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show its various forms, to become familiar with DC Voltmeter and DC Ammeter

as well as AC Voltmeter and AC Ammeter, and to operate Portable Wheatstone

and Precision Wheatstone Bridge to measure an unknown resistor. The variables

involved are experiment value (), R X value (), unknown resistor (),

multiplying factor, measuring arm dial reading, amperes (A) and E/I ().

In this experiment of measurement and calculations of electrical

parameters, there are two experiments by which possess two different

procedures respectively.

For the first experiment, the Precision Wheatstone Bridge was used for

exact determination of resistance in the 100 m to 110 M range with accuracy

of 0.01 to 0.05%. A measure resistor was connected to the prime device. In

relation to the connectivity of the resistor to the device, the galvanometer

pointer indicates 0 on the scale. The multiplying range and the power supply

voltage were selected based on the measured resistor. As a standard, a voltage

of 15 V was utilized.

The first experiment first began by switching the Precision Wheatstone

Bridge device to the internal galvanometer (INT GA) mode. The sensitivity knob

was adjusted from the minimum to obtain the starting value, which is 0. The BA

and GA buttons were also applied to check deflection. The process in identifying

the value of the resisto2wr values was done using different voltage supplies and

multiplying factors. After doing so, the values were recorded and were calculated

using a specific formula in relation to find RX () (Refer to Appendix).

In measuring the resistance from 1 to 10 by operation of dials and

switches using the Precision Wheatstone Bridge, the GA terminals were

completely shorted with a short bar. In addition to that, the R-MV select switch

was turned to the R side, the power select switch is turned to the INT BA side and

the galvanometer pointer shows 0 on the scale. Based on the value of the

measured resistor, the multiplying factor was determined using the multiplying

table (Refer to Appendix). The measuring arm dial was set to 1999 while the BA

button is depressed. The GA switch was then push down to check deflection.

Now, the value of the RX () can be obtained using the same formula stated.

For the second experiment on the other hand uses the Decade Resistance

Box, DC Metering and Power Supply modules. These devices were then

connected following the circuit diagram provided (Refer to Appendix). The

experiment first began by turning on the power supply and slowly adjusting the

DC voltage output until the device indicates 40 V. The current flowing through

the circuit was indicated by using the 0 300 mA Ammeter. The current was then

noted down. This step was repeated for all the DC voltage values of 0, 40, 80,

120, 160, 200, and 240 E. From what being said in particular, a curve was

generated based on the values of volts (E) and current (I) recorded to identify

whether volts (E) and current (I) is directly proportional. The ratio of E/I was then

calculated for each case. The verification of the alternate form of Ohms Law (I =

E/R) is now available. Using the same circuit, the current through the 1000

resistor was measured and recorded. In relation to the previous sentence, the

verification of the alternate form of Ohms Law (E = I x R) is now available. The

power supply was turned on and the output voltage was adjusted until the

current meter indicates 0.1 A. The voltage was measured and recorded and

during this round, the resistance was set to 2000 .

For the first experiment, by using the Precision Wheatstone Bridge, the

experiment values () are 0.037886 , 9.6999 , 100.000 , 999.9 , and 9999

respectively. Next, by using the Portable Wheatstone Bridge, the experiment

values () are 0.171 , 10.15 , 99.4 , 992 , and 9990 respectively.

For the second experiment, by using the Decade Resistance Box, the

amperes (A) of the following volts, 0 V, 40 V, 80 V, 120 V, 160 V, 200 V, and 240

V were obtained which are 0 A, 0.04 A, 0.08 A, 0.12 A, 0.16 A, 0.2 A, and 0.24 A

respectively. From that, a trend graph was prompted to prove that the current is

directly proportional to the voltage (Refer to Appendices). Moreover, the

calculated values of E/I were also calculated for the following volts, 40 V, 80 V,

120 V, 160 V, 200 V, and 240 V. The average value of E/I obtained from all the

six volts is 1000 . Besides that, by using the Decade Resistance Box, across a

1000 resistor, the voltage (V) was regulated to 140 V in obtaining the

measured value of current (A) which is 0.14 A. In addition to that, again, by using

the Decade Resistance Box, across a 2000 resistor, the current was regulated

to 0.1 A in obtaining the measured value of voltage (V) which is 200 V.

Based on theory, Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor

between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the

two points. Introducing the constant proportionality, the resistance, one arrives

at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship, I = V/R.

Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the

potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the

resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohms Law states

that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.

There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors

that occurred during the experiment. Among those errors is physical errors

(caused by experimenters). The experimenters might not have waited for the

readings to stabilize first and have recorded down the wrong readings, which

could lead to an abnormal trend of results. Not just that, the experimenter may

not have focused well during the experiment and may have recorded down

values of the parameter in the field of another parameter. By doing so, the

recordings will be inaccurate and it will result in catastrophic affects in

generating trend/correlation graphs and the whole experiment. Thus, the ideal

expected results could not be achieved. Besides that, the wires or other

equipment involved may be faulty or not plugged in. When this happens, the

device will not display the correct value.

CONCLUSION

In this experiment, Ohms Law was applied in DC voltmeter, DC Ammeter,

AC voltmeter and also in AC Ammeter. There are two experiments conducted in

this experiment, the first experiment used Precision Wheatstone bridge to

determine the resistance in the 100 m to 110 M range with accuracy of 0.01

to 0.05%. The second experiment used the Decade Resistance Decade Box, DC

Metering and Power Supply modules.

generated based on the values of volts (E) and current (I) recorded to identify

whether volts (E) and current (I) is directly proportional. For the second

experiment, the average value of E/I obtained from all the six volts is 1000 and

the measured values of current and voltage were obtained by using the Decade

Resistance Box. Based on results in the first and second experiments, it may be

concluded that the objectives were achieved which are to demonstrate Ohms

Law and to show its various forms, to become familiar with DC Voltmeters and

Ammeters as well as AC Voltmeters and AC Ammeters, and to operate Portable

Wheatstone and Precision Wheatstone Bridge to measure an unknown resistor.

APPENDICES

EXPERIMENT 1

(Experiment value)

RX (Experiment value, ) = (Measuring arm dial reading) * (Multiplying

factor dial reading)

Standard value ()

0.1

10

100

1000

10000

Experiment value ()

3.7886 x 10 m = 0.037886

9.6999 x 1 = 9.6999

10.0000 x 10 = 100.000

0.9999 x 1000 = 999.9

0.9999 x 10000 = 9999

(Experiment value)

RX (Experiment value, ) = (Sum value on measuring dial) * (Multiplying

factor dial)

Standard value ()

0.1

10

100

1000

10000

Experiment value ()

171 x 0.001 = 0.171

1015 x 0.01 = 10.15

994 x 0.1 = 99.4

992 x 1 = 992

999 x 10 = 9990

EXPERIMENT 2

VOLTS

(E)

AMPERE

S (A)

40

80

120

160

200

240

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

0.24

300

250

200

VOLTS (E)

150

100

50

0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

AMPERES (I)

The trend graph above shows the relationship between VOLTS (E) and AMPERES

(I).

and the voltage.

E (V)

40

80

120

160

200

240

E/I ()

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

= 1000

Imeasured

Emeasured

= 0.14 A

= 200 V

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