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DISCUSSION

This experiment is all about on how to demonstrate Ohms Law and to


show its various forms, to become familiar with DC Voltmeter and DC Ammeter
as well as AC Voltmeter and AC Ammeter, and to operate Portable Wheatstone
and Precision Wheatstone Bridge to measure an unknown resistor. The variables
involved are experiment value (), R X value (), unknown resistor (),
multiplying factor, measuring arm dial reading, amperes (A) and E/I ().
In this experiment of measurement and calculations of electrical
parameters, there are two experiments by which possess two different
procedures respectively.
For the first experiment, the Precision Wheatstone Bridge was used for
exact determination of resistance in the 100 m to 110 M range with accuracy
of 0.01 to 0.05%. A measure resistor was connected to the prime device. In
relation to the connectivity of the resistor to the device, the galvanometer
pointer indicates 0 on the scale. The multiplying range and the power supply
voltage were selected based on the measured resistor. As a standard, a voltage
of 15 V was utilized.
The first experiment first began by switching the Precision Wheatstone
Bridge device to the internal galvanometer (INT GA) mode. The sensitivity knob
was adjusted from the minimum to obtain the starting value, which is 0. The BA
and GA buttons were also applied to check deflection. The process in identifying
the value of the resisto2wr values was done using different voltage supplies and
multiplying factors. After doing so, the values were recorded and were calculated
using a specific formula in relation to find RX () (Refer to Appendix).
In measuring the resistance from 1 to 10 by operation of dials and
switches using the Precision Wheatstone Bridge, the GA terminals were
completely shorted with a short bar. In addition to that, the R-MV select switch
was turned to the R side, the power select switch is turned to the INT BA side and
the galvanometer pointer shows 0 on the scale. Based on the value of the
measured resistor, the multiplying factor was determined using the multiplying
table (Refer to Appendix). The measuring arm dial was set to 1999 while the BA
button is depressed. The GA switch was then push down to check deflection.
Now, the value of the RX () can be obtained using the same formula stated.

For the second experiment on the other hand uses the Decade Resistance
Box, DC Metering and Power Supply modules. These devices were then
connected following the circuit diagram provided (Refer to Appendix). The
experiment first began by turning on the power supply and slowly adjusting the
DC voltage output until the device indicates 40 V. The current flowing through
the circuit was indicated by using the 0 300 mA Ammeter. The current was then
noted down. This step was repeated for all the DC voltage values of 0, 40, 80,
120, 160, 200, and 240 E. From what being said in particular, a curve was
generated based on the values of volts (E) and current (I) recorded to identify
whether volts (E) and current (I) is directly proportional. The ratio of E/I was then
calculated for each case. The verification of the alternate form of Ohms Law (I =
E/R) is now available. Using the same circuit, the current through the 1000
resistor was measured and recorded. In relation to the previous sentence, the
verification of the alternate form of Ohms Law (E = I x R) is now available. The
power supply was turned on and the output voltage was adjusted until the
current meter indicates 0.1 A. The voltage was measured and recorded and
during this round, the resistance was set to 2000 .
For the first experiment, by using the Precision Wheatstone Bridge, the
experiment values () are 0.037886 , 9.6999 , 100.000 , 999.9 , and 9999
respectively. Next, by using the Portable Wheatstone Bridge, the experiment
values () are 0.171 , 10.15 , 99.4 , 992 , and 9990 respectively.
For the second experiment, by using the Decade Resistance Box, the
amperes (A) of the following volts, 0 V, 40 V, 80 V, 120 V, 160 V, 200 V, and 240
V were obtained which are 0 A, 0.04 A, 0.08 A, 0.12 A, 0.16 A, 0.2 A, and 0.24 A
respectively. From that, a trend graph was prompted to prove that the current is
directly proportional to the voltage (Refer to Appendices). Moreover, the
calculated values of E/I were also calculated for the following volts, 40 V, 80 V,
120 V, 160 V, 200 V, and 240 V. The average value of E/I obtained from all the
six volts is 1000 . Besides that, by using the Decade Resistance Box, across a
1000 resistor, the voltage (V) was regulated to 140 V in obtaining the
measured value of current (A) which is 0.14 A. In addition to that, again, by using
the Decade Resistance Box, across a 2000 resistor, the current was regulated
to 0.1 A in obtaining the measured value of voltage (V) which is 200 V.

Based on theory, Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor
between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the
two points. Introducing the constant proportionality, the resistance, one arrives
at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship, I = V/R.
Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the
potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the
resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohms Law states
that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.
There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors
that occurred during the experiment. Among those errors is physical errors
(caused by experimenters). The experimenters might not have waited for the
readings to stabilize first and have recorded down the wrong readings, which
could lead to an abnormal trend of results. Not just that, the experimenter may
not have focused well during the experiment and may have recorded down
values of the parameter in the field of another parameter. By doing so, the
recordings will be inaccurate and it will result in catastrophic affects in
generating trend/correlation graphs and the whole experiment. Thus, the ideal
expected results could not be achieved. Besides that, the wires or other
equipment involved may be faulty or not plugged in. When this happens, the
device will not display the correct value.

CONCLUSION
In this experiment, Ohms Law was applied in DC voltmeter, DC Ammeter,
AC voltmeter and also in AC Ammeter. There are two experiments conducted in
this experiment, the first experiment used Precision Wheatstone bridge to
determine the resistance in the 100 m to 110 M range with accuracy of 0.01
to 0.05%. The second experiment used the Decade Resistance Decade Box, DC
Metering and Power Supply modules.

Based on the results, a curve was

generated based on the values of volts (E) and current (I) recorded to identify
whether volts (E) and current (I) is directly proportional. For the second
experiment, the average value of E/I obtained from all the six volts is 1000 and
the measured values of current and voltage were obtained by using the Decade
Resistance Box. Based on results in the first and second experiments, it may be
concluded that the objectives were achieved which are to demonstrate Ohms
Law and to show its various forms, to become familiar with DC Voltmeters and
Ammeters as well as AC Voltmeters and AC Ammeters, and to operate Portable
Wheatstone and Precision Wheatstone Bridge to measure an unknown resistor.

APPENDICES

EXPERIMENT 1

Precision Wheatstone Bridge

Formula used to calculate RX


(Experiment value)
RX (Experiment value, ) = (Measuring arm dial reading) * (Multiplying
factor dial reading)
Standard value ()
0.1
10
100
1000
10000

Experiment value ()
3.7886 x 10 m = 0.037886
9.6999 x 1 = 9.6999
10.0000 x 10 = 100.000
0.9999 x 1000 = 999.9
0.9999 x 10000 = 9999

Portable Wheatstone Bridge

Formula used to calculate RX


(Experiment value)
RX (Experiment value, ) = (Sum value on measuring dial) * (Multiplying
factor dial)
Standard value ()
0.1
10
100
1000
10000

Experiment value ()
171 x 0.001 = 0.171
1015 x 0.01 = 10.15
994 x 0.1 = 99.4
992 x 1 = 992
999 x 10 = 9990

EXPERIMENT 2

VOLTS
(E)
AMPERE
S (A)

40

80

120

160

200

240

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

0.24

A Trend Graph between VOLTS (E) against AMPERES (I)


300
250
200

VOLTS (E)

150
100
50
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

AMPERES (I)

The trend graph above shows the relationship between VOLTS (E) and AMPERES
(I).

This proves the directly proportional relationship between the current


and the voltage.

E (V)

40

80

120

160

200

240

E/I ()

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

Average value of E/I


= 1000

Imeasured
Emeasured

= 0.14 A
= 200 V