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Chapter # 13: Power and Politics

1. Explain the role of dependence in power relationships (Power Tactics)


Exam Q: What are nine power or influence tactics? List and Explain.
Exam Q: What are nine power or influence tactics the managers use for
control? Explain.
Exam Q: How do the managers control employees behavior through
power or influence tactics? Explain (Three Times).
Power tactics are ways in which individuals translate power bases into
specific actions.
Nine different tactics are:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Legitimacy
Rational persuasion
Inspirational appeals
Consultation
Exchange
Personal appeals
Ingratiation
Pressure
Coalitions

I.

Legitimacy
Legitimacy is relying on authority position or saying a request accords with
organizational policies or rules.
Making legitimate requests is an effective influence tactic because most
workers are willing to comply with regulations.

II.

Rational persuasion
Rational persuasion is presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to
demonstrate a request is reasonable.
Manager does require assertiveness and research to make this an effective
tactic

III.

Inspirational appeals
Inspirational appeals are developing emotional commitment by appealing
to a targets values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.
Such an appeal is reinforced by an emotional display.

Chapter # 1 Exam Notes

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IV.

Consultation
Consultation is increasing the targets support by involving in deciding how
will accomplish the plan.
The influence target becomes more motivated to follow the managers
request because the group members are involved in the decision making
process.

V.

Exchange
Exchange is rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for
following a request.
Manager strikes a bargain through an exchange of favor to group members
to achieve the goal.

VI.

Personal appeals
Personal appeals are asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty.

VII.

Ingratiation
Ingratiation is using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a
request.

VIII.

Pressure
Pressure is using warnings, repeated demands, and threats for following a
request.

IX.

Coalitions
Coalitions are enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target
to agree.
Coalition formation works as an influence tactic because there is power in
numbers.
Some tactics are more effective than others.
Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the
most effective, especially when the audience is highly interested in the
outcomes of a decision process.
Pressure tends to backfire and is typically the least effective of the nine
tactics

Chapter # 1 Exam Notes

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Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction


Depending on the direction of the influence that is desired, different tactics
will be more effective as shown in the following table:
Effective tactics in a upward direction is Rational Persuasion.
Effective tactics in a downward direction (toward a lower-ranking person)
are Inspirational appeal, Ingratiation and Pressure.
Effective tactics in a lateral direction are Personal appeal, Exchange and
Legitimating

Upward Influence

Downward Influence

Lateral Influence

Rational persuasion

Rational persuasion

Rational persuasion

Legitimacy

Legitimacy

Inspirational appeals

Personal appeals

Consultation

Consultation

Exchange

Exchange

Ingratiation

Ingratiation

Pressure

Coalitions

Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics


Sequencing of tactics: Softer to harder tactics work best.
Skillful use of a tactic:
Relative power of the tactic user: Some tactics work better when applied
downward or upward.
The type of request attaching to the tactic: Is the request legitimate?
How the request is perceived: Is the request consistent with the targets
values?
The culture of the organization: Culture affects users choice of tactic.
Country-specific cultural factors: Local values favor certain tactics over
others.
Chapter # 1 Exam Notes

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