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Construction and use of the Preterit* (Past ...Simple) Regular and Irregular Verbs The Present Perfect Differences between Present Perfect and ...Preterit* (Past Simple) Unit 1 Present The Present Perfect Continuous The verb ‘to be’ and contractions ‘For’ /‘Since’ / ‘Ago’ The verb ‘to have’ Present Simple 'Ever' / 'Never' The negative form – verb ‘to be’, Present Expressions with the Present Perfect ...Simple Tags- short answers – verb ‘to be’, Present The Preterit Continuous* (Past ...Continuous) ...Simple The Present Simple vs. Present Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous The Present Continuous ‘Used To’ The Affirmative Imperative The Negative Imperative Unit 3 Future Verbs without a continuous form Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions The Near Future be + -ing* (Present ...Continuous for Future) ‘Always’ + Present Continuous The Future – ‘Will’ Future Continuous – ‘Will be doing’ The Future – ‘Will’ + ‘To be going to’ Future Perfect – ‘Will have done’ The Future with ‘be’ + Infinitive
Unit 2 Present Perfect and Past
*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.
Unit 4 Modals
‘Can’ – ability and likelihood ‘Can’ – perception and knowledge ‘Can’, ‘could’, ‘to be able to’ ‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: advice ‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: probability ‘Must’ and ‘have to’ Using ‘must’ for obligation Strong probability using ‘must’ Absence of necessity ‘May’ and ‘Might’ ‘Shall’ ‘Would like’: expressing wishes Modal Auxiliaries Near certainty in the past: ...‘must have/ can’t have’
Unit 5 Questions
Questions without interrogative words Interrogative Words ‘How long...’ Past Interrogatives Question Tags ‘Which’ / ‘What’ ‘How long…..(for)’/ ‘Since when' Short Questions Definite and Indefinite Articles The Plural Names of Countries: Capitals Countable and Uncountable Nouns Exclamations with ‘what a’ Construction of Compound Nouns The use and omission of ‘the’ Definite articles with geographical names Nouns without singular forms Negation of the indefinite article
Unit 6 Articles and Nouns
Unit 7 Pronouns and Determiners
Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns ‘No’ / ’None’ The Possessive More uses of the Possessive The Indefinite Possessive Use of Pronoun ‘one’ Demonstrative Pronouns ‘Here’/ ‘There’ ‘Some’ and ‘Any’ ‘How much’ / ‘How many’ ‘As much as’ / ‘As many as’ ‘Some’ / ‘Any’: singular or plural? ‘Either……or’ ‘Either……. or’ / ‘Neither …….nor’ ‘Everybody’ / ‘Nobody’ ‘Everybody’ / ‘Somebody’ / ‘Nobody’ ‘Each other’ / ‘One another’ Different meanings of ‘all’ ‘A little’ / ‘A bit’ Use of ‘both’
Unit 8 Relative Clauses and Dependent Clauses
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs ‘That’ and Dependent Clauses When ‘that’ may be left out ‘To hope’ + Dependent Clause Possessive Adjectives ‘Too’ / ‘Too Much’ Placement of ‘Enough’ ‘Also’ / ‘As well’ / ‘Too’ Adverbs of Time / Frequency The Adverb ‘that’ ‘Yet’ / ‘Not yet’ ‘Still’ / ‘Yet’ Compound Adjectives Adjectives ending in –ing and –ed Adjectives ending in –ing The Past Participle as an adjective Adverbs of Degree Adverbs and Adjectives Uses of ‘so’ The placement of ‘even’ ‘Even though’ / ‘Even if’ ‘Quite’ / ‘Quite a few’
Unit 9 Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 10 Comparatives and Superlatives
Unit 13 Gerunds and Infinitives
Comparing equals using ‘as…..as’ Regular and Irregular Comparatives Regular and Irregular Superlatives ‘The more . . . the more’ A use of the comparative Prepositions of Time Prepositions of Place Final Prepositions Verbs + prepositions Conjunctions Use of ‘so’ to express a goal ‘So that’ + ‘may’ or ‘can’ Similarity: ‘like’ and ‘as’
Unit 11 Prepositions
Gerunds and Infinitives Use of ‘be used to’ Use of ‘get used to’ Verbs: Reactions and Preferences Verb + Infinitive Clause Verbs expressing a wish to act Expressions followed by the gerund Verbs introducing a second action
Unit 14 Conditionals
Unit 12 Conjunctions
Present Conditional* and Sequence ...of Tenses with ‘if’* (Zero, First, Second) The Perfect Conditional* (Third Conditional) The Perfect Conditional using ‘should’
Unit 15 Subjunctive and Wishes
Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive Wishes and Regrets
Unit 16 Passive
The Passive Voice The Impersonal Structure
Unit 17 Reported speech
The Sequence of Tenses* (Reported ...Speech)
*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.
Unit 18 Phrasal Verbs
The Main Postpositions* (Common phrasal ...verbs) Phrasal Verbs
Unit 20 Other
Unit 19 Expressions
‘To get’ + Adjective ‘To look forward to’ ‘Kind of’ followed by a noun ‘To be likely’ ‘To be left’ / ‘To have left’ ‘For the sake of’ Expressions with ‘to have’ Baseball Expressions ‘To be at stake’ Expressions of Increase
‘There is/are’ Time ‘Have’ or ‘make’ without ‘to’ ‘To let’ ‘When’ / ‘while’ + Present ‘How’ + Adjective or Adverb ‘Had better’ / ‘Would rather’ Expressions of Preference Words ending in ‘ever’ ‘Whether’ Emphatic 'do’ Verbs expressing impressions ...and feelings ‘I am told’
*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.
The verb ‘to be’ expresses existence, action, or occurrence.
Conjugation of ‘to be’
I You He /She /It We They am are is are are
The verb ‘to be’ and contractions
Contraction of ‘to be’
I’m You’re He’s / She’s / It’s We’re They’re
Use + examples ( as a stative verb)
I am a student. I’m a student. He is my brother. He’s my brother.
Negative ‘to be’
I You He /She /It We They
am not are not is not are not are not
I’m not You’re not or You aren’t He’s / She’s / It’s not or He / She / It isn’t We’re not or We aren’t
Negative contraction ‘to be’
Am I? Is he/ she/ it? Are we / you / they?
They’re not or They aren’t
The verb ‘to have’ is used to express possession, ownership, qualities or characteristics.
The verb ‘to have’
I You He /She / It We They I don’t have You don’t have He/ She/ It doesn’t have We don’t have They don’t have
The verb ‘to have’
Negative ‘to have’
Do + I + have…? you we they Does + he + have? she it
I have 2 brothers. He has 2 brothers.
I don’t have 2 brothers. He doesn’t have 2 brothers.
Do you have 2 brothers? Does he have 2 brothers?
We use the present simple for: ◌ things that are true in general ◌ things that happen sometimes or all the time ◌ to describe regular actions, events or habits
I You He /She / It We They
Present simple affirmative
work work works work work
I You He / She /It We They
Present simple negative
don’t work don’t work doesn’t work don’t work don’t work
Do + I + work…? you we they Does + he + work? she it
Present simple question
I work everyday. He works everyday.
I don’t work everyday. He doesn’t work everyday.
Do you work everyday? Does he work everyday?
Third person (He / She / It)
You must always add an –s to the verb.
Verbs ending in: –s / –sh / –ch pass : passes add –es Verbs ending in : –y study : studies add –ies Except when the verb is preceded by a vowel. finish : finishes try : tries play : plays
do : does
go : goes
The negative form of the verb to be expresses the nonexistence, nonaction, or non occurrence of an action.
Structure The verb ‘to be’ Examples
I You He /She /It We They am are is are are not not not not not (aren’t) (isn’t)
The Negative Form
Add : not or n’t to contractions
Add : do not or don’t does not or doesn’t (I, you, we, they) (he, she, it)
They are not my friends. He is not my brother. I You He / She /It We They don’t work. don’t work. doesn’t work. don’t work. don’t work.
I don’t play football on the weekends. He doesn’t go to university.
When we answer a question with ‘yes’ or ‘no’, it is usually followed by a tag which is a repetition of the verb ‘to be’ or an auxiliary.
Am I a teacher? Are you a teacher? Is he a teacher? Is she a teacher? Are we teachers? Are they teachers?
Tags – short answers
The verb ‘to be´
Yes, you are. Yes, I am. Yes, he is. Yes, she is. Yes, we are. Yes, they are. Yes, you do. Yes, I do. Yes, he does. Yes, she does. Yes, we do. Yes, they do.
No, you’re not. / you aren’t. No, I’m not. No, he’s not. / he isn’t. No, she’s not. / she isn’t. No, we’re not. / we aren’t. No, they’re not. / they aren’t. No, you don’t. No, I don’t. No, he doesn’t. No, she doesn’t. No, we don’t. No, they don’t.
Do I like football? Do you like football? Does he like football? Does she like football? Do we like football? Do they like football?
The present simple describes a present condition, regular or general action; the present continuous describes the action that is currently taking place.
The Present Simple Use Examples
- Regular actions or events - When talking in general - Facts - Often used with adverbs of frequency – sometimes, often, always, never etc. - The action is not happening at the time of speaking. I always eat eggs for breakfast. He often has English class. Banks lend money to make profits.
The Present Simple and Present Continuous
The Present Continuous
Catherine wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian. (but perhaps she isn’t learning exactly at the time of speaking) He is having English class at the moment. Banks are lending more money (these days) to encourage businesses to expand.
- Now - For temporary situations
The Present Continuous Present continuous:
something is happening now / at the moment / currently Past Now Future I’m working. He’s playing football. They’re watching television.
Structure + Examples
I am He/she/it is We/you/they are
The verb ‘to be’ + verb –ing
(not) (not) (not)
verb-ing verb-ing verb-ing
I am working. Chris is writing a letter. We’re having dinner.
What are you doing now? What is he doing now?
We are running.
It is raining.
Verbs that end in –e drop the ‘e’ , add –ing Make – making, write – writing, come – coming, dance – dancing Verbs that end in –ie change to –ying Lie – lying, die – dying, tie – tying
The Affirmative Imperative
You can use the imperative form to give an order, a warning or advice.
you (singular + plural) I, he, she, we, they
Infinitive without ‘to’
Let + object pronoun + infinitive without ‘to’ Let + noun phrase + infinitive without ‘to’
Be Quiet! Walk down the street Let me check in the dictionary. Let Mark sit there. Let’s (us) go to the beach. Let them do what they want.
The negative imperative form is used to give an order, warning or the advice to NOT perform a specific action.
you (singular + plural) I, he, she, we, they
The Negative Imperative
Do not (don’t) + Infinitive without ‘to’ Do not (don’t) let + object pronoun + infinitive without ‘to Do not (don’t) let + noun phrase + infinitive without ‘to’
Don’t be quiet! Don’t walk down the street Don’t let me fall asleep. Don’t let the children fall asleep.
Some verbs are never or hardly ever used in continuous forms. Many of these non-continuous verbs refer to states rather than actions. Mental and emotional states
Verbs without a continuous form
To doubt To feel (= have an opinion) To imagine To know To (dis)like To love To hate To prefer To recognize To remember To see (= understand) To suppose To think (= have an opinion) To understand To want To wish To realize To appear To hear To look (=seem) To see To seem To smell To sound To taste To agree To deny To impress To please To satisfy To mean To disagree
Use of the senses
Communicating and causing reactions
Certain verbs which do not normally take the continuous form may take it in some cases.
Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions
To see To hear To feel To smell To taste
Verbs of perception
When they express ‘voluntary actions’
I’m seeing Lynn tomorrow. I see what you mean.
NOT I’m seeing what you mean
Expressing notions of belief, preference, feelings or an intellectual activity. .
To think (to reflect) What are you thinking about?
NOT to think ( have an opinion)
What are you thinking of it? What do you think of it?
‘Always’ is normally used with the simple present. However, sometimes it is used with the present continuous in these situations:
To express a repeated action which has an effect on the speaker. To talk about unexpected or unplanned events.
‘Always’ + Present Continuous
You’re always running late! Compare: When Alice comes to see me, I always meet her at the station. (a regular, planned arrangement) I’m always meeting Mrs. Jones at the supermarket. (accidental, unplanned meeting)
begin break bring build buy catch come do drink eat
Present Perfect and Past Simple
USE To talk about completed actions or finished events that happened at a specific time (yesterday, last year, etc.)
The Preterit (Past Simple)
I watched television yesterday.
For regular verbs add –ed For regular verbs ending in –y , drop the –y , add –ied I You He/she/it We They watched watched watched watched watched I You He/she/it We They didn’t watch didn’t watch didn’t watch didn’t watch didn’t watch Did you watch? he/she/it we they
I watched television last night.
I didn’t watch television last night.
Did you watch television last night?
Irregular Verbs: There is no rule for the construction of irregular verbs in the past, therefore you must memorize them. Here are some important irregular verbs:
began broke brought built bought caught came did drank ate fall find fly forget get give go have hear know fell found flew forgot got gave went had heard knew leave lose make meet pay put read ring say see left lost made met paid put read(red) rang said saw sell sit sleep speak stand take tell think win write sold sat slept spoke stood took told thought won wrote
For the preterit (past simple) and past participle of regular verbs add -ed However, for irregular verbs there are no rules. You must memorize them.
Here are some common irregular verbs:
be begin catch choose do drink eat fall fly give have
was/were began caught chose did drank ate fell flew gave had
been begun caught chosen done drunk eaten fallen flown given had
The Present Perfect is used to indicate actions that happened in a unfinished period of time.
Have Has I/you/we/they have He/she/it has + + past participle past participle past participle….? past participle…?
The Present Perfect
go have take eat drink sing gone had taken eaten drunk sung
I/you/they/we + he/she/it +
Shows there is a connection with now. An action in the past has a result now.
-‘Where is your key?’ (I can’t find it now.)
‘I don’t know. I have lost it.’
Describes an action that started in the past and continues in the present. Shows that an action has recently happened. - (Just is used to show that something happened recently)
-‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No, she has gone to the mall.’ (She is at the mall now.) -I have tried to learn French, but haven’t succeeded. -I have always studied a lot in university. -Ouch! I have (just) cut my finger. -The road is closed. There has (just) been an accident. -I have (just) finished a great book!
They are at home.
They are going out.
They have gone out. (=They are not at home now)
Differences between the Past Simple and the Present Perfect
Past Simple When the time period has finished Present Perfect When the time period has not finished
I saw three movies last week. (the action has finished in a specific time period in the past). I have seen three movies this week. (the week has not finished, so more actions in this time period may take place). Martin has crashed his car last year. Martin crashed his car again.
Past Simple To indicate “old” information Present Perfect When giving recent news Past Simple When the time of the action is clear Present Perfect When the time of action is not specific Past Simple ‘For’ ‘For’ is used in the past simple when we want to indicate the period of time that the action occurred but has already finished. Present Perfect ‘For’ and ‘since’ are used when we want to indicate the period of time that the action has been occurring, though the action has not finished yet.
I saw that movie on Thursday. (specific day) I have already seen that movie. (no specific day or date of the action) I lived in Victoria for five years.
I have lived in Victoria for five years.
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until this moment in the present.
The Present Perfect Continuous
rb –ing been + ve rb –ing have been + ve you/we/they has I/ ing ….? He/she/it n + verb – ing …? e bee I/you/they/w been + verb – Have he/she/it Has
Describes an action that has recently stopped and has a connection with now. Describes an action that has been repeated over a certain amount of time.
-Paul is very tired. He has been working hard. -Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? -I have been learning English for three years. -She has been playing basketball since she was 6 years old. -They have been traveling to Europe every summer since 1995. It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. How long has it been raining? It has been raining for two hours. We often use the present perfect continuous in this way, especially with How long, for… and since…The activity is still happening (as in the example) or has just stopped.
‘For’ / ‘Since’ / ‘Ago’
For, since, ago = to say how long something has been happening.
‘For’ = a period of time
two hours 20 minutes five days six months
a week 50 years a long time ages
I have been studying English for 3 years. ‘Since’ = the start of a period 8 o’clock Monday 12 May April 1977 Christmas lunchtime they were at school
I have been studying English since 2000. ‘Ago’ = expression of time + ago is usually used with the past tense six weeks ago a long time ago two days ago I studied English 5 years ago.
‘Ever’ – ‘Never’
‘Ever’ = at some/any time up to now ‘Never’ = not ever
Question – ‘Ever’ Used in present simple and present perfect Auxiliary + subject + ‘ever’ + main verb Affirmative – ‘Ever’ Used with ‘if’ or superlative Negative – Negative ‘Never’ + verb in affirmative
Do you ever play tennis? Have you ever been to Argentina? She’s the nicest person I’ve ever met. (superlative) Visit the Eiffel Tower if you ever go to Paris. (if) I never drink and drive. I’ve never been to Argentina.
The Present Perfect is used to indicate unfinished past actions, past actions when the time is not specified, and when a past action is relevant now.
Expressions with the Present Perfect
Structure + Use
We can use these expressions with the present perfect: Today All day This week This year Already Just Yet Lately Recently In the last two months All my life So far Ever Never They refer to a period of time that is not yet over or is recent. We cannot use these expressions with the present perfect: Two months ago One year ago Last week Yesterday When I was a child They refer to a time in the past that is over.
He’s been in a bad mood all day. I’ve visited my grandmother 2 times this week. I’ve just started the class. I haven’t studied in the last two months. I haven’t heard about it so far.
The Preterit Continuous (Past Continuous)
Preterit Continuous = to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time.
Sarah 4 O´clock
Sarah 6 O´clock
It’s 6 o’clock now. Sarah is at home. She is watching television. At 4 o’clock she wasn’t at home. She was playing tennis.
she/it was + verb –ing
I/he/she/it was not (wasn’t) + verb –ing
Was I/he/she/it + verb –ing?
We/you/they were + verb -ing We/you/they were not (weren’t) + verb -ing Were we/you/they + verb-ing? It was raining. It wasn’t raining. Was it raining?
For actions that happened before related past events or times.
I/we/they/you + He/she/it + had had (=I’d etc.) (= he’d etc.) + + past participle past participle (gone, seen, finished etc.)
The Past Perfect
1. To express an action completed before a given time in the past. 2. A state or action beginning in the past continuing until some later time in the past.
I had never seen a movie before then. They had been friends for ten years when he left.
10 9 8
11 12 1 7 6 5
10 9 8
11 12 1 7 6 5
Half an hour later Hello
Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too, but they didn’t see each other. Paul went home at 10:30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o’clock. So: When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn’t there. He had gone home.
The Past Perfect Continuous
The Past Perfect Continuous is used for actions that were unfinished when another action took place.
I/you/we/they He/she/it I/you/we/they He/she/it Had I/you/they/we he/she/it
had been had been
verb –ing verb –ing
(studying, working, listening, etc.) (sleeping, reading, eating, etc.) (helping, playing, talking, etc.)
had not been + verb-ing had not been + verb-ing been + verb –ing ….? been + verb –ing …?
To show that something started in the past and continued up until the moment that something else happened. To show cause and effect.
Mary had been talking with John for 15 minutes until Lindsey arrived. Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
Structure + Use
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they + ‘to be’ + used to + verb + ing+ object. Is used for expressing habits or things which you are comfortable with or accustomed to. For expressing a point in the process of becoming accustomed to something. For expressing actions that were habitual in the past and implies that the action no longer takes place. In this sense it is used as a modal auxiliary.
I am used to reading before going to sleep. I have gotten used to walking to work. I used to eat seafood, but now I prefer meat.
for the future (tomorrow / next week) eating eating eating eating eating for fixed future arrangements
The present continuous for future indicates that a specific action will be taking place at a specific time in the future.
‘To be’ + verb-ing
The Near Future ‘be’ + –ing / Present Continuous for Future
What are you doing tomorrow evening? I am staying at home.
I am You are He/she/it is We are They are
(not) (not) (not) (not) (not)
I’m playing tennis tomorrow
We use ‘will’ for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.)
I/we/you/they He/she/it will (‘ll) will not (won’t) I/we/you/they He/she/it be eat etc. win be? win? etc. eat?
The Future – ‘Will’
Subject + ‘will’ + infinitive (without to) Examples:
I will be at home tomorrow. Will you be at home this evening?
We use ‘will’ when we make a decision in the moment of speaking.
‘It’s cold in here.’ ‘I’ll close the window’ ‘What would you like to order?’ ‘I’ll have the beef please.’
The Future Continuous – ‘Will be doing’
‘will’ + ‘be’ + gerund
This is used to say you will be in the middle of doing something. It is used to talk about complete actions in the future.
The football games at 7:30 and ends at 9:15. At 8:15, Kevin will be watching the game. Q: If you see Sally, can you ask her to call me? A: Sure, I’ll be seeing her this evening, so I’ll tell her then.
The Future – ‘Will’ vs. ‘To be going to’
‘Will’ + infinitive I, you etc.+ ‘will’ + verb (infinitive without to) I, you etc.+ ‘will not’ (won’t) + verb (infinitive without to)
Indefinite future predictions
Next year I think I will go to New York.
When we make a decision in the ‘It’s cold in here’. moment of speaking. ‘I’ll close the window’
‘To be’ + ‘going to’ + infinitive ‘I am (not) going to’ + verb Future plans and intention I am going to meet Jill for lunch today. (infinitive without to) (I’ve decided to do something, my intention is to do it) He is not going to finish the project on time.
We also use ‘to be going to’ when there is evidence in the present that something is going to happen in the future. It is clear now that it is sure to happen.
There is a black cloud in the sky. It’s going to rain.
It’s going to rain.
The Future Perfect – ‘Will have done’
‘Will have’ + past participle I, you etc.+ ‘will’ + ‘have’ + past participle To indicate that something will occur before another action in the future. To show that something will continue up until another action in the future.
You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the USA. By Monday, Susan will have had my book for a month.
The Future with ‘be’ + infinitive
‘To be’ + infinitive with ‘to’ This is used to express the idea of the future in the following situations: A planned or agreed action Present: ‘To be’ (present) + infinitive with ‘to’ Past: ‘To be’ (past) + infinitive with ‘to’ (This is a planned or agreed action that was not done.) An action which should be done An imposed action / a strict order Instructions and directions for use ‘To be’ + passive infinitive
We’re to see them tomorrow. I was to become a priest. (but I didn’t) What’s to be done? You’re not to read that letter. The medicine is to be taken twice a day.
‘Can’ ability - to be able to do something. Example: He can carry the bag. ‘Can’ likelihood / possibility Example: Sometimes when the weather is bad it can rain. ( It is possible that this happens.) It can’t be true. (I certainly is not true, there is no possibility that it is true.)
‘Can’ – ability and likelihood
g. 30 K
I / we / you / they he / she / it
+ can + cannot (can’t) + verb
I / we / you / they he / she / it Example: Can you swim?
‘Can’ - perception and knowledge
‘Can’ ability / knowledge - to know how to do something Example: I can play the guitar. ‘Can’ perception - with verbs of perception such as to hear, to see, to feel. Example: I can see Sarah coming.
I / we / you / they he / she / it
can + verb cannot (can’t) + verb
I / we / you / they he / she / it
Example: Can you swim?
I can play the piano .
The modal ‘can’ has the following form
‘Can’, ‘Could’, ‘To be able to’
Present Past Infinitive Future
nguages. n speak 5 laery well. I ca gv He can’t sin e piano. Can ould play thecause I was sick. a child I c Can’t When I was o to class yesterday b I couldn’t g uld Co blem. She out your pro n’t ne ab Could Ask Catheri le to help you. might be ab be able to To you later. to meet with ve early because I will be able e able to lea . b They won’t finish their homework be able to be able to Will ) they have to ill not (won’t W
Use To give advice
‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: advice
You shouldn´t watch TV so much
Should / ought to =
It is a good thing to do; it is the right thing to do.
Should not / ought not to =
It is not a good thing to do.
I, you, we, they + should (not) + he, she, it Examples: It’s a good film. You should go and see it. Tom shouldn’t go to bed so late. I, you, we, they + ought (not) to + he, she, it Examples: Carol ought to buy some new clothes. You ought not to eat so much.
infinitive without to
infinitive without to
‘should’ or ‘ought to’ +
‘have’ + past participle = to express regret or reproach
We should have gone to the mountains. They ought to have invited her.
‘Should’ and ‘Ought to’: probability
‘Should’ subject + ‘should’ + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘Ought to’ subject + ‘ought to’ + infinitive without ‘to’
To show something that is desirable or probable Implies an expectation or assumption
The train should arrive soon.
He is intelligent. He ought to pass the exam.
‘Must’ and ‘Have to’
Must = a need or obligation to do something
I, you, we, they + must + infinitive without to He, she, it + must + infinitive without to
You must wash your hands before eating.
Mustn’t = an obligation to NOT do something. You must not do it. Must not
I, you, we, they + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ He, she, it + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’’
You mustn’t smoke in the elevator.
Have to = a need or obligation to do something.
I, you, we, they + have to + infinitive without to
You have to finish the assignment by tomorrow.
Don’t have to Doesn’t have to
He, she, it
= NO obligation to do something. It is optional.
You don’t have to do the homework if you don’t want to. ( You can either do it or not; it is optional)
I, you, we, they + don’t have to + infinitive
without ‘to’ + doesn’t have to + infinitive without ‘to
Using ‘must’ for obligation
Must = a need or obligation to do something.
I, you, we, they + must + infinitive without ‘to’ He, she, it + must + infinitive without ‘to’ You must wash your hands before eating.
Mustn’t = an obligation NOT to do something.
I, you, we, they + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ He, she, it + mustn’t + infinitive without ‘to’
You mustn’t walk on the grass.
Please keep off the grass
Strong probability using ‘must’
Must = strong probability or near certainty.
Subject + must + verb (infinitive without ‘to’) Negative: Subject + cannot + verb (infinitive without ‘to’) Subject + can’t + verb (infinitive without ‘to’)
You must be Mr. Brown. My sister has told me all about you. You can’t be Maggie’s mother; you’re not old enough!
: The past form is ast participle must + have + p ty in the past. sses near certaingone out. It expre st have Example: He mu
To say it is not necessary to do something or it is optional you can use ‘needn’t’ and ‘don’t have to’. It shows an absence of necessity.
Absence of necessity
Subject + needn’t + infinitive without ‘to’ Subject + don’t / doesn’t need to + infinitive without ‘to’ This expresses the opinion of the speaker. Subject + ‘don’t’ / ‘doesn’t have to’ + infinitive without ‘to’ This can imply the speaker’s opinion or not.
You needn’t bring your bike; it’s not that far. You don’t need to bring your bike. You don’t have to do your homework.
To say it is not necessary to do something or it is optional you can use ‘needn’t’ and ‘don’t have to’. It shows an absence of necessity.
May I, you, etc. + may + verb (infinitive To say that something may not without ‘to’) is about 50% possible. Might I, you, etc. + might + verb (infinitive To say that something might not without to) is less than 50% possible.
‘May’ and ‘Might’
I may go to the cinema later. He may call her. He might have a meeting. He might know.
The uses of ‘may’ and ‘might’ above are to talk about the present or future. These other structures are also possible. may/might + be + verb –ing to talk about present or future I may be working at that time. He might be having lunch. may/might + have + past participle to talk about uncertain events in the past
She may have been asleep. She might have left it in the shop.
In British English, ‘shall’ can be used for ‘will’ to express the future. In American English, it is not often used. Use ‘shall’ with I/ we I shall be late tomorrow. ( I will be late) Shall we go to the museum later?
Do NOT use ‘shall’ with you/they/he/she/it
Tom will be late. (not ‘Tom shall be’)
‘Shall’ can express obligation.
This is stronger and more formal than other modals of obligation (‘must’, ‘have to’). It is used in legal texts and official rules.
Examples: 1. The insurance holder shall pay back the full amount within three years. 2. Students shall not play loud music after 10PM.
‘Would like’: expressing wishes
‘Would like’ expresses a wish or desire. ‘Would like’ + infinitive Example: I would like to go to the movies. ‘Would like’ + noun or noun phrase Example: I would like a drink. Interrogative ‘would like’ Example: Would you like a coffee? more polite form of (do) want
A modal auxiliary is a verb used with other verbs to express mood or tense. When a modal is used, the following verb is in the infinitive minus ‘to’ form.
Could May Might Must
Ability Negative: cannot / can’t Past: could Future: will be able to Permission Possible actions now or in the future. (to make suggestions) Permission To say that something is about 50% possible. Permission To say that something is less than 50% possible. Obligation Negative: mustn’t Deduction Negative: can’t
He can play the piano.
Can I leave the room? When you go to New York you could stay with Jane. Could I open the window? I may go to the cinema later. May I open the window? He might have a meeting. You must go to the bank You mustn’t go to the bank. You’ve been travelling all day, you must be tired. You’ve been sleeping all day, you can’t be tired.
Could + have + past participle
May + have + past participle Might + have + past participle
Possibility in the past. Something you could have done but did not do / did not attempt to do. To say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. To say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. BUT did not happen.
I could have studied Architecture in university. Polly’s very late. She may have missed her train. You were stupid to try climbing up there. You might have killed yourself.
When we are unsure of occurrences in the past, we can use these expressions to indicate an assumption of the event that probably took place in a past moment.
Near certainty in the past: ‘must have’ / ‘can’t have’
subject + must have + past participle
Example: John wasn’t in class yesterday. He must have been sick.
Deduction Near certainty in the past
subject + can’t have + past participle Example: I saw John in the pub. He can’t have been sick.
A deduction about something that didn’t happen in the past.
Questions without interrogative words
The Verb ‘to be’ ‘To be’ + subject Am I? Are you? Is he / she / it? Are we? Are they?
Are you married? Is John a policeman?
Present Simple Do + subject + verb Does Do you / we / they? Does he / she / it? Does he study English? Do they have television?
Interrogative words are used to ask very specific questions related to the person, place, reason, etc. that an action occurs.
Who Which What How Why Where When Whose
refers to people refers to people or things when there is a choice refers to things refers to manner or means asks about reason refers to location refers to time or date refers to possession
Who is he? Who do you know? Which do you prefer tea or coffe What sport do you play? anner) How do you spell your name? (m) How do you go to work? (means Why don’t you like her? Where is the museum? When does the store open? When do you leave? Whose pen is this? e?
is used to ask questions about duration.
‘How long’ + ‘to be’ ‘How long’ + present simple
‘How long’ + ‘is’/’are’ + noun
How long is your vacation? How long are the books? How long do you take to eat breakfast? How long does it take to get to work?
‘How long’ + ‘do’/’does’ + subject + verb
Beginner level should only study the two structures above. Below are some examples of ‘how long’ with other tenses.
‘How long’ + preterit (past simple) ‘How long’ + present perfect ‘How long’ + present perfect continuous
‘How long + ‘did’ + subject + verb How long did you spend in Italy? ‘How long’ + ‘have’ / ‘has’ + subject + past participle How long’ + ‘have’ / ‘has’ + subject + ‘been’+ gerund ‘ How long have you had that car? How long have you been studying English?
The verb ‘to be’
‘Was’ / ‘were’ + subject I? he? she? it? we? you? they?
Where was Ann yesterday? Was the weather good? Were they expensive?
The Preterit (Past Simple)
‘Did’ + subject + verb I you he she watch? it we they What did you do yesterday? Where did he go on holiday? Did it rain on Saturday?
Question tags are ‘mini-questions’ placed at the end of a sentence. A positive sentence A negative sentence
The verb ‘to be’ You’re a doctor, aren’t you? He is not here today, is he? Present Simple They work together, don’t they? She doesn’t eat meat, does she? Present Continuous He is studying English, isn’t he? You’re not meeting Jim, are you? Preterit/ Past Simple He went on vacation, didn’t he? They didn’t work yesterday, did they?
Questions – Tags
A negative question tag A positive question tag
Question tags can be formed for all tenses. Your teacher will give you examples for the tenses you have learned so far. The meaning of a question tag depends on how you say it. If your voice Goes down
It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? Yes, lovely.
You aren’t really asking a question; you are only inviting the listener to agree with you. Example: It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? Yes, lovely.
You are asking a real question. Example: You didn’t see Mary, did you? No, I’m afraid not.
‘Which’ / ‘What’
Which, What = both are used for choices. They are often used interchangeably.
What - a choice between or among things. (usually objects) Which – a choice between or among a limited number of things/possibilities (usually objects and people)
What books do you prefer? What kind of services do you want? Which do you prefer: romance novels or science fiction? Which of these shirts is yours?
‘How long…..(for)’ / ‘Since when’
‘How long’ + ‘have’/’has’ + subject + ‘been’ + verb -ing + ‘for’? We use ‘for’ when we say a period of time. (two hours, a week, 20 minutes, six months etc.) ‘Since when’ + ‘have’/‘has’ + subject + ‘been’+ verb –ing We use ‘since when’ we say the start of a period of time. (8 o’clock, Monday, 12 May, 1990, lunchtime etc.) Q: ‘Since when has it been snowing?’ A: ‘It has been snowing since yesterday’.
Q: ‘How long have you been waiting for?’ A: ‘I have been waiting for over an hour’.
In informal everyday and professional situations, you may use short questions.
These are questions formed with incomplete sentences.
You can only use them when the context has been clearly established.
They ask for feedback, check understanding, ask for clarification, ask for advice / suggestions, make requests and verify agreement.
Here are some examples:
Any thoughts? Suggestions? Ideas? Any problems? Objections? Anything serious? Louder, please? Sorry?
Possible complete form
Do you have any thoughts on what I just said? Do you have any suggestions? Can you give me some ideas? Have you been having any problems? Does anyone have any objections to my proposal? Are the problems serious? Could you speak a bit louder, please? Sorry? I didn’t hear what you said.
Articles and Nouns
An article is a word that is combined with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. A definite article indicates that its noun is a particular one. An indefinite article indicates that its noun is not yet a particular one.
Language Use Example
Definite and Indefinite Articles
The indefinite article A The definite article The
- one thing or person. - a noun in a general context. - a noun in a specific context.
He is a teacher.
He is the teacher.
The indefinite article A The indefinite article An
is used before words that begin I am a man. with consonants. is used before words that begin This is an orange. with vowels (a,e,i,o,u) or vowels sounds It’s an honor.
an hour (h is not pronounced: an (h)our) a university (pronounced yuniversity) a European country (pronounced yeuropean)
To make a noun plural add
–s a flower a book two flowers two books
For nouns ending in: –s / –sh / –ch / –x
bus : buses dish : dishes box : boxes church : churches Also: potato : potatoes tomato: tomatoes
For nouns ending in: –y but –ay / –ey / –oy For nouns ending in: –f / –fe – ves shelf : shelves wife: wives man woman foot child person men women feet children people – ies – ys baby : babies day : days party : parties monkey: monkeys
Some nouns have irregular endings
Names of Countries: Capitals
a university (pronounced yuniversity) a European country (pronounced yeuropean)
Names of countries have capital letters.
He’s a friend from France.
They live in Spain.
I am from the United States!
Countable and Uncountable Nouns a university (pronounced yuniversity)
A noun can be
(a) car (a) man (a) house (an) idea I have a car. I have two cars.
You can use one/two/three etc. + countable nouns. (you can count them) Countable nouns can be singular or plural.
You cannot say one/two/three etc. Uncountable nouns only have one form. You cannot use ‘a’/ ‘an’ + uncountable nouns.
Uncountable nouns are always singular.
water rice money salt music I have money. I have some money.
Exclamations with ‘what a’
‘What a /an’ (+adjective) + singular countable noun ‘What’ (+ adjective) + uncountable / plural noun What a rude man! What a nice dress! What beautiful weather! What lovely flowers!
Construction of Compound Nouns
A compound noun = two nouns joined together.
One noun modifies the other.
Example: tooth, paste: toothpaste
Compound nouns can be written in these ways:
There are not many rules for joining compound nouns. You must check a dictionary for the correct form. 1. The two words are joined together. Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom 2. They are joined using a hyphen. Example: check-in 3. They appear as two separate words. Example: full moon Other Examples: ski boots, alarm clock , housework, great-grandfather
The use and omission of ‘the’
We use ‘the’ before plural nouns or uncountable nouns when we are thinking of one particular thing. When we are talking about things or people in general, we do not use ‘the’. We do not use ‘the’ with names of people, countries, continents, states, regions, islands, cities, mountains. But we do use ‘the’ in names with ‘Republic’, ‘Kingdom’, ‘States’, oceans, seas, rivers and canals.
Tom sat down on a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs) Tom sat on the chair nearest the door. (a particular chair) I’m afraid of dogs. (not the dogs) Children learn a lot from playing. (children in general) I visited Europe last year. (not the Europe) I live in the USA. She is from the Republic of Ireland. The Atlantic Ocean is very big.
Definite articles with geographical names
Singular name of a country, continent or region. Exceptions: the Sahara, the Congo, the South Pole.
France, Great Britain, Spain
Plural name of a country.
The British Isles, the West Indies, the Philippines
But we do use ‘the’ in names with ‘Republic’, ‘Kingdom’, ‘States’.
The United States, The Republic of Ireland, The United Kingdom
Abbreviations of countries, continents and regions.
The UK, the USA, the EU
The names of streets, squares, monuments and parks. ( generally)
Carnaby Street, Hyde Park, Wesminister Abbey
Some plural nouns have no singular forms.
Nouns referring to objects composed of 2 symmetrical parts Scissors, glasses, trousers, jeans, shorts, tights, pyjamas
Nouns without singular forms
When used as a countable noun, use ‘pair of’ Some collective nouns Clothes, goods, people, cattle, police, savings
The negative form of the indefinite article is expressed like this:
With a singular countable noun: ‘Not………..a’ With plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns ‘Not………………any’
Negation of the indefinite article
I haven’t got a pen./ I don’t have a pen. There aren’t any buses here. It doesn’t require any equipment.
Pronouns and Determiners
I You (singular) He She It We You (plural) They
(subject pronoun) I You He She It We They (object pronoun) me you him her it us them
Ann knows me. Ann knows you. Ann knows him. Ann knows her. Ann knows it. Ann knows us. Ann knows them.
a verb + object pronoun
It’s nice. I Iike it.
They’re nice. I like them.
Mine Ours Yours His Hers Theirs
I you he she we they
my your his her our their
(possessive pronoun) mine yours his hers ours theirs
We use my/your etc. + a noun My hands are cold. We use mine/yours etc. without a noun Is this book mine or yours? Possessive pronouns show possession and answer the question ‘whose’.
I You He She It We You They
myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves
We use reflexive pronouns when the subject and object of a sentence are the same person or non-person.
I talk to myself when I am nervous. We blame ourselves for the results of the test. It saw itself in the mirror.
‘No’ / ‘None’
‘No’ + noun When we want to exclude all possibilities. When no part of something is left. When none exists, not even a group of people or a small amount of something.
- We have no bread. - There were no problems. - Do you have any more pie? No, sorry, I have none. - When she returned to the office, none of us recognized her with her new haircut.
To show possession for people, countries, groups and institutions we use –’s
Examples: It is John’s birthday. (not the birthday of John) It’s my mother’s umbrella. Chile’s economy is doing well.
friend’s and friends’
My house Our house
My friend’s house = one friend (=his house or her house) (singular)
My friends’ house = 2 or more friends (= their house) (plural)
More uses of the Possessive
n also essive –’s ca rations The poss h dates, du it be used wd distances. an u r noun ’s to a singe la’) to a We add postroph ( and an a n, for example: plural nou
Dates Sunday’s weather Tomorrow’s flight Next year’s budget Three weeks’ vacation A hundred miles’ drive
The Indefinite Possessive
We can’t usually put a possessive before another determiner and a noun. We can say ‘my friend’ but not ‘a my friend’. So we use these structures.
determiner + noun + of + possessive (’s) determiner + noun + of + possessive (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)
I met a friend of Lucy’s. Have you heard this new idea of your boss’s? ( a, this = determiners) How’s that brother of yours? Peter is a cousin of mine. ( a, that = determiners)
Use of the pronoun ‘one’
The pronoun ‘one’ or ‘ones ‘ is used after an adjective to replace: •a countable noun already expressed •a noun that hasn’t been expressed
These chocolates are nice Would you like one?
Would you like one? = Would you like a chocolate? One = a /an (a chocolate / an apple etc.)
Which one do you want?
One (singular) Which one? = which hat?
Which one do you want? The white ones
Ones (plural) Which ones? = which flowers?
Demonstrative Pronouns: ‘This’, ‘That’, ‘These’, ‘Those’
The demonstratives this, that, these, those show where an object or person is in relation to the speaker.
this This (singular) These (plural)
Refers to an object or person near the speaker Examples: Is this John’s house? This is a nice surprise!
That (singular) Those (plural)
Refers to an object or person further away Examples: Who owns that house? That’s nothing to do with me.
a) Before a noun. b) Before the word one. c) Before an adjective + noun. d) Alone when the noun is understood.
This car looks cleaner than that car. This one is more expensive. Do you remember that wonderful day in June? I’ll never forget this.
‘Here’ / ‘There’
‘Here’ is used for something that is near to us. Here is the money (in my hand). ‘There’ is used for something that is far from us. There is the bank, about 2 blocks away.
‘Some’ / ‘Any’
Use ‘some’ / ‘any’ to describe an undetermined quantity. Use with both countable and uncountable nouns. ‘Some’: in positive sentences, offers and requests. I have got some money. Would you like some water? (offer) Can I have some bread? (request)
I have some money.
‘Any’: in negative sentences and questions
I haven’t got any money. Do you have any information?
I don’t have any money.
‘Any’: to express total Feel free to ask questions at any time. permission, possibility, or restriction. Any of these designs are fine. ‘Any’: to express possibility or indifference.
‘A lot of’, ‘Much’ / ‘Many’
Use ‘a lot of’ with mass and count nouns in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. Use ‘much’ with mass nouns in negative sentences and in questions. Use ‘many’ with count nouns in negative sentences, positive sentences and in questions.
Ann has a lot of meetings. I have a lot of work to do. Ann doesn’t have much time to see New York. How much coffee did you drink? I don’t have many classes today. Did many people come to the party?
‘How much’ / ‘How many’
‘How much/many’ = to ask questions about quantity ‘How much’ + uncountable nouns ‘How many’ + plural countable nouns How much money do you want? How much time do you have? How many friends do you have? How many books are there?
‘As much as’ / ‘As many as’
To compare two things that are the same. ‘as much as’ Use with: singular, uncountable nouns ‘not as much as’ ‘as many as’ ‘not as many as’ plural, countable nouns Examples: You have as much money as I do. (= the same amount) You don’t have as much money as I do. There are as many parks in Santiago as there are in Buenos Aires. There aren’t as many parks in Santiago as there are in Buenos Aires.
We can use ‘as much as’ + ‘as many as’ without a noun also. Here the comparative refers to the previous clause or an implied or previously stated noun. It’s twice as much as the rent. (=It’s twice as much money as the rent)
‘Some’ / ‘Any’: singular or plural?
‘Some’, ‘any’, ‘none’, ‘all’, ‘most’ When they refer to a singular noun, the verb is singular. When they refer to a plural noun, the verb is plural. Examples: Some of the meal was really good. None of the presentation is interesting. Some of the books are quite funny. None of the stories are interesting.
A negative clause must never contain more than one negation. So, we use ‘either’ after a negative verb. ‘Either’ is always placed at the end of a clause. It means ‘too’ / ‘as well’ I’m not happy. I’m not happy either. (not ‘I’m not …too’)
I’m not happy.
I’m not happy either.
I can’t cook. I can’t cook either.
(not ‘I can’t …too’)
‘Either……. or’ / ‘Neither …….nor’
‘Either…….or’ A choice between 2 things
I want either fruit juice or coffee. Either you come to class or you do the work at home.
? or ?
Either ‘Neither……..nor’ neither (not + either) To exclude 2 things
I can neither read nor write French. She’s neither nice nor helpful.
‘Everybody’ / ‘Nobody’
‘Everybody’ (everyone) (all the people)
Everybody needs friends. All the people need friends.
‘Nobody’ (no one) (no people)
Nobody is here. No people are here.
‘Everybody’ / ‘Somebody’ / ‘Nobody’ with question tags
r verbs. owed by singula is in the plural. nobody are foll y, somebody,llowed by a question tag, the tag Everybod ey are fo However, if th s Everybody needey? r singula friends, don’t th y (everyone) Everybod (all the people) one) Somebody (some singular now who) singular don’t k a person but we ( Nobody (no one) s go Somebody han’tto ey? shopping, do th ows, Nobody really kn they? do
Mike. (no people) ple: Nobody likes form. Exam rb in the positive Nobody + ve
‘Each other’ / ‘One another’
‘Each other’ and ‘one another’ can be used interchangeably. They show a reciprocal relationship between the subjects in the sentence.
John and Paul looked at each other. (= John looked at Paul / Paul looked at John)
‘Each other’ and ‘one another’ can be used in the possessive. They took each other’s hands. We often meet at one another’s places. Formerly, it was said that ‘each other’ was used for a relationship between two subjects whereas one another was used for a relationship between more than two subjects. Today, however, most do not observe this distinction. Maria and Jorge love each other. (Two subjects) The children are sitting opposite one another. (More than two subjects)
Different meanings of ‘all
‘All’ = all of something limited. It is used with uncountable or plural countable nouns.
‘All’ + noun ‘All (of)’ + the this/that/these/those (demonstrative) my/your etc. (possessive adjective)
All cities have the same problem. All the children at this school are tall. All these books are mine. I have spent all my money. Have you read these books? I’ve read them all. I’ve read all of them. The girls all left. We will all have some juice. They are all ready to go.
Personal Pronouns personal pronoun + ‘all’ ‘all of’ + personal pronoun with Subject Pronouns Subject (pronoun) + ‘all’ + simple verb Subject (pronoun) + modal auxiliary / ‘to be’ + ‘all’
With a singular countable noun = ‘every’ Every student in the class passed the exam. Every country has a national flag.
‘A little’ / ‘A bit’ = a small quantity
‘A little’ / ‘A bit’
Use with uncountable nouns. It can also replace the noun to avoid repetition. Use with uncountable nouns. Adverb of degree.
We want a little fresh air. ‘Do you want some coffee?’ ‘A little, please.’ We want a bit of fresh air. We’re a little busy today. This tooth aches a little.
‘A bit of’ ‘A little’ ‘A little’ + adjective Verb + ‘a little’ Little (negative connotation) ‘A bit’ ‘A few’ ‘Few’ (negative connotation)
Use with countable nouns. Often replaces ‘ a little’ as an adverb. Use with countable nouns. It can also replace the noun to avoid repetition. Use with countable nouns.
I have little time to finish the report. Can you drive a bit slower? I have a few books I can lend you. ‘How many science fiction novels do you have?’ ‘A few.’ I am lonely. I have few friends.
Use of ‘both’
‘Both’ = two elements
With nouns With determiners Before a noun with a determiner (the, this, my, your, those etc.) ‘both’ and ‘both of’ are possible. With object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) Use ‘both of’ before the pronoun. ‘Both’ can be put after object pronouns. With verbs Both goes after auxiliaries and before other verbs. I want both books. Both shirts are good. I want both (of) those books. Both (of) the books.
Both of them are my sisters. She has invited both of us. She has invited us both. We have both gone to the beach. We both want to go.
There are two types of relative clauses.
Defining Relative Clauses The woman who lives next door is a doctor. Non- defining Relative Clauses My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor.
The relative clause tells you which person or thing The relative clause does not tell you which person the speaker means. or thing the speaker means. (We already know which thing or person is meant.) This is extra information about the person or thing. We do NOT use commas. We use commas.
A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. It is usually attached to an independent clause. When the main clause is in the preterit, the dependent clause (introduced by ‘that’ or a relative pronoun) is also in the preterit. If it is in the present, then the dependent clause is in the present also. Reported Speech
When ‘that’ is used in reported speech, the dependent clause should follow the rule of agreement. (see reported speech)
‘That’ and Dependent Clauses
Relative Clauses – (Omission of ‘that’)
‘That’ is used as a relative pronoun in relative clauses. When the relative pronoun is an object pronoun it can be omitted in a defining relative clause*.
*see ‘relative pronouns and adverbs’ for an explanation on the difference between a defining and non-defining clauses.
Subject or Object Pronoun?
Subject Pronoun = the relative pronoun is followed by a verb. the apple that is laying on the table Object Pronoun = the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or pronoun. the apple (that) George laid on the table
Examples of when ‘that’ can/ cannot be omitted.
We stayed at the hotel (that) Ann recommended. ‘that’ + noun (Ann) = object pronoun. This is a defining relative clause. This morning I met somebody (that) I hadn’t met for ages. ‘that’ + pronoun (I) = object pronoun. This is a defining relative clause. Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. ‘that’ + verb (makes) = subject pronoun.
‘That’ may be left out in the following situations:.
When ‘that’ may be left out
After many reporting verbs ‘that’ can be left out. Examples: said, thought, suggested However, ‘that’ cannot be dropped after certain verbs Examples: replied, shouted, disagreed
James said (that) he was feeling better. James replied that he was feeling better. I’m glad (that) you’re all right. Come in quietly so (that) she doesn’t hear you. I was having such a nice time (that) I didn’t want to leave.
After adjectives Conjunctions
In ‘that’ clauses after some adjectives, ‘that’ can be left out. ‘That’ can be left out in an informal style in some common two-word conjunctions such as: ‘so that’ ‘such…that’ ‘now that’ ‘providing that’ ‘provided that’ ‘supposing that’ ‘considering that’ ‘assuming that’
Leave out the relative pronoun ‘that’ when it is the object in a relative clause. *See ‘that + dependent clauses’
Look! There are the people (that) we met in Brighton
‘To hope’ + Dependent Clause
‘To hope’ + future mple ‘To hope’ + present si (refers to the future)
She hopes he’ll come. any problems getting home. I hope you won’t have all right. He hopes the traffic is too cold. I hope the water is not
Adjectives and Adverbs
(subject pronoun) I You He She It We They my your his her its our their
A possessive adjective is used with a noun to indicate possession, ownership or close relationship.
We use: I like my job. You like your job. He likes his job She likes her job. It likes its food. (The dog) We like our jobs. They like their jobs.
possessive adjective + a noun to show possession
‘Too’ / ‘Too much’/ ‘Too many’
‘Too’ / ‘too much’ / ‘too many’ = More than you want, more than is good. This is a negative concept.
‘Too’ + adjective/adverb
The music is too loud.
‘Too much’ + uncountable nouns
There is too much sugar in my tea.
‘Too many’ + plural countable nouns
She has too many books.
Placement of Enough
‘Enough’ = sufficient, adequate He can’t reach the shelf. He’s not tall enough.
After adjectives and adverbs Before nouns and noun phrases After verbs (including past participles) I’m not tall enough. You drive fast enough. There isn’t enough time. He doesn’t work enough. I’ve eaten enough.
‘Also’ / ‘As well’ / ‘Too’
Before a verb and after ‘to be’ I also have a dog. She also studies English. She is also tall. We are also Chinese.
At the end of a sentence I have a dog as well. She studies English as well. She is tall as well. We are Chinese as well.
At the end of a clause or for emphasis (with commas) I have a dog too. I, too, have a dog. She studies English too. She, too, studies English. She is tall too. She, too, is tall. We are Chinese too. We, too, are Chinese.
An adverb modifies a verb. It helps to tell ‘how’, ‘when’ or ‘where’ the action took place.
To make an adverb: Adjective + –ly Examples: Accidently Quickly Angrily Safely Badly
Exceptions and Irregular adverbs: These are some words that are adjectives and adverbs: hard, fast, late, early Good (adjective) well (adverb) Your English is very good. You speak English very well. Spelling Rules -If the adjective ends in /y/ add –ily Easy Easily, Heavy Heavily -If the adjective ends in /e/, we keep /e/ before the /ly/ Polite Politely, Extreme Extremely -If the adjective end in /le/, we do not keep the /e/ before the /ly/ Simply Simply, Terrible Terribly
Adverbs of time or frequency are adverbs that tell us ‘how often’ we do something. How often do you go to the mall? I sometimes go to the mall.
never seldom/rarely sometimes* often usually aways 0% Before a verb 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Adverbs of Time / Frequency
I never go to the mall. I always play basketball on the weekends. She often practices English.
After verb ‘to be’
I am always tired. She is usually late for English class. *Sometimes can also go before the subject.
The Adverb ‘that’
‘that’ as an adverb
‘That’ + adjective/ adverb
To intensify the meaning of the adjective/ adverb
Are you that afraid? I had no idea I was that far from home.
Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens or how somebody does something. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object.
Examples: The train stopped suddenly. I opened the door slowly.
Adverbs of Manner
Be careful with the differences between adjectives and adverbs:
-Sue is very quiet. -It was a bad game. (Describes the game which is a noun) -I am nervous.
-Sue speaks very quietly. (Not speaks very quiet) -Our team played badly. (Describes how the team played) -I waited nervously.
‘Yet’ / ‘Not yet’
‘Yet’ = until now
Bill will be here soon.
Where’s Bill? He’s very late.
Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill.
They are still waiting for Bill. Bill hasn’t come yet. Examples Where is Diane? She isn’t here yet. Are you ready to go yet? No, not yet..
Use Use in negative sentences and questions ‘Yet’ is usually at the end of a sentence.
‘Still’ / ‘Yet’
Still = something is the same as before
THE RAIN HASN´T STOPPED
An hour ago it was raining. It is still raining now. Example: I had a lot to eat but I’m still hungry. (= I was hungry before and I’m hungry now)
Yet = until now
Bill will be here soon. Where’s Bill. He’s very late.
Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill. Yet Use Use in negative sentences and questions ‘Yet’ is usually at the end of a sentence.
They are still waiting for Bill. Bill hasn’t come yet. Examples Where is Diane? She isn’t here yet. Are you ready to go yet? Not yet.
A compound adjective is formed when two or more adjectives work together to modify the same noun. The second part of the compound adjective may be: An adjective A present participle A past participle A noun + ed Irregular (Do not follow the structures above) ice-cold heartbreaking well-deserved old-fashioned second-hand
Adjectives ending in –ing and –ed
Ending in –ing
Subject + verb ‘to be’ + adjective + –ing
When the adjective ends in –ing, it means that the particular person or thing causes a particular effect. When the adjective ends in –ed, it means that the particular person or thing experiences a particular effect.
I hate snakes. They’re terrifying.
Ending in –ed
Subject + verb ‘to be’ + adjective + –ed
Snakes terrify me. I am always terrified when I see one.
Some adjectives are made by adding –ing to the verb.
Examples: Disgust Bore Interest Depress Surprise disgusting boring interesting depressing surprising
Adjectives ending in –ing
Adjectives ending in –ing Tells you about the situation Examples: My job is boring. The news was shocking. It was surprising that he passed the exam.
Adjectives ending in –ed Tells you how somebody feels. Examples: I’m bored with my job. We were shocked when we heard the news. Everyone was surprised that he passed the exam.
Some past participles can be used as adjectives. Regular Verbs add –ed or –d Examples: worked, finished, boiled Irregular Verbs No general rules
The past participle as an adjective
break write fall give take fly swim
Some common irregular past participles
broken written fallen given taken flown swum
drive eat forget see know drink throw
driven eaten forgotten seen known drunk thrown
Examples: That is a broken cup. We are visiting the forgotten city of the Incas.
Describe the strength or intensity of something that happens. Many adverbs are gradable, which means we can intensify them. They answer these questions: ‘How much ..?’ or ‘How little...?’
Highest Intensity totally completely entirely thoroughly absolutely definitely positively +++ almost very extremely really quite practically ++ somewhat somehow fairly rather kind of Lowest Intensity hardly scarcely barely
Adverbs of Degree
+ slightly a bit a little
Use / Structure
Place the adverb before the adjective or adverb they are modifying Place the adverb before the main verb Examples: I’m really enjoying working on this project. The exam was fairly easy. He has barely worked this year.
The water was extremely cold. She has almost finished.
Adverbs are used to modify nouns, verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. This way we can indicate how things are done. Refer to the chart below for examples:
Adverbs and Adjectives
) deeply (feeling ) directly (=soonm) hardly (=seldove) highly (figuratitly) lately (=recen lly) mostly (=usuast) nearly (=almo prettily ) shortly (=soon
good difficult public deep direct hard high late most near pretty short
little, r, fast, hourly, early, fa daily, enough,nthly, much, straight, o es are long, low, mrly, … owing adjectivs The foll as adverb weekly, yea sed also u tion) rmation ithout modifica (w give extra info o used to adverbs are tialss (or other adverbs). about adjec ve
well with difficulty publicly deep (place) direct hard high (place) late most near pretty (=rather) short
Uses of ‘so’
Structure + Examples
‘So’ + adjective or adverb = an exclamation You’re so kind! Don’t be so sensitive! ‘that’ clauses so…………that It was so cold that we stopped playing. (not It was very cold that we stopped playing) He was driving so fast that he went through a red light. Substitute word ‘So’ can be used in some structures instead of repeating an adjective or adverb. The weather is stormy and will remain so over the weekend. We thank you for flying with us and hope you’ll do so again.
The placement of ‘even’
We use ‘even’ to say that something is surprising or unusual.
Example Tina loves watching television. She has a TV set in every room of the house, even the bathroom.
We can use ‘even’ + a comparative (cheaper / more expensive) Example I got up very early, but John got up even earlier.
Position of even
‘Even’ + nominal group* / pronoun + verb Even my sister will be there. Even you can come. Auxiliary + ‘even’ + verb I don’t even know you. I have even invited John. *A nominal group typically comprises a noun surrounded by other words that all in some way characterize that noun.
‘Even if’ and ‘even though’ mean basically the same thing: ‘although’. They have the following distinct meanings:
‘Even though’ / ‘Even if’
Concession. Describes a reality that seems to contradict main clause.
Even though you’re my friend, I can’t trust you. Even though she tried her best, she fell twice. Even if you were my friend, I wouldn’t trust you. He won’t transfer to Africa, even if they double his salary.
Something hypothetical or theoretical. A contradiction of some hypotheses. All conditional forms can be used.
‘Quite’ / ‘Quite a few’
‘Quite’ = less than ‘very’ but more than ‘a little’ ‘Quite’ goes before a/an It’s quite cold. You’d better put a coat on. Quite a nice day. (not a quite nice day)
‘Quite a few’ = modifies plural nouns to indicate large quantities. Example: I have quite a few letters for you. Quite also means ‘completely’. Example: ‘Are you sure?’ ‘Yes, quite sure.’ (= completely sure) With theses adjectives, ‘quite’ means ‘completely’: sure right true clear different incredible amazing certain wrong safe obvious unnecessary extraordinary impossible
Comparatives and Superlatives
Comparing equals using ‘as…as’
‘as’ + adjective / adverb + ‘as’ To compare two people or things according to a common trait. Examples My brother is as tall as my dad. I’m as old as you are.
Regular and Irregular Comparatives S
I’m 93. I’m 92.
old older heavy
Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences with ‘than’, or you can use a conjunction like ‘but’.
1 syllable adjectives old add -er older My brother is older than my sister. English is easier than Russian. Helen is more beautiful than Jane.
2 syllable adjectives ending in ‘y’ add -ier easy easier 2 or more syllables beautiful add more (before the adjective) more beautiful
Words with one syllable ending with a vowel and a consonant at the end. (Double the consonant.)
good bad far much/many little
better worse farther/further more less
Regular and Irregular Superlatives
Box A is bigger than Box B. Box A is bigger than all the other boxes. Box A is the biggest box. Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative sentences usually use ‘the’, because there is only one superlative.
1 syllable adjectives old 2 syllable adjectives ending in ‘y’ easy 2 or more syllables beautiful add the -est the oldest add the -iest the easiest add the most (before the adjective) the most beautiful Helen is the most beautiful in her family. English is the easiest language to learn. My brother is the oldest of my siblings.
Example: hot – hottest good bad far much/many little
Words with one syllable ending with a vowel and a consonant at the end double the consonant. big – biggest the best the worst the farthest/ the furthest the most the least fat – fattest
‘The more . . . the more’
‘the’ + comparative..............., ‘the’ + comparative Parallel progression: we use comparatives with ‘the....the....’ to say things change or vary together. Examples The younger you are, the easier it is to learn a language. The more I learn, the more I know. The older I get, the happier I am.
A use of the comparative
‘the’ + comparative The younger generation (as opposed to ‘the older generation’) This class is for the more intelligent students (as opposed to ‘the slower students’)
Sometimes a comparative may express an opposition between 2 elements without actually stating both elements (the second element is implied)
A preposition of time connects words in a sentence showing the relationship of a noun and the moment/day/time/date of the action. Preposition
Prepositions of Time
I start work at 9 o’clock. I go to bed at midnight. The shops close at 5.30.
Days of the week Specific dates New Year’s Day etc.
I have class on Tuesdays. My birthday is on May 25th. I go home on Christmas Day.
MT W TFSS
1 8 15 22 29 2 3 9 10 16 17 May 23 24 30 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28
Months Seasons Years
My birthday is in June. I take vacation in the summer. I was born in 1980.
To show ending date or period.
I need to finish the report by Friday. It will be ready by the summer.
in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening But on Monday morning, on Tuesday afternoon etc. At the weekend (British) / On the weekend (American) At night At the moment
A preposition of place connects words in a sentence showing the relationship of a noun and the location/area/position/surface of an object. At •General location •Precise point in larger space
at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the front desk
Prepositions of Place
In •Inside of a place •Country, city, district something is located in
in the garden in London in France in a car
on the wall on the ceiling on the door on a page
Here are some prepositions of place.
in front of
A final preposition is a word which comes after the verb and requests the results between the action performed and the subject or object of the sentence.
Verb + preposition
Some verbs are commonly followed by a preposition in order to indicate a common action. Examples: Listen to Look at Look for (search for, try to find) Look after (take care of) Talk about Talk to Worry about Pay for Depend on Complain about Go to Go for Go on Go in
In some structures we put the preposition at the end of the sentence:
Interrogative questions (when the question word is the object of the preposition) Relative clauses (when the relative pronoun is the object of the preposition) Infinitive clauses What are you looking at? What kind of music do you like to listen to? This is the house that I am talking about. That’s what I’m worried about. I’ve got lots of music to listen to. She has nothing to complain about.
Karen sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response. Kevin heard the weather report and packed his camping gear. Juan is brilliant, and Sandra has a pleasant personality. Melipilla is a beautiful town and suffers from severe pollution. Use your credit cards frequently, and you’ll soon find yourself deep in debt. My lazy friend Charlie failed the math test and that didn’t surprise anyone. She is a simple, yet very intelligent woman.
A conjunction is a word that “joins” the words in a sentence to each other in order to send a logical message. It literally connects parts of a sentence.
Frequently Used Conjunctions:
- To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another. -To suggest that one idea is the result of another. - To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another. -To suggest an element of surprise. -To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally. -To suggest a kind of ‘comment’ on the first clause. -To suggest addition, more of something. -Despite, even though -To indicate that something can ‘eventually’ occur.
The story is unbelievable, yet supposedly it’s all true. They may yet win the game.
-Used with ‘neither’ for negative sentences. -Used with other negative expressions.
He is neither young nor ambitious. That is not what I meant, nor should you misinterpret my statement. Joey lost his job last year, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably. The students never studied for the test, but used their notes to work on the assignment in class. Everybody but Mark is trying out for the team.
- To suggest a contrast that is unexpected based on the first clause. - To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way. - To use with the meaning of ‘with the exception of’.
- To suggest that only one possibility can be achieved, excluding one or the other. - To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives. - To suggest a refinement of the first clause. - To suggest a restatement or ‘correction’ of the first part of the sentence. - To suggest a negative condition. - To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative.
You can study hard for this exam or you can fail. (= only one of these things can happen) We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can eat hamburgers. Smart English is the best language center in the country, or so it seems to most students at the UAI. There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us. Either you participate in class or get a 1.0 grade for class participation. They must like her style or they wouldn’t keep asking her to design the uniforms each year. John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the company’s board of trustees.
Though used as a preposition, we can use ‘for’ as a conjunctive when we introduce the reason for the preceding clause.
- To connect two independent clauses together with a comma. - To indicate ‘as well’ or ‘in addition’. Steve has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds when he is at the beach. John is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his uncle, sister, and his aunt Sally.
- At the beginning of a sentence, ‘so’ will act as a So, the sheriff promptly removed the child kind of summing up device or transition, and when it from the custody of his parents. does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma.
Use of ‘so’ to express a goal
Examples: I’m saving money so I can travel in the summer. She gave him more time so he could finish the assignment.
Objectives are expressed using ‘so that’ followed by:
‘So that’ + ‘may’ or ‘can’
Present simple ‘May’ / ‘might’ ‘can’ / ‘could’ ‘Will’ / ‘would’
He’ll take a taxi so that he arrives on time. He stayed after school so that he could help me with my homework. I wrote it in my daily planner so that I wouldn’t forget.
In an informal style, ‘that’ is often dropped. Example: I’ve come early so I can talk to you.
Similarity: ‘like’ and ‘as’
We can use ‘like’ or ‘as’ to say that things are similar.
‘Like’ - is similar to a preposition •Like + noun / pronoun •We can use ‘like’ to give examples ‘As’ - is a conjunction •‘As’ + clause (subject + verb) •‘As’ comes before nouns designating tittles and functions
You look like your sister. He ran like the wind. She’s good at scientific subjects, like chemistry.
They did as they promised. He worked as a taxi driver.
s but ‘Like’ and ‘as’ can both be used as preposition ‘Like’ = ‘similar to’ ‘As’ = ‘in the position of’, ‘in the form of’
have different meanings.
ny Compare: pany. As the manager, she has to make ma ‘As’ – Brenda Casey is the manager of a com important decisions. nager) (‘As the manager’ = in her position as the ma enda Casey), she also has to the assistant manager. Like the manager (Br ‘Like’ – Mary Stone is make important decisions. (‘Like the manager’ = similar to the manager)
Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerunds and Infinitives
The infinitive (‘to’ + verb) is used: • To say why you do something I go to the gym to get some exercise. • To say why something exists Here’s an example to help you. • After ‘too’ and ‘enough’ It’s too cold to go swimming. The gerund (verb ending in –ing) is used: • After prepositions (see below) He’s made a lot of friends by joining the tennis club. • As non-count nouns Climbing is safer than it looks
PREPOSITIONS: after before by for on
despite without since
If verbs are followed by another verb, that verb is either in the infinitive or the gerund form. Verbs Followed by an Infinitive She agreed to speak before the game. agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin bother care choose consent continue dare decide deserve expect fail forget get happen have hesitate hope hurry intend leap leave long mean neglect offer ought plan prefer prepare proceed promise propose refuse remember say shoot stop strive swear threaten try use wait want wish
Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive Everyone expected her to win. advise choose have order send allow command hire pay teach ask dare instruct permit tell beg direct invite persuade urge bring encourage lead prepare want build expect leave promise warn buy forbid let remind challenge force motivate require Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object. Verbs Followed by a Gerund They enjoyed working on the boat. admit delay advise deny appreciate enjoy avoid escape can’t help excuse complete finish consider forbid
get through have imagine mind miss permit postpone
practice quit recall report resent resist resume
risk spend (time) suggest tolerate waste (time)
Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund We concentrated on doing well. admit to depend on approve of disapprove of argue about discourage from believe in dream about care about feel like complain about forget about concentrate on insist on confess to plan on Expressions followed by the gerund It’s no good It’s not worth It’s a waste of time Can’t stand Can’t help Verbs followed by either an infinitive or a gerund begin love continue like
prevent (someone) from refrain from succeed in talk about think about worry about
It’s no use Can’t bear
We use ‘get used to’ to say that an action or situation becomes less strange or new. We can use the expression in present simple, interrogative and present continuous forms. Structure: ‘get used to’ + noun or gerund It took them a long time to get used to the new office. Have you got used to driving on the left side of the road yet? She is getting used to waking up early for her new job.
‘Get used to’
We use the expression ‘be used to’ to say that we have already become familiar with something/someone which was in the past new or strange. We can use the expression in the present simple, negative and affirmative sentences, in question form and when the object involves a verb, we use the gerund form. Structure: subject + be + used to + object. Mary is used to horses. Kurt is not used to horses. Are you used to horses? We are used to taking the bus.
‘Be used to’
Some verbs that express reactions and preferences are followed by a verb in the gerund (verb ending in –ing). Some are followed by a verb in the infinitive (‘to’ + verb) or a gerund.
Followed by the gerund To enjoy To mind To resent To object to To miss Cannot stand They enjoy dancing very much. I miss going to my English class.
Verbs: Reactions and Preferences
Followed by gerund or infinitive
To like To love To dislike To hate To loathe To prefer Cannot bear I love eating. I love to eat.
Verbs that express a command, wish, preference and prohibition follow this structure. Verbs: allow, command, forbid, hate, instruct, like, love, need, oblige, recommend, want verb + object + infinitive
Examples: He wants John to rent a car. They don’t allow people to smoke.
Verb + Infinitive Clause
Many of these verbs can also be used in the passive structure.
Subject + passive verb + infinitive
Examples: We were advised to come early. We were instructed to put down our pens.
Verbs expressing a wish to act may be followed by infinitives (‘to’ + verb) or gerunds (verbs ending in –ing).
Verbs expressing a wish to act
To intend To propose To try (attempt to do, make an effort to ) To try (do something as an experiment or test) To agree To consent
*A gerund with this verb is only used in British English.
Infinitive or gerund*
He intends to go to New York. He intends going to new York.* What did he propose doing? What did he propose to do? I am trying to do this exercise.
Infinitive or gerund Infinitive
I wouldn’t try rafting; it is very dangerous.
He agreed to help her. She consented to go with her.
Verb + Preposition ‘at’ / ‘to’
Verb + ‘at’
Look / have a look / stare / glance AT. Laugh / smile AT Aim / point AT -Why are you looking at me? -I was laughing at his joke.
Verb + ‘to’
Talk / speak TO Listen TO Write TO Invite (somebody) TO Explain (something) TO (someone) Apologize TO (someone) -Can I speak to Jane please? -I invited 200 people to my wedding. -I need to apologize to my friend because I shouted at her yesterday.
Some verbs can be followed by at or to, but there is a difference in meaning.
Shout AT somebody – when you are angry Shout TO somebody – so that they can hear you Throw something AT somebody/something – in order to hit them Throw something TO somebody – for somebody to catch
Zero First Second (present) Third (perfect)
Zero, First, and Second Conditionals (Sequence of tenses with ‘if’)* * For ‘construction of the present conditional’, see ‘second’ in table below. For ‘sequence of tenses with if’ see ‘zero, first, second and third’ below.
Structure Examples Uses
Used to describe something that is generally or always true.
Conditionals are used to talk about possibility.
‘If’ + subject + present simple , subject + present simple If water boils, it reaches 100 degrees. ‘If’ + subject+ present simple, subject + ‘will’ + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘If’ the weather is good, I will go to the beach. ‘If’ + subject + past simple, subject + ‘would’ + infinitive without ‘to’ If’ I won a million pounds, I would buy a house.
Used to describe a situation that is likely.
Used to describe a situation that is not likely. Describes a hypothetical situation in the present.
‘If’ + subject + past perfect, subject + ‘would’ + ‘have’ + past participle If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car.
Used to describe a hypothetical situation in the past. It describes a situation that is impossible.
The Perfect Conditional / Third Conditional
‘If’ + subject + past perfect, subject + ‘would’ + ‘have’ + past participle If I had seen you, I would have said hello. Describes hypothetical situations in the past. These situations are in the past and therefore they are impossible and never happened. Example: Last month Gary was in hospital for an operation. Liz didn’t know this, so she didn’t go to visit him. They met a few days ago. Liz said: ‘If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you.’ What Liz said is hypothetical because the real situation is that she didn’t know he was in hospital.
The Perfect Conditional using ‘should’
‘Should’ + ‘have’ + past participle
Regret or reproach (to blame someone)
I should have studied harder. (regret) You should have gotten up earlier. (reproach)
(unfulfilled) expectation or assumption regarding the past
You should have received my e-mail. I sent it half an hour ago.
Subjunctive and Wishes
Use the simple form of the verb. The simple form is the infinitive without the ‘to’. The simple form of the verb ‘to go’ is ‘go’. The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. The Subjunctive is used to emphasize urgency or importance. It is used after certain expressions (see below). Examples: • I suggest that he study. • Is it essential that we be there? • Don recommended that you join the committee.
The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. In the examples below, the Subjunctive is not noticeable in the you-form of the verb, but it is noticeable in the he/sheform of the verb.
YOU-FORM OF ‘TRY’: •You try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF ‘TRY’ LOOKS THE SAME: •It is important that you try to study often. HE-FORM OF ‘TRY’: •He tries to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF ‘TRY’ IS NOTICEABLE: •It is important that he try to study often.
Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs: to advise (that) to ask (that) to command (that) to demand (that) to desire (that) to insist (that) to propose (that) to recommend (that) to request (that) to suggest (that) to urge (that) •Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the month. •Donna requested Frank come to the party. •The teacher insists that her students be on time.
Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions: It is best (that) It is crucial (that) It is desirable (that) It is essential (that) It is imperative (that) It is important (that) It is recommended (that) It is urgent (that) It is vital (that) It is a good idea (that) It is a bad idea (that) •It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives. •It is important she attend the meeting. •It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.
Negative Forms of Subjunctive
The Subjunctive can be used in negative, continuous and passive forms. Examples: •The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting. •The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours. •I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.
The Past Subjunctive
Past Forms of the Subjunctive
The past tense of the subjunctive has the same forms as the indicative. Present: The President requests that they stop the invasion. Past: The President requested that they stop the invasion. However, we usually use the subjunctive ‘were’ instead of ‘was’ after ‘if’ and other words with similar meanings. (‘was’ is often used informally in speech) Examples He wishes he were a better student. If I were seven feet tall, I’d be a great basketball player.* *This is also a second conditional. See below. The past subjunctive is commonly used with these expressions ‘if only’, ‘I wish’, ‘suppose’, ‘as if’. Examples If only I had more money. I wish I were thinner. Suppose she were married. It’s not as if I were ugly. Note: Some sentences combine a past subjunctive with a conditional. In this example, part 1 is a subjunctive and part 2 a conditional. If only I had more money, I would buy a new car. 1 2
Wishes and Regrets
Wish = To show you want a situation to be different Regret = To feel sorrow or remorse for something you did/did not do.
Wishes in the present To make wishes about the present, use the past tense. For the verb ‘to be’, use ‘were’. Situation: My sister is untidy. Wish: “I wish she were tidier.” Wishes in the past (regret) To make wishes about the past, use the past perfect. Situation: I didn’t go on a vacation this year. Wish: “I wish I had gone on a vacation this year.” Wishes about ability To make wishes about ability use ‘could’. Situation: I can’t play a musical instrument. Wish: “I wish I could play a musical instrument.” Wishes about habit and free will To make wishes about habit and free will use ‘would’. Situation: He sings in the office. Wish: “I wish he wouldn’t sing in the office.” (In this sentence you are stressing the fact he wants to sing and makes a habit of it.)
The Passive Voice
Passive Voice = ‘To be’ + past participle
The passive exists in every tense. We use an active verb to say what the subject does. We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject. When we use the passive, ‘who’ or ‘what’ causes the action is often unknown or unimportant. If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use ‘by…’
Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Future simple ‘will’ ‘To be going to’ future Present Perfect Past Perfect
He cleans the room. He is cleaning the room. He cleaned the room. He was cleaning the room. He will clean the room He is going to clean the room. He has cleaned the room. He had cleaned the room.
The room is cleaned by him. The room is being cleaned by him. The room was cleaned by him. The room was being cleaned by him. The room will be cleaned by him. The room is going to be cleaned by him. The room has been cleaned by him. The room had been cleaned by him.
An impersonal structure is used to talk about people in general. Here are some different ways to form an impersonal structure.
Passive form without the agent The personal pronouns ‘we, you, they’ We are expected at 7pm. (Somebody expects us) We drive on the left side of the road. (the speaker is included in the group of people in question) You drink a lot of tea in Britain. (the listener is included) They are very friendly in Ireland. (neither the speaker nor listener is included) People (plural meaning) Somebody/someone (singular meaning) People in Ireland are very friendly. Someone is on the phone for you.
The Impersonal Structure
Other Impersonal Structures:
gerund + object + ‘to be’ conjugated + (adverb of frequency) + adjective It + ‘to be’ conjugated + (adverb of frequency) + adjective + infinitive Reading English newspapers is often difficult. Playing tennis is excellent exercise. It is sometimes exciting to walk in the pouring rain. It was strange to say that Russian is easier than English.
I’m feeling ill.
Reported Speech is used to communicate what someone else said, but without using the exact words.
The Sequence of Tenses / Reported Speech
You want to tell someone else what Tom said. There are 2 ways of doing this: 1. You can repeat Tom’s words (direct speech) Tom said, ‘I’m feeling ill’ 2. You can use reported speech. Tom said that he was feeling ill. Reported speech: -The main sentence of the verb is usually in the past tense. (said, told) -The rest of the sentence is usually in a past tense too. (each tense goes a step back in time) -‘That’ is optional. Here are the changes in tense (sequence of tenses) in reported speech: Direct speech She said “I watch TV every day.” She said “I am watching.” She said “I watched TV.” She said “I have watched TV.” She said “I will watch TV.” She said “I am going to watch TV.” She said “I can watch TV.” She said “I may watch TV.” She said “I must watch TV.” She said “I should watch TV.” She said “I ought to watch TV.” She said “Watch TV.” Reported speech She said (that) she watched TV every day. She said she was watching TV. She said she had watched TV. She said she had watched TV. She said she would watch TV. She said she was going to watch TV. She said she could watch TV. She said she might watch TV. She said she had to watch TV. She said she should watch TV. She said she ought to watch TV. She told someone to watch TV. *
*The imperative changes to the infinitive. ‘Tell’ is usually used instead of ‘say’.
General Guidelines for Reported Speech
1. This formal sequence of tenses is used both in speaking and writing. 2. However, sometimes in spoken English no change is made if the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said. Immediate Reporting: Later Reporting: What did the teacher just say? He said he wants us to read Chapter Six. I didn’t go to the class yesterday. Did Mr. Jones give any assignments? He said he wanted us to read Chapter Six.
3. If the sentence is a general truth, sometimes the present tense is retained. She said that Alaska is the largest state in the USA. 4. The past simple can stay the same in reported speech or you can change it to the past perfect.
Away Back Down In Off On Out Over Up
A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a preposition or adverb that modifies or changes the meaning. Here are some common phrasal verbs in English.
Estrangement: to go away Disappearance: to sweep away Backward movement: to stand back Return to point of departure: to bring back Reply: to answer back Downward movement: to go down Writing: to write down Decrease: to turn down Inward movement: to get in Visit: to drop in Averting: to put off Departure: to go off / to take off Start: to turn on / switch on Continuation: to go on Outward movement: to move out Outside: to eat out Distribution: to give out Repetition: to say over Action done with care: to think over Upward movement: to climb up Increased volume: to speak up All evidence of the crime was swept away. The student answered back to the teacher.
The Main Postpositions / Common Phrasal Verbs
Please turn down the radio; it is very loud.
I will drop in later and see how you are doing. I have put off my dental appointment. because I have a class. Can you turn on the fan please? I always eat out on Fridays.
I will have to think over your offer carefully. Speak up, I can’t hear you.
A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a meaning different from the original verb. Example: I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. RUN + INTO = MEET He ran away when he was 15. RUN + AWAY = LEAVE HOME Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object. Example: He suddenly showed up. SHOW UP cannot take an object. Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed by an object. Example: I made up the story. ‘Story’ is the object of ‘made up’. Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition. Example: I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car. TALK INTO = PERSUADE Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is placed after the preposition. Example: I ran into an old friend yesterday. RUN INTO = MEET BY CHANCE Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places. Example: I looked the number up in the phone book. I looked up the number in the phone book.
WARNING! Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both places, you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if the object is a pronoun. Example: I looked the number up in the phone book. CORRECT I looked up the number in the phone book. CORRECT I looked it up in the phone book. CORRECT I looked up it in the phone book. INCORRECT
‘To get’ + adjective : to become, show a change of state Examples: It gets dark early in winter. I’m getting tired of working such long hours. It is getting warmer. Some adjectives used with ‘get’ get hungry get thirsty get tired get ready get serious get wet get better get prepared get dressed get bigger
‘To get’ + Adjective
The verb ‘to get’ has many different meanings such as:
To obtain To receive To buy To reach To arrive (at a place) To become
Get dressed ‘To look forward to’ = To think of a future event with anticipation Structure Verb ‘to be’ + ‘look forward to’ + noun Example: I am looking forward to the vacation. Structure Verb ‘to be’ + ‘look forward to’ + gerund Examples: I look forward to hearing from you. He is looking forward to seeing you.
‘To look forward to’
‘Kind of’ followed by a noun
‘kind of (a/an)’ + noun
When you ask for a more precise definition or description of something. What kind of (a) problem are you having?* What kind of experience do you have? * It is more informal to include ‘a’ To describe something in an approximate way, not precise. She’s kind of rude. It’s a kind of telephone but plays music as well. It looks kind of like an earring, but is much bigger. What sort/type of computer is that? = What kind of computer is that?
‘Kind of like (/a/an)’ + noun
approximate or partial way.
To compare one thing to another in an
‘Kind of’ = sort of / type of
‘To be likely’
‘To be likely’ = high probability of something happening.
Present ‘To be likely’ + infinitive Past ‘To be (was/were) likely’ + infinitive Negative ‘To be unlikely’ + infinitive Related expression ‘It is likely that’
He is likely to pass the exam. The meeting is likely to be very long. The meeting was likely to be very long.
He is unlikely to come. It’s likely that it will rain. It’s unlikely that it is very cold there.
‘To be likely’ + ‘to have’ + past participle = an opinion about a past event.
He is likely to have forgotten about the appointment. They are likely to have finished early.
‘To be left’ / ‘To have left’
‘To be left’ /‘to have left’ = remaining, not used, still there
‘to be left’ Subject + ‘be left’ to have left This is an active structure. Do you have any rooms left? Yes, we have some rooms left. This is a passive structure.
The weather was bad. Few people were left on the streets.
Subject + ‘have’ + direct object + ‘left’
‘For the sake of’
‘For the sake of’ = in the interests of
‘For’ + noun / noun phrase +’ -’s sake’ ‘For’ + possessive adjective + ‘sake’ ‘For the sake of’ + noun / noun phrase / gerund
For John’s sake For the children’s sake For his sake For their sake For the sake of the children For the sake of saving
Expressions with ‘to have’
Here are some fixed expressions with the verb ‘to have’ To have a bath To have lunch To have a rest To have a look ‘To have reason to’ + infinitive ( to analyze causes and consequences) ‘To have to do with something’ ( to say what the topic is)
Did you have a bath yesterday? We will have lunch later. I’d like to have a rest before going out. Have a look at this! We have reason to hope for continued success. The report has to do with our financial results for the last quarter.
Baseball is an important part of American culture. Its influence is so strong that it has become the source of many expressions that are used in informal and business contexts.
Touch base Playing field On the ball Ballpark figure In the ballpark Big league To cover one’s bases Home run Play hard ball Right off the bat It’s good to touch base with clients regularly. Now that more companies have made offers, we’re dealing with a bigger playing field. Our new attorney seems to be on the ball. I can only give you a ballpark figure. The offer isn’t in the ballpark yet. We’ll move into the big league if we secure this deal. This is a complicated transaction; make sure to cover your bases. Jenny hit a home run with that deal. We’re going to have to play hard ball if we want to get this deal. Dan started criticizing right off the bat.
‘To be at stake’
‘To be’ + ‘at stake’ To be threatened or endangered. This may be used to talk about threats to someone or something’s well-being or reputation.
If we don’t respond to this crisis now, our financial stability will be at stake.
The firm’s reputation is at stake following the recall of its latest product.
These expressions are similar in meaning ‘to be at stake’: ‘to be in jeopardy’, ‘to be on the line’, ‘to be at risk’
There are several different words and expressions to describe increase.
To describe increase in a general way.
Expressions of Increase
To rise To climb
Share values rose steadily last quarter.
Next year, productivity should climb sharply. Stocks crept up last quarter. Prices are inching up due to inflation. The company is only two years old, but it has really taken off. Stocks are skyrocketing following economic recovery.
To talk about slow or gradual increase.
To creep up To edge up To inch up To take off To skyrocket To shoot up To soar To go through the roof
To describe sharp and sudden increase.
‘There is’ / ‘There are’
Singular: There is
There is not There isn’t There’s not There are not There aren’t
Plural: There are Examples:
There’s a man on the roof.
There’s a train in the station.
MT W TFSS
1 8 15 22 29 2 3 9 10 16 17 May 23 24 30 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28
There are seven days in a week.
First 1st, Second 2nd, Third 3rd Ordinal Numbers Fourth 4th, Fifth 5th, Sixth 6th, Seventh 7th, Eighth 8th, Ninth 9th, Tenth 10th… 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd …. 30th, 31st, 32nd, 33rd…. Days
Sunday Monday Tuesday Week of_______________ Saturday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Years Up until the year 2000, years are pronounced in two parts: 1925 = 19part1 25part2 = ‘Nineteen1 twenty-five2’
1998 = nineteen ninety-eight 2010 = two thousand (and) ten (‘twenty ten’ is also becoming popular)
Date (written form)
1: American format = July 2, 2010 month / day / year = 07/02/2010 2: British format = 2 July 2010 day / month / year = 02/07/2010
What time………? = what time of day?
What time is it? What time do you get up?
The time + o’clock = indicates an exact hour. It’s six o’clock.
To express a time after the hour we use ‘past’.
11 10 9 8 7
1 2 3 4 9 8 7 10 11
1 2 3 4 9 8 10
1 2 3 4
It’s twenty past four.
It’s quarter past three
It’s half past twelve.
To express a time after the half hour and before the hour we use ‘to’.
11 10 9 8 7
1 2 3 4 9 8 10
1 2 3 4
It’s ten to two.
It’s quarter to five.
To express a time after the hour we use ‘after’. (except for the half hour)
11 10 9 8 7
1 2 3 4 9 8 10
1 2 3 4 9 8 10
1 2 3 4
It’s twenty after four.
It’s quarter after three.
It’s twelve thirty.
To express a time after the half hour and before the hour we use ‘to’.
11 10 9 8 7
1 2 3 4 9 8 10
1 2 3 4
It’s ten to two.
It’s quarter to five. In both British and American English
You can also tell the time by reading the hour and then the minutes. 6:05 6:10 6:15 6:20 6:30 6:45 6:55 It’s six o five. It’s six ten. It’s six fifteen. It’s six twenty. It’s six thirty. It’s six forty-five. It’s six fifty-five.
‘Have or ‘Make’ without ‘to’
To cause someone to do something
to ‘have’ or ‘make’ + direct object + infinitive without ‘to’
I had him service my car. He made me laugh so much.
To cause something to be done
‘to have’ + direct object + past participle
He had his car repaired. She had her hair cut.
‘Let’ means the same as ‘to allow’ or ‘to permit’ but is more informal.
‘Let’ + object + infinitive without ‘to’ Example: Please allow me to buy you a drink. Please let me buy you a drink. Example: My parents don’t allow me to go out at night. My parents don’t let me go out at night. Remember, in the third person present we use ‘lets’ but in the past simple we use ‘let’. Conjugation of ‘to let’ The present I You He/She/It We They let let lets let let The past simple I You He/She/It We They let let let let let
With conjunctions of time, like ‘when’ and ‘while’, we use the present tense.
‘Will’ + verb, conjunction of time + present simple Examples: They will eat when they arrive. While I am in Santiago, I’ll call you.
‘When’ / ‘While’ + present
after as soon as as long as as much as before while
once until when whenever wherever
‘How’ + Adjective or Adverb
‘How’ + adjective or adverb
Forms an open question. (you can’t answer yes or no)
How tall are you? I am very tall. / I’m 1.60m How high is Mt Everest? It is extremely high. / It’s 8848m How often do you go to the cinema? I hardly ever go.
‘Had better’ / ‘Would rather’
Subject + ‘had better’ + infinitive without ‘to’ Subject + ‘had better’ + not + infinitive without ‘to’
-A firm suggestion -An order
You had better tell her the bad news. You had better not finish the cake!
Subject + ‘would rather’ + infinitive without ‘to’ Subject + ‘would rather’ + not + infinitive without ‘to’ ‘Would’ + subject + ‘rather’ + infinitive without ‘to’ -To show preference I would rather go for a swim. I would rather not go for a swim. Would you rather go for a swim?
These expressions are used to talk about preference.
Expression of Preference
Subject + ‘would prefer’ + infinitive with ‘to’ (‘d) Subject + ‘would rather’ + infinitive without ‘to’ (‘d) Used mainly in speech.
I’d prefer to talk to someone else. Would you prefer to stay at home?
He’d rather be on the beach. Would you rather stay here or go away?
The words whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever, wherever mean it doesn’t matter who/ what / which etc. (‘any person who’, ‘any thing that’ etc. or ‘the unknown person who’, ‘the unknown thing that’)
Words ending in ‘ever’
Word ending in ever Examples
Whoever Whatever Whichever However Whenever Wherever
Whoever comes to the door, tell them I’m out.
Whatever you do, I’ll always love you. Choose whichever book you like. However you travel, it will take you at least 3 days. Whenever I go to London, I try to see Vicky. Wherever you go, you’ll find Coca- Cola.
‘Whether’ = to talk about choices or alternatives. Like ‘if’ it expresses uncertainty.
The differences between ‘whether’ and ‘if’:
For situations with only one condition.
You can have dessert if you eat your vegetables. (the son having dessert depends on consumption of dessert, so this is conditional)
To discuss two or more alternatives.
I don’t know whether we should invest right now or not.
Use ‘whether’ after prepositions.
I am uncertain whether we should go to the dinner party.
Use ‘whether’ with infinitives that come after ‘to’.
Jenny doesn’t know whether to study for her test or go to a movie with friends. Answer yes or no questions with ‘whether’ or ‘if’. Sally asks: ‘Can you go shopping with me tonight?’ I’m not sure if I can go shopping with you tonight. OR I’m not sure whether I can go shopping with you tonight. It’s becoming increasingly popular to use ‘whether’ and ‘if’ interchangeably in certain situations. Although this might be acceptable in casual conversation, it is not considered grammatically correct to interchange them.
For emphasis we can put do in an affirmative clause.
Insistence on speaker’s point of view. Confirmation of what precedes. Contradiction Persuasion using the imperative She does look pretty. He said it would rain and it did rain. He didn’t come to the party yesterday. He did come, but he didn’t stay long. ‘I can’t do it! It’s too difficult!’ ‘Do try again!’
Verbs that express impressions and feelings are: to look, to sound, to smell, to taste, to feel etc. They may be followed by:
the preposition ‘like’ He looks like his father. It sounds like you’re angry.
Verbs expressing impressions and feelings
‘as if’ / ‘as though’ an adjective
You look as if you don’t understand me. It sounds as though you aren’t listening to me. He looks happy. This ice cream tastes good.
‘I am told’
The present sometimes stands in for the present perfect, as in: ‘I am told’ (= I understand ) Instead of ‘I’ve been told’ ‘I forget’ (= I can’t remember) Instead of ‘I’ve forgotten’ ‘I hear’ Instead of ‘I’ve heard’
I am told that you are in charge of the sales department. What time is the match tonight? I forget. I hear you have been promoted.