration by other maga-
by 11-inch white paper with all pages numbered. zines. Because it is a government publication,
An electronic version of the article saved on the Bulletin cannot accept articles that advertise
computer disk should accompany the typed a product or service.
manuscript. Authors also may e-mail articles. Query Letters: Authors may submit a
Authors should supply references when query letter along with a 1- to 2-page outline
quoting a source exactly, citing or paraphrasing before writing an article. Although designed to
another person’s work or ideas, or referring to help authors, this process does not guarantee
information that generally is not well known. For acceptance of any article.
proper footnote format, authors should refer to A Author Notification: The Bulletin staff
Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and will review queries and articles and advise the
Dissertations, 6th ed., by Kate L. Turabian. authors of acceptance or rejection. The maga-
Writing Style and Grammar: The Bulletin zine cannot guarantee a publication date for
prefers to publish articles in the third person accepted articles.
(Point of View and Perspective submissions Editing: The Bulletin staff edits all manu-
are exceptions) using active voice. Authors scripts for length, clarity, format, and style.
should follow The New York Public Library
Writer’s Guide to Style and Usage and should SUBMISSION
study several issues of the magazine to ensure Authors should mail their submissions to:
that their writing style meets the Bulletin’s Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, FBI
requirements. Academy, Madison Bldg., Room 201, Quantico,
Authors also should contact the Bulletin staff VA 22135; telephone: 703-632-1952; fax:
or access 703-632-1968; e-mail:

32 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

The Bulletin Notes
Law enforcement officers are challenged daily in the performance of their duties; they face each
challenge freely and unselfishly while answering the call to duty. In certain instances, their actions
warrant special attention from their respective departments. The Bulletin also wants to recognize
those situations that transcend the normal rigors of the law enforcement profession.

While conducting a traffic stop, Officer Rex

Bennett of the Beaverton, Oregon, Police Department
watched a pickup truck cross a nearby intersection,
leave the roadway, and stop with the engine racing and
the tires spinning in the mud in the front yard of a
residence. Officer Bennett immediately radioed that a
crash occurred and ran to the truck, where he found a
middle-aged man unconscious behind the wheel. After
finding no pulse or evidence of breathing, he quickly
Officer Bennett Officer Bewersdorf
pulled the driver out of the vehicle and onto the
ground. Then, Officer Bennett and newly arrived
Officer Michael Bewersdorf administered CPR until rescue personnel arrived, who worked to
restore the victim’s heart rhythm after determining that he had gone into full cardiac arrest. The
quick and professional actions of Officers Bennett and Bewersdorf helped the man make a full

Early one morning while on patrol, Officer Robert

Shows of the Rittman, Ohio, Police Department ob-
served a residence’s rear porch engulfed in flames.
Officer Shows immediately called for backup and the
fire department and then attempted to extinguish the
blaze with a garden hose, but could not get close
enough to the fire. Then, Officer Shows and newly
arrived Officer Roger Pauley broke through the front
door and yelled for occupants, waking a male resident
Officer Shows Officer Pauley
who advised that his invalid mother-in-law was up-
stairs with him and that his dog was in the basement.
Officer Shows rushed upstairs, wrapped the elderly woman in a blanket, and carried her out of a
second story window and onto the front porch roof because thick smoke prevented him from
going back downstairs. He then helped her son-in-law onto the roof and waited with them for the
fire department. Officer Pauley saved the family dog from the basement and, unable to get
upstairs to assist Officer Shows, ran outside and helped the firemen locate and rescue Officer
Shows and the two victims. The officers’ brave actions saved the lives of two people and their
cherished pet..
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Patch Call

The patch of the Acadia Parish, Louisiana, The patch of the Wellesley, Massachusetts,
Sheriff’s Office features symbols representing Police Department features the town seal, which
Louisiana State University at Eunice and the area’s includes two arrows and a tomahawk representing
corn, rice, cattle, agribusiness, and oil and gas the Maugus and Nehoiden Indians; an open book
industries. At the center is an outline of Acadia symbolizing Wellesley College; and a flower hon-
Parish. oring the world-renowned gardens of the town’s