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r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

Amtas prayers to Jva Gosvm1


svalpaAyauSaAM k(ilayaugAe'a na{NAAM zAimacC$na,
zAbd"AnauzAAs$anamah"AjalaiDaM ivamaTya /
naAmaAma{taM s$amad"d"A wdM" k{(paAlau:
s$a aIlajaIvacar"NA: zAr"NAM mamaAstau //
svalpyu kali-yuge tra n am icchan
abdnusana-mah-jaladhi vimathya
nmmta samadadd ya ida kplu
sa rla-jva-caraa araa mamstu
su-alpa-yumwhose duration of life is very short; kali-yugekali-yuga (age of
quarrel); atrain this; nmof men; amwelfare; icchandesiring; abdaanusanaof Sanskrit grammar; mah-jaladhimthe great ocean; vimathyaafter
churning; nma-amtamHari-nmmta-vykaraa; samadadtbestowed; ya
who; idamthis; kplucompassionate; sathat; rla-jva-caraathe
venerable2 rla Jva Gosvm; araamshelter; mamamy; astumay he be.
Desiring the welfare of the short-lived men in this age of quarrel, rla Jva
Gosvm, being compassionate, bestowed upon them this Hari-nmmtavykaraa after churning the great ocean of Sanskrit grammar. May he
become my shelter.
naIr"s$aM ih" zAbd"zAAM naAmar"s$aivaDaAnata: /
yaAe'ma{tayanad"Aa{Bya: aIjaIvaAe ivajayataAmas$aAE //
nrasa hi abda-stra
nma-rasa-vidhnata
yo mtayan adn nbhya
r-jvo vijayatm asau
nrasam3dry, without rasa; hicertainly; abda-stramthe science of words,
grammar; nma-rasathe rasa of the holy names; vidhnataby supplying; ya
who; amtayanwho having made nectarean4; adtgave; nbhyaunto the
people; r-jvar Jva Gosvm; vijayatmmay he (r Jva Gosvm) be
glorified; asauthat.
All glories to r Jva who converted dry grammar into nectar by supplying
the rasa of the holy names and then distributed this nectar to the people.
1 These prayers are found at the beginning of the Amta commentary on the Sajsandhi, Samsa, and Taddhita prakaraas respectively.
2 In phrases like rla-jva-caraa and rla-rpa-gosvm-pda the words caraa
and pda, which literally mean foot, are used merely to indicate respect. This is a
Sanskrit idiom. Rather than addressing respectable persons directly, one addresses
their feet. Thus we have translated caraa here as venerable. To translate caraa
here as a foot would be to say that the foot of rla Jva churned the great ocean of
grammar and then gave the Hari-nmmta to the people; that, of course, is an
absurd image.
3 The compound word nrasa is made up of the words nir + rasa (without rasa)
which undergo the sandhi change ro re lopya, prva ca trivikrama (86).
4 The word amta (nectarean, nectar) can also mean immortal or immortality. The
word amtayan is formed using the stra pthv-der anyebhya ca tat karoti tad
cae ity-arthe i (626).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

aIaIr"ADaAk{(SNAAByaAM nama:
r-r-rdh-kbhy nama
I offer my humble obeisances to r r Rdh and Ka.

Magalcaraam1
k{(SNAmaupaAis$ataumasya ajaimava naAmaAvailaM tanavaE /
tvair"taM ivatare"de"SaA tats$aAih"tyaAid"jaAmaAed"ma, // 1 //
kam upsitum asya
srajam iva nmvali tanavai
tvarita vitared e
tat-shitydi-jmodam
kamLord Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; upsitumto worship;
asyaHis; srajama garland; ivalike; nmaof names; valima series (vali);
tanavaimay I compose; tvaritamquickly; vitaretis able to bestow; ethis series
of Lord Kas names; tat-shitya-diHis association and so on (or, poetry about
Him and so on); jaborn of; modamthe bliss.
To worship Ka, I shall compose a nmvali, a set of His own sweet names,
as a garland for Him. This nmvali will quickly bestow upon one the bliss
born of Kas association and so on.
Amtsvdin-k2Desiring a grammatical system that uses Lord Haris names
for its technical terms and examples and wishing to benefit both the Vaiavas who
havent studied Sanskrit grammar as well as those who have previously studied other
systems of Sanskrit grammar, the venerable rla Jva Gosvm begins his Sanskrit
Grammar, Hari-nmmta, elaborating on the short collection of stras (Laghu-harinmmta-vykaraa) written by his spiritual master, rla Rpa Gosvm. Hoping
that the book may be completed without obstacles, he starts the magalcaraa with
the word kam, which also defines the subject matter of the treatise (vastu-nirdea).
By writing the word kam first, he lets us know that the whole book is full of
auspiciousness.

1 See Appendix I for an analysis of the verse meters of the magalcaraam.


2 The Amtsvdin-k, or Amta for short, is a commentary written by a Vaiava
named Gopla dsa. Amtsvdin (amta + svdin) means that which causes one
to drink nectar, and k means a commentary. But what kind of amta does this
commentary cause us to drink? The Hari-nmmta. This commentary allows us to
understand in detail what Jva Gosvm has written in his Hari-nmmta-vykaraa.
In this book we have presented Amta in a summary study form. In total about 90% of
the content of the original Amta commentary is covered here.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

Ka is the original Personality of Godhead. This is evidenced by the rmadBhgavatams paribh1 verse which declares, kas tu bhagavn svayam: But
Ka is the original Personality of Godhead. (Bhgavatam 1.3.28) The name Ka
means that He attracts (karati) all the moving and non-moving living entities by His
great charm or by His blissful form. The name Ka is formed by applying the udi
suffix na[k] after the verbal root k by ker vare (Udi-stra 3.4). Because udi
suffixes are applied variously (see stra 877), the udi suffix na[k] can also be applied
in the meaning of saj (a name) in addition to the stated meaning of vara (a
color).2 The Mahbhrata (Udyoga-parva 71.4) explains the name Ka as follows:
kir bh-vcaka abdo
a ca nirvti-vcaka
tayor aikya para brahma
ka ity abhidhyate
The word k is the attractive feature of the Lords existence, and a means spiritual
pleasure. When the verb k is added to the suffix a, it becomes Ka, which
indicates the Absolute Truth. 3
The word bh in bh-vcaka is formed by applying the kt suffix [k]vi[p] in the sense
of bhva (the meaning of the verbal root).4 The meaning of the verbal root k is
karaa (to attract). Moreover, in ka, the udi suffix na[k] is applied in kartari
prayoga (the active voice). Thus the word ka refers to the Absolute Truth who has
a humanlike form and who first attracts and then gives bliss.5 In this regard, Nmakaumud, a book written by Lakmdhara Paita, says: ka-abdasya tamlaymala-tvii yaody stanan-dhaye para-brahmai rhi (The word ka is
conventionally the name of the Supreme Brahman whose complexion is dark blue like
a tamla tree and who sucks the breast of Mother Yaod).
In the word tanavai, found in this verse, the vidht suffix ai[p] has been used in the
sense of prrthan (prayer). The intention here is that just as it is impossible to bind
the Lord with rope without the Lords kp-akti (mercy potency), a fact evidenced
by the Bhgavatams statement kpayst sva-bandhane: Out of mercy he agreed to
be bound (Bhgavatam 10.9.18), it is similarly impossible to bind the Lords names
without the Lords kp-akti because the Possessor of the name and the name are
non-different. Thus Jva Gosvm prays for the mercy of the Lord.
There is an injunction na kuryn niphala karma (one should not engage in useless
endeavors); therefore, in the second half of the verse, Jva Gosvm describes the
result of his endeavor. In the word vitaret the vidhi suffix yt has been applied in the
1 A Paribh is a key statement that teaches how to properly interpret all the other
statements in a book.
2 In other words, the word ka can refer to the person named Ka or to the color
black.
3 This verse is quoted in Caitanya-caritmta (Madhya 9.30). rla Prabhupdas translation of this
verse is entirely based on Bhaktivinoda hkuras explanation of the same verse in his Amta-pravhabhya. Literally this verse means The word ki means existence (bh) and the word a means bliss
(nirvti). The Absolute Truth, which is the combination of existence and bliss, is called Ka. This is
because the word abda refers to a noun and not to a verb or a suffix. In the edition of the Mahbhrata
put out by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, India, 1999, this verse is Udyoga-parva 68.5
and the second half reads a little differently: kas tad-bhva-yogc ca ko bhavati vata (The
name Ka is derived from the combination of the meanings of these two words. Ka exists
eternally).

4 See sampad-de kvip-kt bhve lakmym (902).


5 Amtas explanation of this verse is based on Jva Gosvms own explanation in the
beginning of his Gopla-camp.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

sense of akti (ability), and therefore vitaret means is able to bestow. The word
e here means this nmvali that I am composing and moda means nanda
(bliss). The word shitya, found in this verse, conventionally means a particular
poetic composition. The word tat-shitya thus describes the particular shitya related
to Lord Ka, namely the rmad-Bhgavatam, and the word di means other books
like Gopla-camp, Lalita-mdhava, Mukt-carita, and so on. The whole verse
therefore means:
To worship Ka, I shall compose a nmvali, a set of His own sweet names, as a
garland for Him. This nmvali will quickly bestow upon one the bliss born of rmadBhgavatam and its related works.
Alternatively, tat-shitya means the association of Lord Ka, di means
embraces, pastimes, and so on, and moda means parimala (conjugal pleasure).
Thus the whole verse comes to mean:
To worship Ka, I shall compose a nmvali, a set of His own sweet names, as a
garland for Him. This nmvali will quickly bestow upon one the conjugal pleasure
produced from Kas association, embraces, and pastimes.
Or else, tat-shitya is derived in the following way: Devotional service (bhakti) is called
sa-hit (beneficial) because it is accompanied (sa) by the benefit (hit) of releasing
one from ignorance. Here, the word tat refers to Ka and thus devotional service to
Ka is called tat-sahit. Furthermore, that which is endowed with pure ka-bhakti
is called tat-shitya. Here tat-shitya refers to the rmad-Bhgavatam in accordance
with the following ancient evidence: menire bhagavad-rpa / stra bhgavata
kalau (In the age of Kali they consider the sacred Bhgavatam to be a form of the
Lord).
The word tat-shitydi means the sacred books on bhakti-rasa headed by rmadBhgavatam as well as the worthy recipients of bhakti-rasa. By figurative usage
(laka) this means studying them and serving them respectively. Even though each
individual name of the Supreme Lord has the innate extraordinary power to bestow
spiritual ecstasy, stringing His names into a garland helps one to easily keep them
around ones neck. Thus this is not a useless endeavor.
Just as Saty can refer to Satyabhm and Bhma to Bhmasena, so ka can refer
to Ka-caitanya. Thus, by offering a nmvali as a garland, Jva Gosvm is
performing the yuga-dharma by worshiping Lord Caitanya with sakrtana in line with
the following verse of the rmad-Bhgavatam (11.5.31):
ka-vara tvika
sgopgstra-pradam
yajai sakrtana-pryair
yajanti hi sumedhasa
In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the
incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Ka. Although His
complexion is not blackish, He is Ka Himself. He is accompanied by His associates,
servants, weapons and confidential companions.
The four essential components of a sacred book (anubandha-catuaya):
adhikr ca sambandho
viaya ca prayojanam
avayam eva vaktavya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

strdau tu catuayam
The eligible person (adhikr), the relationship (sambandha), the topic (viaya or
abhidheya), and the purpose (prayojana)--these four must be indicated at the
beginning of an authoritative book.
Three of these four are shown here: r Ka is the sambandha1; grammar is the
viaya; knowledge of grammar, which is helpful for studying holy texts like rmadBhgavatam and so on, is the secondary prayojana; and the primary prayojana is
bhakti, devotional service, known as savid conjoined with the essence of hldin. The
adhikr will be revealed in the next verse.
Bla-toa-k2I offer my respects unto Hari-nmmta, the grammar of Lord
Viu. It removes all sins, it is full of Kas names and pastimes, and it is auspicious.
The sage Pini said, I and the commentator (Patajali) both have sharp intellects, but
we are not able to cross the ocean of words. What then to speak of others whose
intelligence is dull? Still, taking shelter at the lotus feet of rla Jva Gosvm, I,
though merely a child, wish to cross the great ocean of Hari-nmmta.
The Vaiavas are always greedy for hari-rasa. Thus, wishing to benefit the Vaiavas
who havent studied Sanskrit grammar as well as the Vaiavas who have studied
other systems of Sanskrit grammar, and desiring a grammatical system which uses
Lord Haris names, rla Jva Gosvm, having obtained the mercy of Lord Ka,
begins the Sanskrit Grammar called Hari-nmmta, based on the stras (Laghu-harinmmta-vykaraa) of rla Santana Gosvm.3
A magalcaraa is defined in the following way: r namas-kriy vastu-nirdeo vpi
tan-mukham iti magalcaraam (Invoking auspiciousness (magalcaraa) is
accomplished by offering benedictions (i), offering obeisances (namas-kriy), or
defining the subject-matter of the treatise (vastu-nirdea)). Here the vastu-nirdea is
accomplished by the word kam and the last two pdas (quarters of the verse,
lines) pronounce a benediction.

1 This statement of Amta that r Ka is the sambandha doesnt make full sense,
because two things are required in order for there to be a relationship. In anuccheda 9
of his Tattva-sandarbha, Jva Gosvm explains what sambandha means in the
context of the anubandha-catuayatad-vcya-vcakat-lakaa-sambandha (the
books relationship with Him [i.e r Ka], which is a relationship of vcya and
vcaka). The vcya is the thing which is described and the vcaka is the thing which
describes it. r Ka is the vcya and the book is the vcaka. Thus there is a
relationship between the book and r Ka.
2 The Bla-toa-k, or Bla for short, is a commentary which was begun by a
Vaiava named Hare Ka crya but later finished and revised by a Vaiava
named Gop-caraa dsa. Bla-toa-k means a commentary which gives
pleasure to children. Bla can also mean a beginner or an ignorant person. The
commentary, however, is often too simple; it doesnt explain many essential points
and often explains things in a wrong way. Thus we shall only use it when it makes a
valid point not covered by Amta.
3 There is a difference of opinion among the commentators about the authorship of the
Laghu-hari-nmmta-vykaraa. Amta ascribes it to Rpa Gosvm, while Bla
ascribes it to Santana Gosvm. However, it is more likely that Amta is correct
because Amta is a commentary far more scholarly and complete than Bla, and
because Rpa Gosvm is known to have written another grammatical work, the
Prayuktkhyta-majar (A collection of verbs that are actually in use), an edition of
which has also been published by Haridsa str.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

@Ah"tajailpatajaiq%taM {""A zAbd"AnauzAAs$anastaAemama. /


h"ir"naAmaAvailavailataM vyaAk(r"NAM vaESNAvaATaRmaAicanma: // 2 //
hata-jalpita-jaita
dv abdnusana-stomam
hari-nmvali-valita
vykaraa vaiavrtham cinma
hatauseless; jalpitastatements; jaitamentangled with; dvhaving
examined; abda-anusanaof grammars; stomama multitude; hari-nmaof Lord
Haris names; valia series; valitamendowed with; vykaraama grammar;
vaiava-arthamfor the Vaiavas; cinmawe are compiling.
Having carefully examined many grammatical works, which were all
entangled with useless statements, we are compiling, for the sake of the
Vaiavas, a grammar richly endowed with Lord Haris holy names.
AmtaSomeone may object, Gods names ought to be used for worshiping Him. But
for determining the derivation of words there are already so many grammars available.
How will this effort surpass the meanings established by them? In answer to this
doubt, Jva Gosvm speaks the current verse beginning hata.
The word abdnusana is explained as follows: abd anuiyante vyutpdyante
aneneti abdnusana vykaraam (Grammar (abdnusana) is that by which
words (abd) are traced back to their roots (anuiyante)). This word is formed by
applying the suffix []ana by the stra ana karadhikaraayo (911). According to
the Amara-koa, the Sanskrit dictionary written by Amara Siha, the definition of the
word hata (useless) is mrthaka, which means devoid of any ultimate good.
The word jalpita means vacana (statements) and the word jaitam means yuktam
(full of, comprised of). The word dv here means vieelocya (having
specifically examined) and the word vykaraam is explained as follows: vykriyante
vyutpdyante artha-paryavasn kriyante abd aneneti vykaraam (Grammar
(vykaraa) is that by which words (abd) are traced back to their roots
(vykriyante). That is to say, that by which words are made to result in meaning).
Here the suffix []ana is used as before in the word abdnusana. A liberal
translation would therefore be:
I have carefully gone through many grammatical works that were full of meaningless
talks devoid of any ultimate good. Therefore, to save the Vaiavas from having to do
the same, I am compiling this Hari-nmmta-vykaraa, a grammar richly endowed
with Lord Haris holy names.
Thus it is inferred (by the word vaiavrtham) that the Vaiavas alone are the
qualified readers (adhikrs) of this book.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

Saodhin-k1cinma (we are compiling) is a plural verb form. The singular


would have been cinomi (I am compiling). This use of the plural does not
necessarily mean that Hari-nmmta was written by several authors because in
Sanskrit a plural form can also be used in a singular sense (see stra 631). The same
feature is there in Englisha person may refer to himself as we, especially when
writing a book. A famous example in the Sanskrit language is balir vaiysakir vayam
(Bhgavatam 6.3.20) where the speaker Yamarja refers to himself as vayam (we).
Alternatively, the use of the plural verb form cinma could be Jva Gosvms way of
acknowledging the earlier work done by Rpa or Santana upon which he bases his
own work, or his way of giving credit to the disciples who helped him in this endeavor.
The word jaita is derived from the word ja which means matted hair,
ordreadlocks. Jva Gosvm studied many grammars beginning with the most
celebrated one by Pini. Some of these grammars were incomplete or inaccurate, and
others were composed in such a concise and intricate way that they were almost
unintelligible without multiple commentaries.2 These grammars are compared to a
1 The Saodhin-k, or Saodhin for short, is a commentary written by myself,
Matsya Avatra dsa, a disciple of Bhakti-trtha Svm and resident of Govardhana.
Saodhin means that which corrects and refines. This commentary points out the
various apaphas (false readings) in Jva Gosvms stras and vttis and
establishes the correct reading through thorough comparison of all the printed editions
of Hari-nmmta, cross-checking of the Amta and Bla commentaries, study of the
equivalent Pinian stras, and examination of ancient hand-written manuscripts in
the Vrindavan Research Institute. Furthermore, it helps to refine the students
understanding of the subject matter at hand by adding further clarification on
particular points and by giving relevant examples and counterexamples. One should
know that whatever appears as footnotes in this book is also considered part of the
Saodhin-k.
2 Jva Gosvm studied an astounding number of grammatical treatises. Indeed based
on the various references he gives in his vttis, we know that he studied Pinis
Adhyy along with its various commentaries such as Ktyyanas Vrttikas,
Patajalis Mah-bhya, Vmana and Jaydityas Kik, and Bh-vtti and Bhgavtti. We also know that he studied arvavarma cryas Ktantra-vykaraa,
Vopadevas Mugdha-bodha-vykaraa, Kramadvaras Sakipta-sra-vykaraa,
Candra Goms Cndra-vykaraa, Padmanbha Dattas Supadma-vykaraa,
Anubhti Svarpcryas Srasvata-vykaraa, and Rmacandra cryas Prakriykaumud along with their respective commentaries which are too numerous to name.
Out of these, Ktantra-vykaraa, Srasvata-vykaraa, and so on are incomplete by
themselves, Srasvata-vykaraa and Prakriy-kaumud, which is the first
rearrangement of Pinis stras into topical divisions, are fraught with mistakes, and
Pinis Adhyy itself is so concise and the language so difficult that nobody can
understand it without multiple commentaries. For example, learning the rules of
grammar in the Pinian system requires first reading Pinis stras, then considering
the additions and amendments found in the Vrttikas, and then reading the great
commentary called Mah-bhya. But then, if one wants to understand every stra
deeply, one has to also study Kik and its subcommentaries Nysa and Padamajar, since Mah-bhya only comments on one third of Pinis stras. At present,
people generally study Pinis grammar through the medium of Siddhnta-kaumud,
a book written by Bhaoj Dkita (a contemporary of Jva Gosvm) which
rearranges Pinis stras into topical divisions. However the ambiguity and confusion
still remains because the natural anuvtti of Pinis stras is broken when their order
is changed. Jva Gosvms grammar, however, is unparalleled because he
painstakingly collects the essential teachings of all these grammatical works and puts
them together in one place in a clear, precise, and Ka-conscious way. There is no
ambiguity and the stras are designed in such a way that they speak their only
meaning without the need of multiple commentaries. Thus Jva Gosvms grammar

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

tangled clot of hair glued together with the filthy grease of terminology bereft of
transcendental significance. To save the Vaiavas from having to learn Sanskrit from
such grammars, Jva Gosvm compiled Hari-nmmta-vykaraa, a pure grammar
teeming with transcendental terminology.

vyaAk(r"NAe ma&naIva{ita jaIvanalaubDaA: s$ad"AGas$aMivagnaA: /


h"ir"naAmaAma{tamaetata. ipabantau zAtaDaAvagAAh"ntaAma, // 3 //
vykarae maru-nvti
jvana-lubdh sadgha-savign
hari-nmmtam etat
pibantu atadhvaghantm
vykaraein Sanskrit grammar; marudesert; nvtiregion; jvanawater;
lubdhdesirous of; sadconstantly; aghawith difficulties; savign1afflicted;
hari-nma-amtamthe nectar of Lord Haris names (or, the grammar called Harinmmta); etatthis; pibantulet them drink; atadhin a hundred ways;
avaghantmlet them dive into.
Let those who are hankering for water in the desert of Sanskrit grammar and
therefore constantly beset with difficulties, drink the nectar of Lord Haris
names, and let them dive into this nectar again and again.
AmtaIn this verse, Jva Gosvm offers beneficial advice to the Vaiavas who
have already studied other grammars and encourages them to study his book.
The words vykarae maru-nvti here mean vykarae itara-vykaraa-rpe marunvti nirjala-bluk-maya-pradee (in other Sanskrit grammars, which are deserts,
or waterless sandy regions), and sadgha-savign means constantly beset with
difficulties and distressed by the continuous barrage of useless statements. The word
jvana-lubdh means desirous of water or desirous of achieving eternal life by
gaining nectar. The word pibantu here means let them feel satisfied after quenching
their thirst by drinking and the word atadh means in all ways which comes to
mean as desired. The word avaghantm means let them become cooled by
bathing. Thus the verse means:
Let those who are hankering for water in the desert of other Sanskrit grammars, who
are constantly beset with difficulties and distressed by the continuous barrage of
useless statements found in those grammars, quench their thirst and become satisfied
by drinking the nectar of Lord Haris holy names. Let them also become cooled by
submerging themselves in this nectar.
shines above all other grammars both in terms of grammatical content and spiritual
value.
1 In all the printed editions of Hari-nmmta-vykaraa this word is spelt savighn.
This, however, is a mistake because there is no such word in the Sanskrit language. It
is obvious that the proper spelling is savign because both Bla and Amta give the
word udvign as a gloss. Udvign is a synonym of savign and it is even made
from the same verbal root, namely [o]vij[] bhaya-calanayo (6A, to fear; to
tremble). Neither can we presume that savighn is a compound of samyak +
vighna or the like, because in that case the commentaries would have provided us with
an analysis of the compound, and they do not do that. The correct reading savign
can be found in manuscript 993 (Serial No: 3030, Accession No: 933) in the Vrindavan
Research Institute.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa

Or else harinmmtam means Hari-nmmta-vykaraa, the grammar in which


there is the nectar of Lord Haris names, pibantu means let them study, atadh
means again and again and avaghantm means let them ponder. Thus the verse
would mean:
Let those who are hankering for water in the desert of other Sanskrit grammars, who
are constantly beset with difficulties and distressed by the continuous barrage of
useless statements found in those grammars, study this Hari-nmmta and
deliberate upon it again and again.
In this way Jva Gosvm has specified the name of his book. Because other
grammatical treatises are full of dry talks, studying them results only in distress.
Moreover, such treatises only grant grammatical knowledge useful for understanding
poetry and so on. On the other hand, when one studies the Hari-nmmta, a sweet
fragrance arises from keeping this garland of names, strung by a great soul and
offered to r Ka, around ones neck, and at the same time one achieves the same
knowledge of grammar. Moreover, because this book is full of the Lords holy names, a
faithful study of it will bestow upon one the best resultbhakti known as savid, which
is more esoteric than simple knowledge of Brahman and which bestows upon one the
happiness of understanding the sacred devotional texts (bhakti-stras). Jva Gosvm
has stated in the first verse of the magalcaraam, This nmvali will quickly bestow
upon one the bliss born of Lord Kas association and so on. Such being the case,
who, desiring their own welfare, would roam in the barren desert of dry grammars,
giving up the all-auspicious Hari-nmmta?
s$aAetyaM paAir"h"AsyaM vaA staAeBaM he"lanamaeva vaA /
vaEku(NQ&naAmaah"NAmazAeSaAGah"rM" ivau": // 4 //
sketya prihsya v
stobha helanam eva v
vaikuha-nma-grahaam
aegha-hara vidu
sketyamas an assignation; prihsyamjokingly; vor; stobhamas musical
entertainment; helanamneglectfully; evacertainly; vor; vaikuhaof the Lord;
nma-grahaamchanting the holy name; aeaunlimited; agha-haram
neutralizing the effect of sinful life; viduadvanced transcendentalists know.
One who chants the holy name of the Lord is immediately freed from the
reactions of unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly [to indicate
something else], jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully.
This is accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptures. (Bhgavatam
6.2.14)
AmtaSomeone may say that the use of Lord Haris names as technical terms
(saketas) in grammar is improper and brings sinful reactions. In order to dispel that
doubt, Jva Gosvm quotes this verse from the Bhgavatam which proves that Lord
Haris names destroy unlimited sins even when they are used as saketas and so on.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
10

Saj-sandhi-prakaraam
Saj-prakaraam
Note: In this book the standard format is that first the s
tra is given in both
Devangar and roman transliteration, then a word-for-word analysis of the stra, then
the translation of the stra, and then the vtti1 in roman transliteration. After that the
Amta, Bla, and Saodhin commentaries as well as the translation of the vtti are
given in the order most suitable for learning, although generally the translation of the
vtti is given before the commentaries.
1 / naAr"AyaNAAu"U"taAe'yaM vaNAR(ma: /
1. nryad udbhto ya vara-krama
nryatfrom Lord Nryaa; udbhtaappeared; ayamthis; varaof
phonemes; kramaseries.
This series of varas (the Sanskrit alphabet) appeared from Nryaa 2.
a i u e ai o au . ka kha ga gha a ca cha ja jha a a ha a ha a ta
tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va a a sa ha ka. ete var akari. em
udbhava-sthnnia--ka-varga-ha-visarg kaha. i--ca-varga-ya-n tlu.
u--pa-vargm oha. --a-varga-ra- mrdh. - -ta-varga-la-sn
dant. ed-aito kaha-tlu. od-auto kahauham. va-krasya dantauham.
anusvrasya iro nsik v.
SaodhinThe Sanskrit word vara is most literally translated as a phoneme, or
speech-sound. To translate the word vara as a letter is erroneous, because a letter is
defined as a written or printed symbol employed to represent a speech-sound. The
phonemes, having arisen from Nryaa, are eternal whereas the letters used to
represent them may vary. For example, before the introduction of printing into India in
the eighteenth century, the script in which Sanskrit was written and taught varied from
place to place and was the same, or almost the same as that used in writing the local
vernacular language. The dissemination of printed Sanskrit texts, however,
encouraged the predominance of one form of writing, the Devangar script of central
India in which the modern languages Hind and Marh are also written. Today most
Sanskrit publications are printed in this script. The sounds (varas) of the Sanskrit
alphabet are enumerated below in both Devangar script and roman transliteration.
VttiThe vara-krama is as follows:
1 The vttis (fundamental explanations of the stras) were also written by Jva
Gosvm. In the vttis, Jva Gosvm clarifies the stra, gives examples, supplies
extra information, and mentions the opinions of other grammarians. The Dhtusagraha (list of dhtus) was also composed by Jva Gosvm. The Avyaya-abdasagraha (list of avyayas), however, is an anonymous appendix, probably composed
by Purdsa, found only in some of the printed editions of the Hari-nmmta, and the
Gaa-pha (list of gaas) belongs to Pini.
2 Bla explains this stra as follows: varni udbhtni tat-krama ca udbhta ity artha (Both the
varas and their order appeared from Nryaa). In Pinis system, the most popular system of
Sanskrit grammar in India, the vara-krama in the form of the fourteen pratyhra-stras is said to have
emanated from Lord iva. But in Hari-nmmta-vykaraa the vara-krama is traced back to Lord
Nryaa, who is glorified throughout the Vedic literature as the Supreme Lord.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
11
@ a @A
wi
wR o u O

[%

\#

la{

la|

We

We
ai

@A
eo

@AE
au

@M
@:

(Here the @ in @M and @: is just to aid pronunciation, the actual letters are just M
and :)
k( ka

Ka
kha
C$
cha
Q&
ha
Ta
tha
P( ph
a

gA ga Ga
gha
ja ja
Ja jha

x~ a

x" a

NA
a
na na

ya ya

r" ra

la la

va va

zA a

Sa a

s$a
sa

h" ha

ca ca
q%
a
ta ta
pa pa

d" da
ba ba

X#
ha
Da
dha
Ba
bha

Ha a

ma
ma

a
ka
These sounds are called varas or akaras.
SaodhinIt will be explained in stra 16 that all the varas from ka to ha, the
consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet, are dependent on the vowels for their
pronunciation. That is to say, it is impossible to pronounce a consonant without the aid
of a vowel. For this reason all the varas from ka to ha are listed with an inherent a.
But actually these varas refer to the consonants themselves, regardless of the
adjacent vowel. Thus the vara ka refers to k, the vara kha to kh, and so on. One
should not be confused by the various labels such as the vara ka, ka-rma, ka-kra,
and k; they all refer to the same consonant k, never to k+a. This is the case for all the
varas from ka to ha. One should also be careful not to mistake kh, gh, ch, and so on,
to be a combination of k+h, g+h, c+h, and so on, because in roman transliteration the
h in kh and so on is employed merely to indicate that the vara is an aspirated
consonant. It is impossible for kh and so on to be conjunct consonants since in Sanskrit
there are no conjunct consonants that have h as their second member.
The varas from a to au, the vowels of the Sanskrit alphabet, are written differently
when they come after a consonant. A, however, has no post-consonantal symbol and is
assumed to come after every consonant unless there is another vowel or a virma in
its place. The post consonantal forms of the vowels are shown below with the
consonant k to indicate their proper placement.
k( ka, k(A k, ik( ki, k(L k, ku( ku, kU( k, k{( k, k|( k, k}( k, k}{ k , ke( ke, kE(
kai, k(Ae ko, k(AE kau.

In the following special cases the post consonantal symbols of u, , and are put in
different places:
& ru, & r, {" d, $ h.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
12
The virma ( , ) is a small oblique stroke, placed at the foot of a consonant, that is used
to signal the deletion of its inherent a. Thus ak would be written in Devangar as @k,(.
The symbol called avagraha (') and the various conjunct consonants will be described
under stras 56 and 34 respectively. Extra symbols are also employed in the
Devangar script for the purpose of basic punctuation. For example, the sign / is used
at the end of a half-verse or sentence, and the sign // at the end of a verse or
paragraph. The numbers of the Devangar script are as follows:
1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

7
7

8
8

9
9

0
0

Alternate readings of the vara-krama:


In the Haridsa, Purdsa, and Caitanya Maha editions, which are all based on Bla,
ka is included as the final member of the alphabet. But in the Kadsa edition,
which is based on Amta, ka is not to be found. Indeed its absence is confirmed by
the following excerpts from the Amta commentary on this stra: a-rmdi-harmnto vara-krama (the alphabet beginning with a and ending with ha) and
varnm ekona-pacat-prakratva darita (the alphabet is shown as being 49fold). Furthermore, ka is generally not included in the alphabets listed in other
Sanskrit Grammars also.
On the other hand, Vivantha Cakravart hkura explains in his book Mantrrthadpik that Harinmmta-vykaraa lists fifty varas in total and that the Rdhka-sahasra-nma-stotra of Bhan-Nradya Pura mentions pacad-vararpi (she who is the embodiment of the fifty varas) as one of the names of
rmat Rdhr. Similarly, even though Bla also says a-rmdi-ha-rmnto
vara-krama (the alphabet beginning with a and ending with ha), it contains an
extra phrase: atra ka-a-sayoge ka iti vakyamatve pi ka-rma ca darita
(Although it will be explained in vtti 16 that ka is the combination of ka and a, ka
is also shown here). The ultimate deciding point, however, is that Jva Gosvm does
list ka in the alphabet when he elaborates upon the varas in his Krama-sandarbha
commentary for Bhgavatam 11.12.17 (see Appendix II). Furthermore, Jva Gosvm
also uses the word ka-rmasya in Bhat stra 283 which indicates beyond a doubt
that ka is considered as an additional vara because according to stra 35 the word
rma is only used to refer to a vara. Even though ka is accepted as a vara in this
way it is not counted as a viujana because, in vtti 16, Jva Gosvm clearly says
ka-krdayo ha-krnt var viujana-nmno bhavanti ... ka-a-sayoge tu ka
(The varas beginning with ka and ending with ha are called viujanas. Ka,
however, is only the combination of ka and a). But even this statement suggests
that ka is actually included as the final member of the alphabet, otherwise there
would be no need to exclude it from the viujanas. Taking these reasons into
consideration, we also have included ka as the final member of the alphabet in this
edition.
rla Prabhupda also supplies an interesting explanation of the name Adhokaja
which supports the inclusion of ka here: And in Sanskrit, as in English it is A to Z,
similarly in Sanskrit, a, , i, u, and the end is ka. So a and ka, that is called aka.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
13
Aka-ja. And ja means generated. So we also compose words, those who are Sanskrit
scholars, they compose words from a to ka, just like English they compose words from
A to Z. So our mental speculation and advancement of education is limited between
this a and ka, aka. Aka-ja. But Ka is adhokaja. Adhokaja means where these
kinds of speculation, beginning from a to ka, will not act. Therefore His name is
Adhokaja. Adha kta, cut down. (Lecture on rmad-Bhgavatam 1.8.19
Mypura, September 29, 1974).
AmtaSomeone may wonder, It was stated that the varas and their order
appeared from Nryaa, but from where did each vara appear? To answer this, Jva
Gosvm specifies each varas place of appearance:
VttiThe place of appearance of these varas is as follows:
The place of appearance of
the throat of Nryaa.
The place of appearance of
of Nryaa.
The place of appearance of
Nryaa.
The place of appearance of
of the palate of Nryaa.
The place of appearance of
of Nryaa.
The place of appearance of
The place of appearance of
The place of appearance of
The place of appearance of

a, , ka-varga (ka, kha, ga, gha, a), ha, and visarga () is


i, , ca-varga (ca, cha, ja, jha, a), ya, and a is the palate
u, , and pa-varga (pa, pha, ba, bha, ma) is the lips of
, , a-varga (a, ha, a, ha, a), ra, and a is the top
, , ta-varga (ta, tha, da, dha, na), la, and sa is the teeth
e and ai is the throat and the palate of Nryaa.
o and au is the throat and the lips of Nryaa.
v is the teeth and the lips of Nryaa.
anusvra () is either the head or nose of Nryaa.

SaodhinBecause the varas appeared from Nryaa in these specific places,


these are the proper places to pronounce the varas. The varas a, , ka-varga (ka,
kha, ga, gha, a), ha, and visarga () are called kahya because their place of
pronunciation is the throat (kaha). The varas i, , ca-varga (ca, cha, ja, jha, a), ya,
and a are called tlavya because their place of pronunciation is the palate (tlu).
Other names, also made according to the place of pronunciation, are shown below
along with their English equivalents.
Guttural
(kahya)
Palatal
(tlavya)
Labial
(ohya)
Cerebral
(mrdhany
a)
Dental
(dantya)

@a

@A k( ka

wi

wR

ou

[%

\#

la{

la|

Gutturo-palatal
(kaha-tlavya)
Gutturo-labial
(kahauhya)
Dento-labial

ca
ca
pa
pa
q%
a

Q&
ha

ta ta

We
@Ae
o
va va

Ka
kha
C$
cha
P( pha

Ta tha

We
ai
@AE
au

gA
ga
ja ja

Ga
gha
Ja jha

ba
Ba
ba
bha
x" a X#
ha
d"
da

Da
dha

x~
h"
a
ha
Ha a ya
ya
ma ma

@:

NA
a

r" ra

Sa
a

na
na

la la

s$a
sa

zA
a

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
14
(dantauhya)
Either in the head or
@M
in the nose (iro
nsik v)
AmtaExplanation of Nryaa:
Here the word nara (human) means a Vraja-vs (resident of Vndvana), and the
whole community of Vraja-vss is called nra. The vigraha (separation of the
constituent words) of the compound word nryaa is: nram ayanam yasya sa
nryaa (Nryaa is He whose shelter is the Vraja-vss) Thus the word
nryaa here means r Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who appears in
a human-like form.
This understanding is backed up by the Bhgavatam (10.25.18): tasmn maccharaa goha / man-ntha mat-parigraham, where Ka Himself states that the
Vraja-vss are His shelter, His protectors, and His family. In this verse the word
goham implies the goha-vss, and goha-vss means vraja-vss because the
word goha is a synonym of the word vraja1. Ka says that the Vraja-vss are His
shelter because He, being controlled by their love, is unable to even bathe, drink, eat,
sleep, or enjoy without them. Thus in the di Pura Ka tells Arjuna:
sahy gurava iy
bhujiy bndhav striya
satya vadmi te prtha
gopya ki me bhavanti na
The gops are My assistants, My gurus, My disciples, My maidservants, My relatives,
and My consorts. O son of Pth, I tell you the truth. What arent the gops for Me?
Even though the word nryaa can be used to express any viu-tattva, it primarily
refers to Ka, because He is the original Nryaa and because the avatras headed
by Matsya and Vmana, and even the three Puruas are His parts (agas). This is
corroborated by Lord Brahms statement in Bhgavatam (10.14.14):
nryaas tva na hi sarva-dehinm
tmsy adhkhila-loka-sk
nryao ga nara-bh-jalyant
tac cpi satya na tavaiva my
Are You not the original Nryaa, O supreme controller, since You are the Soul of
every embodied being and the eternal witness of all created realms? Indeed, Lord
Nryaa is Your expansion, and He is called Nryaa because He is the generating
source of the primeval water of the universe. He is real, not a product of Your illusory
My.
In his commentary on this verse, rdhara Svm gives the following definitions of the
name Nryaa: nro jva-samho yanam rayo yasya sa (He whose abode is the
aggregate of jvas), and nrasyyana pravttir yasmt sa (He from whom the
aggregate of jvas arises). In explaining the phrase nryao gam in this verse,
rdhara Svm gives an alternate etymology of the word nryaa for when it is used
to refer to the well-known Nryaa who is a plenary portion of Ka: nard udbht
ye rth catur-viati-tattvni tath narj jta yaj jala tad-ayand yo nryaa
prasiddha so pi tavaivga mrti (That Nryaa who is well-known because of
1 See Bhat stra 1666.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
15
His entering the twenty-four elements that appeared from Nara and the water that was
produced from Nara, is also Your plenary portion1).
In his Bhgavatam commentary named Krama-sandarbha, Jva Gosvm defines
Nryaa in the following way: nar dvitya-ttya-purua-bhedn samho
nra tat-samai-rpa prathama-purua eva; tasypy ayana pravttir yasmt sa
nryaa (Nra means the first Purua, Kraodaka-y Viu, the aggregate form
of the Naras who are the second and third Puruas, Garbhodaka-y Viu and
Krodaka-y Viu. Nryaa is He from whom even Kraodaka-y Viu
arises).
SaodhinIt is well-known that Lord Caitanya often called Advaita crya, the
celebrated incarnation of Mah Viu (Kraodaka-y Viu), by the name N.
This is recorded both in the Caintanya-bhgavata and in the Caitanya-caritmta. For
example, in Caitanya-bhgavata (Madhya 2.264), Lord Caitanya says By your loud
chanting and N's roaring I left Vaikuha and came here with My associates. In his
Gauya-bhya commentary to this verse, rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarvasvat hkura
explains the word n as follows:
The editor of r Sajjana-toa, rmad Bhaktivinoda hkura, has written in
Volume 7, Part 11, as follows: rman Mahprabhu often addressed rla Advaita
Prabhu as N. I have heard a number of meanings of the word n. Some Vaiava
scholar has said that the word nr refers to Mah-Viu because nra, the total
aggregate of all living entities, is situated within Him. Is the word n a corruption of
the word nr? The people of Rha-dea often use a in place of ra. Is this the reason
that the word nr has been written as n? This meaning is often applicable. The
word nra or nr (n) is explained by rdhara Svmipda in his Bhvrtha-dpik
commentary on rmad-Bhgavatam (10.14.14) as follows: The word nra refers to
the aggregate of living entities, and the word ayana refers to the shelter. You are
Nryaa Himself because You are the supreme shelter of all embodied souls. You are
Nryaa because all the propensities (ayana) of the living entities (nra) emanate
from You. You are the supreme Nryaa because You know (ayana) all living entities
(nra). You are renowned as Nryaa because You are the supreme shelter (ayana) of
the water that emanates from Nara. In the smtis it is stated: All the truths born from
Nara are known as nrn by the learned scholars. Since the Supreme Lord is the
shelter of this nrn, learned scholars glorify Him as Nryaa. In the Manu-sahit
(1.10) it is stated: The waters are called nra, for they emanate from the Supersoul,
Nara. As they are His original resting place (ayana), He is named Nryaa.
2 / taaAd"AE cataudR"zA s$avaeRr"A: /
2. tatrdau caturdaa sarvevar
tatrathere (in the alphabet); dauin the beginning; caturdaafourteen; sarvavarsarvevaras (the vowels of the Sanskrit alphabet).
The first fourteen varas of the alphabet are called sarvevaras.
1 The Nryaa referred to here is Garbhodaka-y Viu. Garbhodaka-y Viu is
also called Nara. When Nara entered the universe, He saw that within the universe
there was only darkness and space, without a resting place. Thus He filled half of the
universe with water from His own perspiration and laid Himself down on the same
water. Because this water in the form of perspiration was produced from Nara, it is
called Nra, and because Nara lies down on this water he is called Nryaa (One
whose resting place is the water called Nra).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
16
tasmin vara-krame dau caturdaa var sarvevara nmno bhavantia i u
e ai o au. ete svar aca ca prcnnm. ete svatantroccra. kdnm
uccraa caim adhnam iti sarvevar.
mtr-lghava-mtra / putrotsava iti pare bhimanyante
hari-nmkara-lbhd / vaya tv amdk tiras-kurma.
VttiThe sarvevaras are as follows:
@ a @A
wi
wR o u O [%

\#

la{

la|

We

We
ai

@A
eo

@AE
au

Earlier grammarians called these fourteen varas svaras or ac-s. These fourteen
varas are pronounced independently, and because the varas beginning with ka (all
the consonants) depend upon them for their pronunciation, they are called
sarvevaras.
AmtaThe etymology of the word svara (vowel) is svenaiva rjata iti svara (A
svara is so named because it shines (rjate) by itself (sva)). The word sarvevara,
which means the controller of everything, refers to r Ka, the Lord of the
material and spiritual worlds. The anusvra and visarga are also dependent on the
sarvevaras for their pronunciation. Just as Lord Ka manifests Himself in the form of
the fourteen manvantarvatras and restores specific universal affairs to their proper
state, the vowel, assuming fourteen forms headed by a and , causes particular
grammatical operations. The fourteen manvantarvatras as listed in Rpa Gosvms
Laghu-bhgavatmta are Yaja, Viu, Satyasena, Hari, Vaikuha, Ajita, Vmana,
Srvabhauma, abha, Vivaksena, Dharmasetu, Sudhm, Yogevara, and
Bhadbhnu.
VttiOthers consider the mere brevity of mtrs1 to be like the delight created by
the birth of a son, but we will disregard this idea because by doing so we gain the
syllables of Lord Haris names.
AmtaThe verse in the vtti means, For the other cryas composing stras,
shortness of mtrs creates the same joy as the birth of a son. But to gain the syllables
of Lord Haris names, we will disregard this approach, for the divine bliss attained from
the syllables of the Holy names is millions of times greater than the insignificant
material happiness that comes from achieving brevity in the composition of stras.
This is Jva Gosvms answer to the following prva-paka2, The ancient sages have
accepted brevity in composing their grammars in accordance with the following
definition of a stra. Why then does the author of this book deviate from this
principle?
svalpkaram analprtha
viuddha sarvato-mukham
viea-kathanpeka
stra stra-vido vidu
The knowers of stras know a stra to be comprised of a few syllables, but able to
convey a lot of meaning, pure (free from error), complete, and relevant to the topic
under discussion.

1 A mtr is defined as a prosodial instant or, in other words, the length of time
required to pronounce a short vowel (see stras 31 to 34 for further details).
2 The oppositions argument.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
17
SaodhinThe reason why Jva Gosvm suddenly makes such a statement here
is because this stra is the first saj-stra in Hari-nmmta-vykaraa. That is to
say, in this stra he is creating a name for the first time. Jva Gosvm chose to name
the vowels sarvevaras. This name takes six times as long to pronounce as the
Pinian name ac because sarvevara has six mtrs in it whereas ac has only one.
Therefore he writes this verse to justify his disregard of the conventional rules of
brevity.
3 / d"zA d"zAAvataAr"A: /
3. daa davatr
daaten; daa-avatrdavatras.
The first ten varas of the alphabet are called davatras.
a i u .
VttiThe davatras are as follows:
@ a @A
wi
wR o u O [%

\#

la{

la|

AmtaThe word davatra, which means one who has ten incarnations, refers to
r Ka who appears in the following ten incarnations: Matsya, Krma, Varha,
Nsiha, Vmana, Paraurma, Rma, Balarma, Buddha, and Kalki.
4 / taeSaAM "AE "Avaek(Atmak(AE /
4. te dvau dvv ektmakau
temamong them (the davatras); dvau dvauevery two varas; ektmakau
ektmakas.
Among the davatras, both varas of each consecutive pair are called
ektmakas.
te davatr madhye kramea dvau dvau varau pratyeka paraspara
caiktmakau jeyau. yatha iti dvau ektmakau, i iti dvau, eva u ity-di. atra
sa-vara-saj ca. pratyekam ektmakatva spaam eveti parasparrtham ida
stram.
VttiAmong the davatras, both varas of each consecutive pair are called
ektmakas,
individually as well as mutually. For example, the pair a and are ektmakas and the
pair i and are ektmakas. Similarly,the pairs u and and so on are also ektmakas. It
is clear that each vara among the davatras is individually an ektmaka of itself;
this stra is to point out that they are also ektmakas of each other.
AmtaThe word ektmaka means one whose essence or identity (tm=svarpa)
is the same. The idea is that both varas in a pair are essentially the same just like
the Kas praka and vilsa forms are nondifferent in identity from Svaya-rpa
Ka. When the one original Ka manifests himself in many identical forms in

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
18
pastimes such as the rsa dance, such identical forms are called praka. But when
the one original Ka manifests himself in different forms such as the many Nryaa
forms he manifests in pastimes such as brahma-vimohana, such forms are called
vilsa. Forms such as Balarma and energies such as Lakm should also be
understood as vilsa forms since they are also tad-ektma-rpas (forms that are
nondifferent in identity from Ka).
It is obvious that the same vara is individually an ektmaka of itself, just as one a is
the same as another a, and so on. However, within each pair, each vara is also an
ektmaka of the other; that is to say a and are ektmakas of each other, i and are
ektmakas of each other, and so on.
BlaThe word ektmaka describes a living entity who has attained absorption in
Brahman, or else it describes the non-difference of Hari and Hara (iva). Thus the word
ektmaka is a name of the Lord.

5 / paUvaAeR vaAmana: /
5. prvo vmana
prvathe first one; vmanavmana (short vowel).
The first vara in each pair of ektmakas is called vmana.
a i u . ete hrasv ca.
VttiThe vmanas are as follows:
@ a w i o u [%
la{

Earlier grammarians called these hrasvas.


6 / par"iiva(ma: /
6. paras trivikrama
parathe other one; trivikramatrivikrama (long vowel).
The latter vara in each pair of ektmakas is called trivikrama.
. ete drgh ca.
VttiThe trivikramas are as follows:
@A
wR O \#
la|

Earlier grammarians called these drghas.


SaodhinLord Vmana in his expanded form as Trivikrama covered the whole
universe with two of his steps and placed his third step on Bali Mahrjas head, so
both Vmana and Trivikrama refer to the same incarnation in two forms, one short, the

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
19
other tall. Thus it is most appropriate that Jva Goswm has chosen these two names
to describe the short and long vowels in each pair of ektmakas, for just as a and are
essentially the same letter, the only difference being the duration for which they are
uttered, Vmana and Trivikrama are essentially the same incarnation, the only
difference being that one is short and the other tall.

7 / @@AvaijaRtaA: s$avaeRr"A wRr"A: /


7. a--varjit sarvevar var
a--varjitexcluding the varas a and ; sarvevarsarvevaras; var
varas.
The sarvevaras, exluding a and , are called varas.
i u e ai o au.
VttiThe varas are as follows:
wi
wR o u O [%
\#
la{

la|

We

We
ai

@A
eo

@AE
au

AmtaThe varas are the presiding deities of the twelve months as described in
r-caitanya-caritmta (Madhya 20.195-201). The names of the presiding deities for
each of the twelve months beginning with mrga-ra (November-December) are
given sequentially as follows: Keava, Nryaa, Mdhava, Govinda, Viu,
Madhusdana, Trivikrama, Vmana, rdhara, Hkea, Padmanbha, and Dmodara.
8 / d"zAAvataAr"A wRzAA: /
8. davatr
davatrdavatras; as.
The davatras, exluding a and , are called as.
i u .
VttiThe as are as follows:
wi
wR o u O [%
\#

la{

la|

AmtaAccording to Bhad-bhgavatmta, the as are the presiding deities of the


eight coverings of the universe (earth, water, fire, air, ether, false ego, mahat-tattva,
and prakti). The names of the presiding deities for each of the eight coverings are
given sequentially as follows: Varha, Matsya, Srya, Pradyumna, Aniruddha,
Sakaraa, Vsudeva, and Paramevara.
9 / @@AwwRoO @nantaA: /
9. a--i--u- anant
a--i--u-the varas a, , i, , u, and ; anantanantas.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
20
A, , i, , u, and are called anantas.
AmtaThe name Ananta refers to Baladeva and so on, and means he of whom
there is no end. There are six Anantas: the original Ananta, Baladeva, in Ka-loka
(Goloka or Gokula), and his five expansions: Sakaraa in the spiritual sky;
Kraodaka-y Viu; Garbhodaka-y Viu; and Krodaka-y Viu who
respectively lie on the Causal Ocean, Garbha Ocean, and Milk Ocean; and the
thousand-hooded ea in Ptla. Lakmaa is not mentioned separately because he is
included in Sakaraa.
10 / wwRoO catau:s$anaA: /
10. i--u- catu-san
i--u-the varas i, , u, and ; catu-sancatusanas.
I, , u, and are called catusanas.
AmtaThe word catu-sana refers to the four Kumras as a group. The names of
the four Kumras are Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanat-kumra, and Santana. They are a
special incarnation of the Lord according to the following statement of Laghubhgavatmta (3.3):
caturbhir avatro yam
eka eva sat mata
sana-abdt caturv eva
catu-sana iti smta
Saintly authorities consider this incarnation of four persons as a single avatra.
Because all their names include the word Sana, the scriptures call them the four
Sanas.
11 / oO[%\# catauBauRjaA: /
11. u--- catur-bhuj
u---the varas u, , , and ; catu-bhujcaturbhujas.
U, , , and are called caturbhujas.
AmtaThe name Caturbhuja refers to Nryaa and means He who has four
arms, but the caturbhujas as a group refer to the four yugvatras who manifest
themselves in different colors (white, red, black, and yellow) to propagate the four
yuga-dharmas (meditation, fire sacrifice, deity worship, and congregational chanting of
the Holy names) in the four yugas (Satya, Tret, Dvpara, and Kali). When the original
Personality of Godhead, r Ka, or His special incarnation, r Caitanya
Mahprabhu, is manifest, the yugvatra doesnt incarnate independently, but rather
merges into Him. Furthermore, even the original Personality of Godhead is described
as being the yugvatra, taking into consideration that the activities He performs
serve the purpose of the yugvatra.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
21
12 / WWe@Ae@AE catauvyaURh"A: /
12. e-ai-o-au catur-vyh
e-ai-o-authe varas e, ai, o, and au; catu-vyhcaturvyhas (the diphthongs of
the Sanskrit alphabet).
E, ai, o, and au are called caturvyhas.
sandhy-akari. ete sarva eva trivikram.
VttiThe earlier grammarians called these sandhy-akaras. All of these are
trivikramas.
AmtaThe word catur-vyha refers in an aggregate way to the quadruple forms
Vsudeva, Sakaraa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. According to Tri-ka-ea, a
supplement to the Amara-koa written by Puruottama-deva, the word vyha means
either a form (deha) or an army (sainya). The word catur-vyha refers to the
quadruple forms Vsudeva, Sakaraa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha.
SaodhinThey are named sandhy-akaras because they result mainly from the
combination (sandhi) of two vowels.
13 / @M wita ivaSNAuca(ma, /
13. a iti viu-cakram
athe vara ; itithus; viu-cakramviucakra.
a is called viucakra.
a-kra uccrartha. anusvra.
VttiEarlier grammarians called it anusvra. The a in a is for the sake of
pronunciation.
AmtaA cakra is so named because it strikes down (cakate). The disc of Lord Viu
(the viu-cakra) is named Sudarana. This vara is similar to a cakra because it also
has a circular shape.
SaodhinThe a in a is inserted only to aid pronunciation. The actual vara is ,
written as M in the Devangar script. The vara a is similarly used to aid
pronunciation in the next two stras also, the real varas being * and , which in
Devangar are written as * and : respectively.
14 / @* wita ivaSNAucaApa: /
14. a* iti viu-cpa
a* the vara
a*

; itithus; viu-cpaviucpa.

is called viucpa.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
22
anunsika ca. nsik-bhavo yam, snunsikas tu mukha-nsik-bhava.
VttiEarlier grammarians called it anunsika. This vara is pronounced in the nose,
but a vara with an anunsika1 is pronounced by using both the mouth and nose.
AmtaThe word viu-cpa means the bow of Viu. This bow is famous by the
name rga.

15 / @: wita ivaSNAus$agAR: /
15. a iti viu-sarga
athe vara ; itithus; viu-sargaviusarga.
a is called viusarga.
visarga ca.
VttiEarlier grammarians called it visarga.
AmtaThe word viu-sarga means the abode of Lord Viu. Jva Gosvm
comments that the word tri-sarga, found in the first verse of rmad-Bhgavatam,
means the three abodes: Gokula, Mathur, and Dvrak. Because Mathur and
Gokula are included within Mathur it is described in the following statement of Laghubhgavatmta that Kas abode has two divisions: dhmsya dvi-vidha prokta
mthura dvrvat tath (Kas abode is said to have two divisions, Mathur and
Dvrak). Or else by the following statement of Laghu-bhgavatmta it should be
known that the viusarga is perpetually situated in the form of two dots just as
Mathur is perpetually situated in the two forms Mathur and Gokula: mthura ca
dvidh prhur gokula puram eva ca (Mathur has two further subdivisions, Gokula
and the city Mathur).
SaodhinThe prominent name used by previous grammarians for describing this
vara was visarga. By making the vi of this word into viu, Jva Gosvm has
expertly converted it into a spiritual name with a relevant meaning.

16 / k(Ad"yaAe ivaSNAujanaA: /
16. kdayo viu-jan
ka-dayathe varas beginning with ka; viu-janviujanas (the consonants of
the Sanskrit alphabet).
All the varas from ka onwards are called viujanas.
ka-krdayo ha-krnt var viujana-nmno bhavanti. vio sarva-vypakatay
sarvevarasya jan iva tasydhn ity arthaka kha ga gha a ca cha ja jha a a ha
a ha a ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va a a sa ha. ka-a-sayoge
tu ka. ete vyajanni hala ca.
1 An example of a snunsika, a vara with an anunsika, is a* . This is the vara a
with the anunsika * .

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
23
VttiThe varas beginning with ka and ending with ha are called viujanas. Every
viujana is dependent on a sarvevara in the same way that the living entities are
dependent on Lord Viu who is the controller of everything (sarvevara) because of
His being all-pervading.
The viujanas are as
k( ka Ka
gA ga
kha
ca ca C$
ja ja
cha
q%
Q&
x" a
a
ha
ta ta
Ta
d" da
tha
pa pa P( ph ba ba
a

follows:
Ga
x~ a
gha
Ja jha Ha a
X#
ha
Da
dha
Ba
bha

ya ya

r" ra

la la

va va

zA a

Sa a

s$a
sa

h" ha

NA
a
na na
ma
ma

But ka1 is the combination of ka and a. Earlier grammarians called these (the
viujanas) vyajanas or hal-s.
AmtaViu is so named because He pervades (vevei) the worlds. By muktapragraha-vtti (the ultimate, unconstrained meaning of a word) the name viu here
refers to Lord Ka; because Ka is the original Viu, the name viu ultimately
refers to Him. For example, the following statements appear in the Padma Pura and
rmad-Bhgavatam respectively: yath rdh priy vio (As Rdh is the beloved
of Viu) and vikrita vraja-vadhbhir ida ca vio (the sporting of Lord Viu
with the young women of Vraja). Thus the word viu-jana means associate of Lord
Ka.
Lord Viu alone is the controller of everything (sarvevara) because He is allpervading, and just as His creatures (the viu-janas) are dependent on Him, the
varas beginning with ka, which are called viujanas, are dependent on the varas
called sarvevaras. The purport is that the viujanas depend on a sarvevara for their
pronunciation because it is impossible to pronounce a viujana without the help of a
sarvevara.
SaodhinThe names viujana and vyajana both have the sound jana in them,
and the names sarvevara and svara both have the sound vara in them. Thus Jva
Gosvm has created rhyming equivalents which simultaneously express the
constitutional dependence of the consonants and the living entities on the vowels and
the Supreme Lord respectively. This is his genius.
1 In the Devangar script, the special character a (ka) is used to represent the
combination of ka-rma and a-rma. Thus a special effort is made to point that out
here with the phrase ka-a-sayoge tu ka (But ka is the combination of ka and
a). Similarly, the special character a (ja) is used to represent the combination of jarma and a-rma, and a special effort will be made to point that out in vtti 190 with
the phrase j-o sat-sage ja (When there is sat-saga of ja-rma and a-rma we get
ja). As explained previously in Saodhin 1, the phrase ka-a-sayoge tu ka also
serves to differentiate and exclude ka-rma from the viujanas.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
24
17 / tae maAntaA: paa paa ivaSNAuvagAAR: /
17. te mnt paca paca viu-varg
tethe viujanas; mntending with the vara ma; paca pacain five groups of
five; viu-vargviuvargas (the stops of the Sanskrit alphabet).
The viujanas from ka to ma, arranged in five groups of five, are called
viuvargas.
ete varg ca. ka kha ga gha a iti ka-varga. eva ca-varga a-varga ta-varga pavarga ca. tatra samna-varga sa-varga ucyate, sa-vara ca.
VttiEarlier grammarians called them vargas. Ka-varga is so named because it
consists of the following five varas beginning with ka: ka, kha, ga, gha, and a. Cavarga, a-varga, ta-varga, and pa-varga are formed in the same way. Among the
viuvargas any vara which belongs to the same varga is called sa-varga or sa-vara.
The viuvargas are as follows:
ka-varga
k( ka
Ka
gA ga
kha
ca-varga
ca ca C$
ja ja
cha
a-varga
q% a Q&
x" a
ha
ta-varga
ta ta
Ta tha d" da
pa-varga

pa pa

P( pha ba ba

Ga
gha
Ja jha

x~ a

X#
ha
Da
dha
Ba
bha

NA a

Ha a

na na
ma
ma

SaodhinAny vara among the viuvargas that is in the same varga as another
vara can be called sa-varga or sa-vara ofthat vara. For example, ka is in the same
varga as gha, therefore ka is a sa-varga (or sa-vara) of gha. Similarly, a is a sa-varga
of ja and so on. In poetry pa-varga represents the materialistic way of lifeparirama
(hard work), phena (foam, indicating exhaustion, because foam comes from the
mouth of an exhausted animal), bandha (bondage), bhaya (fear), and ultimately
mtyu (death). The path of liberation, in which one is freed from all these things, is
called a-pa-varga. Ultimately, Ka Himself is the only abode of liberation as
demonstrated in Bhgavatam 1.7.22:

arjuna uvca
ka ka mah-bho
bhaktnm abhayakara
tvam eko dahyamnnm
apavargo 'si saste
Arjuna said: O my Lord r Ka, You are the almighty Personality of Godhead. There
is no limit to Your different energies. Therefore only You are competent to instill
fearlessness in the hearts of Your devotees. Everyone in the flames of material
miseries can find the path of liberation in You only.
AmtaThe phrase te mnt (those ending in ma) in effect means the
viujanas, excluding the harimitras and the harigotras. When those viujanas are

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
25
arranged in groups of five, they are called viuvargas. The Amara-bharati explains
the word varga as follows: vijtyatve pi samna-dharmibhi pribhir apribhir
upalakita vnda varga (A varga is a group of things, animate or inanimate, that
share the same nature although they are different). The viu-vargas are the retinue
of Lord Ka. They all have eternal bodies full of knowledge and bliss, and thus they
share the same nature although they are classified differently as vaiyas, bhras, and
so on. The viu-vargas, the residents of Vndvana, are of five kinds, as described in
rla Rpa Gosvms Rdh-ka-gaoddea-dpik: The vaiyas, bhras, and
gurjaras constitute three kinds of cowherds. Then there are the brhmaas who are
expert in all the Vedas and qualified to perform sacrifices on anothers behalf. Finally
there are the craftsmen called bahihas who earn their livelihood by employing their
various skills.
The similarity between these varas and Lord Kas retinue is as follows: The
twenty-five varas beginning with ka are included within the five vargas, just as the
viujanas headed by Nanda Mahrja, Raktaka, Payoda, Bhguri, and Vicitra are
included respectively in each of the five groups of Lord Kas retinue as described
above.
18 / k(caq%tapaA h"ir"k(malaAina /
18. ka-ca-a-ta-p hari-kamalni
ka-ca-a-ta-pthe viujanas ka, ca, a, ta, and pa; hari-kamalniharikamalas.
Ka, ca, a, ta, and pa are called harikamalas.
AmtaThe etymology of the name Hari is harati sarvmagalni prem mansi
ceti hari (Hari is so named because he takes away (harati) all inauspicious things,
and because he steals (harati) everyones mind with His affectionate dealings). The
etymology of the word kamala (lotus) is kam ambho lati bhayatti kamalam (the
kamala is so named because it beautifies (alati) the water (kam)).
19 / KaC$Q&TaP(A h"ir"Ka"A: /
19. kha-cha-ha-tha-ph hari-khag
kha-cha-ha-tha-phthe viujanas kha, cha, ha, tha, and pha; hari-khag
harikhagas
Kha, cha, ha, tha, and pha are called harikhagas.
AmtaThe etymology of the word khaga (sword) is khaati khaayati chinattti
khaga (The khaga is so named because it cuts (khaati)). The word hari-khaga
(the sword of Hari) thus refers to the Lords sword, Nandaka.
20 / gAjax"d"baA h"ir"gAd"A: /
20. ga-ja-a-da-b hari-gad
ga-ja-a-da-bthe viujanas ga, ja, a, da, and ba; hari-gadharigads.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
26
Ga, ja, a, da, and ba are called harigads.
AmtaThe etymology of the word gad (club) is gadayati abdayatti gad (the
gad is so named because it makes a thunderous noise (gadayati)). The word harigad (the club of Hari) thus refers to the Lords club, Kaumodak. This club is present
in the form of a stick (yai) in the Vndvana pastimes.
21 / GaJaX#DaBaA h"ir"GaAeSaA: /
21. gha-jha-ha-dha-bh hari-gho
gha-jha-ha-dha-bhthe viujanas gha, jha, ha, dha, and bha; hari-gho
harighoas.
Gha, jha, ha, dha, and bha are called harighoas.
Amta The etymology of the word ghoa (conchshell) is ghoati abdyata iti
ghoa (the ghoa is so named because it sounds (ghoati)). The word hari-ghoa
(the conchshell of Hari) thus refers to the Lords conchshell, Pcajanya. In the
Vndvana pastimes this conchshell is present in the form of a buffalo horn bugle
(ga).
22 / x~HaNAnamaA h"ir"vaeNAva: /
22. a-a-a-na-m hari-veava
a-a-a-na-mthe viujanas a, a, a, na, and ma; hari-veavahariveus (the
nasals of the Sanskrit alphabet).
a, a, a, na, and ma are called hariveus.
ete ca mukha-nsik-bhav.
VttiThe hariveus are pronounced by using both the mouth and nose.
Amta The etymology of the word veu (flute or bamboo) is veanti vditra
ghanti aneneti veu (The veu is so named because people use it for a musical
instrument (veati)). The word hari-veu (the flute of Hari) refers to Kas flute
va which is further divided into three types: sammohin, kara, and nandin.
SaodhinIn chapter 25 of the Nectar of Devotion, in the section called Kas
flute, rla Prabhupda elaborates on these three categories as follows:
There are three kinds of flutes used by Ka. One is called veu, one is called
mural, and the third is called va. Veu is very small, not more than six inches long,
with six holes for whistling. Mural is about eighteen inches long with a hole at the end
and four holes on the body of the flute. This kind of flute produces a very enchanting
sound. The va flute is about fifteen inches long, with nine holes on its body. Ka
used to play on these three flutes occasionally when they were needed. Ka has a
longer va, which is called mahnand, or sammohin. When it is still longer it is
called kari. When it is even longer it is called nandin. The nandin flute is very
pleasing to the cowherd boys and is technically named vaul. These flutes were
sometimes bedecked with jewels. Sometimes they were made of marble and

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
27
sometimes of hollow bamboo. When the flute is made of jewels it is called sammohin.
When made of gold, it is called kari.
23 / ta Wta"ijaRtaA ivaSNAud"As$aA: /
23. ta etad-varjit viu-ds
tethey (the viuvargas); etat-varjitexcluding these (the hariveus); viudsviudsas.
The viuvargas, excluding the hariveus, are called viudsas.
ka kha ga gha, ca cha ja jha, a ha a ha, ta tha da dha, pa pha ba bha.
VttiThe viudsas are as follows:
k( ka Ka
gA ga Ga
kha
gha
ca ca C$
ja ja
Ja jha
cha
q%
Q&
x" a X#
a
ha
ha
ta ta
Ta
d" da Da
tha
dha
pa pa P( ph ba ba Ba
a
bha
AmtaThe word viu-dsa means a servant of Lord Viu. The viudsas are
the servants of Lord Ka headed by Raktaka and Patraka. Although they are included
within the viuvargas, these twenty varas are separately named the viudsas for
the sake of specific grammatical operations just as the servants of Lord Ka,
although included in His retinue, are separately named the viudsas due to their
performing specific servile functions.
SaodhinAmong the viudsas, the harikamalas and harigads are the
unaspirated consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet, while the harikhagas and
harighoas are its aspirated consonants.
24 / yar"lavaA h"ir"imaaAiNA /
24. ya-ra-la-v hari-mitri
ya-ra-la-vthe viujanas ya, ra, la, and va; hari-mitriharimitras (the
semivowels of the Sanskrit alphabet).
Ya, ra, la, and va are called harimitras.
AmtaThe etymology of the word mitra (friend) is medyanti snihyantti mitri
(mitras are so named because they are affectionate (medyanti)). The hari-mitras are
the friends of Lord Ka headed by rdma and Subala. But in Dvrak, Kas
friends are Bhma, Arjuna and others.
25 / zASas$ah"A h"ir"gAAeaAiNA /
25. a-a-sa-h hari-gotri

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
28
a-a-sa-hthe viujanas a, a, sa, and ha; hari-gotriharigotras.
a, a, sa, and ha are called harigotras.
AmtaAccording to Krasvm, a commentator on the Amara-koa, the etymology
of the word gotra is g tryata iti gotra parvata (A gotra (mountain) is so named
because it protects (tryate) the earth (go)). According to Bharata, another
commentator on the Amara-koa, the etymology of the word gotra is gavati abdayati
prva-purun yat tad gotra kulam (A gotra (descendant) is he who invokes
(gavati) the forefathers). Thus the hari-gotras are the hills of Lord Hari such as
Govardhana and Nandvara. In Dvrak, however, the hari-gotras are Aniruddha,
Vajranbha, and so on.
SaodhinThe word gotra, when meaning descendant, specifically refers to a
descendant not nearer than a grandson. The following statement of Jva Gosvm in
vtti 1113 evidences this: pautra-prabhty-apatya gotram (A gotra is any
descendant from the grandson onwards). Adhyy 2.4.63 confirms the same
point. Therefore, while listing the hari-gotras of Dvrak, Amta began with Aniruddha,
skipping over Lord Kas son, Pradyumna. Because Ka has no offspring while in
Vndvana, the other meaning of gotra is taken and thus the harigotras refer to the
hills like Govardhana and so on.
26 / zASas$aA: zAAEr"ya: /
26. a-a-s auraya
a-a-sthe viujanas a, a, and sa; aurayaauris (the sibilants of the
Sanskrit alphabet).
a, a, and sa are called auris.
AmtaThe offspring of the king named ra as well as the descendants of his line
are both called auris. The auris are Vasudeva and his sons headed by Gada and
Sraa (brothers of Lord Ka through other wives of Vasudeva).
SaodhinJva Gosvm chose the name auri here because it closely resembles
the equivalent Pinian term ar.
27 / ivaSNAud"As$ah"ir"gAAeaAiNA vaESNAvaA: /
27. viudsa-harigotri vaiav
viudsa-harigotrithe viudsas and harigotras; vaiavvaiavas.
The viudsas and harigotras are called vaiavas.
etni vaiava-nmnika kha ga gha ca cha ja jha a ha a ha ta tha da dha pa
pha ba bha a a sa ha.
VttiThe vaiavas are as follows:
k( ka Ka
gA ga Ga
kha
gha

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
29
ca ca C$
ja ja
Ja jha
cha
q%
Q&
x" a X#
a
ha
ha
ta ta
Ta
d" da Da
tha
dha
pa pa P( ph ba ba Ba
a
bha
zA a

Sa a

s$a
sa

h" ha

AmtaThe viudsas headed by Bhagura and Raktaka, who are well-known as the
Lords foot masseurs, and the harigotras headed by Govardhana, who is famous as the
best of Lord Haris servants, are called vaiavas because they worship Lord Viu
with devotion. Moreover, the harigotras such as Pradyumna and Aniruddha are called
vaiavas because they are either the direct offspring of Viu (in the case of
Pradyumna) or descendants in His line (in the case of Aniruddha and others).1
28 / h"ir"gAd"Ah"ir"GaAeSah"ir"vaeNAuh"ir"imaaAiNA h" gAAepaAlaA: /
28. harigad-harighoa-hariveu-harimitri ha ca gopl
harigad-harighoa-hariveu-harimitrithe harigads, harighoas, hariveus, and
harimitras; hathe vara ha; caand; goplgoplas (the soft consonants of the
Sanskrit alphabet).
The harigads, harighoas, hariveus, harimitras, and ha are called goplas.
ete gopla-nmnaga gha a ja jha a a ha a da dha na ba bha ma ya ra la va
ha.
VttiThe goplas are as follows:
gA ga Ga
x~ a
gha
ja ja
Ja jha Ha a
x" a
d" da
ba ba
ya ya

X#
ha
Da
dha
Ba
bha

NA
a
na na

r" ra

la la

ma
ma
va va

h" ha
Amta The etymology of the word gopla (cowherd) is g playatti gopla (A
gopla is so named because he protects (playati) the cows (g)). The word gopla
here means r Ka. In Vraja, Lord Haris stick (harigad), buffalo horn bugle
(harighoa), and flute (hariveu), as well as His friends headed by rdma (the
1 Here Amta deviates from its previous statement (Amta 25) and from the
statement of Jva Gosvm mentioned in Saodhin 25.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
30
harimitras) are certainly all goplas because they are nondifferent from r Ka.
This fact is demonstrated in the pastime of bewildering Brahm. Similarly, ha is also a
gopla. According to the Varbhidhna, a glossary of monosyllables composed by
Nandana Bhaa, the word ha describes Lord iva: ha ivo gaganam (ha means Lord
iva or the sky). Lord iva is also a gopla, because he is a plenary portion (aa) of
r Ka. Even though Lord iva is well known as a Vaiava in accordance with the
statement vaiavn yath ambhu (Bhgavatam 12.13.16), he is also celebrated
as a gopla in accord with the following statement from Kavi-karapras Gauragaoddea-dpik (80):
r-kasya prasdena
dvi-vidho bht sad-iva
ekas tatra iva skd
anyo gopla-vigraha
By Lord Ka's mercy, Lord Sadiva appeared in two forms. In one form he
remained there as Lord iva, and in the other form he directly appeared as a cowherd
boy (gopla).
SaodhinThe pastime of Lord Sadiva becoming a gopla is recounted in Gauragaoddea-dpik (7778) as follows:
Assuming the form of a cowherd boy, Lord Sadiva danced with Lord Ka in
Vrajabhmi. The following statement of Bhairava in the iva-tantra confirms this: One
day, during the great festival of lights in the month of Krttika, Lord Ka
enthusiastically danced with Lord Balarma and Their cowherd friends. My dear
Prvat, when Lord Sadiva, my spiritual master, saw this transcendental dancing, he
yearned to become a cowherd boy and thus be able to dance with Lord Ka. By Lord
Ka's mercy, Lord Sadiva was able to appear in two forms. In one form He
remained as Lord Sadiva, and in the other form He appeared as a cowherd boy in
Vraja.
29 / yaAd"vaA @nyae /
29. ydav anye
ydavydavas (the hard consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet); anyethe other
viujanas.
All viujanas other than goplas are called ydavas.
ka kha ca cha a ha ta tha pa pha a a sa.
VttiThe ydavas are as follows:
k( ka Ka
kha
ca ca C$
cha
q%
Q&
a
ha
ta ta
Ta
tha
pa pa P( ph
a

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
31
zA a Sa a s$a
sa
AmtaThe Ydavas are the male descendants in the line of Yadu. Although,
generally speaking, those headed by Nanda Mahrja and those headed by Vasudeva
are all certainly Ydavas, still, since the goplas were already mentioned earlier, only
the inhabitants of Dvrak headed by Vasudeva should be considered Ydavas.
SaodhinThe following quote from rla Prabhupdas purport to Bhgavatam
10.5.19 shows how Nanda Mahrja is actually a Ydava by birth, It is learned from
the notes of rpda Madhvcrya that Vasudeva and Nanda Mahrja were
stepbrothers. Vasudevas father, rasena, married a vaiya girl, and from her Nanda
Mahrja was born. Later, Nanda Mahrja himself married a vaiya girl, Yaod.
Therefore his family is celebrated as a vaiya family, and Ka, identifying Himself as
their son, took charge of vaiya activities (ki-go-rakya-vijyam [Bg. 17.43]).
Balarma represents plowing the land for agriculture and therefore always carries in
His hand a plow, whereas Ka tends cows and therefore carries a flute in His hand.
Thus the two brothers represent ki-rakya and go-rakya.
The term Ydavas conventionally refers to the particular section of the Yadu dynasty
that resides in Dvrak, and not to other Ydavas like Nanda Mahrja, just as the term
Kurus (or Kauravas) conventionally refers to the particular section of the Kuru dynasty
headed by Dhtarra and his sons residing in Hastinpura, and not to other Kurus
like the Pavas. The term goplas, however, refers not to a subsection, but to a
whole group, just as the Pavas refers to all of the sons of Pu.
30 / zAAEir"vaijaRtaAstau s$aAtvataA: /
30. auri-varjits tu stvat
auri-varjitexcluding the auris; tubut; stvatstvatas.
The ydavas, excluding the auris, are called stvatas.
AmtaThe Stvatas are the male descendants in the line of king Stvata, a great
devotee of Lord Viu coming in the Yadu dynasty. Or else, the term Stvatas refers to
the saintly devotees. The Stvatas specifically refer to Ydavas other than the auris
headed by rasena and Vasudeva. In Vraja, the Stvatas are Nanda, Upnanda, and
so on, while in Dvrak the Stvatas are Ugrasena, Akrura, Uddhava, Styaki, and
others. Although Vasudeva and others are also Stvatas, there is no need to mention
this here because it serves no purpose (since the varas named stvatas do not
include the varas named auris).
31 / vaAmanaAe laGau: /
31. vmano laghu
vmanaa vmana; laghua prosodically short vowel, light syllable.
A vmana is laghu.
32 / iaiva(maAe gAu&: /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
32
32. trivikramo guru
trivikramaa trivikrama; gurua prosodically long vowel, heavy syllable.
A trivikrama is guru.
SaodhinA laghu syllable is pronounced for the duration of one mtr whereas a
guru syllable is pronounced for the duration of two mtrs. A mtr is defined as a
prosodical instant or, in other words, the length of time required to pronounce a short
vowel. It roughly corresponds to a quarter of a second. Thus it should take only one
second to pronounce the word bhagavati which is comprised of four laghu syllables.
Similarly, it should take only one second to pronounce the word rdh which is
comprised of two guru syllables. In this regard, one should remember that the
caturvyhas are considered trivikramas.
33 / s$ats$aAta. paUvaAeR vaAmanaAe'ipa gAu&: /
33. sat-sagt prvo vmano pi guru
sat-sagta sat-saga (see definition in next stra); prvabefore; vmanaa
vmana; apialso; gurua prosodically long vowel, heavy syllable.
A vmana that comes immediately before a sat-saga is also guru.
SaodhinThis stra has a second meaning, Even one who is a dwarf at first
becomes a guru by associating with devotees. Similarly, the next stra also has a
devotional meaning: When two or more devotees (viu-janas) gather to talk about
Ka and things related to Him, their association is called sat-saga.
AmtaAs stated by Gagdsa Paita, the teacher of r Caitanya and author of
Chando-majar:
snusvra ca drgha ca
visarg ca gurur bhavet
vara-sayoga-prva ca
tath pdntago pi v
A vowel with an anusvra (), a drgha (trivikrama) vowel, a vowel with a visarga (),
and a vowel coming immediately before a conjunct (sayoga) of varas are all gurus.
The final vowel in a pda (quarter of a verse, line) is optionally a guru also.
SaodhinEven though vmanas that come immediately before a sat-saga, , or
are considered guru syllables and are thus pronounced for the duration of two
mtrs, they are not pronounced in the same way as trivikramas. In the case of
trivikramas, the emphasis is on the vowel and in the case of vmanas that are gurus,
the emphasis is on the following viujana, , or and the vowel is pronounced briefly.
Thus, in the following examples, one should fill up the two mtrs by prolonging the
letter in bold while keeping the vowel brief: nitya eternal; bhakta devotee; tattva
truth; baddha bound; saj-jana holy person, gentleman; bhaa master; ala
enough; iva auspicious. An example of when the final vmana in a pda is
considered guru is govinda di-purua tam aha bhajmi. The meter in which this
verse is composed, namely the vasanta-tilak (ornament of spring) meter, requires
that the last syllable should be a guru. Thus the vmana i is considered a guru, in
accordance with tath pdntago pi v.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
33
34 / imaTa:s$aMlaaAe ivaSNAujana: s$ats$as$aMa: /
34. mitha-salagno viujana sat-saga-saja
mithawith each other; salagnaconjoined; viujanaviujanas; sat-sagasajacalled a sat-saga.
The combination of two or more viujanas is called a sat-saga.
sayoga ca.
VttiThe earlier grammarians called it a sayoga.
SaodhinThe following is a list of the most common sat-sagas:
others
+ Ya doubl
r+
+r
e

k= KYa =
= ka kya
=

kR= k]=
= rka = kra

+a =
ka

kta

kka

Ga
ga

ga
gha

kla

GY GG GaR
rga
a
a
gya

==

Ga]
gra

gga

gYa

gaR

ghya

rgha

ga]
ghra

x=
=

ka

kha

ga

gh
a

H^

c ca

CY
a

cca

cR rca

cya

^R

cha

Ja ja

rcha

JYa jja
jya

JaR

^\

chra

Ja] jra j ja

rja

Ha

ca

$=

$y

ya

$R= $\=
ra

@y a

<a

<Y << <aR

ya

ra

@R @\ ra
ra

ra

cha

ja

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
34

Ta
ta

Qa
tha

ya

TYa

ta

tya

tta

QY
a

TaR }a tra
rta

QaR
rtha

thya

d da

dR

d] dra

DaR

Da]

rdha

dhra

NaR

Na]

nna

rna

nra

PaR

Pa]

rpa

pra

b ba BYa Bb

bR

b] bra

bya

rba

Da
dha

dya

dda

DY
a

rda

dga

ddha

dba


db
ha

dhya

Na
na

NY
a
nya

Pa
pa

PYa PP
pya
a
ppa

>a
bha

bba

>Y
a

>aR >a]
rbha

bhra

bhya

Ma
ma

MY MM MaR Ma]
rma
mra
a
a
mya

mma

Ya

YYa YYa YaR

l la

LYa lla

ya

yya

yya

rya

lR rla

lya

v va

VY
a

Vv
vva

vR
rva

v] vra

vya

Xa
a

z a

XY
a ya
ZY

XaR
ra

zR ra

] ra ca XY la
a ya
a va ha

va

d
m
a

dv
a

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
35

Sa
sa

h ha

a ya
SYa SS SaR
sya
rsa
a ssa

hR

hya

rha

sra

S}
a
stra

hra

ha

hna

hma


hla

hv
a

Sat-sagas are formed by one of three ways:


(1) dropping the vertical line of the first letter
z a + <a a = Z<a a
(2) putting the first letter on top
k== ka + l la = == kla
(3) or merging both letters
k== ka + Ta ta = == kta
In some books the viucakra is used to represent any nasal sound. For example,
A&Ga is written for A aga, A&JaNa for AaNa ajana, A&@ for A<@
aa, A&Ta for ANTa anta, and A&b for AMb amba. But the viucakra is
pronounced in a different place than the nasal varas (see vtti 1), and therefore such
usage of the viucakra is technically incorrect.
35 / vaNARsva&pae r"Ama: /
35. vara-svarpe rma
vara-svarpewhen expressing a vara itself; rmarma.
The word rma is used to designate a single vara.
varasya svarpa-mtre vcye rma-abdo deya. tasyaika-parigrahatkhyte.
yath a-rma i-rma ity-di. at it ity-di pine, a-kra ity-di ca kalpasya. yath ca
ka-rma ity-di. ka-kra ity-di tu prcm. ra-rmas tu repha iti.
VttiWhen only the vara itself is to be expressed, the word rma should be added.
This is because Rma is famous for accepting only one wife. Examples are a-rma, irma, and so on. Pini called these at, it, and so on. In the Kalpa grammar (also
called Ktantra), they are called a-kra and so on. We call the consonants ka-rma and
so on, but earlier grammarians called them ka-kra and so on, and they called ra-rma
repha.
AmtaLord Rma, the descendant of Raghu, vowed to marry only one wife. Thus, it
is quite appropriate that the word rma is connected to only one vara just as Rma
was fixed only on His one wife, St-dev.
SaodhinA-rma means the vara a, i-rma means the vara i, and so on. For
designating a vowel, Pini places t after it (see Adhyy 1.1.70). Thus at means
the vara a, it means the vara i, and so on. Ktantra-vykaraa uses the word kra in

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
36
the same way that we use the word rma. Thus a-kra means the vara a and so on.
For designating a consonant, all the earlier grammarians used the word kra. Thus kakra means the vara ka and so on. We use the word rma to designate any vara,
whether vowel or consonant. Thus ka-rma means the vara ka, kha-rma means the
vara kha, and so on.

36 / tad"Aid""yae "yama, /
36. tad-di-dvaye dvayam
tatthat; dibeginning with; dvayewhen expressing a pair; dvayamdvaya.
The word dvaya is used to designate the pair of varas beginning with the
vara that is mentioned.
yo varo nirdiyate tad-di-dvaye vcye dvaya-abdo deya. yath a-dvayam idvayam ity-di. asya lakm-nryaa-vcitvd bhagavan-nmat, tan-mantro hi
dvaya-mantrkhya padma-pure.
VttiWhen a pair of varas beginning with the vara mentioned is to be expressed,
the word dvaya is added. For example: a-dvaya, i-dvaya, and so on. The word dvaya is
a name of the Lord because it indicates Lakm-Nryaa. The proof of this is that
Their mantra is called the dvaya-mantra in the Padma Pura.
SaodhinA-dvaya indicates the pair a and , i-dvaya indicates the pair i and ,
and so on. E-dvaya indicates the pair e and ai, and o-dvaya indicates the pair o and
au. The word dvaya is only used to designate pairs of similar vowels, and never pairs
of consonants.
37 / @Ade"zAAe ivair"ia: /
37. deo virici
deasubstitution; viricivirici.
Substitution is called virici.
viricir brahm yathaika vastpdya anyat karoti tath yo vidhi pravartate sa
deo virici cocyate.
VttiJust as Lord Brahm is called Virici because he takes one thing and makes
another, a rule that acts in the same way is also called dea or virici.
AmtaVirici is so named because he generates (virikte). Just as Lord Brahm takes
one thing and transforms it into another, a rule that acts in the same way, making
whatever it takes into something else, is called virici. Moreover, just as Lord Brahm is
understood to be within the universe after creating it, in accordance with the following
statement of ruti, tat sv tad evnuprviat (having created it, he entered it),
this virici is also perceived as being manifest first in the form of the stra ordaining a
substitution and then in the form of that substitution itself. Jva Gosvm likewise

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
37
establishes, by the phrase kartavyatvenopadeo vidhi (Bhat 47 vtti), that the
ordaining stra is a virici, and by the phrase do vidhir virici (Bhat 47 vtti), that
the grammatical operation (krya) of substitution is also a virici. The term dea is a
name used by the earlier grammarians.
SaodhinThe term dea or virici can be used either to refer to the rule
ordaining subsitution, to the act (krya) of substitution itself, or to the substitute.
Similarly, the term gama or viu, described in the next stra, can be used to refer
either to the rule ordaining insertion, the act (krya) of insertion itself, or that which is
inserted. The term lopa or hara can also be used either to refer to the rule ordaining
deletion, the act (krya) of deletion itself, or that which is deleted.
38 / @AgAmaAe ivaSNAu: /
38. gamo viu
gamainsertion; viuviu.
Insertion is called viu.
viur yath madhyata svayam virbhya poako bhavati tath yo vidhi pravartate
sa gamo viu cocyate.
VttiJust as Lord Viu appears of His own accord in the middle and becomes a
sustainer, so a rule that acts in the same way is also called gama or viu.
AmtaJust as Lord Viu appears on His own accord between the creation and
destruction and maintains the creation, a rule that appears between the prakti
(base) and pratyaya (suffix) and maintains them is called viu. It is called gama
by earlier grammarians.

39 / laAepaAe h"r": /
39. lopo hara
lopadeletion; harahara.
Deletion is called hara.
haro yath na-hetur bhavati tath yo vidhi pravartate sa lopo hara cocyate. tatra
haro dvidh bhavet. tatrdarana-mtra-hetur hara. tyantika-laya-hetur mahhara. lug ity anye.
VttiJust as Hara, Lord iva, is the cause of destruction, a rule that acts in the same
way is also called lopa or hara. In that regard there are two types of hara: that which
causes a mere disappearance is called hara, and that which causes a permanent
dissolution is called mahhara. Others call the mahhara luk.
AmtaLord iva is named Hara because he destroys (harati) the material world. Just
as Hara is the cause of destruction of the material world, a rule that acts to cause the
destruction of a vara is also called hara. Earlier grammarians called it lopa. It is well

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
38
known that Hara, who has eight forms, is the cause of the disappearance of the living
entities in the devastations headed by the naimittika devastation (the destruction that
takes place during Brahms night). But he is not the cause of the destruction of their
existence, because the living entity keeps existing in spite of his material bodys
dissolution into the five elements. Similarly, a hara rule causes the disappearance of a
vara, but it doesnt cause the destruction of its existence because the grammatical
operations (kryas) still take place by accepting that the deleted element is sthni-vat
(like the original). But Mahhara, Lord iva in his original spiritual identity, is the
cause of the destruction of the living entities false ego which has been imposed by
illusion. In such destruction, namely brahma-syujya, the separate existence of the
living entities is also destroyed. Similarly, this mahhara is the cause of the complete
destruction of the varas. When such a mahhara takes place, their existence is no
longer accepted. That is to say, the varas merge back into Nryaa from Whom they
appeared.
SaodhinWhen hara takes place, the deleted element is sthni-vat (like the
original). That it is to say it is treated as if it were still present for the application of
certain rules, even though it has externally disappeared from our vision. In this way,
the deleted element lingers behind like a ghostunseen but still activecausing
various grammatical operations to take place. Alternatively, this situation could be
compared to when a person passes away but leaves a will. However, when a
mahhara takes place, there is total annihilation, and thus the deleted element is not
sthni-vat and the grammatical operations related to the deleted element cannot take
place.
40 / s$aUaAiNA Sai"DaAina /
40. stri a-vidhni
stristras; a-vidhnisix kinds.
There are six kinds of stras.
saj ca paribh ca / vidhir niyama eva ca
atideo dhikra ca / a-vidha stra-lakaam iti.
VttiThe six kinds of stras are saj, paribh, vidhi, niyama, atidea, and
adhikra.
Thus ends the saj section,
SaodhinThe six kind of stras are explained as follows:
1. nma-karaa saj (a saj-stra creates a name).
2. aniyame niyama-kri paribh (a paribh-stra creates a regulation where
there wasnt any).
3. kartavyenopadeo vidhi (a vidhi-stra is an injunction that has to be followed).
4. bahutra prptau sakocana niyama (a niyama-stra is a restriction where a rule
would otherwise apply to many things).
5. anya-tulyatva-vidhnam atidea (an atidea-stra ordains similarity to another)
6. uttara-prakaraa-vypy adhikra (an adhikra-stra pervades the following
section).
Some list the pratiedha-stra (a prohibitive stra) instead of the atidea-stra in
their delineation of the six kinds of stras.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
39

Sandhi-prakaraam

Sarvevara-sandhi
Invocation
yaid"dM" s$ainDainamaARNAM vaNAARnaAmaAr"Bae maud"A /
taena mae k{(SNA paAd"Abjae mana:s$ainDaivaRDaIyataAma, //
yad ida sandhi-nirma
varnm rabhe mud
tena me ka pdbje
mana-sandhir vidhyatm
yatwhich; idamthis; sandhiphonetic combination; nirmammaking; varnm
of the varas; rabheI begin; mudwith joy; tenaby this (making); memy;
kaO Ka; pda-abjewith Your lotus feet; manaof the mind; sandhi
union; vidhyatmmay be caused.
With great joy I begin making the sandhi of the varas. May this cause the
sandhi of my mind with Your lotus feet, O Ka.
AmtaThe word ka here means O Ka, or else we can take ka-pdbja
as one word, in which case the phrase tena me ka-pdbje mana-sandhir
vidhyatm (May this cause the sandhi of my mind with the lotus feet of Ka) is a
prayer directed toward the spiritual master.
41 / s$avaRak(r"NavyaApaI vaNARmaAainaimaak(: /
vaANAAeR ivak(Ar": s$ainDa: syaA," ivaSayaApaeak(: (icata, //
41.
sarva-prakaraa-vyp
vara-mtra-nimittaka
vro vikra sandhi syd
viaypekaka kvacit
sarvaall; prakaraasections (divisions of grammar like nmas, dhtus, and so on);
vyppervading; vara-mtraa mere vara; nimittakawhose cause; vra
relating to a vara; vikratransformation; sandhisandhi; sytis; viaya
domain, scope, sphere of influence or activity; apekakadepending on; kvacit
sometimes.
Sandhi pervades all prakaraas. It is the transformation of a vara, and it is
only caused by a vara. Sometimes sandhi depends on a particular viaya.
AmtaBefore beginning the sandhi operations, Jva Gosvm first gives a definition
(lakaa) of sandhi with the verse beginning sarva. This grammar is comprised of
seven chapters. The first, which has just begun, is called Sandhi-prakaraa.1 The
1 Bla calls this first prakaraa the Saj-sandhi-prakaraa and this edition follows
suit. It should be noted that the term prakaraa is also used for any section in general.
Although Amta mentions that this book is comprised of seven prakaraas, there are
also subsections in each prakaraa and these are also sometimes called prakaraas.
For example, the subsection dealing with kanmas is begun by Jva Gosvm with

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
40
second is called Nma-prakaraa2, the third khyta-prakaraa3, the fourth Krakaprakaraa, the fifth Kdanta-prakaraa, the sixth Samsa-prakaraa, and the seventh
Taddhita-prakaraa.
The phrase vara-mtra-nimittaka in effect means whose previous cause (prnimitta) or subsequent cause (para-nimitta) is a mere vara. The etymology of the
word lakaa (definition) is lakyate jyate neneti lakaam (A lakaa is that by
which something is characterized (lakyate), or known (jyate)). In all cases, when
making a definition, the three faults, avypti, ativypti, and asambhava, are to be
avoided. Avypti (non-comprehensiveness or inadequacy of a definition) is the
presence of only one aspect of the thing sought to be defined. Ativypti
(overpervasion or unwarranted extension of a definition) is the presence of
something additional beside the thing sought to be defined. Asambhava (total
inapplicability) is the presence of only something other than the thing sought to be
defined.
Let us analyze this verse. When it is said, vro vikra sandhi, there would be
ativypti in regard to govinda, vndra, sakaraa, and so on, but the second part
of the verse, vara-mtra-nimittaka, eliminates that. Although govinda, vndra,
sakaraa, and so on, involve the transformation of a vara, because they are caused
by the vara of a pratyaya, they are not caused by nothing but a vara. There would
also be ativypti in regard to a virici like sasya jo je (385) or in regard to a rule of
deletion like sasya haro dhe (328), but the first part of the verse, sarva-prakaraavyp, eliminates that. Even though such a virici or hara involves the transformation
of a vara and is caused only by a vara, it does not pervade all the prakaraas
because it is isolated due to appearing under the heading (adhikra) dhto (270). But
even though ativypti has been eliminated in this way, there would still be avypti in
regard to kakub, ka-bhud, and so on, because there is no harighoa to cause the
sandhi (see stra 61). Therefore, to eliminate this, the fourth part of the verse,
viaypekaka kvacit, is given. (In kakub, ka-bhud, and so on, the sandhi is made
by stra 61 because the viaya is viupadnta; no nimitta is required.) Thus, when
the other three conditions are in place, the third part of the verse, vro vikra
sandhi syt (sandhi is the transformation of a vara), is an unassailable definition of
sandhi.
42 / d"zAAvataAr" Wk(Atmake( imailatvaA iaiva(ma: /
42. davatra ektmake militv trivikrama
davatradavatara; ektmakewhen an ektmaka follows; militvjoining;
trivikramatrivikrama.
When a davatra is followed by its ektmaka, it joins with the ektmaka
and becomes trivikrama.

the heading atha kanma-prakaraam. Thus the Sandhi-prakaraa as described by


Amta must also include the subsection called Saj-prakaraa, otherwise it would
have to be said that this book is comprised of eight chapters.
2 Amta calls it Sub-anta-prakaraa here, but in most other places calls it Nmaprakaraa. This prakaraa is also variously called Viupada-prakaraa or Nmaviupada-prakaraa.
3 This prakaraa is also sometimes called Dhtu-prakaraa.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
41
kgre. eva rdh gat rdhgat, hari hari iti hari harti, hari-h harh, viuudaya vidaya, viu-h vih, nara-bhrt-i nara-bhrti, gam-kra gam -kra.
Vtti ka + agre (42) kgre (in front of Ka).
rdh + gat (42) rdhgat (Rdh has come).
hari hari + iti (42) hari harti (Hari Hari).
hari + h (42) harh (Haris pastime).
viu + udaya (42) vidaya (Vius

appearance).

viu + h (42) vih (Viu's wife).


nara-bhrt + i (42) nara-bhrti (Naras brother, the sage
Nryaa).
gam + -kra (42) gam -kra (the dhtu gam[] and the sound ).
43 / @"yaima"yae W /
43. a-dvayam i-dvaye e
a-dvayama-dvaya; i-dvayewhen i-dvaya follows; ee-rma.
When a-dvaya is followed by i-dvaya, it joins with i-dvaya and becomes e.
ydava-indra ydavendra, gokula-a gokulea, mathur-a mathurea.
Vtti ydava + indra (43) ydavendra (Lord of the Yadus).
gokula + a (43) gokulea (Lord of Gokula).
mathur + a (43) mathurea (Lord of Mathur).
SaodhinThe word militv is understood in this stra and all the stras up until
stra 49.
44 / o"yae @Ae /
44. u-dvaye o
u-dvayewhen u-dvaya follows; oo-rma.
When a-dvaya is followed by u-dvaya, it joins with u-dvaya and becomes o.
a-dvayam atra prvato nuvartate. yad uktam
kryi hanyate kry / krya kryea hanyate
nimitta ca nimittena / yac cheam anuvartate iti.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
42
purua-uttama puruottama, supara-ha suparoha, dvrak-utsava
dvrakotsava.
VttiThe word a-dvayam, in this stra, is carried forward (anuvartate) from the
previous stra. This is in accordance with the following verse:
kryi hanyate kry
krya kryea hanyate
nimitta ca nimittena
yac cheam anuvartate
A kry is eliminated by a kry. A krya is eliminated by a krya. A nimitta is
eliminated by a nimitta. And that which remains is carried forward (anuvartate).
purua + uttama (44) puruottama (the Supreme person).
supara + ha (44) suparoha (He who is carried by Garua, namely
Ka).
dvrak + utsava (44) dvrakotsava (a festival in Dvrak).
AmtaA kary is that which undergoes the krya. A krya is that which is done. A
nimitta (cause) is that without which the krya cannot take place. Nimittas are of two
kinds: previous (pr-nimitta) and subsequent (para-nimitta). Here [in stras 43 and
40] the para-nimitta i-dvaya is eliminated by the para-nimitta u-dvaya, and the krya
e-rma is eliminated by the krya o-rma. But the kry a-dvaya is not eliminated by
anything and is therefore carried forward (anuvartate). The terms anuvtti1 and
adhikra are synonymous. There are three kinds of adhikras: gag-srota,
sihvalokita, and maka-pluti. The adhikra known as gag-srota (the flow of
the Gag) is so named because it carries forward from a previous stra to the
subsequent stras those elements that are not eliminated, just as the flow of a river,
when left unchecked, naturally continues from an earlier location to later locations. The
other two types of adhikras will be seen in the Samsa and Taddhita-prakaraas.
SaodhinA krya is the particular grammatical operation ordained by a stra.
There are three kinds of kryas: dea (replacement, change), gama (insertion),
and lopa (deletion). That which undergoes the krya is called the kry, and that
which causes the krya is called the nimitta. The pr-nimitta is a nimitta that comes
before the kry and the para-nimitta is a nimitta that comes after the kry. Prk
means previous, before and para means subsequent, after. Thus the nimittas are
of two kinds. An example of a pr-nimitta is e-obhym in e-obhym asya haro
viupadnte (56). In this stra the krya is deletion, the kry is a-rma, and the
nimitta is e-rma or o-rma. The deletion cannot take place unless the e-rma or orma comes immediately before the kry, a-rma. An example of a para-nimitta is udvaye in the current stra. In the current stra, the krya is the change to o-rma, the
kry is a-dvaya together with u-dvaya, and the nimitta is u-dvaya. The change to orma cannot take place unless the u-dvaya comes immediately after the kry, advaya. For further details and examples regarding the krya, kry, and nimitta, see
vtti 93.
45 / [%"yae @r," /
1 Anuvtti (carrying forward) is from the same dhtu as anuvartate, namely anu +
vt[u].

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
43
45. -dvaye ar
-dvayewhen -dvaya follows; arar.
When a-dvaya is followed by -dvaya, it joins with -dvaya and becomes ar.
karddhi.
Vtti ka + ddhi (45) karddhi (the prosperity of Ka).

46 / [%"yaA"yayaAe[R%ita /
46. -dvay-dvayayor (sandhir v vmana ca v1) ti
-dvaya-a-dvayayoof -dvaya and a-dvaya; ti2when -rma follows.
-dvaya and a-dvaya only optionally undergo sandhi when -rma follows.
And, as a further option, they can become vmana (but only if sandhi is not
done).
sra abha, ydava abha, ml abhasya mla abhasya iti ca.
Vtti sra abha (46) sra abha or (42) sraabha (best of the
creators).
ydava abha (46) ydava abha or (45) ydavarabha (best of the
Yadus).
ml abhasya (46) ml abhasya or mla abhasya, or (45)
mlarabhasya (the Supreme Lords garland).
47 / la{"yae @la, /
47. -dvaye al
-dvayewhen -dvaya follows; alal.
When a-dvaya is followed by -dvaya, it joins with -dvaya and becomes al.
yamun -kryate yamunal-kryate.
Vtti yamun + -kryate (47) yamunal-kryate (the Yamun imitates the
sound ).

1 The words sandhir v are carried forward from o-rmasya buddha-nimittasyetau


sandhir v (Bhat 87) and the words vmana ca v are carried forward from
asynektmake, vmana ca v (Bhat 88).
2 The word ti here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara. This was
described in vtti 35.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
44
48 / W"yae We /
48. e-dvaye ai
e-dvayewhen e-dvaya follows; aiai-rma.
When a-dvaya is followed by e-dvaya, it joins with e-dvaya and becomes ai.
ka-eka-ntha kaika-ntha. ka-aivarya kaivaryam.
Vtti ka + eka-ntha (48) kaika-ntha (one whose only master is
Ka).
ka + aivaryam (48) kaivaryam (Kas opulence).
49 / @Ae"yae @AE /
49. o-dvaye au
o-dvayewhen o-dvaya follows; auau-rma.
When a-dvaya is followed by o-dvaya, it joins with o-dvaya and becomes au.
ka-odana kaudanam, ka-aunnatya kaunnatyam.
Vtti ka + odanam (49) kaudanam (Kas boiled rice).
ka aunnatyam (49) kaunnatyam (Kas height).
50 / w"yamaeva ya: s$avaeRre" /
50. i-dvayam eva ya sarvevare
i-dvayami-dvaya; evaonly; yaya-rma; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.
I-dvaya becomes y when a sarvevara follows.
hari-arcana hary-arcanam, hari-sana hary-sanam, dadhi upendrasya dadhy
upendrasya, rukmi e rukmiy e.katha hari harti? ektmakatm avalambya
trivikrama-vidher vieatvena balavattvt. tath hisamasta-vypi smnyam, ekadea-vyp viea; smnya-vidhir utsargo, viea-vidhir apavda iti sthite prvaparayo para-vidhir balavn, nitynityayor nitya, antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga,
utsargpavdayor apavda. teu cottarottara iti.
Vtti hari + arcanam (50) hary-arcanam (Haris worship).
hari + sanam (50) hary-sanam (Haris seat).
dadhi + upendrasya (50) dadhy upendrasya (Upendras yoghurt).
rukmi + e (50) rukmiy e (this is Rukmi)
AmtaThe word eva in this stra causes the removal of the word militv.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
45
VttiHow is there hari harti? Because davatra ektmake militv trivikrama
(42) is stronger (than the current stra) due to its depending on the existence of an
ektmaka and thus being viea. In that regard, that which pervades the whole group
is called smnya (general), while that which pervades one section of the group is
called viea (specific). A smnya rule is called an utsarga (a general rule), and a
viea rule is called an apavda (an exception, a specific rule which sets aside the
general rule). When that is established:
1. Out of an earlier rule and a later rule, the later rule is stronger.
2. Out of a nitya (constant) rule and an anitya (inconstant) rule, the nitya rule is
stronger.1
3. Out of an antaraga rule and a bahiraga rule, the antaraga rule is stronger.2
4. Out of an utsarga and an apavda, the apavda is stronger.
And out of these four nyyas, each later one is stronger than the previous ones.
AmtaIn this stra the para-nimitta, sarvevara, is smnya because it pervades
the whole group (of fourteen varas called sarvevaras), while in davatra
ektmake militv trivikrama (42) the para-nimitta, ektmaka, is viea because it
pervades only one section (among the sarvevaras, namely that pair of varas which
are ektmakas of the davatra). Here the word teu means out of the four nyyas
and uttarottara means the nyya that is later according to the order given above.
Thus the sentence means, And out of the four nyyas, the nyya that is later
according to the order given above is stronger. The resultant meaning is that a nitya
rule is stronger than a later rule, an antaraga rule is stronger than a nitya rule, and an
apavda is stronger than an antaraga rule.
SaodhinThese nyyas are standard paribhs that can be found in Ngea
Bhaas Paribhendu-ekhara. In grammar, the terms nyya and paribh refer to
a rule or maxim which teaches the proper interpretation or application of other rules.
When different stras prescribe conflicting operations (kryas), these paribhs
intervene and regulate the situation by telling us which of the stras should be
applied. The word balavn (literally strong) can be translated as overrules, sets
aside, indicating that one rule is applied instead of another. The reason why the
phrase teu cottarottara is so important can be seen even in the present situation. By
the first paribh, the current stra overrules stra 42 because it is a later rule. But
by the fourth paribh, stra 42 overrules the current stra because it is an apavda.
Thus, when there is conflict even among the paribhs, the phrase teu cottarottara
reconciles the situation by telling us to apply the later paribh over the earlier one.
Therefore, in this situation, we follow the fourth paribh and apply stra 42.
51 / o"yaM va: /

1 Nitya and anitya here do not mean compulsory and optional, but rather mean
constant and not constant. In this regard, the definition of nitya is ktktaprasagi (A rule that is applied both when the other rule is applied and when the other
rule is not applied, in other words, a rule that is applied regardless of whether or not
the other rule is applied). In this regard, the other rule is looked upon as being anitya,
meaning that it is not nitya. In Bhat vtti 204 Jva Gosvm offers a similar definition
of nitya with the words kte py akte ya syt sa nitya. Another common definition
of nitya is kvacit-ktkta-prasaga-mtrepi nityat (Paribhendu-ekhara
pariccheda 49).
2 The terms antaraga and bahiraga will be described in detail in vtti 146.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
46
51. u-dvaya va
u-dvayamu-dvaya; vava-rma.
U-dvaya becomes v when a sarvevara follows.
madhu-ari madhv-ari, viu-rita viv-rita.
Vtti madhu + ari (51) madhv-ari (the enemy of Madhu).
viu + rita (51) viv-rita (one who has taken shelter of Viu).
AmtaThe word sarvevare is carried forward from the previous stra. Here also udvaya becomes v only when a sarvevara other than an ektmaka follows. Such is the
case in the next two stras also.
52 / [%"yaM r": /
52. -dvaya ra
-dvayam-dvaya; rara-rma.
-dvaya becomes r when a sarvevara follows.
rma-bhrt-udaya rma-bhrtr-udaya. rma-bhrt-aivarya rma-bhrtraivaryam.
Vtti rma-bhrt + udaya (52) rma-bhrtr-udaya (the appearance of
Rmas brother).
rma-bhrt + aivaryam (52) rma-bhrtr-aivaryam (the opulence of
Rmas brother).
53 / la{"yaM la: /
53. -dvaya la
-dvayam -dvaya; lala-rma.
When a sarvevara follows, -dvaya becomes l.
ak-artha akl-artha.
Vtti ak + artha (53) akl-artha (the meaning of the dhtu ak[]).
54 / W @ya, We @Aya, /
54. e ay ai y
ee-rma; ayay; aiai-rma; yy.
When a sarvevara follows, e becomes ay and ai becomes y.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
47
ke utkara kay utkara.yamunyai argha yamunyy argha, gopyai
sana gopyy sanam.
Vtti ke + utkara (54) kay utkara (Kas eminence).
yamunyai + argha (54) yamunyy argha (argha for the Yamun).
gopyai + sanam (54) gopyy sanam (a seat for the gop).
55 / @Ae @va, @AE @Ava, /
55. o av au v
oo-rma; avav; auau-rma; vv.
When a sarvevara follows, o becomes av and au becomes v.
vio iha viav iha. kau atra kv atra.
Vtti vio + iha (55) viav iha (Here, O Viu).
kau + atra (55) kv atra (The two Kas are here).
56 / W@AeByaAmasya h"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
56. e-obhym asya haro viupadnte
e-obhymafter e-rma or o-rma; asyaof a-rma; haradeletion; viupada-ante
at the end of a viupada1 (inflected word).
A-rma is deleted when it comes after an e or o that is at the end of a
viupada.
hare atra hare tra, vio atra vio tra.
Vtti hare + atra (56) hare tra (Here, O Hari).
vio + atra (56) vio tra (Here, O Viu).
AmtaThis stra overrides the substitutions of ay for e and av for o that would have
been obtained by e ay (54) and o av (55) respectively. Thus e and o are replaced by ay
and av only when a sarvevara other than a-rma follows. But when a-rma follows,
only the deletion of a-rma should take place. However, when e or o are not at the end
of a viupada, they are always replaced by ay and av, even if a-rma is the following
sarvevara.
SaodhinA sign called avagraha (') is used to mark the deletion of an initial a in
the Devangar script. In the roman transliteration, however, the avagraha is
represented by an apostrophe (). Thus, in the example above, h"re + @a becomes
h"re"'a, which is represented as hare tra in the roman transliteration. The avagraha is
also occasionally used to mark the combination of an initial a or with the final vowel
of a preceding word. In this case the avagraha may be written twice. For instance, the
1 The definition of a viupada will be given in stra 92.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
48
examples from vtti 42 would be written as either k{(SNAA'ae and r"ADaA'gAtaA or
k{(SNAA''ae and r"ADaA''gAtaA. This system, however, is generally out of fashion; the
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust does not use it. Thus these examples would usually be
written as k{(SNAAae and r"ADaAgAtaA.
57 / @yaAd"InaAM yavayaAevaAR /
57. ay-dn ya-vayor v
ay-dnmof the replacements ay and so on (described in stras 54 and 55); yavayoof the y or v; voptionally.
The y and v of ay and so on are optionally deleted when they are at the end
of a viupada.
ay y av v ity e viricn ya-vayor v haro bhavati viupadnte viaye. kay
utkara ka utkara; yamunyy argha yamuny argha; gopyy sana
gopy sana; viav iha via iha; kv atra k atra..
VttiThe y and v of the viricis ay, y, av, and v are optionally deleted when the
viaya (sphere of activity, scope) is viupadnta (the end of an inflected word).
kay utkara (vtti 54) (57) kay utkara or ka utkara.
yamunyy argha (vtti 54) (57) yamunyy argha or yamuny
argha.
gopyy sanam (vtti 54) (57) gopyy sanam or gopy sanam.
viav iha (vtti 55) (57) viav iha or via iha.
kv atra (vtti 55) (57) kv atra or k atra.
SaodhinAs the vtti indicates, the word viupadnte is carried forward here.
Thus this rule does not apply in jayati <acyuta 1.1 of ji jaye (1P, to conquer)> and so
on. In the word viupadnte, the seventh case is used to denote the viaya (sphere
of activity) as the phrase when the viaya is viupadnta in the vtti indicates.
This usage of the seventh case is called viaya-saptam. Often, by extension, a word
where the seventh case is thus used is also called a viaya-saptam (see vtti 93). The
viaya refers to the circumstances under which the krya is allowed to take place. It is
the scope of a rule. And because the krya acts upon the kry, the viaya often refers
simply to the location of the kry. Therefore we have translated viupadnte as
when they (the krys y and v) are at the end of a viupada. Similarly, we have
tried to match the viaya with the location of the kry in later translations also so
that the rule may be easily understood. See, for example, stra 61.
It should be understood that some of the options that are allowed by the current rule
are obsolete. This is because all of the peculiar options found in the stras of this book
are based on the stras of Pini, a sage who lived more than two and a half thousand
years ago. Since then certain options became preferences and gradually became the
norm. For example, modern Sanskrit textbooks in the English language present the
information found in stras 54 to 55 and in stra 57 as follows:
e+

a + sarvevara

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
49
sarvevara
ai +
+ sarvevara

sarvevara
o+
a + sarvevara

sarvevara
au +
v +

sarvevara
sarvevara
Thus, out of the above examples they would only accept ka utkara, yamuny
argha, gopy sanam, via iha, and kv atra.
58 / taeSaAM na s$ainDainaRtyama, /
58. te na sandhir nityam
temof them; nanot; sandhisandhi; nityamalways.
Words that have lost their y or v do not undergo further sandhi.
ka utkara.
Vtti ka utkara (vtti 57) (58) ka + utkara.
AmtaThe word nityam has been placed here in order to remove the anuvtti of the
word v.
SaodhinWhen y or v are deleted by the previous stra, this stra prohibits the
further sandhi that would usually occur by davatra ektmake militv trivikrama
(42), a-dvayam i-dvaye e (43), u-dvaye o (44), and so on.
59 / @Aer"AmaAntaAnaAmanantaAnaAM caAvyayaAnaAM s$avaeRre" /
59. o-rmntnm anantn cvyayn sarvevare
o-rma-antnmthat end in o-rma; anantnmthat are anantas; caand;
avyaynmof indeclinable words (avyayas); sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.
Avyayas that end in o-rma or that are anantas do not undergo sandhi when
a sarvevara follows.
o-rmntnm anantn ca kevalnm avyayn sarvevare pare sati prvasya ca
parasya ca sandhir na bhavati. no upendra no acyuta. katha taddhite vipratyayntasya go-abdasyvyayatve go bhavat iti? lkaika-pratipadoktayo
pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam iti nyyena syt. a-rmdaya sambodhandau. atra
sambodhanea ananta; smarae evam acyuta-ll; bhartsane i acyuta na
bhajasi; vk-prae da sasra; mantraeu acyuta; pratiedhe
upasanna m tyajasi. as tu sandhir bhavaty eva. anantam nantam, ananta
maryd ktvety artha.
ad-arthe kriy-yoge / vypti-marydayo ca ya
etam ta ita vidyd / vkya-smaraayor aid iti.
VttiWhen avyayas that end in o-rma or avyayas that are kevala anantas are
followed by a sarvevara, neither they nor the following sarvevara undergo sandhi.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
50
no + upendra (59) no upendra.
no + acyuta (59) no acyuta.
Given the fact that the word go ending in the taddhita suffix vi is an avyaya, how can
there be go bhavad? The answer is that sandhi should take place in go bhavad by the
following maxim: lkaika-pratipadoktayo pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (Out of
what is indirectly expressed (lkaika) and what is directly expressed (pratipadokta),
only that which is directly expressed is accepted).

AmtaHere the word kevala means not conjoined with a consonant. The avyaya
go is formed in the following way: First the taddhita suffix vi is applied to the word go
(cow) in the sense of that which was not a cow became a cow. Then vi is deleted
by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (621), and finally avyayt svder mahhara (258) is
applied. It will be described in the Taddhita-prakaraa that a word ending in the suffix
vi is counted as an avyaya. The word pratipadokta means svbhvika (original,
primary). Why do we say sarvevare (when a sarvevara follows)? Because, when a
sarvevara is preceding, sandhi certainly takes place. For example, vidhehi + a (50)
vidhehy a and raka + u (44) rako. Why do we say kevala anantas? Because
sandhi is not prohibited in cases like pra + rayati (43) prerayati and khalu gata
(51) khalv gata. (The words pra and khalu in these examples are certainly
avyayas, but although their final vara is an ananta, they are not kevala anantas
because they are conjoined with consonants.)
SaodhinThe word pratipadokta can mean primary, as evidenced above by
Amta, and the word lkaika is commonly translated as secondary. Thus the
maxim can mean out of a primary thing and a secondary thing only the primary thing
is accepted. In this case, avyayas like aho and no are primary avyayas, but avyayas
like go are avyayas by secondary formation only and therefore this stra does not
apply to them. There are only nine primary avyayas which end in o-rma. They are
atho, aho, ho, utho, o, no, bho, haho, and ho.
VttiThe kevala anantas headed by a-rma are used in the sense of addressing and
so on. The avyaya a is used in the sense of addressing (sambodhana), in the sense of
remembrance (smaraa), i in the sense of reproach (bhartsana), in the sense of
filling up a sentence (vk-praa), u in the sense of humble entreaty (mantraa), and
in the sense of prohibition (pratiedha). Examples of these are as follows:
a + ananta (59) a ananta (O Ananta).
+ evam acyuta-ll (59) evam acyuta-ll (Ah! Acyutas pastime is in
this way).
i + acyuta na bhajasi (59) i acyuta na bhajasi (Shame on you. You dont
worship
Acyuta).
+ da sasra (59) da sasra (Well, the material world is
like this).
u + acyuta (59) u acyuta (O Acyuta).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
51
+ upasanna m tyajasi (59) upasanna m tyajasi (Dont abandon
me who have come near).
BlaThe third example means, in effect, O non-Vaiava, you dont worship Acyuta.
Shame on you. Vk-praa means vk-poana (nourishing a sentence). This is
shown in the fourth example, which means, O brother, the material world is like this.
Here, means, it ought to be like this. mantraa means kma-cra-karaam (A
request where the person requested to do something is free to act as he pleases).
Thus the fifth example in effect means, O Acyuta, if it is Your intention, please save
me. In the sixth example, the word upasannam means tavnugatam (Your follower)
and the word tyajasi means tyaja. Thus the meaning is, Dont abandon me, Your
follower.
VttiBut [] ( that has the indicatory letter ) certainly undergoes sandhi.
+ anantam (42) nantam (up to (but not including) Ananta).
ad-arthe kriy-yoge
vypti-marydayo ca ya
etam ta ita vidyd
vkya-smaraayor ait
One should know that the which is used in the sense of at (slightly, a little),
kriy-yoga (combination with a verb), vypti (inclusion), and maryd (limit) has
the indicatory letter , and that the which is used in the sense of vkya (see
explanation below) and smaraa (remembrance) does not have the indicatory letter
.
SaodhinAn example of in the sense of at is + uam (44) oam
(slightly warm). Here, because has the indicatory letter , there is sandhi as
ordained by u-dvaye o (44). An example of kriy-yoga is + ihi (43) ehi (Come!).
The word vypti here is equivalent to abhividhi or abhivypti, which mean inclusive
extension to a particular limit. Indeed, Patajalis Mah-bhya (1.4.85), the origin of
this verse, lists the second pda (quarter of a verse, line) as marydbhividhau ca
ya. Maryd means exclusive extension to a particular limit. These meanings of
abhividhi and maryd are based on Mah-bhya (1.4.85): vin tena maryd, saha
tena ity abhividhi (maryd excludes the limit (vin tena), while abhividhi includes
the limit (saha tena)). The example nantam, given by Jva Gosvm, shows in the
sense of maryd. Later, in vtti 986, Jva Gosvm will give another example: vaikuha sasra (material existence extends up to (but not including)
Vaikuha). An example of abhividhi, from the same vtti, is -vaikuha vysakrti (the fame of Vysa extends as far as Vaikuha). All these examples are
avyay-bhva-samsas formed by the stra apa-pari-bahir-ac-ant pacamy, ca
marydbhividhyo (986).
Pada-majar (1.4.85), a commentary on Kik, written by Hara Datta, explains the
use of in the sense of vkya as follows: prva-prakrntasya vkyasynyathtvadyotanya -kra prayujyate ( is used to indicate that a statement is contrary to
another that was spoken previously). Thus the example eva nu manyase (Oh! Do
you think so?) means naiva prvam amasth, samprati tv eva manyase (You
didnt think like this before, but now you think like this)
The example evam acyuta-ll, given above, shows the usage of in the sense of
smaraa.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
52
60 / wRU"de"taAM i"vacanasya maNAIvaAid"vajaRma, /
60. d-d-et dvi-vacanasya mavdi-varjam
t-t-etmof , , or e; dvi-vacanasyabelonging to the dual number; ma-iva-divarjamwith the exception of the mavdis (the words ma and so on when
followed by the word iva).
An , , or e that belongs to dvi-vacana does not undergo sandhi when a
sarvevara follows. The mavdis are an exception to this rule.
har atra, vi atra, am atra, gage atra, bhajete ajita, amuke atra sta.
mavdau tu sandhir bhavaty eva. vikalpa ity eke. ma iva mava, eva dam-pat
iva dam-patva, rodas iva rodasva, jam-pat iva jam-patva.
Vtti har + atra (60) har atra (the two Haris are here).
vi + atra (60) vi atra (the two Vius are here).
am + atra (60) am atra (the two of them are here).
gage + atra (60) gage atra (the two Gags are here).
bhajete + ajitam (60) bhajete ajitam (the two of them worship Ajita).
Sandhi does take place among the mavdis, though some say this is optional.
ma + iva (42) mava (Like two jewels).
dam-pat + iva (42) dam-patva (Like husband and wife).
rodas + iva (42) rodasva (Like heaven and earth).
jam-pat + iva (42) jam-patva (Like husband and wife).
AmtaThe full group of mavdis is as follows:
ma bhry-pat caiva
dam-pat rodas tath
vsas jam-pat caivam
iva jy-pat tath
Ma (two jewels), bhry-pat (husband and wife), dam-pat (husband and
wife), rodas (heaven and earth), vsas (upper garment and lower garment),
jam-pat (husband and wife), and jy-pat (husband and wife).
SaodhinThe word d-d-etm here is formed by the Pinian method of adding
t to designate a single vara. This was described in vtti 35.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
53

Atha viujana-sandhi
61 / ivaSNAud"As$aAe ivaSNAupad"Antae h"ir"GaAeSae ca h"ir"gAd"A /
61. viudso viupadnte harighoe ca harigad
viudsaviudsa; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; harighoe
when a harighoa follows; caand; harigadharigad.
A viudsa at the end of a viupada becomes a harigad, but a viudsa
that is not at the end of a viupada only becomes a harigad if a harighoa
follows.1
viupadnte viaye harighoe ca pare sati aviupadnte ca viudsa-nm
vara sa-varga-ttya syt, sthne sadatama iti nyyena. vk acyutasya vg
acyutasya. vk govindasya vg govindasya. a-gopik a-gopik. bhagavat-icch
bhagavad-icch. kakubh vio kakub vio. viupadntd anyatra na. caturthy,
kasajit e kasajite. udharantaram agre.
VttiWhen the viaya is viupadnta, or when a harighoa follows and the viaya
is not viupadnta, the vara called viudsa becomes a harigad of the same
varga. This is in accordance with the following maxim: sthne sadatama (The
replacement (dea) should be that which is most similar in regard to place of
pronunciation).
vk + acyutasya (61) vg acyutasya (the statement of Acyuta).
vk + govindasya (61) vg govindasya (the statement of Govinda).
.
a + gopik (61) a-gopik (six gops).
bhagavat + icch (61) bhagavad-icch (the desire of the Lord).
kakubh + vio (61) kakub vio (the region of Viu)
But not when the viaya is something other than viupadnta. For example, in the
fourth case (caturth):
kasa-jit + e kasa-jite (unto the conqueror of Kasa).
Examples of when the viaya is not viupadnta will be given in the khytaprakaraa.
62 / h"ir"vaeNAAE h"ir"vaeNAuvaAR /
62. hariveau hariveur v
1 See Saodhin 57 for an explanation why the viaya-saptam is translated like this
here.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
54
hariveauwhen a hariveu follows; hariveuhariveu; voptionally.
A viudsa at the end of a viupada optionally becomes a hariveu when a
hariveu follows.
jagat-ntha jagan-ntha jagad-ntha. ka-gup uuve ka-gum uuve kagub uuve.
Vtti jagat + ntha (62) jagan-ntha or (61) jagad-ntha (Lord of the
universe).
ka-gup + uuve (62) ka-gum uuve or (61) ka-gub uuve
(Kas guard sounded).
SaodhinThese days the change to hariveu is always done.1
63 / yaAd"vamaAae h"ir"k(malama, /
63. ydava-mtre harikamalam
ydava-mtrewhen any ydava follows; harikamalamharikamala.
A viudsa becomes a harikamala when any ydava follows.
vk kasya vk kasya. atra viupadnte harigad-bdhanrtham ida stram.
mtra-grahad aviupadnte ca. udharaa tv agre.
VttiThis stra is to prevent the change to harigad by stra 61 when the viaya is
viupadnta. Because the current stra contains the word mtra, it also applies when
the viaya is not viupadnta.
vk kasya (63) vk kasya (the statement of Ka).
Examples of when the viaya is not viupadnta will be given in the khytaprakaraa.
AmtaThis is an apavda2 of stra 61. Someone may argue, In the example vk +
kasya what is gained by ordaining ka-rma in place of ka-rma? Jva Gosvm
replies to that doubt, saying that this stra is for the sake of checking the harigad.
The implied meaning is If this stra were not made, then, on the strength of stra 61,
a harigad would be achieved. Thus the undesirable form vg kasya would occur.
64 / tata: zAzC$Ae vaA /
64. tata a cho v
tataafter that (a viudsa); aa-rma; chacha-rma; voptionally.
a-rma that comes after a viudsa can optionally become cha-rma.
su-vk auri, su-vk chaurir v. ap-y, ap-chy v.
1 See discussion under Saodhin 57.
2 An exception, or in other words a special rule which sets aside the general rule. See
vtti 50.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
55
Vtti su-vk + auri (63, 64) su-vk chauri or su-vk auri (auri, the
eloquent speaker).
ap + y (63, 64) ap-chy or ap-y (He who lies on the water, Nryaa).
SaodhinThese days we see that a-rma only really changes to cha-rma when
it comes after ta-rma. The optional change to cha-rma is not done in the case of any
other viudsa.
65 / h"Ae h"ir"GaAeSa: /
65. ho harighoa
haha-rma; harighoaharighoa.
Ha-rma that comes after a viudsa can optionally become a harighoa.
vk hare vg ghare vg hare. ac-halau aj-jhalau aj-halau. a hare a hare
a hare. tat halina tad dhalina tad halina. kakubh harasya kakub bharasya
kakub harasya.
Vtti vk + hare (61) vg + hare (65) vg ghare or vg hare (the
statement of Hari).
ac + halau (61) aj + halau (65) aj-jhalau or aj-halau (ac and hal).
a + hare (61) a + hare (65) a-hare or a-hare (of the six
Haris).
tat + halina (61) tad + halina (65) tad dhalina or tad halina (that
belongs to the
holder of the plough, Balarma).
kakubh + harasya (61) kakub + harasya (65) kakub bharasya or kakub
harasya (the
region of Hara, Lord iva).
SaodhinThese days the change to harighoa is always done.1
66 / d"taAE par"vaNAAE= lacaq%vagAeRSau inatyama, /
66. da-tau para-varau la-ca-a-vargeu nityam
da-tauda-rma and ta-rma; parafollowing; varauvara; la-ca-a-vargeu
when la-rma, ca-varga, or a-varga follows; nityamalways.
Da-rma and ta-rma always change to the following vara when la-rma,
ca-varga, or a-varga follows.
tad lakm-pate tal lakm-pate. tat catur-bhujasya tac catur-bhujasya. kasa-jit
chdayati, kasa-jic chdayati. tat janrdanasya taj janrdanasya. kasa-jit-jhakra
kasa-jijh-jhakra. kasa-jij-jhakra. tad-a-rma ta-a-rma. kasa-jit kate
kasa-ji kate kasa-jit haukate kasa-ji haukate.

1 See discussion under Saodhin 57.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
56
Vtti tad + lakm-pate (66) tal lakm-pate (that belongs to the Lord of
Lakm).
tat + catur-bhujasya (66, 63) tac catur-bhujasya (that belongs to the four-armed
Lord Viu).
kasa-jit + chdayati (66) kasa-jich chdayati (63) kasa-jic chdayati
(the conqueror of Kasa covers).
tat + janrdanasya (66) taj janrdanasya (that belongs to Janrdana).
kasa-jit + jhakra (66) kasa-jijh jhakra (61) kasa-jij jhakra
(the conqueror of Kasa hums).
tad + a-rma (66) ta-a-rma (the a-rma of that).
kasa-jit + kate (66, 63) kasa-ji kate (the conqueror of Kasa
goes).
kasa-jit + haukate (66) kasa-jih haukate (61) kasa-ji haukate
(the conqueror of Kasa approaches).
67 / ta zAe /
67. ta ca e
tata-rma; caca-rma; ewhen a-rma follows.
Ta-rma becomes ca-rma when a-rma follows.
tat aure tac aure. pake chatva, tac chaure.
Vtti tat + aure (67, 63) tac + aure (64) tac chaure or tac aure
(that belongs to auri).
68 / naAe'ntaC$yaAe: zAr"Ama: , q%Q&yaAe: Sar"Ama: , taTayaAe: s$ar"Ama: ,
ivaSNAuca(paUvaAeR ivaSNAucaApapaUvaAeR vaA /
68. no nta ca-chayo a-rma, a-hayo a-rma, ta-thayo sa-rma,
viucakra-prvo viucpa-prvo v
nana-rma; antasituated at the end of a viupada; ca-chayowhen ca-rma
or cha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma; a-hayowhen a-rma or ha-rma
follows; a-rmaa-rma; ta-thayowhen ta-rma or tha-rma follows; sa-rma
sa-rma; viucakra-prvapreceded by a viucakra; viucpa-prva
preceded by a viucpa; vor.
Na-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when ca-rma or charma follows, a-rma when a-rma or ha-rma follows, and sa-rma when
ta-rma or tha-rma follows. And that a-rma, a-rma, or sa-rma is
preceded either by a viucakra or a viucpa.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
57
bhagavn calati, bhagav calati, bhagav * calati. bhagavn chdayati, bhagav
chdayati, bhagav * chdayati. bhagavn kate, bhagav kate, bhagav *
kate. bhagavn hakkura, bhagav hakkura, bhagav * hakkura.
bhagavn tarati, bhagavs tarati, bhagav * s tarati. bhagavn tht-karoti, bhagavs
tht-karoti, bhagav * s tht-karoti.
Vtti bhagavn + calati (68) bhagav calati or bhagav * calati (Bhagavn
moves).
bhagavn + chdayati (68) bhagav chdayati or bhagav * chdayati
(Bhagavn
covers).
bhagavn + kate (68) bhagav kate or bhagav * kate
(Bhagavn goes).
bhagavn + hakkura (68) bhagav hakkura or bhagav *
hakkura (Bhagavn is
the deity).
bhagavn + tarati (68) bhagavs tarati or bhagav * s tarati (Bhagavn
crosses).
bhagavn tht-karoti (68) bhagavs tht-karoti or bhagav * s tht-karoti
(Bhagavn
spits).
SaodhinBecause the form with a viucpa is generally not seen in modern
printed texts, this stra can be interpreted as follows:
n + c / ch
n + / h
n + t / th

+ c / ch
+ / h
s + t / th

69 / lae lar"Ama Wva /


69. le la-rma eva
lewhen la-rma follows; la-rmala-rma; evaonly.
Na-rma at the end of a viupada becomes la-rma when la-rma follows.
bhagavn llyate bhagav l* llyate. atra sthne sadatama iti nyyena
snunsika eva la-rma syt. atra ya-va-l hi dvi-vidh matsnunsik niranunsik ca.
VttiHere, by the maxim of sthne sadatama (vtti 61), na-rma only becomes a
snunsika la-rma. In that regard, ya, va, and la are considered to be of two kinds:
with an anunsika (snunsika) or without an anunsika (nir-anunsika).1
bhagavn + llyate (69) bhagav l* llyate (Bhagavn performs a pastime).
AmtaThe nasality (anunsikatva) of na-rma was explained in vtti 22. Thus, by
the maxim of sthne sadatama (vtti 61), it is enjoined that the la-rma ordained in
1 In this regard, one should remember that the anunsika is an alternate name for the
viucpa. See vtti 14.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
58
the place of na-rma should also be pronounced in the nose (nsik-bhava). And
because la-rma is a dental vara, it is also pronounced in the mouth (mukha-bhava).
Therefore, because it is pronounced both in the nose and mouth (mukha-nsikbhava), it is described as being snunsika (see vtti 14).

70 / jaJaHazAr"AmaeSau Har"Ama: /
70. ja-jha-a-a-rmeu a-rma
ja-jha-a-a-rmeuwhen ja-rma, jha-rma, a-rma, or a-rma follows; a-rma
a-rma.
Na-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when ja-rma, jharma, a-rma, or a-rma follows.
bhagavn jayati, bhagav jayati. bhagavn jhaa-rp, bhagav jhaa-rp.
bhagavn uuve, bhagav uuve. bhagavn ra, bhagav ra.
Vtti bhagavn + jayati (70) bhagav jayati (Bhagavn conquers).
bhagavn + jhaa-rp (70) bhagav jhaa-rp (Bhagavn having the
form of a fish).
bhagavn + uuve (70) bhagav uuve (Bhagavn sounded).
bhagavn + ra (70) bhagav ra (Bhagavn is a hero).

71 / zAe caAntaAe vaA /


71. e cnto v
ewhen a-rma follows; ca-antaone at whose end is ca-rma; voptionally.
When a-rma follows, na-rma at the end of a viupada optionally
becomes a-rma followed by ca-rma (that is to say it optionally becomes
c).
bhagavn ra, bhagavc ra, bhagav ra, chatve bhagavc chra.
Vtti bhagavn + ra (71, 63) bhagavc ra or (70) bhagav ra.
Then, in the case where a-rma becomes cha-rma by tata a cho v (64):
bhagavc ra (64) bhagavc chra.
72 / maAe ivaSNAucaM( ivaSNAujanae /
72. mo viucakra viujane

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
59
mama-rma; viucakramviucakra; viujanewhen a viujana follows.
Ma-rma at the end of a viupada becomes viucakra when a viujana
follows.
kam smarati, ka smarati. viujand anyatra tu nakam iccha, kam
iccha.
Vtti kam + smarati (72) ka smarati (he remembers Ka).
But not when something other than a viujana follows:
kam + iccha kam iccha (desire Ka!).
73 / ivaSNAuca(sya h"ir"vaeNAuivaRSNAuvagAeR , ivaSNAupad"Antasya tau vaA /
73. viucakrasya hariveur viuvarge, viupadntasya tu v
viucakrasyaof viucakra; hariveurhariveu; viuvargewhen a viuvarga
follows; viupadntasyaa viucakra situated at the end of a viupada; tubut;
voptionally.
Viucakra becomes a hariveu of the same varga as the following vara
when a viuvarga follows. But this is optional for a viucakra situated at
the end of a viupada.
aviupadntodharaa vakyate. ka krtayati, ka krtayati v. ka
bhajati, kam bhajati v. sasra tarati, sasran tarati v. atra ta-thayo sarma-niedho vaktavya. viuvarge iti kim? savatsara.
VttiExamples of when the viaya is not viupadnta will be given later.
kam + krtayati (72) ka krtayati (73) ka krtayati or
ka krtayati (he glorifies Ka).
kam + bhajati (72) ka bhajati (73) ka bhajati or kam
bhajati (he
worships Ka).
sasram + tarati (72) sasra tarati (73) sasra tarati or sasran
tarati (he crosses over material existence)
Here (in sasran tarati) a prohibition of ta-thayo sa-rma (68) ought to be spoken.
Why do we say when a viuvarga follows? Consider savatsara.
AmtaBecause of the mention of viupadntasya in the second clause, it should be
construed that in the first clause viucakrasya is aviupadntasya (not situated at
the end of a viupada). Thus the resultant meaning is that when the viaya is not
viupadnta a viucakra always becomes the appropriate hariveu. Examples of
this are gant, hant, and so on. The na-rma in sasran here does not become sarma by ta-thayo sa-rma (68) due to the maxim lkaika-pratipadoktayo
pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (vtti 55).
SaodhinTraditional Indian scholars tend to always exercise this option whereas
modern Western scholars tend to never exercise it because it is easier to recognize

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
60
words when the sandhi is not done. The standard of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust,
however, is to exercise the option when the viucakra is inside a samsa (compound
word) but not to exercise the option when the viucakra is the final vara. In this
regard, it will be explained later that all the constituent words that make up a samsa
are considered separate viupadas and that upasargas (verbal prefixes) are also
considered separate viupadas since they are compounded with dhtus. Thus the
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust would write sakrtana instead of sakrtana, kinnara
instead of kinara but ki ca instead of ki ca, ta na instead of tan na, and so on.
74 / i": s$avaeRr"maAaAcC$: /
74. dvi sarvevara-mtrc cha
dvidoubled; sarvevara-mtrtafter any sarvevara; chacha-rma.
Cha-rma is reduplicated when it comes after any sarvevara.
ka-chatra, ka-cchatram.
Vtti ka + chatram (74) ka-chchatram (63) ka-cchatram
(Kas umbrella).
75 / ivaSNAupad"AntaAitaiva(maA"A /
75. viupadntt trivikramd v
viupadnttsituated at the end of a viupada; trivikramtafter a trivikrama; v
optionally.
Cha-rma is optionally reduplicated when it comes after a trivikrama
situated at the end of a viupada.
yamun-chy, yamun-cchy v.
Vtti yamun + chy (75) yamun-chy or yamun-chchy (63)
yamun-cchy (the beauty of the Yamun).
AmtaBut by the previous stra, cha-rma is always reduplicated when it comes
after a trivikrama that is not situated at the end of a viupada. The word yamunchy here means yamun-knti (the beauty of the Yamun). Amara-koa gives the
following definitions of the word chy: chy srya-priy knti pratibimbam
antapa (The word chy can mean: the wife of the Sun-god named Chy, beauty,
reflection, or shade).
76 / vaAmanaAtx~NAnaA i": s$avaeRre" /
76. vmant a-a-n dvi sarvevare
vmantafter a vmana; a-a-na-rma, a-rma, and na-rma; dvitwo;
sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.
a-rma, a-rma, and na-rma, situated at the end of a viupada, are
reduplicated when they come after a vmana and a sarvevara follows.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
61
parya ananta, parya ananta. suga ananta, suga ananta. kurvan asti,
kurvann asti. vmand anyatra tu nabhagavn iha bhagavn iha. udi-tiantasanantdayas tu stra-nirdea-balt.
Vtti parya + ananta (76) parya ananta (Ananta who is everywhere).
suga + ananta (76) suga ananta (Ananta who counts well).
kurvan + asti (76) kurvann asti (He is doing).
But not when they come after something other than a vmana:
bhagavn + iha bhagavn iha (Bhagavn is here).
But, on the strength of anitya stra-nirdee (Bhat 44), we also get words like u-di,
ti-anta, and san-anta.
SaodhinThe word v is not carried forward here because, in the Bhat, the stra
-mbhy nityam comes in between the previous stra and the current stra and
the word nityam from that stra removes the anuvtti of the word v from the previous
stra.
Bhat-vtti 128Why is there vaabh and valabh (a turret), paryaka and
palyaka (a couch), raghu and laghu (light), kapirik and kapilik (reddish),
and so on? Because it is heard [from previous authorities] that a-rma and la-rma
and ra-rma and la-rma are practically one with each other [and thus
interchangeable].
SaodhinThis explanation accounts for the alternate spellings of various Sanskrit
words. Thus, in the Bhgavatam, we sometimes see prahlda and sometimes see
prahrda. Ba-rma and va-rma can also be interchangeable, as in the words bindu
and vindu (drop, dot), bhat and vhat (big), and so on. A good Sanskrit dictionary
like MW will usually list both forms of these words.
77 / r"r"AmaAta, , s$avaeRre" tau h"ir"gAAeaM ivanaA /
77. ra-rmt (viujane viujano v1), sarvevare tu harigotra vin
ra-rmtafter ra-rma; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; tubut; harigotram
harigotra; vinexcept.
A viujana that comes after ra-rma can optionally be reduplicated when a
viujana follows. And when a sarvevara follows, a viujana, except a
harigotra, that comes after ra-rma can also optionally be reduplicated.
krya, krya v. haryy-sana v. sarvevare tu" ity-di kim? parmara,
vrabhnavy, arhati.
Vtti kryam (77) kryam or kryam (descendant of Ka).
hary-sanam (example from vtti 50) (77) haryy-sanam or hary-sanam (Haris
seat).
1 The words viujane viujano v are carried forward from Bhat 120.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
62
Why do we say except a harigotra? Consider parmara (inference),
vrabhnavy (of r Rdh, the daughter of Vabhnu), and arhati (he
deserves).
SaodhinIndian scholars tend to always exercise this option whereas western
scholars tend to reject it since it can make the original word difficult to recognize. The
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust does not use this option.
78 / ivaSNAujanaAi"SNAud"As$asyaAd"zARnaM s$avagAeR ivaSNAud"As$ae /
78. viujand viudsasydarana sa-varge viudse
viujantafter a viujana; viudsasyaof a viudsa; adaranam
disappearance1; sa-vargeof the same varga; viudsewhen a viudsa follows.
A viudsa that comes after a viujana optionally disappears when a
viudsa of the same varga follows.
bhagavc chra bhagav chro v.
Vtti bhagavc chra (example from vtti 71) (78) bhagavc chra or
bhagav chra (Bhagavn is a hero).

1 Adarana is the same thing as hara because in vtti 39 hara was defined as
adarana-mtra-hetur hara.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
63

Atha viusarga-sandhi
79 / caC$yaAe: zAr"Ama: , q%Q&yaAe: Sar"Ama: , taTayaAe: s$ar"Ama:/
79. (viusarga1) ca-chayo a-rma, a-hayo a-rma, ta-thayo sa-rma
ca-chayowhen ca-rma or cha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma; a-hayowhen
a-rma or ha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma; ta-thayowhen ta-rma or tharma follows; sa-rmasa-rma.
Viusarga becomes a-rma when ca-rma or cha-rma follows, a-rma
when a-rma or ha-rma follows, and sa-rma when ta-rma or tha-rma
follows.
ka carati, ka carati. ka chdayati, ka chdayati. ka kate,
ka kate. ka ha-rma, ka ha-rma. ka tarati, kas tarati. ka
tht-karoti, kas tht-karoti.
Vtti ka + carati (79) ka carati (Ka roams about).
ka + chdayati (79) ka chdayati (Ka covers).
ka + kate (79) ka kate (Ka goes).
ka + ha-rma (79) ka ha-rma (ka-rma, ha-rma).
ka + tarati (79) kas tarati (Ka crosses).
ka + tht-karoti (79) kas tht-karoti (Ka spits).
SaodhinIn common Sanskrit the viusarga remains unchanged when , , s, k,
kh, p, or ph follow. However, there are special rules mentioned in the Bhat version of
Hari-nmmta-vykaraa which prescribe optional changes under certain conditions.
See Bhat stras 131, 132, and 138.
80 / @Ad"r"AmagAAepaAlayaAe&inaRtyama, /
80. d a-rma-goplayor ur nityam
tafter a-rma; a-rma-goplayowhen a-rma or a gopla follows; uu-rma;
nityamalways.
A viusarga that comes after a-rma always becomes u-rma when a-rma
or a gopla follows.
ka atra, ko tra. ka gacchati, ko gacchati.
Vtti ka + atra (80) ka + u + atra (44) ko + atra (56) ko
tra (Ka is
here).

1 The word viusarga is carried forward from viusargo jihvmlya ka-khayor v


(Bhat 130).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
64
ka + gacchati (80) ka + u + gacchati (44) ko gacchati
(Ka goes).

81 / @"yaBaAeBagAAe@GaAeByaAe laAepya: , s$avaeRre" tau ya , na ca laAepae


s$ainDa: /
81. a-dvaya-bho-bhago-aghobhyo lopya (sarvevara-goplayo), sarvevare tu ya
ca, na ca lope sandhi
a-dvaya-bho-bhago-aghobhyaafter a-dvaya, or after bho, bhago, or agho; lopya
deleted; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; tubut; yaya-rma; caalso; na
not; caand; lopewhen there is deletion; sandhisandhi.
A viusarga that comes after a-dvaya or after bho, bhago, or agho is
deleted when a sarvevara or gopla follows. But when a sarvevara follows,
it can also become ya-rma. When the viusarga is deleted, there is no
further sandhi.
ka iha, ka iha, kay iha. k atra, k atra, ky atra. bho ananta,
bho ananta, bhoy ananta. bhago ananta, bhago ananta, bhagoy ananta. agho
avaiava, agho avaiava, aghoy avaiava. gople na ya-rma. k gacchanti.
bho govinda. bhago govinda. agho hari-vimukha. d a-rma-goplayo iti vieavidhnn nehako tra, ko gacchati. sa ea sa ea.
Vtti ka + iha (81) ka iha or kay iha (Ka is here).
k + atra (81) k atra or ky atra (the Kas are here).
bho + ananta (81) bho ananta or bhoy ananta (O Ananta).
bhago + ananta (81) bhago ananta or bhagoy ananta (O Bhagavn
Ananta).
agho + avaiava (81) agho avaiava or aghoy avaiava (O sinful
non-devotee).
The viusarga does not become ya-rma when a gopla follows:
k + gacchanti (81) k gacchanti (the Kas go).
bho + govinda (81) bho govinda (O Govinda).
bhago + govinda (81) bhago govinda (O Bhagavn Govinda).
agho + hari-vimukha (81) agho hari-vimukha (O sinful person averse to
Hari).
Because of the specific prescription d a-rma-goplayo (80), the current stra does
not apply in
ka + atra and ka + gacchati.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
65
sa + ea (81) sa ea.
AmtaThe plural form k (the Kas) found in the examples above suggests
the rsa-ll or the marrying of many girls simultaneously. In regard to d a-rmagopalayor ur nityam (80), it should be known that a viusarga that comes after arma is deleted only when a sarvevara other than a-rma follows. This is because the
prescription of viusarga becoming u-rma when a-rma follows is more specific than
what is prescribed in the current stra. That the viusarga is ordained to become yarma only when a sarvevara follows implies that it does not become ya-rma when a
gopla follows.
82 / WSas$apar"Ae ivaSNAujanae /
82. ea-sa-paro viujane
ea-sa-paraafter ea or sa; viujanewhen a viujana follows.
A viusarga coming after ea or sa is deleted when a viujana follows.
etac-chabdasya ea ity asmt tac-chabdasya sa ity asmc ca paro viusargo lopya
syd viujane pare. ea ka, ea ka. sa rma, sa rma.
VttiA viusarga coming after the ea of the word etad (this) or the sa of the
word tad (that) is deleted when a viujana follows.
ea ka (82) ea ka (this is Ka).
sa rma (82) sa rma (that is Rma).
AmtaThe word para in the stra is connected to both ea and sa by the following
injuction: dvandvt para prvo v ryama abda praty-ekam abhisambadhyate
(A word that is heard after or before a dvandva compound is joined with each element
of the dvandva compound).
83 / r" wRr"Ats$avaeRr"gAAepaAlayaAe: /
83. ra vart sarvevara-goplayo
rara-rma; vartafter an vara; sarvevara-goplayowhen a sarvevara or
gopla follows.
After an vara, viusarga becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or gopla
follows.
hare ida, harer ida. hari gacchati, harir gacchati.
Vtti hare + idam (83) harer idam (this is Haris).
hari + gacchati (83) harir gacchati (Hari goes).
84 / @naIr"Ad"ipa r"r"Amaja: /
84. anvard api ra-rma-ja

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
66
an-vartnot after an vara; apialso; ra-rma-jaborn of ra-rma.
Regardless of whether it comes after an vara or not, a viusarga born of
ra-rma becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or gopla follows.
prta atra, prtar atra. g mukundasya, gr mukundasya. bhrta vraje, bhrtar
vraje. bhrta govinda paya, bhrtar govinda paya.
Vtti prta + atra (84) prtar atra (in the morning, here).
g + mukundasya (84) gr mukundasya (the statement of Mukunda).
bhrta + vraje (84) bhrtar vraje (O brother in Vraja).
bhrta + govinda paya (84) bhrtar govinda paya (O brother, look
at Govinda)
AmtaThis is an apvada of all the previous stras. Thus, in bhrta + vraje (84)
bhrtar vraje, the viusarga does not become u-rma by stra 80 nor is it deleted by
stra 81. Why do we say when a sarvevara or gopla follows? Consider g
kasya.
SaodhinWords like prtar, svar, antar, punar, and so on, originally end in rarma, but this ra-rma becomes viusarga by sa-ra-rmayor viusargo
viupadnte (93). Then, by this stra, that viusarga again becomes ra-rma when
a sarvevara or gopla follows. The word prtar (in the early morning, at dawn) is an
avyaya ending in ra-rma. The word gir (speech) is a kdanta (verbal noun) formed
by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] to the dhtu g abde (9P, to speak, praise, call
out to). The i-rma of gir becomes trivikrama by ir-ur-anta-dhtor uddhavasya
trivikramo viupadnte (207). The word bhrtar is the vocative singular of the word
bhrt (brother).
85 / @"Ae ivaSNAus$agARsya r"Ae r"Aia&par"Tantar"Ad"nyaeSau /
85. ahno viusargasya ro rtri-rpa-rathantard anyeu
ahnaof the word ahan (a day); viusargasyaof the viusarga; rara-rma;
rtri-rpa-rathantartthan the words rtri (night), rpa (form), or rathantara
(the name of various smas (Vedic songs of praise)); anyeuwhen something other
follows.
The viusarga of the word ahan becomes ra-rma when something other
than the words rtri, rpa, and rathantara follows.
aha aha, ahar aha. aha-gaa, ahar-gaa. sarvevara-goplayor eva. neha
aha-pati. rtry-dau tu naaho-rtri. eka-dea-viktam ananya-vatahortra. aho-rpa, aho-rathantara sma.
Vtti aha aha (85) ahar aha (daily, every day).
aha-gaa (85) ahar-gaa (a month, a series of days).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
67
This stra is applicable only when a sarvevara or gopla follows. Thus it does not
apply in aha-pati. But the viusarga does not become ra-rma when the words
rtri and so on follow:
aha + rtri (80) aha + u + rtri (44) aho-rtri (day and night).
Eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (That which is deficient in one place is not considered a
different thing):
aha + rtra (80) aha + u + rtra (44) aho-rtra (day and night).
aha + rpam (80) aha + u + rpam (44) aho-rpam (the form of
day).
aha + rathantara sma (80) aha + u + rathantara sma (44) ahorathantara
sma
(the Vedic hymn (sma) named Aho-rathantara).
AmtaThe word viusargasya in this stra means the viusarga caused by ahno
viusargo viupadnte (216). It should be known that the viusarga of ahan
becomes ra-rma only when sv-di [s]u that comes after the word ahan has undergone
mahhara by brahmata sv-amor mahhara (166). Indeed the current stra is not
applicable when the sv-di (nominal suffix) remains1. Jva Gosvm informs us with
the phrase, only when a sarvevara or gopla follows, that the para-nimitta
sarvevara-goplayo is carried forward here. Someone may argue, In the stra only
the word rtri is excluded. Therefore sandhi should certainly occur when the word rtra
follows. Jva Gosvm refutes this on the strength of the paribh beginning ekadea. Just as a person who loses his eye or other bodily parts is not considered a
different person, similarly the word rtra is considered non-different than the word rtri
even though it lacks i-rma. The word aho-rtra is formed by applying the taddhita
suffix called keava a-rma after the word aho-rtri.
86 / r"Ae re" laAepya: , paUvaR iaiva(ma: /
86. ro re lopya, prva ca trivikrama
rara-rma; rewhen ra-rma follows; lopyais deleted; prvaa previous
vmana; caand; trivikramatrivikrama;
Ra-rma is deleted when ra-rma follows, and the vmana before it becomes
trivikrama.
bhrta rmnuja paya, bhrt rmnuja paya. hari rdh-priya har rdhpriya. iti viusarga-sandhi. iti r-r-harinmmtkhye vaiava-vykarae
saj-sandhi-prakaraam prathama samptam.
Vtti bhrta + rmnuja paya (84) bhrtar + rmnuja paya (86)
bhrt rmnuja paya (O brother, see the younger brother of Rma).
hari + rdh-priya (83) harir + rdh-priya (86) har rdh-priya
(Hari is the
beloved of Rdh).
1 Jva Gosvm makes the same restriction in the stra asya svdy-abhva eva ra-vidhir vcya (Bhat
288) which means only in the absence of a sv-di does the viusarga formed from the n of ahan
change to r by stra 85.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
68
Thus ends viusarga-sandhi. Thus ends the Saj-sandhi-prakaraa, the first
prakaraa in the vaiava-vykaraa called Hari-nmmta.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
69

Atha viupada-prakaraam
Invocation
ya Wk(: s$avaR&paANAAM s$avaRnaAaAM taTaAaya: /
tasya ivaSNAAe: padM" s$ava< ivaSNAuBaftyaA ina&pyatae //
ya eka sarva-rp
sarva-nmn tathraya
tasya vio pada sarva
viu-bhakty nirpyate
yawho; ekaonly; sarva-rpmof all inflected words (or, of all forms); sarvanmnmof all nmas (nominal bases) (or, of all names); tathand; raya
shelter; tasyathat; vioof Lord Viu; padaminflected word (or, abode);
sarvamall; viu-bhaktyby a viubhakti (a nominal or verbal suffix) (or,
through devotional service to Viu); nirpyateperceived.
Lord Viu is the only shelter of all inflected words (rpas) and word bases
(nmas). Every inflected word (pada) refers to Him1 and is achieved through
the application of a viubhakti.
Lord Viu is the only shelter of all forms and names. All of His abodes (the
viu-padas) are perceived through devotional service (viu-bhakti).
atha nma-jni viupadni
nmno jtni yni viupadni athnantara tni nirpyante.
Now the viupadas which are produced from nmas are going to be described.
AmtaIn the grammatical sense, the word sarva-rpm means of all inflected
words like ka and so on, and bhavati and so on, and the word sarva-nmnm
means of all the words like bhavat[u], yumad, asmad, and so on, which express the
prathama-purua (English third person), madhyama-purua (English second person),
and uttama-purua (English first person) respectively2. The word vio means viusambandhi (relating to Lord Viu) and nirpyate means sdhyate (achieved). The
nmas that are formed by kt and taddhita pratyayas are also included by the phrase
sarva-nmnm.
All of Lord Vius abodes (the viu-padas) are perceived only through devotional
service (viu-bhakti), and not by any other sdhana. Viupadas (inflected words)
are actually of two kinds: those produced from nmas and those produced from
dhtus. Out of them Jva Gosvm first describes the ones produced from nmas as
they are formed with less effort.
87 / @DaAtauivaSNAuBai(k(maTaRvaaAma /
87. adhtu-viubhaktikam arthavan nma
1 Thus they are called viu-padas (inflected words relating to Lord Viu).
2 Even though the word bhavat[u] (your good self) actually expresses the
madhyama-purua, a verb connected with it will take the prathama-purua endings.
Thus bhavn gacchati.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
70
a-dhtu-viubhaktikamexcept the dhtus (verbal roots) and the viubhaktis
(nominal or verbal suffixes); arthavathaving artha (meaning); nmanma (a
nominal base).
Any word that has meaning, except for the dhtus and the viubhaktis, is
called nma.
bh-sanantdy dhtava. sv-di-tib-dy viubhaktaya. vibhaktaya iti prca.
tn dhtn t viubhakt ca varjayitv yad artha-yukta abda-rpa tan nmasaja syt. ligam ity eke prtipadikam ity anye. te crth dravya-gua-jtikriy. tad-yukta tad-abhidhyaka abda-rpam ity artha. dravya paramevaram
rabhya mn-maya-paryanta sarva vastu. guas tad-ray, aivarydi-abdaspardiko dharma. jti samnatva, brhmaatva-gotvdi. kriy dhtv-artha,
satthra-jna-vihra-prabhti.
VttiBh and so on and san-anta and so on are called dhtus. The sv-dis (nominal
suffixes) and tib-dis (verbal suffixes) are known as viubhaktis. Earlier
grammarians called them vibhaktis. Any word that has artha (meaning), except for
the dhtus or the viubhaktis, is called nma. Some call it liga. Others call it
prtipadika. And the arthas are dravya, gua, jti, and kriy. Thus arthavat refers to a
word endowed with these arthas, that is to say a word that expresses these arthas.
Dravya (a substance, thing) is everything from the Supreme Lord to things composed
of earth. Gua (a quality) is that which inheres in a dravya, qualities like sovereignty
and so on, and sound, touch and so on. Jti (common quality, class, species) is the
sameness of quality (samnatva) such as brhmaa-hood, or cow-hood. Kriy (the
action expressed by a verb) is the meaning of a dhtu such as being, eating, knowing,
strolling, and so on.
AmtaThe word viubhaktika is formed by applying the taddhita pratyaya ka in the
sense of the original word (thus viubhaktika=viubhakti). The word viubhakti
also indicates, that which ends in a viubhakti, namely a viupada. Thus the
resultant meaning is that any word that has meaning, except for the dhtus,
viubhaktis, and viupadas, is called nma. The mention of the viupadas is to
exclude words like ka, bhavati and so on from being nmas. If we were to accept
a viupada as a nma then ahan, a bhtevara form of the dhtu han[a] hisgatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go), would undergo deletion of its final n by nmntasya
nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (190).
The word samnatva is a mere gloss of the word jti. The actual definition will be given
later in the Taddhita-prakaraa, in the verse beginning kti-graha jti (see vtti
1094). According to the adherents of the nyya philosophy, something is a jti
(common quality) if it inheres in many and always exists somewhere at any given
time. For example, brhmaatva (brhmaa-hood) is a jti because the same quality
of being generated from the mouth of the Supreme Lord inheres in every brhmaa.
Similarly, gotva (cow-hood) is a jti because the same quality of having a large
dewlap inheres in all cows. A jti is considered eternal because of the steady existence
of these various qualities due to the fact that the totality of brhmaas and cows
doesnt simultaneously perish when an individual brhmaa of cow perishes.
88 / ak{(ita: paUvaAR /
88. prakti prv
praktiprakti (base, the original word to which suffixes are added); prvthe
first part.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
71
The first part (of a viupada) is called prakti.
s ca nma-dhtu-bhedd dvi-vidh.
VttiAnd the prakti is of two kinds, due to the distinction of nma (nominal base)
and dhtu (verbal base).
89 / atyaya: par": /
89. pratyaya para
pratyayapratyaya (suffix); parathe later part.
The second part (of a viupada) is called pratyaya.
sa ca svdy-khyta-kt-taddhita-bhedc catur-vidha.
VttiAnd the pratyaya is of four kinds, due to the distinction of sv-di (nominal
suffix), khyta (verbal suffix), kt (a suffix used to form nmas from dhtus), and
taddhita (a suffix used to form nmas from other nmas).
90 / taa naAa: s$au @AE jas$a, , @ma, @AE zAs$a, , q%A ByaAma, iBas$a, , xe~
ByaAma, Byas$a, , x~is$a ByaAma, Byas$a, , x~s$a, @Aes$a, @Ama, , ix~ @Aes$a,
s$aupa, /
90. tatra nmna su au jas, am au as, bhym bhis, e bhym bhyas, asi bhym
bhyas, as os m, i os sup
tatrathere, among a nma and a dhtu; nmnaafter a nma; su au jas, am au
as, bhym bhis, e bhym bhyas, asi bhym bhyas, as os m, i os supthe
viubhaktis su, au, jas, am, au, as, , bhym, bhis, e, bhym, bhyas, asi, bhym,
bhyas, as, os, m, i, os, and sup.
Among a nma and a dhtu, the following viubhaktis are applied after a
nma: su, au, jas, am, au, as, , bhym, bhis, e, bhym, bhyas, asi,
bhym, bhyas, as, os, m, i, os, and sup.
et su ity-daya eka-viatir viubhaktaya praty-eka nmna pare syu. tsu ca
su au jas pratham. am au as dvity. bhym bhis tty. e bhym bhyas
caturth. asi bhym bhyas pacam. as os m ah. i os sup saptam. tatra
prathamy eka-vacana su , dvi-vacanam au, bahu-vacana jas. dvityaika-vacanam
am, dvi-vacanam au, bahu-vacanam as ity-di jeyam. et sv-daya. sup ity eke.
VttiThe twenty-one viubhaktis beginning with su may be applied after a nma,
one at a time. Among them su, au, and jas are called pratham (first case), am, au,
and as dvity (second case), , bhym, and bhis tty (third case), e, bhym,
and bhyas caturth (fourth case), asi, bhym, and bhyas pacam (fifth case), as,
os, and m ah (sixth case), and i, os, and sup saptam (seventh case).
Among these seven cases, the eka-vacana (singular) of pratham is su, the dvivacana (dual) is au, and the bahu-vacana (plural) is jas. The eka-vacana of dvity
is am, the dvi-vacana is au, and the bahu-vacana is as. The other cases are also
divided in this way. These twenty-one viubhaktis are called sv-dis (those beginning
with su). Pini calls them sup.
91 / taa jaq%zAx~paA wta: , o s$aAe: , x~s$aeir" /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
72
91. tatra ja-a-a-a-p ita, u ca so, aser i ca
tatraamong the viubhaktis; ja-a-a-a-pja-rma, a-rma, a-rma, a-rma,
and pa-rma; itaits (indicatory letters); u u-rma; caand; soof the
viubhakti su; aseof the viubhakti asi; ii-rma; caand.
Among the viubhaktis, j, , , , and p are indicatory letters (its). As also
the u of su and the i of asi.
eti gacchati na tihatti it, anubandha ca. sa ca uccrartha cihnrtho vidhydi-nimitta ca kvacit. ita caitesiddhopadee viricau ca sa-viucpa-sarvevara it,
antya-viujana ca. at it ity-dau, -m-u-nasu ca. viricau tu kvacit. dhtv-di-iu-u. pratyaydy ja-a-a-p. a-ka-vargv ataddhite. na viubhaktau ta-na-sam iti. siddhopade dhtu-pratyaya-viava. a-rmdi-bhed sa-viucps tu
vaidik. nma-saja catur-vidha. yathpu-liga puruottama-saja, strligo lakm-saja, napusaka-ligo brahma-saja, aligo vyaya-saja. tatra
sarvevarnt puruottama-lig. tatra a-rmnt ka-abda. tatra
prathamaika-vacane ka su iti sthite u-rma uccrartha.
VttiAn it (indicatory letter) is so named because it goes (eti). That is to say it
doesnt remain. The it is also called anubandha. Sometimes an indicatory letter is
employed to aid pronunciation (uccraa), sometimes to create a distinguishing
characteristic (cihna), and sometimes it is the cause (nimitta) of the application of a
rule (vidhi) or prohibition (pratiedha). These are also its: a sarvevara with a
viucpa in a siddhopadea or virici is an it. The final viujana in a siddhopadea or
virici is also an it. The final viujana in at, it and so on, as well in the avyayas , m,
u, and na is also an it. But the final viujana in a virici is only sometimes an it. i, u
and u at the beginning of a dhtu are also its, as are j, , , and p at the beginning of
a pratyaya. and ka-varga are also its when they occur in a pratyaya other than a
taddhita. A t, n, s, or m occuring in a viubhakti is not an it. The dhtus, pratyayas,
and vius are called siddhopadeas. The kind of a-rma and so on that has a
viucpa is found in the Vedas.
AmtaJva Gosvm speaks a paribh with the sentences beginning
siddhopadee and ending iti. J and are its by pratyaydy ja-a-a-p, and by
a-ka-vargv ataddhite, and p by antya-viujana ca. The u of su and the i of asi are
its by siddhopadee viricau ca sa-viucpa-sarvevara it. An example of when an
indicatory letter is employed to aid pronunciation is the u in su , and an example of
when it is used to create a distinguishing characteristic (cihna) is the j in jas. Examples
of when it is the cause (nimitta) of the application of a rule (vidhi) is the in e, asi, as,
and i, as well as the c in auc and the i in i. The word di in vidhy-di indicates
pratiedha (a prohibition). An example of when an indicatory letter is the cause of a
pratiedha is the k in yak.
An example of sa-viucpa-sarvevara it in regard to a dhtu is the in cit sajne,
in regard to a pratyaya, the u in su and i in asi, in regard to a viu, the u in nu and
tuk, and in regard to a virici, the a of na in tasmt so na pusi (95). Earlier
grammarians have accepted that these have a viucpa. An example of antyaviujana ca in regard to a dhtu is the r in sphuir viarae, in regard to a pratyaya,
the p of tip, in regard to a viu the of nu, and in regard to a virici the c of auc in
harito er auc (122). But due to the mention of the word kvacit (sometimes), the final
viujana in pad, dat, and so on, which are viricis of the words pda, danta and so on,
is not an indicatory letter.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
73
The word dhtv-di-i-u-u is a samhra-dvandva-samsa, thus it is declined in the
neuter singular. Examples of dhtv-di-i-u-u are the i in the dhtu iphal, the u in
the dhtu uovi, and the u in the dhtu uk. Examples of pratyaydy ja-a-ap are the j in jas, the in , the in al, and the p in pam. Examples of a-kavargv ataddhite are the in as, the k in kvasu, the kh in khal, the gh in gha, and
the in e. Why do we say ataddhite? Because a-rma and ka-varga are not indicatory
letters in the taddhitas bahua, grmaka and so on. Examples of viubhaktau ta-nasa-m are yt, ran, jas and bhym (here the t, n, s, and m are not indicatory letters).
Why do we say viubhaktau (in a viubhakti)? Because the t of yat in
sarvevarnta-dhtor yat (801) and the m of nam in rudhde ap-kha nam
(551) are certainly indicatory letters by antya-viujana ca.
Someone may argue, Why should the i and u of asi and nu, for example, be
considered indicatory letters since they dont have a viucpa?. To refute that Jva
Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning a-rmdi-bhed. In this connection, it is
confirmed in astra that the sarvevara has a viucpa and thus the grammatical
operations related to indicatory letters are applied. But this is done in accordance with
Vedic rules as the distiction of a sarvevaras being sa-viucpa or nir-viucpa is
found only in the Vedas. Sometimes grammatical operations belonging to the normal
language (laukika) are ordained in relation to Vedic (vaidika) rules, because the normal
language also contains Vedic usages. For example, although [k]vas[u], [k]i, and [k]na
are Vedic pratyayas, they are also used in the normal language. Such is the case here
also.
SaodhinThe sv-dis are listed below in table form with their indicatory letters in
brackets. The uses of each case will be elaborately described in the Kraka-prakaraa.
But, for now, we need only know that the pratham viubhaktis are also used for
sambodhana (addressing) whereupon different rules apply to them, as described
here, in the Nma-prakaraa. This use of the pratham viubhaktis is practically
treated like an eighth case.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
s[u]
am
[]
[]e
[]as[i]
[]as
[]i
s[u]

dvi-vacana
au
au
bhym
bhym
bhym
os
os
au

bahu-vacana
[j]as
[]as
bhis
bhyas
bhyas
m
su[p]
[j]as

The word it is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu i[] gatau
(2P, to go) and then applying vmant tuk pthau (778) and kevalasya pratyaya-ver
hara (612). The word anubandha was chosen by ancient grammarians due to the
similarity of the indicatory letter with the anubandhya-pau, the animal tied down to a
post in a sacrifice and subsequently slaughtered. In regard to indicatory letters,
Adhyy 1.6.9 clearly says tasya lopa (An indicatory letter gets deleted). The
phrase na tihati (it doesnt remain), which is Jva Gosvms gloss on eti (goes),
indicates the same. Since at, it, and so on (see vtti 36), and the avyayas [], m[],
u[] and na[] are nmas they dont fit into the category of siddhopadea or virici.
Therefore their final viujanas are separately designated as indicatory letters by the
sentence at it ity-dau, -m-u-nasu ca. Another example that shows the force of the
word kvacit (sometimes) in viricau tu kvacit is the fact that the final letters of the
viricis ay, y, av, and v, prescribed in stras 55 and 56, are not indicatory letters.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
74
The use of the nasalized vowel (sa-viucpa-sarvevara) is borrowed from the Vedas
as a means to instruct the rules of grammar. Earlier grammarians headed by Pini
have also employed it as such in their grammars. Pini himself has further employed
the Vedic device of svaras (accents) in his grammar for differentiating the
tmanepada and ubhayapada dhtus from the parasmaipada dhtus. This can be seen
in Adhyy 1.3.12 and 1.3.72.
Siddhnta-kaumud commenting on Adhyy 1.3.2 says pratijnunsiky
piny (the followers of Pini say that the nasality of a vowel should be inferred
by the way in which an upadea is treated by Pini). That is to say the viucpa is
not actually written down, but is understood by convention. In Hari-nmmtavykaraa, Jva Gosvm usually points out the indicatory letters himself in the vtti,
and where this is not the case, the commentaries supply that information. From now
on the indicatory letters will be given in square brackets for claritys sake, and the
cases and their numbers will be put in triangular brackets such that the first case
singular will be denoted by <1.1>, the first case dual by <1.2>, and so on.
In all the printed editions of Hari-nmmta, we see that in this stra and the previous
stra, as also in the next vtti, the viubhakti su is listed as s u* . But this reading is
inconsistent and is actually a corruption, for if we were to accept that s u* is the
correct reading, the following question must be raised: Why is the viucpa written
only in s u* , when asi and various other dhtus, pratyayas, vius, and viricis also
have viucpas? Why dont we be consistent and write as i* and so on? There is no
good reason for this. Indeed, the fact that one viubhakti is written with a viucpa
and the other isnt, when both of them are described here as having sa-viucpasarvevaras, makes the student search for a difference that in fact does not exist.
Pini and other grammarians write the viubhakti merely as su, and are consistent
in not writing the viucpa of the indicatory letters. But these editions inconsistently
single out s u* , writing it with a viucpa while not writing the viucpa of other
indicatory letters. Even then, s u* is not always written with the viucpa as will be
seen in the stras sambodhane sur buddha-saja (109) and so on. Thus, taking into
consideration these grave faults of inconsistency, in this edition we will consistently list
the viubhakti as su, and not as s u* . Indeed, this is justified because reliable
manuscripts like manuscript 2038A (Serial No: 2897, Accession No: 2038A) in the
Vrindavan Research Institute also list it as su and not as s u* .
VttiThe nmas are of four kinds. For example, pu-liga (one whose gender is
masculine) is called puruottama, str-liga (one whose gender is feminine) is called
lakm, napusaka-liga (one whose gender is neuter) is called brahma, and aliga
(that which has no gender) is called avyaya. Among the four kinds of nmas are the
masculine words ending in a sarvevara. Among them is the word ka that ends in
a-rma. In regard to the word ka, when in the first case singular we have ka +
s[u], the u is an indicatory letter employed for the sake of pronunciation.
92 / ivaSNAuBai(is$aM" ivaSNAupad"ma, /
92. viubhakti-siddha viu-padam
viubhakti-siddhamachieved by a viubhakti; viu-padama viupada
(inflected word).
That which is formed by the application of a viubhakti is called a
viupada.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
75
viubhakti-siddha nmno dhtor v rpa viupada-saja syt. padam iti
prca.
VttiThe form of a nma or dhtu achieved through the application of a viubhakti
is called viupada. Earlier grammarians called it a pada.
AmtaThe word pada can mean feet or abode. Thus the implied meaning is that
Lord Vius feet or his abode are achieved only by devotional service to Him (viubhakti), and not by any other means.
93 / s$ar"r"AmayaAeivaRSNAus$agAAeR ivaSNAupad"Antae /
93. sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte
sa-ra-rmayoof sa-rma and ra-rma; viusargathe replacement viusarga;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
Sa-rma and ra-rma become viusarga when the viaya is viupadnta.
pr-nimitta tath kry / krya para-nimittakam
atra kramea vaktavya / prya streu sarvata.
kvacit para-nimittasya / sthne viaya-saptam.
krya-prve pacam syt / krya-sthne tu ahik
krye tu pratham vcy / saptam viaye pare
vin-yoge niedhrtha / dvity kvacid iyate
sarvgsambhavo yatra / sv-alpny agni tatra tu
ato blaka-bodhya / pada vicchidya mrdhani
ak dey viubhakti- / vyakty-artha sarva-strata
yathsa-ra-rmayor iti krya-sthna, viusarga iti krya, viupadnto
viaya. para-nimitta prva-nimitta ctra nsti. tat tac ca yathi-dvayam eva ya
sarvevare ity atra para-nimitta sarvevara. tata a cho vety atra prva-nimitta
viudsa. viujana ity-dau ha-rau vineti tau niiddhau. tad eva prathamy ekavacane ka. dvi-vacane ka au, o-dvaye au, kau. bahu-vacane ka jas, ja
it cihnrtha as-di-bheda-jpanya. evam uttaratrpi. trivikrama-viusargau
k.
Amta stra-sthitn varnm
arthn ca prattaye
viuddh cdhik vykhy
vttir ukt manibhi
That which ensures the clear apprehension of the varas and arthas situated in a
stra, and which adds additional information is called a vtti by learned men.
Vtti Generally, in every stra of this book, things are spoken in the order of prnimitta, kry, krya, and para-nimitta1. Sometimes in place of a para-nimitta there is
a viaya-saptam.
BlaThe word atra here means in this book, and the word sarvata means sarveu
(in every). The word prya (generally) is used as there is not always a prnimitta, kry, krya, and para-nimitta in every stra. Thus, when one of them is
missing, the order naturally becomes different.

1 See Amta 44 for definitions.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
76
SaodhinThe terms pr-nimitta, kry, krya, and para-nimitta were already
defined and explained in Amta 44 and Saodhin 44. Viaya-saptam refers to when
a saptam viubhakti is used to denote the viaya. This has already been seen in
cases like viupadnte (when the viaya is viupadnta) and so on (see
Saodhin 57).
VttiPacam is used when there is a pr-nimitta (krya-prva), ah when there
is a kry (krya-sthna), pratham when there is a krya, and saptam when there is
a viaya or a para-nimitta.
BlaKrya-prve (when there is that which is previous to the krya) means prnimitte (when there is a pr-nimitta), krya-sthne (when there is the place where
the grammatical operation occurs) means kryii (when there is a kry), and
viaye refers to the viaya-saptam described in the previous verse.
VttiSometimes, for the sake of exclusion (niedha), dvity is used in relation to
that which is syntactically connected with the word vin. Where it is impossible for all
these elements to exist together, there are at least a few of them.
AmtaThe word sarvgni (all the elements) refers to the five elements headed
by pr-nimitta which were described in the previous verses. Due to the use of the
word prya in the fourth verse, there is no rule that all five elements have to be
present in every stra.
VttiTherefore, to enligthen children, in each stra one should split the words
(where there is sandhi) and put a number on top of each word so that the viubhakti
will be clear.
SaodhinThus, according to this recommendation, we would write the current
6
1
7
stra as sa-ra-rmayo viusarga viupada-ant e. However, since this edition
already contains a word-for-word section that clarifies the viubhakti, we will not
follow this system. In the word-for-word section after indicates a pr-nimitta, of...
indicates a kry, when a follows indicates a para-nimitta, and when the viaya
is indicates a viaya-saptam. The krya is usually mentioned as it is, without any
preposition, and can be easily inferred from the translation.
VttiFor example, sa-ra-rmayo is a kry (krya-sthna), viusarga is a krya,
and viupadnte is a viaya. In this stra there is no para-nimitta or pr-nimitta
(prva-nimitta). Examples of them are as follows: In i-dvayam eva ya sarvevare (50),
sarvevara is a para-nimitta, and in tata a cho v (64), viudsa is a pr-nimitta.
In viujane viujano v, ha-rau vin (Bhat 120), ha-rma and ra-rma are excluded.
Thus, in the first case singular, we get ka + s[u] which becomes ka by the
current stra, in the first case dual we have ka + au which becomes kau by odvaye au (49), and in the first case plural we have ka + [j]as. The j is an indicatory
letter employed to create a distinguishing characteristic (cihna). Specifically, it is
employed to inform us that [j]as is different than []as and so on. Such is the case later
also. The a of [j]as then becomes trivikrama and the s becomes viusarga. Thus we
get k:
ka + s[u] kas (93) ka <1.1>.
ka + au (49) kau <1.2>.
ka + [j]as (42) ks (93) k <1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
77
SaodhinAfter removing the indicatory letters and applying the current stra, the
viubhaktis are as follows:
case
eka-vacana
dvi-vacana
bahu-vacana
pratham

au
a
dvity
am
au
a
tty

bhym
bhi
caturth
e
bhym
bhya
pacam
a
bhym
bhya
ah
a
o
m
saptam
i
o
su
sambodhana

au
a
At this point it is necessary to explain some of the basic meanings of each case. We
will do this by using the word suhd (friend) as an example since it doesnt require
any special rules save and except the deletion of s[u] by rdh-viujanbhym pa
ca trivikramt sor hara (138). For the sake of clarity, sandhi has not been done in the
following examples.
1) Pratham is used to indicate the subject of a verb in an active sentence or the
object of a verb in a passive sentence.
suhd vadati (The friend speaks)
suhd liyate (The friend is embraced)
2) Dvity is used to indicate the object of a verb in an active sentence. Sometimes
this case is expressed in English by the use of the preposition to.
suhdam paymi (I see a friend)
suhdam vadmi (I talk to a friend)
3) Tty is used to indicate the instrument, or in other words the means by which an
action is accomplished. It is expressed in English by the use of the prepositions by or
with. Tty is also used to indicate the subject of a verb in a passive sentence and
this is also expressed with the preposition by.
suhd karea khdati (The friend eats with [his] hand)
suhd liyate kena (The friend is embraced by Ka)
4) Caturth is used to indicate the beneficiary who is the indirect object of a verb. It is
expressed in English by the use of the preposition to.
suhde dna dadmi (I give a gift to a friend)
5) Pacam is used to indicate the source. It is expressed in English by the use of the
preposition from.
suhda dna pratighmi (I receive a gift from a friend)
6) ah is used to indicate possession or intimate relation. It is expressed in English
by the use of an apostrophe s or by the use of the preposition of.
suhda gham (The house of a friend)
suhda putra (A friends son)
7) Saptam is used to indicate the location. It is expressed in English by the use of the
prepositions in, on, or at.
suhdi vivsa (Confidence in a friend)
suhd ghe asti (The friend is at home)
8) Sambodhana is used to address somebody.
he suhd (O friend)

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
78
Each of these cases, however, has many other meanings. These meanings will be
explained in the Kraka-prakaraa.
94 / d"zAAvataAr"Ad"mzAs$aAer"r"Amah"r": /
94. davatrd am-asor a-rma-hara
davatrtafter a davatra; am-asoof the viubhaktis am and []as; arma-haradeletion of a-rma.
When am or []as come after a davatra their a-rma is deleted.
kam. haro ya jpayatistre pratyaya-rpa-nimittd anyasya haro pi
mahhara iti. tenaiktmaka-mtra-nimittatvn na trivikrama. dvity-dvitve ka
aukau. prva-vad bahutve ka asa it, a-rma-hara. eka-dea-viktam
ananya-vat, tathpi tan-nmaivety artha. tata ca.
Vtti ka + am (94) ka + m kam <2.1>.
This hara informs us that the hara of something other than a nimitta in the form of a
pratyaya in a stra is also considered a mahhara. Therefore the change to trivikrama
doesnt take place because in stra 42 the nimitta is just an ektmaka. In the second
case dual we have ka + au which becomes kau:
ka + au (49) kau <2.2>.
In the second case plural we have ka + []as. The , just like the j of [j]as described
in the previous vtti, is an indicatory letter employed to create a distinguishing
characteristic (cihna). The a-rma of []as undergoes hara by the current stra, and
then the following rule applies in accordance with the maxim eka-dea-viktam
ananya-vat (see vtti 85) which means even though something is deficient in one
place it is still called the same thing.
AmtaSomeone may argue, In kam, why isnt davatra ektmake militv
trivikrama (42) applied since the deleted a-rma is considered like the original
(sthni-vat) as it is not stated here that a-rma should undergo mahhara? Jva
Gosvm addresses this concern with the sentence beginning This hara. The word
stre (in a stra) here means akita-vidhi-stre (in a vidhi-stra which is suspected
to be applicable). In the stra ordaining trivikrama which is suspected to be
applicable, the a of am isnt a nimitta in the form of a pratyaya, rather it is a nimitta
that is just an ektmaka. Therefore, since the a undergoes mahhara by the current
stra it cannot become trivikrama by stra 42. If the a-rma were to become
trivikrama by stra 42, then the current rule ordaining hara would be meaningless.
Therefore this hara is considered a mahhara. Someone may further argue, In the
next stra, since []as is the para-nimitta, how can the davatra become trivikrama
as []as no longer exists when the a of []as is deleted by the current stra. To settle
this doubt, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning The meaning of eka-dea.
The resultant meaning of this sentence is that even though the a of as thus
undergoes hara, the s of []as is still called []as in accordance with the maxim ekadea-viktam ananya-vat.
95 / d"zAAvataAr"sya iaiva(ma: zAis$a , tasmaAts$aAe na: pauMis$a /
95. davatrasya trivikrama asi, tasmt so na pusi

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
79
davatrasyaof davatra; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; asiwhen
[]as follows; tasmtafter that; saof sa-rma; nana-rma; pusiwhen the
viaya is the masculine gender.
Davatra becomes trivikrama when []as follows. After that, the s of []as
becomes n provided the viaya is the masculine gender.
kn.
Vtti ka + []as (94) ka + s (95) k + s k + n kn
<2.3>.
96 / @r"AmaAnta: k{(SNAs$aMa: /
96. a-rmnta ka-saja
a-rma-antaending in a-rma; ka-sajacalled ka.
Any nma ending in a-rma is called ka.
97 / k{(SNAAta. q%A wna: /
97. kt ina
ktafter a ka (a word ending in a-rma); of the viubhakti []; ina
the replacement ina.
After a ka, [] is replaced by ina.
eti stra-balena lupta-ah, spaatrtham asandhi. evam anyatrpi. ka ina,
a-dvayam i-dvaye ekena.
Vtti is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the strength of
the stra, and which, for the sake of clarity, doesnt undergo sandhi. Such is the case
elsewhere also.
ka + [] (97) ka + ina (43) kena <3.1>.
AmtaThe word stra-balena, in the vtti, indicates the usage found in the Vedas.
The non-sandhi of and ina takes place on the strength of the paribh sandhir
anitya stra-nirdee Sandhi is not compulsory when composing a stra (Bhat 44).
SaodhinThe sixth case singular form , in this stra, is irregular. Usually, when
[]as is applied after to form the sixth case singular, -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare,
na tv pa (114) is applied and we get a. However, the ah viubhakti []as is
irregularly deleted here on the strength of the stra. The stra referred to here is
sup su-luk-prva-savarc-che-y--y-yj-la (Adhyy 7.1.39), a stra that
describes, among other things, the luk (mahhara) of the sups (sv-dis) sometimes
seen in the Vedas. When []as is thus deleted, -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare, na tv
pa (114) no longer applies in accordance with the maxim nimittpye
naimittikasypy apya (see vtti 178). Thus we get the irregular sixth case singular
form . In this way, to clearly instruct the rules of grammar, Jva Gosvm is again
employing a Vedic device, the deletion of sv-dis, just as he uses the nasalized vowel
(sa-viucpa-sarvevara) to distinguish indicatory letters.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
80
That the stra referred to in the phrase stra-balena is indeed Adhyy 7.1.39 can
be proven by referring to Jva Gosvms Laghu-vaiava-toa (10.6.22), wherein
he says aghri-jnv ity anayo supm su-luk ity-di-chndasa-strea su-luk (the
luk (mahhara) of the case endings of the words aghri and jnu takes place in
accordance with the Vedic stra beginning supm su-luk). This is in reference to the
irregular forms aghri <2.2> and jnu <2.2> found in Bhgavatam 10.6.22. The usual
forms would be aghr <2.2> and jnun <2.2>, but in Bhgavatam 10.6.22 the
second case dual endings of these words undergo mahhara by Adhyy 7.1.39.
98 / k{(SNAsya iaiva(maAe gAAepaAlae /
98. kasya trivikramo gople
kasyaof a ka; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; goplewhen a gopla
follows.
The final a of a ka1 becomes trivikrama when a gopla follows.
eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartatekbhym.
VttiA rule that is in reference to a single vara is applied at the end.
ka + bhym (98) k + bhym kbhym <3.2>.
99 / k{(SNAAi"s$a Wes$a, /
99. kd bhisa ais
ktafter a ka; bhisaof the viubhakti bhis; aisthe replacement ais.
After a ka, bhis is replaced by ais.
bahutve ka bhis e-dvaye ai, viusargakai.
Vtti ka + bhis (99) ka + ais (48) kais (93) kai <3.3>.
100 / k{(SNAAtxe~yaR: /
100. kt er ya
ktafter a ka; eof the viubhakti []e; yathe replacement ya.
After a ka, []e is replaced by ya.
caturthy-ekatve ekasya trivikramakya. dvitve bhymkbhym.
Vtti ka + []e (100) ka + ya (98) k + ya kya <4.1>.
ka + bhym (98) k + bhym kbhym <4.2>.
1 In accordance with the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate in this vtti, we understand that
although the words of the stra literally say a ka becomes trivikrama when a gopla follows, the
actual meaning is that the final a of a ka becomes trivikrama when a gopla follows.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
81
101 / k{(SNAsya W vaESNAvae ba"tvae /
101. kasya e vaiave bahutve
kasyaof a ka; ethe replacement e-rma; vaiavewhen a vaiava
follows; bahutvewhen the viaya is bahu-vacana (the plural).
In bahu-vacana, the final a of a ka1 becomes e when a vaiava follows.
bahutve bhyaskebhya.
Vtti ka + bhyas (101) ke + bhyas (93) kebhya <4.3>.
102 / k{(SNAAtx~s$aer"Ata, /
102. kt aser t
ktafter a ka; aseof the viubhakti []as[i]; tthe replacement t.
After a ka, []as[i] is replaced by t.
pacamy-ekatve ka asikt. pacam-dvitva-bahutvayokbhy
kebhya.
Vtti ka + []as[i] (102) ka + t (42) kt <5.1>.
ka + bhym (98) k + bhym kbhym <5.2>.
ka + bhyas (101) ke + bhyas (93) kebhya <5.3>.
103 / k{(SNAAtx~s$a: sya /
103. kt asa sya
ktafter a ka; asaof the viubhakti []as; syathe replacement sya.
After a ka, []as is replaced by sya.
ahy-ekatve ka askasya.
Vtti ka + []as (103) ka + sya kasya <6.1>.
104 / k{(SNAsya W @Aeis$a /
104. kasya e osi

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
82
kasyaof a ka; ethe replacement e-rma; osiwhen the viubhakti os
follows.
The final a of a ka1 becomes e when os follows.
dvitve ose aykayo.
Vtti ka + os (104) ke + os (54) kay + os (93) kayo
<6.2>.
105 / vaAmanagAAepaIr"ADaAByaAe naux"Aima /
105. vmana-gop-rdhbhyo nu mi
vmana-gop-rdhbhyaafter a vmana, gop (feminine nma ending in or ), or
rdh (feminine nma ending in [p]); nuthe gama n[u]; miwhen the
viubhakti m follows.
The gama n[u] is inserted after a vmana, gop, or rdh when m
follows.
do vidhir viu.id-gama para-sambandh, kid-gama prva-sambandh.
VttiThis type of rule is a viu. An gama which has the indicatory letter is
connected with the following element, and an gama which has the indicatory letter k
is connected with the previous element.
AmtaThe word para-sambandh means pratyaya-sambandh (connected with the
pratyaya), and the word prva-sambandh means prakti-sambandh (connected
with the prakti). Thus, because n[u] is pratyaya-sambandh, due to having the
indicatory letter , it joins with the viubhakti m.
106 / taa iq%inmataAE s$avaRaAgAmaAE amaM ivanaA , ogAntaik(a /
106. tatra in-mitau sarvatrgamau nama vin, ug-anta-kic ca
tatrain that regard; it-mitauthings that have the indicatory letter or m; sarvatra
always; gamaugamas; namamthe vikaraa []na[m] inserted after the rudhdi dhtus; vinexcept; uk-anta-k-itthat which has the indicatory letter k and ends
in uk; caalso.
In that regard, things that have the indicatory letter or m are always
gamas, with the exception of []na[m], and something that has the
indicatory letter k and ends in uk is also an gama.
yathnuk puk tuk yuk ity-di.
VttiFor example, n[uk], p[uk], t[uk], y[uk], and so on.
AmtaThis is a paribh. Even though []na[m] has the qualities of an gama in
that it has the indicatory letter m and comes between the prakti and a pratyaya, the

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
83
phrase nana vin exludes it from being an gama. It will be described later how
[]na[m] is both called a vikaraa and a pratyaya.
107 / vaAmanasya iaiva(maAe naAima , na{zAbd"sya tau vaA , na itas$a{cataaAe: /
107. vmanasya trivikramo nmi, n-abdasya tu v, na tis-catasro
vmanasyaof vmana; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; nmiwhen nm
(n[u] + m) follows; n-abdasyaof the word n (a man); tubut; voptionally;
nanot; tis-catasroof the words tis and catas (the feminine forms of the words
tri (three) and catur (four) respectively).
A vmana becomes trivikrama when nm follows. But the of n 1 only
optionally becomes trivikrama when nm follows, and the of tis and
catas doesnt become trivikrama when nm follows.
bahutve mknm. kasya trivikrama ity anenaiva siddhatve pi strasya
prayojana harm ity-dv eva. saptamy-ekatve ka ia it, a-dvayam i-dvaye e
ke. dvitve oskayo.
Vtti ka + m (105) ka + n[u] + m ka + nm (107) k +
nm knm <6.3>.
Even though knm could be achieved by kasya trivikramo gople (98), the
current stra is needed to achieve harm <6.3> and so on.
ka + []i (43) ke <7.1>.
ka + os
<7.2>.

(104) ke + os (54) kay + os (93) kayo

108 / wRr"h"ir"imaak(xe~Bya: atyayaivair"ias$asya SaAe ,


nauimvaSNAus$agARvyavaDaAnae'ipa , na tau ivaSNAupad"Antas$aAtaInaAma, /
108. vara-harimitra-ka-ebhya pratyaya-virici-sasya o, num-viusargavyavadhne pi, na tu viupaddy-anta-stnm
vara-harimitra-ka-ebhyaafter an vara, harimitra, ka-rma or a-rma;
pratyaya-virici-sasyaof the sa-rma of a pratyaya (suffix) or virici (replacement);
athe replacement a-rma; num-viusarga-vyavadhnewhen n[um] or
viusarga intervenes; apieven; nanot; tubut; viupada-dy-antaat the
beginning or end of a viupada; stnmof the taddhita pratyaya st[i].
After an vara, harimitra, k, or , the s of a pratyaya or virici becomes .
This is the case even when n[um] or viusarga intervenes. But s at the
beginning or end of a viupada and the s of st[i] dont become a-rma.
bahutve suppa-rma it, kasya e, keu. atha sambodhanam. tatra he-abda
sambodhana-scaka.
Vtti ka + su[p] (101) ke + su (108) ke + u keu <7.3.>.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
84
Now we begin sambodhana (the vocative case). In that regard, the word he indicates
sambodhana.
AmtaIt will be described later how the word n[um] refers to the viucakra alone.
Why do we say vara-harimitra-ka-ebhya? Consider rmasya and payasu. Why do
we say pratyaya-virici-sasya? Consider su-p and su-pisau. Why do we say na tu
viupaddy-anta-stnm? Consider madhu-seka, vyatise, hari, astau, and
agnist. Only the sa-rma of a virici which is alone (kevala) should be accepted. Thus
the current stra doesnt apply to tisra and so on (because sa-rma is not the only
vara in the viricis tis, catas since there are other varas beside sa-rma in tis,
catas).
SaodhinIn rmasya (of Rma) and payasu (in milk), the s of the pratyayas
sya (from []as) and su[p] doesnt become because it comes after a-rma, which is
not an vara, harimitra, k or . Su-p and su-pisau are the first case singular and
dual forms of the word su-pis (going well). The word pis is originally from the dhtu
pis[] gatau (1P, to go). Thus it is not a pratyaya or virici. In madhu-seka (that
which oozes honey / nectar) and vyatise (he excels), the s is at the beginning of a
viupada. It will be explained later how prdaya upendra-saj dhtu-yoge, te ca
prk (301) indicates that the upendras are considered separate viupadas which form
samsas with dhtus. Thus, in vyatise <acyuta t. 2.1 of vi + ati + as[a] bhuvi>, the s
of the pratyaya is at the beginning of the viupada se. The words hari (Hari) and
astau (you praised) were originally haris and astaus before applying stra 93. Here
the s is at the end of the viupada. Thus it doesnt change to , but becomes a
viusarga instead by stra 93. In agnist (to become fire) the s is of the taddhita
pratyaya st[i]. Examples of viricis that are comprised solely of sa-rma are the sarma that replaces the initial a-rma of a dhtu by dhtv-de a sa (360) and the
sa-rma that replaces the ta-rma of the tad-dis by tad-des ta sa sau (238).
109 / s$ambaAeDanae s$aubauR"s$aMa: /
109. sambodhane sur buddha-saja
sambodhanein sambodhana (the vocative case); suthe viubhakti s[u];
buddha-sajacalled buddha.
In sambodhana, s[u] is called buddha.
110 / W@AevaAmanaeByaAe bau"syaAd"zARnama, /
110. e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam
e-o-vmanebhyaafter e-rma, o-rma, or vmana; buddhasyaof buddha;
adaranamdisappearance1.
Buddha disappears after e, o, or vmana.
he ka. dvitva-bahutvayo prva-vathe kau he k. atra prathamaiva. heabddy-abhve pika kau k. viubhakti-hare pi tad-arthvtatvn

1 Adarana is the same thing as hara because in vtti 40 hara was defined as
adarana-mtra-hetur hara.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
85
nmatvtikrama. tata ka ysi, ka bhsty-dau nma-vieasya vihita
trivikramdika na syt. eva rma rmau rm ity-di.
VttiThus in the vocative case singular we get he ka <8.1>. The vocative case
dual and plural are like before. Thus we get he kau <8.2> and he k <8.3>
respectively. When there is sambodhana (addressing), only the first case endings are
applied. And when there is no vocative particle like he, we get ka <8.1>, kau
<8.2>, and k <8.3> in the vocative singular, dual, and plural respectively.
ka + s[u] (110) ka <8.1>.
ka + au (49) kau <8.2>.
ka + [j]as (42) ks (93) k <8.3>.

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
ka
kam
kena
kya
kt
kasya
ke
ka

dvi-vacana
kau
kau
kbhym
kbhym
kbhym
kayo
kayo
kau

bahu-vacana
k
kn
kai
kebhya
kebhya
knm
keu
k

Even when there is deletion of the viubhakti, the vocative case singular, ka, is
not a nma because it is still endowed with the meaning of the viubhakti. Therefore,
in ka ysi (O Ka, You go), ka bhsi (O Ka, You shine), and so on, the
trivikrama and so on ordained previously doesnt apply. In the same way that the
various forms of the word ka were made, we similarly get rma <1.1>, rmau
<1.2>, rm <1.3>, and so on:
rma + s[u] rmas (93) rma <1.1>.
rma + au (49) rmau <1.2>.
rma + [j]as (42) rms (93) rm <1.3>.
AmtaIt will be described in the Kraka-prakaraa how only the first case endings
are applied when there is sambodhana.
SaodhinIn this stra, the phrase buddhasydaranam is a pun on Buddha.
Because his philosophy is voidism, it is quite befitting that Buddha disappears, or
becomes nothing.
111 / r"Sa[%"yaeByaAe nasya NA: ,
s$avaeRr"h"yavak(vagARpavagARvyavaDaAnae'ipa , s$amaAnaivaSNAupade" , na tau
ivaSNAupad"Antasya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
86
111. ra-a--dvayebhyo nasya a, sarvevara-ha-ya-va-ka-varga-pa-vargavyavadhne pi, samna-viupade, na tu viupadntasya
ra-a--dvayebhyaafter ra-rma, a-rma, or -dvaya; nasyaof na-rma; athe
replacement a-rma; sarvevara-ha-ya-va-ka-varga-pa-varga-vyavadhnewhen
sarvevara, ha-rma, ya-rma, va-rma, ka-varga, or pa-varga intervenes; apieven;
samna-viupadein the same viupada; nanot; tubut; viupada-antasyaat
the end of a viupada.
After r, , or -dvaya, a n situated in the same viupada as them becomes
. This is the case even when sarvevara, h, y, v, ka-varga, or pa-varga
intervenes. But n situated at the end of viupada doesnt become .
rmn rmea ity-adi. kurvann astty-dau dvitve prva-na-rmasya na atva
tatrkarat.
Vtti rma + []as (94) rma + s (95) rm + s rm + n rmn
<2.3>1.
rma + [] (97) rma + ina (43) rmena (111) rmea <3.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
rma
rmam
rmea
rmya
rmt
rmasya
rme
rma

dvi-vacana
rmau
rmau
rmbhym
rmbhym
rmbhym
rmayo
rmayo
rmau

bahu-vacana
rm
rmn
rmai
rmebhya
rmebhya
rmm
rmeu
rm

In examples like kurvann asti and so on, which were given back in the Dvitvaprakaraa (section on reduplication), the first n doesnt become (by the current
stra) due to the very fact that this rule was not made back then.
AmtaExamples of when a sarvevara intervenes are: caraam, hari, tarua,
and area. Examples of when h, y, or v intervenes are: barhea, kryea, and
ravaam. Examples of when ka-varga or pa-varga intervenes are: arkea, mrkhea,
vargea, arghea, gea, sarpea, rephea, kbea2, darbhea, and arma. The
change to takes place even when many of them intervene at the same time. For
example, paryyea and vaiamyea. And, due to the word api in the stra, the
change to takes place even if none of them intervene. For example, ra, tis,
pm, nm, and so on. As will be explained later (in vtti 207), the viucakra
and viusarga are also considered sarvevaras as they are listed in between the
sarvevaras and viujanas in the vara-krama. Therefore the change to takes place
even when they intervene. For example, bhaam and urakea. Why do we say
situated in the same viupada? Consider agnir nayati. The example of na tu
viupadntasya is rmn.
112 / zAs$aAd"yaAe yau"s$aMaA: /
112. as-dayo yadu-saj
1 This in an example of how n situated at the end of a viupada doesnt become .
2 Amta actually says arva, but this is an example of when v intervenes not when b
intervenes. Thus we have given kbea as an example instead.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
87
as-dayabeginning with []as; yadu-sajcalled yadus.
The viubhaktis beginning with []as are called yadus.
AmtaYadu, the eldest son of Yayti, was a king of the moon dynasty. Lord Ka
incarnated in the family of Yadu due to the kings virtuous character.
SaodhinThe endings of the vocative case are not yadus as they are actually
pratham viubhaktis. The yadus are as follows:
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana

[]
[]e
[]as[i]
[]as
[]i

bhym
bhym
bhym
os
os

[]as
bhis
bhyas
bhyas
m
su[p]

113 / @a paAd"d"ntamaAs$ayaUSa wtyaetaeSaAM pa"tmaAsyaUSainatyaetae


ivair"ayaAe yau"Sau vaA /
113. atra pda danta msa ya ity ete pad dat ms yan ity ete viricayo
yaduu v
atrain this connection; pda danta msa ya itithe words pda (foot), danta
(tooth), msa (month) and ya (soup); etemof these; pad dat ms yan
itipad, dat, ms, and yan; etethese; viricayaviricis (replacements); yaduu
when the yadus follow; voptionally.
In this connection, the words pda, danta, msa, and ya can optionally be
replaced by pad, dat, ms, and yan when a yadu follows.
yath-sakhyam anudea samnm. kryi kry ca, praktn
pratyayn ca tulya-sakhyn sat yad vidhna tad yath-sakhya syt.
prathamasya prathama dvityasya dvityam ity-di krameety artha. prayog ca
pake viujannta-vaj jey. yathpada pdn, pad pdena, padbhy
pdbhym ity-di.
atha dhtu-svarpa -rmnto vivap-abda. viva-p viva-pau viva-p. vivapm viva-pau.
VttiA rule (anudea) involving an equal number of elements should take place
according to the order of enumeration). That is to say a rule (vidhna) that involves
an equal number of krys and kryas, or praktis and pratyayas should act according
to the order of enumeration. This means that the first krya / pratyaya is in relation to
the first kry / prakti, the second in relation to the second, and so on, sequentially. In
the case that pda is replaced by pad, danta by dat, and so on, the declension is like
that of words ending in a viujana.
pda + []as (two options by 113):
1) (pda is replaced by pad) pad + as (93) pada <2.3>.
2) (pda isnt replaced by pad, 94) pda + s (95) pd + s pd + n
pdn <2.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
88
pda + [] (two options by 113):
1) (pda is replaced by pad) pad + [] pad <3.1>.
2) (pda isnt replaced by pad, 97) pda + ina (43) pdena <3.1>.
pda + bhym (two options by 113):
1) (pda is replaced by pad) pad + bhym padbhym <3.2>.
2) (pda isnt replaced by pad, 98) pd + bhym pdbhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhan
a

eka-vacana
pda
pdam
pdena / pad
pdya / pade
pdt / pada
pdasya / pada
pde / padi
pda

dvi-vacana
pdau
pdau
pdbhym / padbhym
pdbhym / padbhym
pdbhym / padbhym
pdayo / pado
pdayo / pado
pdau

bahu-vacana
pd
pdn / pada
pdai / padbhi
pdebhya / padbhya
pdebhya / padbhya
pdnm / padm
pdeu / patsu
pd

BlaFor example, here the kryas, pad and so on, are in relation to the krys, pda
and so on.
SaodhinThus ends the declension of words ending in a-rma. The paribh
yath-sakhyam anudea samnm is actually one of Pinis stras (Adhyy
1.3.10). From now on we will no longer show extra steps like pd + bhym in pda
+ bhym (98) pd + bhym pdbhym and ka + m in ka + am
(94) ka + m kam <2.1> as they are only artificial insertions meant to aid
beginners and are thus now unnecessary.
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word viva-p (protector of all, also a
name of the sun, moon, and fire) which ends in -rma, and which is essentially a
dhtu.
viva-p + s[u] (93) viva-p <1.1>.
viva-p + au (49) viva-pau <1.2>.
viva-p + [j]as (42) viva-ps (93) viva-p <1.3>.
viva-p + am (94) viva-pm <2.1>.
viva-p + au (49) viva-pau <2.2>.
AmtaThe word viva-p is essentially a dhtu because it is formed from the dhtu
p rakae (2P, to protect). For example, when the kt pratyaya vi is applied after
viva + p by nmny -rmt manip kvanip vanip vi ca (850) and subsequently
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (612), we get the word viva-p. In vtti 134
Jva Gosvm will describe how even though words whose kt pratyayas are deleted
are dhtus, they are also nmas, and therefore sv-dis are applied after them.
114 / @Ar"Amah"r"Ae yau"s$avaeRre" , na tvaApa: /
114. -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare, na tv pa

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
89
-rma-haradeletion of -rma; yadu-sarvevarewhen a yadu beginning with a
sarvevara follows; nanot; tubut; paof [p] (see Saodhin 143).
-rma is deleted when a yadu beginning with a sarvevara follows. But the
-rma of [p] doesnt get deleted.
viva-p asviva-pa. viva-p a itviva-p viva-pbhym viva-pbhi.
viva-p ea itviva-pe viva-pbhym viva-pbhya. viva-p asii-v itau
viva-pa viva-pbhym viva-pbhya. viva-p asa itviva-pa viva-po
viva-pm. viva-p ia itviva-pi viva-po viva-psu. sambodhane prva-vat
he viva-p ity-di. eva somap-prabhtaya. i-rmnto hari-abda.
Vtti viva-p + []as (114) viva-pas (93) viva-pa <2.3>.
viva-p + [] (114) viva-p <3.1>.
viva-p + bhym viva-pbhym <3.2>
viva-p + bhis (93) viva-pbhi <3.3>.
viva-p + []e (114) viva-pe <4.1>.
viva-p + bhym viva-pbhym <4.2>
viva-p + bhyas (93) viva-pbhya <4.3>.
viva-p + []as[i] (114) viva-pas (93) viva-pa <5.1>.
viva-p + bhym viva-pbhym <5.2>
viva-p + bhyas (93) viva-pbhya <5.3>.
viva-p + []as (114) viva-pas (93) viva-pa <6.1>.
viva-p + os (114) viva-pos (93) viva-po <6.2>.
viva-p + m (114) viva-pm <6.3>.
viva-p + []i (114) viva-pi <7.1>.
viva-p + os (114) viva-pos (93) viva-po <7.2>.
viva-p + su[p] viva-psu <7.3>.
In the vocative case, the forms are the same as those of the first case, thus we get he
viva-p and so on.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
viva-p
viva-pm
viva-p
viva-pe
viva-pa
viva-pa
viva-pi

dvi-vacana
viva-pau
viva-pau
viva-pbhym
viva-pbhym
viva-pbhym
viva-po
viva-po

bahu-vacana
viva-p
viva-pa
viva-pbhi
viva-pbhya
viva-pbhya
viva-pm
viva-psu

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
90
sambodhana
viva-p

viva-pau

viva-p

Words like soma-p (drinker of the soma juice, soma sacrificer, or particular class of
pits) and so on are declined in the same as viva-p. Now we begin the declension of
the word hari, which ends in i-rma.
AmtaIn accordance with the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate, which will
be mentioned in vtti 134, the word yadu-sarvevare should be understood to mean
when a pratyaya beginning with a sarvevara, which is among the sixteen pratyayas
called the yadus, follows. If this were not the case, there would be ativypti
(overinclusion) in regards to bhym and so on (since they also have sarvevaras).
115 / wor"AmaAntaAe h"ir"s$aMa: /
115. i-u-rmnto hari-saja
i-u-rmntaending in i-rma or u-rma; hari-sajacalled hari.
Any nma ending in i-rma or u-rma is called hari.
hari.
Vtti hari + s[u] (93) hari <1.1>.
116 / h"ir"ta @AE paUvaRs$avaNAR: /
116. harita au prva-savara
haritaafter a hari; authe viubhakti au; prva-sa-varathe same vara as the
previous one;
After a hari, au becomes the same vara as the previous one.
har.
Vtti hari + au (116) hari + i (42) har <1.2>.
117 / w"yasya W , o"yasya @Ae , [%"yasya @r," , la{"yasya
@lgAAeivand"s$aMa: /
117. i-dvayasya e, u-dvayasya o, -dvayasya ar, -dvayasya al govinda-saja
i-dvayasyaof i-dvaya; ethe replacement e; u-dvayasyaof u-dvaya; othe
replacement o; -dvayasyaof -dvaya; arthe replacement ar; -dvayasyaof dvaya; althe replacement al; govinda-sajacalled govinda.
The replacement of i-dvaya with e, u-dvaya with o, -dvaya with ar, and dvaya with al is called govinda.
gua-saja ca.
VttiEarlier grammarians called it gua.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
91
SaodhinIn a table form, govinda translates as follows:
i/
u/
/
/

e
o
ar
al

118 / ix~taAe va{iSNAs$aMaA: /


118. ito vi-saj
-itathose that have the indicatory letter ; vi-sajcalled vis.
Sv-dis that have the indicatory letter are called vis.
AmtaThe use of the plural form ita here implies that the name vi functions
only in relation to the sv-dis. That in nirgua (275) is understood specifically in
relation to the chapter on dhtus implies the same. Vi was the eldest son of Madhu,
a king in the dynasty of Yadu.
SaodhinThe vis are []e, []as[i], []as, and []i.
119 / h"re"gAAeRivand"Ae jais$a va{iSNASau baue" ca /
119. harer govindo jasi viu buddhe ca
hareof a hari; govindagovinda; jasiwhen the viubhakti [j]as follows; viu
when the vis follow; buddhewhen buddha follows; caand.
A hari takes govinda when [j]as, the vis, or buddha follows.
haraya. hari har harn.
Vtti hari + [j]as (119) hare + as (54) harayas (93) haraya <1.3>.
hari + am

(94) harim <2.1>.

hari + au (116) hari + i (42) har <2.2>.


hari + []as (94) hari + s (95) hars harn <2.3>.
120 / h"ir"ta"A naA , na tau lamyaAma, /
120. harita n, na tu lakmym
haritaafter a hari; of the viubhakti []; nthe replacement n; nanot; tu
but; lakmymin lakm-liga (the feminine gender).
After a hari, [] is replaced by n, but not in lakm-liga.
hari haribhym haribhi. haraye haribhym haribhya.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
92
Vtti hari + [] (120) harin (111) hari <3.1>.
hari + bhym haribhym <3.2>.
hari + bhis (93) haribhi <3.3>.
hari + []e (119) hare + e (54) haraye <4.1>.
hari + bhym haribhym <4.2>.
hari + bhyas (93) haribhya <4.3>.
121 / W@AeByaAM x~is$ax~s$aAer"r"Amah"r": /
121. e-obhy asi-asor a-rma-hara
e-obhymafter e-rma and o-rma; asi-asoof the viubhaktis []as[i] and []as;
a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma.
After e or o, the a-rma of []as[i] and []as is deleted.
hare haribhym haribhya. hare haryo harm.
Vtti hari + []as[i] (119) hare + as (121) hares (93) hare <5.1>.
hari + bhym haribhym <5.2>.
hari + bhyas (93) haribhya <5.3>.
hari + []as (119) hare + as (121) hares (93) hare <6.1>.
hari + os (50) haryos (93) haryo <6.2>.
hari + m (105) hari + n[u] + m hari + nm (107) harnm
(111) harm
<6.3>.
122 / h"ir"taAe xe~r"AEca, /
122. harito er auc
haritaafter a hari; eof the viubhakti []i; aucthe replacement au[c].
After a hari, []i is replaced by au[c].
123 / @ntyas$avaeRr"Aid"vaNAAR: s$aMs$aAr"s$aMaA: /
123. antya-sarvevardi-var sasra-saj
antyafinal; sarvevara-sarvevara; dibeginning with; varthe varas;
sasra-sajcalled sasra.
The varas beginning with the final sarvevara are called sasra.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
93
124 / s$aMs$aAr"sya h"r"iita /
124. sasrasya hara citi
sasrasyaof the sasra; haradeletion; c-itiwhen a pratyaya which has the
indicatory letter c follows.
The sasra is deleted when a pratyaya which has the indicatory letter c
follows.1
harau haryo hariu. he hare. tri-abdo vcya-ligo nitya-bahu-vacanntas tasya pusi
traya trn tribhi.
Vtti hari + []i (122) hari + au[c] (124) harau <7.1>.
hari + os (50) haryos (93) haryo <7.2>.
hari + su[p] (108) hariu <7.3>.
hari + s[u] (119) hare + s[u] (110) hare <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
hari
harim
hari
haraye
hare
hare
harau
hare

dvi-vacana
har
har
haribhym
haribhym
haribhym
haryo
haryo
har

bahu-vacana
haraya
harn
haribhi
haribhya
haribhya
harm
hariu
haraya

SaodhinThe order of application regarding hare <8.1> must be carefully


understood. A grammatical operation that takes place in the prakti is considered
antaraga (internal) whereas a grammatical operation that takes place outside of the
prakti in the pratyaya is considered bahiraga (external). But if both grammatical
operations take place in the prakti, then the one that comes earlier in the prakti is
considered antaraga and the other is considered bahiraga (see vtti 146). Generally
the order of application is that the antaraga rule is applied first and then the bahiraga
rule is applied after that if it is still applicable. Thus, in hare <8.1>, the i of hari first
undergoes govinda by harer govindo jasi viu buddhe ca (119) and thus becomes
e and only then does e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (110) apply. If we tried to
apply e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (110) first since the i of hari is a vmana
then s[u] would be prematurely deleted and we would get the incorrect form hari
<8.1>. This is the fault. Similarly, in viva-pa <2.3> in vtti 114, the antaraga rule
-rma-haro yadu-sarvevare, na tv pa (114) is applied first and then davatrd
am-asor a-rma-hara (94) is no longer applicable since there is no longer a
davatra when the of viva-p is deleted. Whereas, if we had of applied
davatrd am-asor a-rma-hara (94) first and then -rma-haro yadu-sarvevare,
na tv pa (114) by eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (vtti 85), we would have gotten
viva-ps, a most ridiculous form.

1 This stra has a second meaning: The cycle of repeated birth and death (sasra) is destroyed when
there is spiritual knowledge (cit).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
94
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word tri (three) in the masculine gender.
The word tri is vcya-liga (adjectival, sharing the gender of the substantive) and is
always used in bahu-vacana.
tri + [j]as (119) tre + as (54) trayas (93) traya <1.3>.
tri + []as (94) tri + s (95) trs trn <2.3>.
tri + bhis (93) tribhi <3.3>.
125 / aeyaAe naAima svaATaeR /
125. tres trayo nmi svrthe
treof the word tri; trayathe replacement traya; nmiwhen nm (n[u] + m)
follows; sva-artheprovided its own meaning is predominant.
The word tri is replaced by traya when nm follows, provided its own
meaning is predominant.
traym. tad-antatve pi, parama-traym. asvrthe tupriya-trm. triu. katiabdo pi tadvat
Vtti tri + m (105) tri + n[u] + m tri + nm (125) traya + nm
(107) traynm
(111) traym <6.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

bahu-vacana
traya
trn
tribhi
tribhya
tribhya
traym
triu

This stra also applies to a word that ends with tri:


parama-tri + m (105) parama-tri + n[u] + m parama-tri + nm
(125) parama-traya
+ nm (107) parama-traynm (111) parama-traym
<6.3>.
But when the meaning of the word tri isnt predominant:
priya-tri (105) priya-tri + n[u] + m priya-tri + nm (107) priyatrnm (111) priya-trm <6.3>.
The word kati (how many?) is like the word tri.
AmtaThe vigraha (separation of the constituent words) of the compound word
parama-tri (best three) is param ca te traya ca (they are the best and they are
three). The word priya-tri is a ptmbara-samsa (bahuvrhi-samsa) whose analysis
is priys trayo yem (for whom three are dear). The implied meaning is that the
meaning of the word tri is not predominant here, since, in ptmbara-samsas, the

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
95
meaning of another word is predominant. When it is said that the word kati is like the
word tri, it means that it is vcya-liga (adjectival, sharing the gender of the
substantive) and always takes plural endings.
126 / SanaAntas$aYaAta: k(tae jas$zAs$aAemaRh"Ah"r": svaATaeR /
126. a-nnta-sakhyta kate ca jas-asor mahhara svrthe
a-na-anta-sakhytaafter a numeral ending in a-rma or na-rma; kateafter
the word kati (how many?); caand; jas-asoof the viubhaktis [j]as and []as;
mahharamahhara; sva-artheprovided its own meaning is predominant.
There is mahhara of [j]as and []as when they come after a numeral ending
in or n, or after the word kati, provided the meaning of these words is
predominant.
atra tyantika-layt pratyaya-krya na govinda. kati kati katibhir ity-di. eva
parama-katty-di. asvrthe tupriya-kataya. atha sakhi-abda.
VttiDue to the permanent dissolution (of [j]as and []as) here, govinda, a
grammatical operation caused by a pratyaya (see stra 119), doesnt take place.
kati + [j]as (126) kati <1.3>.
kati + []as (126) kati <2.3>.
kati + bhis (93) katibhi <3.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

bahu-vacana
kati
kati
katibhi
katibhya
katibhya
katnm
katiu
kati

The forms parama-kati (best how many?) and so on are made in the same way:
parama-kati + [j]as (126) parama-kati <1.3>.
But when the meaning of the word kati isnt predominant:
priya-kati + [j]as (119) priya-kate + as (54) priya-katayas (93) priyakataya
<1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word sakhi (friend).
AmtaSomeone may argue, If we just ordained the hara of [j]as and []as in this
stra, then by stre pratyaya-rpa-nimittd anyasya haro pi mahhara (vtti 94) we
would naturally end up with a mahhara. What is the need, therefore, to ordain a
mahhara here? Because in stra 119, [j]as is a nimitta in the form of a pratyaya,
therefore (by vtti 94), we would end up with a hara. Thus it would be accepted that

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
96
the deleted [j]as is sthni-vat1, and govinda and so on would be applied. Therefore the
mahhara is actually the proper prescription (as it disallows all the grammatical
operations connected with [j]as).
SaodhinThe numerals ending in and n are pacan (five), a (six), saptan
(seven), aan (eight), navan (nine), and daan (ten). Naturally, this rule also
applies when daan is in smasa as in ekdaan (eleven), dvdaan (twelve), and
so on.
127 / [%r"Amas$aiKaByaAmauzAnas$pau&dM"zAs$anaeh"is$atyaetaeBya
s$aAer"Aca, , bauM" ivanaA /
127. -rma-sakhibhym uanas purudaas anehas ity etebhya ca sor c, buddha
vin
-rma-sakhibhymafter -rma and the word sakhi (friend); uanas purudaas
anehas itithe words uanas (name of ukrcrya, the spiritual master of the
demons), purudaas (name of Indra), and anehas (time); etebhyaafter these;
caand soof the viubhakti s[u]; cthe replacement [c]; buddhambuddha;
vinexcept.
After -rma and the words sakhi, uanas, purudaas, and anehas, s[u] is
replaced by [c], with the exception of buddha, which is not replaced by
[c].
sasrasya hara. sakh.
Vtti sakhi + s[u] (127) sakhi + [c] (124) sakh <1.1>.
AmtaThe phrase after -rma really means after a word ending in -rma.
Because of the connection with buddha here, the replacement [c] is only in relation to
the first case singular ending s[u], not to the seventh case plural ending su[p]. Why do
we say buddha vin? Consider he sakhe <8.1> (sakhi + s[u] (119) sakhe + s[u]
(110) sakhe <8.1>).

128 / @"yasya @A , w"yasya We , o"yasya @AE , [%"yasya @Ar," , la{"yasya


@Alva{SNAIn"s$aMa: , W@AesTaAnae We @AE ca /
128. a-dvayasya , i-dvayasya ai, u-dvayasya au, -dvayasya r, -dvayasya l
vndra-saja, e-o-sthne ai au ca
a-dvayasyaof a-dvaya; the replacement ; i-dvayasyaof i-dvaya; aithe
replacement ai; u-dvayasyaof u-dvaya; authe replacement au; -dvayasyaof dvaya; rthe replacement r; -dvayasyaof -dvaya; lthe replacement l;
vndra-sajacalled vndra; e-o-sthnein the place of e and o; aithe
replacement ai; authe replacement au; caand.
1 Sthni-vat means similar in behaviour to the original. The sthni is the original, and
the dea is the replacement. If the sthni here, [j]as, were to only undergo hara
(mere disappearance) then it would still be existing in the background, causing the
grammatical operations related to it, such as stra 119, to take place.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
97
The replacement of a-dvaya with , i-dvaya with ai, u-dvaya with au, -dvaya
with r, -dvaya with l, e with ai, and o with au is called vndra.
vddhi-saja ca.
VttiEarlier grammarians called it vddhi.
AmtaThe word vndra refers to the chief among the members of the Vi
dynasty, namely Vsudeva, r Ka.
SaodhinIn a table form, vndra translates as follows:
a/
i/
u/
/
/
e
o

ai
au
r
l
ai
au

129 / svaAd"ya: paa paANx"vaA: /


129. sv-daya paca pav
sv-dayasv-dis; pacafive; pavpavas.
The first five sv-dis are called pavas.
AmtaThe Pavas are the male offspring of king Pu. They are the five
brothers, Yudhihira, Bhma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva.
SaodhinThe pavas are s[u], au, [j]as, am, and au.
130 / s$aKyauva{RSNAIn": s$auvaja< paANx"vaeSau /
130. sakhyur vndra su-varja paveu
sakhyuof the word sakhi; vndravndra; su-varjamexcept s[u];
paveuwhen the pavas follow.
The word sakhi takes vndra when any pava except s[u] follows.
ai ysakhyau sakhya. sakhyam sakhyau sakhn.
Vtti sakhi + au (130) sakhai + au (54) sakhyau <1.2>.
sakhi + [j]as (130) sakhai + as (54) sakhyas (93) sakhya <1.3>.
sakhi + am (130) sakhai + am (54) sakhyam <2.1>.
sakhi + au

(130) sakhai + au (54) sakhyau <2.2>.

sakhi + []as (94) sakhi + s (95) sakhs sakhn <2.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
98
131 / na s$aiKahR"ir"s$aMa"Ad"AE , paitastvas$amaAs$ae /
131. na sakhir hari-saja dau, patis tv asamse
nanot; sakhithe word sakhi; hari-sajacalled hari; -dauwhen any
viubhakti from [] onwards follows; patithe word pati (master, husband); tu
only; a-samsewhen not in a samsa.
The word sakhi is not called hari when any viubhakti from [] onwards
follows, nor is the word pati, provided it is not in a samsa.
sakhy sakhibhym sakhibhi. sakhye sakhibhym sakhibhya.
Vtti sakhi + [] (50) sakhy <3.1>.
sakhi + bhym sakhibhym <3.2>.
sakhi + bhis (93) sakhibhi <3.3>.
sakhi + []e (50) sakhye <4.1>.
sakhi + bhym sakhibhym <4.2>.
sakhi + bhyas (93) sakhibhya <4.3>.
AmtaThe word sakhi is not called hari when any viubhakti from [] onwards
follows, nor is the word pati, provided it is not in a samsa. But the word pati is called
hari when it is in a samsa. Here the word tu is used in the sense of restriction (and is
thus translated as only). According to Amara-koa, the word tu has the following
meanings: tu syd bhede vadhrae (the word tu is used to express difference
(bheda) and restriction (avadhraa)). Thus it is implied that only the word pati, when
not in a samsa, is not called hari, but the word sakhi may sometimes be called hari
when it is not in a samsa as there is no restrictive word like tu placed after it.
SaodhinSince, in these circumstances, the words sakhi and pati are not called
hari, they dont follow the rules specifically related to haris such as stras 120-122.
Nor do they follow stra 119 when the vis follow. There is a more complicated
discussion in the Bhat regarding when these words are called hari and when they are
not called hari, but it goes beyond the scope of this book. However the essence of this
discussion is presented in the table below:

sakhi
pati

not in a samsa

in a samsa

usually1 not
called hari
not called hari

called hari2
called hari

132 / KyatyaAByaAM x~is$ax~s$aAe&s$a, /


132. khya-tybhy asi-asor us
1 We say usually because we see examples where it is called hari, like in sakhin vnarendrea.
2 This is on the authority of Mah-bhya which gives the example su-sakher
gacchati. Here sakhi is in the fifth case.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
99
khya-tybhymafter khi, kh, ti, and t; asi-asoof the viubhaktis []as[i] and
[]as; usthe replacement us.
After (words ending in) khi, kh, ti, or t, []as[i] and []as are replaced by
us.
khi-abda-kh-abdayo ti-abda-t-abdayo kta-ya-rmdeayor ida grahaam.
sakhyu sakhibhym sakhibhya. sakhyu sakhyo sakhnm.
VttiThe word khya-tybhym includes the words khi and kh, and ti and t, words
whose final vowels have been replaced by ya-rma (by stra 50).
sakhi + []as[i] (132) sakhi + us (50) sakhyus (93) sakhyu <5.1>.
sakhi + bhym sakhibhym <5.2>.
sakhi + bhyas (93) sakhibhya <5.3>.
sakhi + []as (132) sakhi + us (50) sakhyus (93) sakhyu <6.1>.
sakhi + os

(50) sakhyos (93) sakhyo <6.2>.

sakhi + m (105) sakhi + n[u] + m sakhi + nm (107) sakhnm


<6.3>.
AmtaThe word khya-tya is a samhra-dvandva-samsa of khya and tya, and
khya-tybhym is its fifth case dual form. In that regard the word khya-tya is an
imitation of the words khi and kh, and ti and t, words whose final vowels have been
replaced by ya-rma. In both khya and tya, the a-rma is for the sake of pronunciation
(and for causing the final vowels of khi and kh, and ti and t to change to ya-rma by
stra 50, thus enabling the same four words to be efficiently represented in two words,
khya and tya). Therefore, regarding words like mukhya, apatya, and so on, []as[i] and
[]as are not replaced by us (because these words end in khya and tya, and not in khi,
kh, ti, or t).
SaodhinThis rule only applies in the masculine gender, because we see that the
feminine word sakh (a female friend) is declined in the same way as the word gop
(see vtti 153) and that feminine words made from the kt pratyaya [k]ti like bhakti
(devotional service) and so on are declined as bhakte <5.1> / <6.1> or bhakty
<5.1> / <6.1> and so on (see vtti 150). The only other place that Jva Gosvm
mentions this stra throughout his entire work is in vtti 134, in connection to the
words ka-sukh and anant. Thus this rule only applies to the words sakhi and pati
and to words ending in kh and t that are made by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
after a nma-dhtu.
133 / s$aiKapaitaByaAM xe~r"AE /
133. sakhi-patibhy er au
sakhi-patibhymafter the words sakhi and pati; eof the viubhakti []i; authe
replacement au.
After the words sakhi and pati, []i is replaced by au.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
100
sakhyau sakhyo sakhiu. he sakhe he sakhyau he sakhya. pati-abdasya
pratham-dvityayor hari-abda-vat, ttydau sakhi-abda-vat, samsntasya tu
hari-abda-vad evayadu-patin yadu-pataye ity-di. u-rmnto viu-abda. haristrair eva sdhanam. viu vi viava. vium vi vin. viun
viubhym viubhi. viave viubhym viubhya. vio viubhym
viubhya. vio vivo vinm. viau vivo viuu. he vio. ka-r

Vtti sakhi + []i (133) sakhi + au (50) sakhyau <7.1>.


sakhi + os
(50) sakhyos (93) sakhyo <7.2>.
sakhi + su[p] (108) sakhiu <7.3>.
sakhi + s[u] (119) sakhe + s[u] (110) sakhe <8.1>
sakhi + au

(130) sakhai + au (54) sakhyau <8.2>.

sakhi + [j]as (130) sakhai + as (54) sakhyas (93) sakhya <8.3>.


case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
sakh
sakhyam
sakhy
sakhye
sakhyu
sakhyu
sakhyau
sakhe

dvi-vacana
sakhyau
sakhyau
sakhibhym
sakhibhym
sakhibhym
sakhyo
sakhyo
sakhyau

bahu-vacana
sakhya
sakhn
sakhibhi
sakhibhya
sakhibhya
sakhnm
sakhiu
sakhya

The word pati is declined like the word hari in the first and second cases, but it is
declined like the word sakhi from the third case onwards. When the word pati is at the
end of a samsa, however, it is declined like the word hari from the third case onwards,
as in yadu-patin <3.1>, yadu-pataye <4.1>, and so on, for example.
Now we begin the declension of the word viu, a word ending in u-rma. The word
viu is declined by the same hari-stras (stras 115-124).
viu + s[u] (93) viu <1.1>.
viu + au (116) viu + u (42) vi <1.2>.
viu + [j]as (119) vio + as (55) viavas (93) viava <1.3>.
viu + am (94) vium <2.1>.
viu + au (116) viu + u (42) vi <2.2>.
viu + []as (94) viu + s (95) vis vin <2.3>.
viu + [] (120) viun <3.1>.
viu + bhym viubhym <3.2>.
viu + bhis (93) viubhi <3.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
101
viu + []e (119) vio + e (55) viave <4.1>.
viu + bhym viubhym <4.2>.
viu + bhyas (93) viubhya <4.3>.
viu + []as[i] (119) vio + as (121) vios (93) vio <5.1>.
viu + bhym viubhym <5.2>.
viu + bhyas (93) viubhya <5.3>.
viu + []as (119) vio + as (121) vios (93) vio <6.1>.
viu + os (51) vivos (93) vivo <6.2>.
viu + m (105) viu + n[u] + m viu + nm (107) vinm
<6.3>.
viu + []i (122) viu + au[c] (124) viau <7.1>.
viu + os (51) vivos (93) vivo <7.2>.
viu + su[p] (108) viuu <7.3>.
viu + s[u] (119) vio + s[u] (110) vio <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
viu
vium
viun
viave
vio
vio
viau
vio

dvi-vacana
vi
vi
viubhym
viubhym
viubhym
vivo
vivo
vi

bahu-vacana
viava
vin
viubhi
viubhya
viubhya
vinm
viuu
viava

Now we begin the declension of the word ka-r (one who takes shelter of
Ka).
134 / DaAtaAer"IU"taAeir"yauvaAE s$avaeRre" ba"lama, /
134. dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam
dhtoof a dhtu; t-to1of -rma and -rma; iy-uvauthe replacements iy and
uv; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; bahulamvariously applied (see
explanation below).2
1 The word t-to here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara. This
was described in vtti 35.

2 Another, more literal, way of translating words like bahulam, bhulyena, and
bhulyt is for the most part, generally

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
102
The or of a dhtu changes to iy or uv when a viubhakti beginning with
a sarvevara follows. But this rule is bahula.
pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate. tata sarvevardau viubhaktv ity artha.
evam anyatrpi. etad-vidha-strasya nma-prakarae pht lupta-kt-pratyayasya
dhtutve pi nmatvam. tata pratyay caka-riya. paratvd am-asor api
ka-riyam ity-di. bhve kvipibh bhuvau bhuva. bhulyt na sarvatra.
yathoktam
kvacit pravtti kvacid apravtti
kvacid vibh kvacid anyad eva
vidher vidhna bahudh samkya
catur-vidha bhulaka vadanti.
viva-n viva-nyau viva-nya ity-di. ah-bahutve viva-nym. ka
sukhyatti, ka-skh ka-sukhyau ka-sukhya. anantyattianant
anantyau anantya. khya-tybhym iti trivikrama-grahat asi-asor uskasukhyu anantyu.
VttiPratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (the pratyaya-vara (vara of a
pratyaya) really refers to that which begins with the pratyaya-vara). Thus the word
sarvevare in this stra really means sarvevardau viubhaktau (when a
viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara follows). Such is the case elsewhere also.
Because this kind of stra is listed in the Nma-prakaraa, it is inferred that even
though a word whose kt pratyaya has been deleted is a dhtu, it is also a nma, and
therefore the sv-di pratyayas are applied after it.
ka-r + [j]as (134) ka-riyas (93) ka-riya <1.3>.
Because this stra is a later stra than stra 94, it overrules stra 94, and thus, when
am and []as follow, we get ka-riyam <2.1> and ka-riya <2.3>.
ka-r + am (134) ka-riyam <2.1>.
ka-r + []as (134) ka-riyas (93) ka-riya <2.3>.
And when the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied in bhve prayoga, we get the following
forms:
bh + s[u] (93) bh <1.1>.
bh + au (134) bhuvau <1.2>.
bh + [j]as (134) bhuvas (93) bhuva <1.3>.
AmtaSomeone may argue, Why is this stra, which is in relation to dhtus, put
here in the Nma-prakaraa? And if words like ka-r and so on are dhtus then
how can the sv-di pratyayas be applied after them? To answer this doubt, Jva
Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning because this kind of stra. This sentence
means that the very creation of a stra like this indicates that a word whose kt
pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say a word ending in the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p], is
both a dhtu and a nma.
SaodhinRegarding Amtas comment that a word whose kt pratyaya has been
deleted is both a dhtu and a nma, it is not that only words ending in the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] fall into this category because the kt pratyayas []vi and vi are also
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (612). Thus words ending in the kt

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
103
pratyayas []vi and vi are also both dhtus and nmas. Actually it will be described in
the Kdanta-prakaraa that all kdantas (words ending in a kt pratyaya) are
simultaneously both dhtus and nmas, but in the stras of the Nma-prakaraa the
word dhtu only refers to those words whose kt pratyaya has been deleted, namely
words ending in the kt pratyayas [k]vi[p], []vi, and vi. Examples of each type of word
are ka-r (see Saodhin below), ka-vh (see Saodhin 215), and viva-p
(see Amta 113) respectively. Dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam (134) is
applicable to the word ka-r because it comes from the dhtu ri[] sevym (1U,
to serve, worship, dwell, depend on). When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied to
ka + ri[], the i of ri[] becomes trivikrama by pracchdn trivikramo, na ca
sakaraa (Bhat 1558) and [k]vi[p] is deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara
(612). Thus we get the word ka-r. Similarly, when the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is
applied to the dhtu bh sattym (1P, to be, become, exist). and then deleted by
kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (612), we get the word bh (the act of existing,
existence). This word bh is feminine and it is in bhve prayoga because it is formed
by the stra sampad-de kvip-kt bhve lakmym (902).
VttiBecause this rule is bahula, it is not always applied. As it is stated by the
previous authorities:
Sometimes the rule (vidhi) is applied, sometimes it is not applied, sometimes it is
optional, and sometimes something else is applied instead. Thus, observing the rule
(vidhna) to be variously applied, the previous authorities have said that bhulaka
(bahula) is of four kinds.
Therefore, from the word viva-n (leader of the universe), we get viva-n, vivanyau, viva-nya, and so on.1 In the sixth case plural we get viva-nym.
viva-n + s[u] (93) viva-n <1.1>.
viva-n + au (bahulam) viva-nyau <1.2>.
viva-n + [j]as (bahulam) viva-nyas (93) viva-nya <1.3>.
viva-n + m (bahulam) viva-nym <6.3>.
The word ka-sukh means ka sukhyati (one who desires Kas pleasure).
ka-sukh + s[u] (93) ka-sukh <1.1>.
ka-sukh + au (bahulam) ka-sukhyau <1.2>.
ka-sukh + [j]as (bahulam) ka-sukhyas (93) ka-sukhya
<1.3>.
The word anant means anantyati (one who desires Ananta).
anant + s[u] (93) anant <1.1>.
anant + au (bahulam) anantyau <1.2>.
1 This is an example of kvacid anyad eva (sometimes something else is done
instead). In viva-nyau <1.2> and so on the change to iy isnt done, nor is the usual
stra davatrd am-aor a-rma-hara (94) applied, rather something else, namely
the change to y, is done instead.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
104
anant + [j]as (bahulam) anantyas (93) anantya <1.3>.
Because of the inclusion of the trivikramas (kh and t) in the stra beginning khyatybhym (132), []as[i] and []as are replaced by us.
ka-sukh + []as[i] (132) ka-sukh + us (bahulam) kasukhyus (93) ka- sukhyu <5.1>.
ka-sukh + []as (132) ka-sukh + us (bahulam) ka-sukhyus
(93) kasukhyu <6.1>.
anant + []as[i] (132) anant + us (bahulam) anantyus (93)
anantyu <5.1>.
anant + []as (132) anant + us (bahulam) anantyus (93) anantyu
<6.1>.
BlaThe words anyad eva mean aprvam vidhnam (a rule prescribing something
not prescribed before). The word bhulaka means bahula since bhulaka is formed by
applying the taddhita pratyaya ka after the word bahula in the sense of the original
word. The word prvcry (previous authorities) has to be supplied here. The
etymology of the word bahula is bahn arthn lti dadtti bahulam (it is called
bahula because it gives (lti) many (bahn) meanings).
AmtaThe word ka-sukh is derived from the dhtu ka-sukhya in the
following way: The pratyaya [k]ya[n] is applied after the form ka-sukham <2.1> in
the sense of ka-sukham icchati. The stras antaraga-svder mahhara ekapadatvrambhe (601) and a-dvayasya kyani (602) are then applied and we get the
dhtu ka-sukhya. When [k]vi[p] is applied after this dhtu, the stras a-rma-haro
rma-dhtuke (393), ya-vayor haro vale (Bhat 839), and kevalasya pratyaya-ver
hara (612) are applied and we end up with the word ka-sukh. (The word anant
is formed in the same way).
135 / naIr"ADaAByaAM xe~r"Ama, /
135. n-rdhbhy er m
n-rdhbhymafter the word n and after a rdh (feminine nma ending in [p]);
eof the viubhakti []i; mthe replacement m.
After the word n or after a rdh, []i is replaced by m.
viva-nym viva-nyo viva-nu. atha -rmnt. tatra pit-abda. -rmasakhibhym ity-di pit.
Vtti viva-n + []i (135) viva-n + m (bahulam, 50) viva-nym <7.1>.
viva-n + os (bahulam) viva-nyos (93) viva-nyo <7.2>.
viva-n + su[p] (108) viva-nu <7.3>.
case
pratham

eka-vacana
viva-n

dvi-vacana
viva-nyau

bahu-vacana
viva-nya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
105
dvity
viva-nyam
tty
viva-ny
caturth
viva-nye
pacam
viva-nya
ah
viva-nya
saptam
viva-nym
sambodhana
viva-n

viva-nyau
viva-nbhym
viva-nbhym
viva-nbhym
viva-nyo
viva-nyo
viva-nyau

viva-nya
viva-nbhi
viva-nbhya
viva-nbhya
viva-nym
viva-nu
viva-nya

Now we begin the declension of the word pit (father), a word ending in -rma:
pit + s[u] (127) pit + [c] (124) pit <1.1>.

136 / [%r"Amasya gAAeivand": paANx"vaeSau x~AE ca /


136. -rmasya govinda paveu au ca
-rmasyaof -rma; govindagovinda; paveuwhen the pavas follows;
auwhen the viubhakti []i follows; caand.
-rma takes govinda when the pavas or []i follows.
pitarau pitara. pitaram pitarau pitn. pitr pitbhym pitbhi. pitre pitbhym
pitbhya.
Vtti pit + au (136) pitarau <1.2>.
pit + [j]as (136) pitaras (93) pitara <1.3>.
pit + am (136) pitaram <2.1>.
pit + au (136) pitarau <2.2>.
pit + []as (94) pit + s (95) pits pitn <2.3>.
pit + [] (52) pitr <3.1>.
pit + bhym pitbhym <3.2>.
pit + bhis (93) pitbhi <3.3>.
pit + []e (52) pitre <4.1>.
pit + bhym pitbhym <4.2>.
pit + bhyas (93) pitbhya <4.3>.
137 / [%r"AmataAe x~is$ax~s$aAer"sya oca, /
137. -rmato asi-asor asya uc
-rmataafter -rma; asi-asoof the viubhaktis []as[i] and []as; asyaof the
a-rma; ucthe replacement u[c].

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
106
After -rma, the a of []as[i] and []as is replaced by u[c].
pitu pitbhym pitbhya. pitu pitro pitm. pitari pitro pitu.
Vtti pit + []as[i] (137) pit + u[c] + s (124) pitus (93) pitu <5.1>.
pit + bhym pitbhym <5.2>.
pit + bhyas (93) pitbhya <5.3>.
pit + []as (137) pit + u[c] + s (124) pitus (93) pitu <6.1>.
pit + os (52) pitros (93) pitro <6.2>.
pit + m (105) pit + n[u] + m pit + nm (107) pitnm (111)
pitm <6.3>.
pit + []i (136) pitari <7.1>.
pit + os (52) pitros (93) pitro <7.2>.
pit + su[p] pitsu (108) pitu <7.3>.
138 / r"ADaAivaSNAujanaAByaAmaIpa iaiva(maAts$aAehR"r": /
138. rdh-viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara
rdh-viujanbhymafter a rdh (feminine nma ending in [p]) or a viujana;
paafter a word ending in the taddhita pratyaya [p]; caand; trivikramt
trivikrama; soof the viubhakti s[u]; haradeletion.
S[u] is deleted when it comes after a rdh, a viujana, or a word ending in
an [p] which is trivikrama.
buddhe govinda, he pita. kart-abdasya bheda. kart
Vtti pit + s[u] (136) pitar + s[u] (138) pitar (93) pita <8.1>.
case
eka-vacana
dvi-vacana
bahu-vacana
pratham
pit
pitarau
pitara
dvity
pitaram
pitarau
pitn
tty
pitr
pitbhym
pitbhi
caturth
pitre
pitbhym
pitbhya
pacam
pitu
pitbhym
pitbhya
ah
pitu
pitro
pitm
saptam
pitari
pitro
pitu
sambodhana
pita
pitarau
pitara
The declension of the word kart (doer) is different.
kart + s[u] (127) kart + [c] (124) kart <1.1>.
AmtaThe word pa (after the taddhita pratyaya [p]) really means b-antt
(after a word ending in the taddhita pratyaya [p]), and the word trivikramt is an
adjective modifying the word pa. Because of the word trivikramt, s[u] is not deleted

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
107
when it comes after a word ending in an [p] which is vmana. Examples of this are
ati-stri (he who surpasses a woman) and so on.
SaodhinWhen feminine words ending in the taddhita pratyaya [p] are used in
the masculine gender as in the case of ati-stri and so on, the of [p] becomes
vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana (939). In such cases,
even though s[u] comes after a word ending in [p], it is not deleted because the [p]
is not a trivikrama [p].
139 / svas$a{ta{lta{natyayaAntaAnaAM va{SNAIn": s$auvaja< paANx"vaeSau /
139. svas-tl-tn-pratyayntn vndra su-varja paveu
svasof the word svas (sister); tl-tn-pratyayntnmand of words ending in
the kt pratyayas t[l] and t[n]; vndravndra; su-varjamexcept the
viubhakti s[u]; paveuwhen the pavas follow.
Both the word svas and words ending in the kt pratyayas t[l] or t[n]
undergo vndra when any pava except s[u] follows.
kartrau kartra. kartram kartrau. yaduu pit-vat. he karta.
ne-tva-t-abdnts tl-tnn-ant budhair mat.
pit-mt-bhrt-yt-jmt-duhitr vin.
ai-rmnta ka-rai-abda
Vtti kart + au (139) kartrau <1.2>.
kart + [j]as (139) kartras (93) kartra <1.3>.
kart + am (139) kartram <2.1>.
kart + au (139) kartrau <2.2>.

The word kart follows the same pattern as the word pit when the yadus follow.
kart + s[u] (136) kartar + s[u] (138) kartar (93) karta <8.1>.

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
kart
kartram
kartr
kartre
kartu
kartu
kartari
karta

dvi-vacana
kartrau
kartrau
kartbhym
kartbhym
kartbhym
kartro
kartro
kartrau

bahu-vacana
kartra
kartn
kartbhi
kartbhya
kartbhya
kartm
kartu
kartra

Vtti The words ne1 (the priest, in a soma sacrifice, who leads forward the wife
of the sacrificer and prepares the sur) and tva (chariot-maker or name of
Vivakarma, the engineer of the demigods, or name of the father of Viva-rpa) and
1 See Bhat 203 for why we have put ne here instead of le.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
108
words ending with t, except the words pit (father), mt (mother), bhrt
(brother), yt (husbands brothers wife), jmt (son-in-law), and duhit
(daughter), are considered by learned persons as ending in t[l] or t[n].
Now we begin the declension of the word ka-rai (the opulence of Ka), a word
ending in ai-rma.
140 / r"Aya @A s$aBaAe: /
140. rya sa-bho
ryaof the word rai (opulence); the replacement -rma; sa-bhowhen sarma or bha-rma follows.
The ai of the word rai1 becomes -rma when any viubhakti beginning with
sa-rma or bha-rma follows2.
ka-r ka-ryau ka-rya. ka-ryam ity-di. eva rai-abda ca. ormnto go-abdo balvarddiu pu-liga
Vtti ka-rai + s[u] (140) ka-rs (93) ka-r <1.1>.
ka-rai + au (54) ka-ryau <1.2>.
ka-rai + [j]as (54) ka-ryas (93) ka-rya <1.3>.
ka-rai + am (54) ka-ryam <2.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
ka-r
ka-ryam
ka-ry
ka-rye
ka-rya
ka-rya
ka-ryi
ka-r

dvi-vacana
ka-ryau
ka-ryau
ka-rbhym
ka-rbhym
ka-rbhym
ka-ryo
ka-ryo
ka-ryau

bahu-vacana
ka-rya
ka-rya
ka-rbhi
ka-rbhya
ka-rbhya
ka-rym
ka-rsu
ka-rya

Now we begin the declension of the word go, a word ending in o-rma declined in the
masculine gender when referring to a bull and so on.3
141 / @Ae @AE paANx"vaeSau /
141. o au paveu
oof o-rma; authe replacement au-rma; paveuwhen the pavas follow.
O-rma becomes au-rma when the pavas follow.
gau gvau gva.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).
2 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).
3 The extra meanings covered by the words and so on here are described in Amta
882.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
109
Vtti go + s[u] (141) gaus (93) gau <1.1>.
go + au (141) gau + au (55) gvau <1.2>.
go + [j]as (141) gau + as (55) gvas (93) gva <1.3>.
142 / @Ae @A @mzAs$aAer," , na ca s$aAe na: /
142. o am-asor, na ca so na
oof o-rma; the replacement -rma; am-asowhen the viubhaktis am and
[]as follow; nanot; caand; sasa-rma; nana-rma.
O-rma becomes -rma when am or []as follows, and the s of []as doesnt
become n by stra 95.
gm gvau g. gav gobhym gobhi. gave gobhym gobhya. e-obhy asi asor
ity-din a-rma-harago gobhym gobhya. go gavo gavm ity-di. sarvavidhibhyo haro, hart sarvevardeo balavn. antaragety-di ca vidhnasmarthyt na sor harahe gau. au-rmnto glau-abdaglau glvau glva itydi. iti sarvevarnt puruottama-lig.
Vtti go + am (142) g + am (94) gm <2.1>.
go + au (141) gau + au (55) gvau <2.2>.
go + []as (142) g + as (94) gs (93) g <2.3>.
go + [] (55) gav <3.1>.
go + bhym gobhym <3.2>.
go + bhis (93) gobhi <3.3>.
go + []e (55) gave <4.1>.
go + bhym gobhym <4.2>.
go + bhyas (93) gobhya <4.3>.
go + []as[i] (121) gos (93) go <5.1>.
go + bhym gobhym <5.2>.
go + bhyas (93) gobhya <5.3>.
go + []as (121) gos (93) go <6.1>.
go + os (55) gavos (93) gavo <6.2>.
go + m (55) gavm <6.3>.
Sarva-vidhibhyo haro, hart sarvevardeo balavn (A hara is stronger than all the
rules (vidhis), but the substitution of a sarvevara is stronger than a hara). Because of

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
110
this paribh and also because of the paribh antaraga-bahiragayor antaragavidhir balavn (vtti 51), the viubhakti s[u] is not deleted by stra 110 in the
vocative case.
go + s[u] (141) gaus (93) gau <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
gau
gm
gav
gave
go
go
gavi
gau

dvi-vacana
gvau
gvau
gobhym
gobhym
gobhym
gavo
gavo
gvau

bahu-vacana
gva
g
gobhi
gobhya
gobhya
gavm
gou
gva

Now we begin the declension of the word glau (the moon), a word ending in aurma.
glau + s[u] (93) glau <1.1>.
glau + au (55) glvau <1.2>.
glau + [j]as (55) glvas (93) glva <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
glau
glvam
glv
glve
glva
glva
glvi
glau

dvi-vacana
glvau
glvau
glaubhym
glaubhym
glaubhym
glvo
glvo
glvau

bahu-vacana
glva
glva
glaubhi
glaubhya
glaubhya
glvm
glauu
glva

Thus ends the declension of masculine words ending in a sarvevara.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
111

Atha sarvevarnt lakm-lig


143 / taaAbantalamaI r"ADaAs$aMaA /
143. tatrb-anta-lakm rdh-saj
tatraamong the feminine words ending in a sarvevara; p-anta-lakma feminine
word ending in [p]; rdh-sajcalled rdh.
Among the feminine words ending in a sarvevara, a feminine word ending in
[p] is called rdh.
tatra rdh-abda. rdh-viujanbhym itirdh.
VttiAmong the rdhs (feminine words ending in [p]) is the word rdh.
rdh + s[u] (138) rdh <1.1>.
AmtaThe etymology of the word rdh is as follows: rdhayati sarvath prayati
ka-vchm iti rdh (Rdh is so named because she completely fulfills
(rdhayati) Kas desires).
SaodhinThe [p] mentioned here can refer to the taddhita pratyaya [p] (see
stra 1081), the kt pratyaya [][p] (see stra 908), or the gama [p] (see stra
150). It can also refer to the [p] which is part of the taddhita pratyaya t[p] (see stra
1196) or to the [p] which is part of the gama sy[p] (see stra 255), and thus words
which end in the taddhita pratyaya t[p] like sdhut (saintliness) and words which
end in the gama sy[p] like sarvasy are also rdhs. The difference though is that
words which end in the gamas [p] and sy[p] are only lkaika rdhs, and thus it
will be explained in vtti 150 how such words dont follow stra 146 but only follow
stra 135. The word rdh is formed in the following way: First the kt pratyaya a[t] is
applied after the dhtu rdh[a] sasiddhau (4P or 5P, to succeed, accomplish) by
pac-der at (822) to form the word rdha. Then the taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied
after rdha by kd p (1081) and the a of rdha is deleted by a-i-dvayasya haro
bhagavati (1053). Thus we get the feminine word rdh.
144 / r"ADaAaByaAmaAE wR /
144. rdh-brahmabhym au
rdh-brahmabhymafter a rdh or brahma (neuter word); auof the viubhakti
au; the replacement .
After a rdh or brahma, au is replaced by .
a-dvayam i-dvaye erdhe rdh. rdhm rdhe rdh.
Vtti rdh + au (144) rdh + (43) rdhe <1.2>.
rdh + [j]as (42) rdhs (93) rdh <1.3>.
rdh + am (94) rdh + m rdhm <2.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
112
rdh + au (144) rdh + (43) rdhe <2.2>.
rdh + []as (94) rdh + s (93) rdh <2.3>.
145 / r"ADaAyaA W q%AEs$aAebauRe" ca /
145. rdhy e ausor buddhe ca
rdhyof a rdh; ethe replacement e-rma; -osowhen the viubhaktis
[] and os follow; buddhewhen buddha follows; caand.
The final of a rdh1 becomes e when [], os or buddha follows.
e ayrdhay rdhbhym rdhbhi.
Vtti rdh + [] (145) rdhe + [] (54) rdhay <3.1>.
rdh + bhym rdhbhym <3.2>.
rdh + bhis (93) rdhbhi <3.3>.
146 / r"ADaAtaAe yaApva{iSNASau /
146. rdhto yp viu
rdhtaafter a rdh; ypthe gama y[p]; viuwhen the vis follow.
When the vis follow, y[p] is inserted after a rdh.
e-dvaye airdhyai rdhbhym rdhbhya. rdhy rdhbhym rdhbhya.
rdhy rdhayo rdhnm. er m, lkaika-pratipadoktayo pratipadoktasyaiva
grahaam iti na nurdhym rdhayo rdhsu. sambodhaneprakty-rita,
praktv api prva-prvam antaraga, prakter bahir-rita bahiraga, svalpritam antaraga, bahv-rita bahiragam. antaraga-bahiragayor antaragavidhir balavn iti nyyena prathamam etve kte e-o-vmanebhyo
buddhasydaranam iti he rdhe.
Vtti rdh + []e (146) rdh + y[p] + []e (48) rdhyai <4.1>.
rdh + bhym rdhbhym <4.2>.
rdh + bhyas (93) rdhbhya <4.3>.
rdh + []as[i] (146) rdh + y[p] + []as[i] (42) rdhy <5.1>.
rdh + bhym rdhbhym <5.2>.
rdh + bhyas (93) rdhbhya <5.3>.
rdh + []as (146) rdh + y[p] + []as (42) rdhy <6.1>.
rdh + os (145) rdhe + os (54) rdhayos (93) rdhayo <6.2>.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
113
rdh + m (105) rdh + n[u] + m rdhnm <6.3>.
[]i is replaced by m by stra 135, but n[u] is not inserted in accordance with the
maxim lkaika-pratipadoktayo pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (vtti 55).
rdh + []i (146) rdh + y[p] + []i (135) rdhy + m (42)
rdhym <7.1>.
rdh + os (145) rdhe + os (54) rdhayos (93) rdhayo <7.2>.
rdh + su[p] rdhsu <7.3>.
In the vocative case, when the change to e-rma (by stra 145) is done in accordance
with the following nyya, e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (110) is applied and
we get he rdhe <8.1>: prakty-rita, praktv api prva-prvam antaraga,
prakter bahir-rita bahiraga, sv-alpritam antaraga, bahv-rita bahiragam.
antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn (A rule that applies to the prakti is
called antaraga. Even among such rules, a rule that applies earlier in the prakti is
called antaraga. A rule that applies to something outside of the prakti is called
bahiraga. A rule that applies in less cases is called antaraga, and a rule that applies in
more cases is called bahiraga. Out of an antaraga rule and a bahiraga rule, the
antaraga rule is stronger).
rdh + s[u] (145) rdhe + s[u] (110) rdhe <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
rdh
rdhm
rdhay
rdhyai
rdhy
rdhy
rdhym
rdhe

dvi-vacana
rdhe
rdhe
rdhbhym
rdhbhym
rdhbhym
rdhayo
rdhayo
rdhe

bahu-vacana
rdh
rdh
rdhbhi
rdhbhya
rdhbhya
rdhnm
rdhsu
rdh

AmtaSomeone may argue, In the seventh case singular, when the change to m
is made by n-rdhbhy er m (135), why isnt n[u] applied by vmana-goprdhbhyo nu mi (105)? In answer to this, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence
beginning lkaika. In this case n[u] is not applied because m is not primary
(pratipadokta) but secondary (lkaika) as it is ordained in the place of []i.
Someone may argue, S[u] is deleted regardless of whether the word rdh becomes e
when buddha follows (by stra 145) or not. Therefore, because the deletion of s[u] is
nitya (constant), it should take place first by rdh-viujanbhym pa ca
trivikramt sor hara (138) (and not later by e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam
(110)). Why then is s[u] deleted only after applying stra 145? The answer to this is
as follows: mt-vat paribh hi nea virudhyate (because a paribh is like a
mother, it doesnt obstruct the desired form). Therefore Jva Gosvm supplies
another kind of paribh favorable for achieving the desired form with the sentences
beginning prakty-ritam. A rule that applies to something outside the prakti
means a rule that applies to a pratyaya or viu. The case of praktv api prvaprvam antaragam will be examined later.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
114
BlaHere stra 145 is antaraga because it applies to the prakti and because it
applies to less things. It applies in less cases because only a rdh becomes e. Stra
138, however, is bahiraga because it applies to something outside the prakti (in this
case the pratyaya s[u]) and because it applies to many things. It applies in many cases
because s[u] is deleted after a rdh and so on.
SaodhinThe paribh obstructing the desired form rdhe <8.1> is
nitynityayor nitya (vtti 50). In this vtti, however, Jva Gosvm speaks the
paribh antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga-vidhir balavn which overrules
nitynityayor nitya since an antaraga rule is stronger than a nitya rule in accordance
with the phrase teu cottarottara (vtti 50).
147 / @mbaAd"InaAM gAAepyaA vaAmanaAe baue" /
147. ambdn gopy ca vmano buddhe
amb-dnmof the words headed by amb (namely amb, akk, all, app, and
abb, which all mean mother); gopyof a gop (feminine word ending in or );
caand; vmanathe change to vmana; buddhewhen buddha follows.
Both the final vara of the ambdis and the final vara of a gop1 become
vmana when buddha follows.
he amba he akka he alla he appa he abba. eta evmbdaya. atha jar
Vtti amb + s[u] (147) amba + s[u] (110) amba <8.1>.
akk + s[u] (147) akka + s[u] (110) akka <8.1>.
all + s[u] (147) alla + s[u] (110) alla <8.1>.
app + s[u] (147) appa + s[u] (110) appa <8.1>.
abb + s[u] (147) abba + s[u] (110) abba <8.1>.
Now we begin the declension of the word jar (old age).

148 / jar"AyaA jar"svaA s$avaeRre" /


148. jary jaras v sarvevare
jaryof the word jar; jarasthe replacement jaras; voptionally; sarvevare
when a sarvevara follows.
The word jar is optionally replaced by jaras when a viubhakti beginning
with a sarvevara follows2.
jar, jarasau jare, jaras iti kecit. jarasa jar. jarasam jarm ity-di. evam armnta-nirjara-abdasypi jareti bhgasya vikalpendeo jeya; varena vidhau
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).
2 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
115
tad-antasya krya syn nmn tu kvacid iti nirdiyamnnm deinm de
iti. eka-dea-viktam ananya-vad iti ca nyyebhya. nirjarasau nirjarau, nirjarasa
nirjar ity-di. nirjarea nirjaras, nirjarasina ity eke. nirjarai nirjarasai. nirjart
nirjarasa. nirjarasd iti kecit. viva-p puruottama-vivap-abda-vat.
Vtti jar + s[u] (138) jar <1.1>.
jar + au (two options by 148):
1) (jar is replaced by jaras) jarasau <1.2>
2) (jar isnt replaced by jaras, 144) jar + (43) jare <1.2>.
Some say the form should be jaras <1.2>.
jar + [j]as (two options by 148):
1) (jar is replaced by jaras) jarasas (93) jarasa <1.3>.
2) (jar isnt replaced by jaras, 42) jars (93) jar <1.3>.
jar + am (two options by 148):
1) (jar is replaced by jaras) jarasam <2.1>.
2) (jar isnt replaced by jaras, 94) jarm <2.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
jar
jarm / jarasam
jaray / jaras
jaryai / jarase
jary / jarasa
jary / jarasa
jarym / jarasi
jare

dvi-vacana
jare / jarasau / jaras
jare / jarasau / jaras
jarbhym
jarbhym
jarbhym
jarayo / jaraso
jarayo / jaraso
jare / jarasau / jaras

bahu-vacana
jar / jarasa
jar / jarasa
jarbhi
jarbhya
jarbhya
jarm / jarasm
jarsu
jar / jarasa

In the same way, one should know that the jara portion of the word nirjara
(demigod), a masculine word ending in a-rma, is also optionally replaced by jaras in
accordance with the following maxims: varena vidhau tad-antasya krya syn
nmn tu kvacit (in a vidhi-stra, a grammatical operation prescribed in reference to
a particular vara also applies to something ending in that vara, but a grammatical
operation prescribed in reference to a particular nma only sometimes applies to
something ending in that nma), nirdiyamnnm deinm de (substitutes
only replace originals that are directly mentioned), and eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat
(that which is deficient in one place is not considered a different thing).
nirjara + au (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasau <1.2>
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 50) nirjarau <1.2>.
nirjara + [j]as (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasas (93) nirjarasa <1.3>
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 42) nirjars (93) nirjar <1.3>.
nirjara + [] (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjaras <3.1>
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 97) nirjara + ina (43) nirjarena (111)
nirjarea <3.1>.
Some say the form should be nirjarasina <3.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
116
nirjara + bhis (99) nirjara + ais (48) nirjarais (93) nirjarai <3.3>.
Some say the form should be nirjarasai <3.3>.
nirjara + []as[i] (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasas (93) nirjarasa <5.1>
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 102) nirjara + t (42) nirjart <5.1>.
Some say the form should be nirjarast <5.1>. The feminine word viva-p is declined
in the same way as the masculine word viva-p.
AmtaThe masculine word nirjara is mentioned here in the section dealing with
feminine words in order to show that it undergoes the same replacement. In the
paribh beginning varena, Jva Gosvm explains the reason why it takes the
same replacement. The word tad-antasya means tad-varntasypi. The result of the
word kvacit (sometimes) will be shown later. An example of when a grammatical
operation prescribed in reference to a particular vara also applies to something
ending in that vara is the stra e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (110). Here
buddha disappears after something ending in e, o, or a vmana and thus we get he
hare <8.1>, he vio <8.1>, and he ka <8.1>. An example of when a grammatical
operation prescribed in reference to a particular nma also applies to something
ending in that nma is how the replacement jaras ordained in relation to the word jar
also applies to the word nirjara, a word ending in jar.
In that regard, when the replacement jaras would usually replace the entire word
nirjara, Jva Gosvm speaks the second paribh beginning nirdiyamnnm. In
essence this means that the substitute replaces as much of an atidiyamna word (a
word to which a rule applies by extended application) as is directly mentioned, but it
doesnt replace the entire atidiyamna word. Here the directly mentioned original
word is jar. Therefore the replacement jaras only replaces the jara portion of the
atidiyamna word nirjara, and not the entire word. In reply to the doubt why is the
replacement of the word jar, a word ending in -rma, employed in connection with
the word nirjara, a word ending in a-rma? Jva Gosvm speaks the third paribh
beginning eka-dea.
149 / @a inazAAnaAis$ak(yaAeinaRas$aAvaAde"zAAE yau"Sau vaA vaAcyaAE /
149. atra ni-nsikayor ni-nasv deau yaduu v vcyau
atrain this connection; ni-nsikayoof the words ni (night) and nsik
(nose); ni-nasauni and nas; deauthe replacements; yaduuwhen the
yadus follow; voptionally; vcyaushould be stated.
In this connection, the words ni and nsik are optionally replaced by ni
and nas respectively when the yadus follow.
prayog ca pake viujannta-vaj jey. yathnia ni nijbhym ity-di. irmnto bhakti-abda. tasya paveu hari-abda-vat. asibhakt. pusti
viean na-rmo na syt. na tu lakmym iti na ndeabhakty bhaktibhym
bhaktibhi.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
117
VttiIn that case the declension is the same as that of a word ending in a viujana.
For example:
ni + []as (149) nias (93) nia <2.3>.
ni + [] (149) ni <3.1>.
ni + bhym (149) ni + bhym (179, asya jo mantavya (vtti 188))
nijbhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhan
a

eka-vacana
ni
nim
niay / ni
niyai / nie
niy / nia
niy / nia
niym / nii
nie
eka-vacana
nsik
nsikm
nsikay / nas
nsikyai / nase
nsiky /
nasa
nsiky /
nasa
nsikym / nasi
nsike

dvi-vacana
nie
nie
nibhym / nijbhym
nibhym / nijbhym
nibhym / nijbhym
niayo / nio
niayo / nio
nie

bahu-vacana
ni
ni / nia
nibhi / nijbhi
nibhya / nijbhya
nibhya / nijbhya
ninm / nim
nisu / nicu / nicchu
ni

dvi-vacana
nsike
nsike
nsikbhym / nobhym
nsikbhym / nobhym
nsikbhym / nobhym

bahu-vacana
nsik
nsik / nasa
nsikbhi / nobhi
nsikbhya / nobhya
nsikbhya / nobhya

nsikayo / naso

nsiknm / nasm

nsikayo / naso
nsike

nsiksu / nasu
nsik

Now we begin the declension of the word bhakti (devotion), a word ending in i-rma.
The word bhakti is declined like the word hari when the pavas follow. When []as is
applied, we get bhakt <2.3>. Due to the specific mention of the word pusi in stra
95, the change to na-rma doesnt take place here.
bhakti + []as (94) bhakti + s (95) bhakts (93) bhakt <2.3>.
And due to the phrase na tu lakmym in stra 120, the substitute n is not applied
here:
bhakti + [] (50) bhakty <3.1>
bhakti + bhym bhaktibhym <3.2>.
bhakti + bhis (93) bhaktibhi <3.3>.
150 / h"ir"ta @ApvaA va{iSNASau lamyaAM , inatyaM gAAepyaA: /
150. harita p v viu lakmy, nitya gopy

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
118
haritaafter a hari; p[p]; voptionally; viuwhen the vis follow;
lakmymin the feminine gender; nityamalways; gopyafter a gop.
[p] is optionally applied after a hari in the feminine gender when the vis
follow, but it is always applied after a gop when the vis follow.
vi-nimittpo na ypbhaktyai bhaktaye bhaktibhym bhaktibhya. bhakty
bhakte bhaktibhym bhaktibhya. bhakty bhakte bhaktyo bhaktnm. b-ante
pi n-rdhbhy er mbhaktym bhaktau bhaktyo bhaktiu. he bhakte. atha
dhenu-abdadhenu dhen dhenava. dhenum dhen dhen ity-di. viu
dhenvai dhenave, dhenv dheno. dhenvm dhenau. atra hare sva-bhvalakmtve saty eveti vcyam. tena nehapriya-haraye priya-viave riyai. eva
priya-tri. asipriya-har. ndeas tu napriya-hary. tri-abdasya lakmym
VttiY[p] is not applied after the [p] caused by a vi.
bhakti + []e (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []e (50) bhakty + e (48) bhaktyai
<4.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 119) bhakte + e (54) bhaktaye <4.1>.
bhakti + bhym bhaktibhym <4.2>.
bhakti + bhyas (93) bhaktibhya <4.3>.
bhakti + []as[i] (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []as[i] (50) bhakty + as (42) bhaktys
(93)
bhakty <5.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 119) bhakte + as (121) bhaktes (93) bhakte <5.1>.
bhakti + bhym bhaktibhym <5.2>.
bhakti + bhyas (93) bhaktibhya <5.3>.
bhakti + []as (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []as (50) bhakty + as (42) bhaktys
(93) bhakty <6.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 119) bhakte + as (121) bhaktes (93) bhakte <6.1>.
bhakti + os (50) bhaktyos (93) bhaktyo <6.2>.
bhakti + m (105) bhakti + n[u] + m bhakti + nm (107)
bhaktnm <6.3>.
N-rdhbhy er m (135) also applies to words ending in [p]:
bhakti + []i (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) bhakti + [p] + []i (50) bhakty + []i (135) bhakty +
m (42) bhaktym <7.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 122) bhakti + au[c] (124) bhaktau <7.1>.
bhakti + os (50) bhaktyos (93) bhaktyo <7.2>.
bhakti + su[p] (108) bhaktiu <7.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
119
bhakti + s[u] (119) bhakte + s[u] (110) bhakte <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
bhakti
bhaktim
bhakty
bhaktaye / bhaktyai
bhakte / bhakty
bhakte / bhakty
bhaktau / bhaktym
bhakte

dvi-vacana
bhakt
bhakt
bhaktibhym
bhaktibhym
bhaktibhym
bhaktyo
bhaktyo
bhakt

bahu-vacana
bhaktaya
bhakt
bhaktibhi
bhaktibhya
bhaktibhya
bhaktnm
bhaktiu
bhaktaya

Now we begin the declension of the word dhenu (cow).


dhenu + s[u] (93) dhenu <1.1>.
dhenu + au (116) dhenu + u (42) dhen <1.2>.
dhenu + [j]as (119) dheno + as (55) dhenavas (93) dhenava <1.3>.
dhenu + am (94) dhenum <2.1>.
dhenu + au (116) dhenu + u (42) dhen <1.2>.
dhenu + []as (94) dhenu + s (95) dhens (93) dhen <1.3>.
dhenu + []e (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []e (51) dhenv + e (48) dhenvai <4.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 119) dheno + e (55) dhenave <4.1>.

dhenu + []as[i] (two options by 150):


1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []as[i] (51) dhenv + as (42) dhenvs
(93) dhenv <5.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 119) dheno + as (121) dhenos (93) dheno <5.1>.
dhenu + []as (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []as (51) dhenv + as (42) dhenvs
(93) dhenv <6.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 119) dheno + as (121) dhenos (93) dheno <6.1>.
dhenu + []i (two options by 150):
1) ([p] is applied) dhenu + [p] + []i (51) dhenv + []i (135) dhenv +
m (42) dhenvm <7.1>
2) ([p] isnt applied, 122) dhenu + au[c] (124) dhenau <7.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth

eka-vacana
dhenu
dhenum
dhenv
dhenave / dhenvai

dvi-vacana
dhen
dhen
dhenubhym
dhenubhym

bahu-vacana
dhenava
dhen
dhenubhi
dhenubhya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
120
pacam
dheno / dhenv
ah
dheno / dhenv
saptam
dhenau / dhenvm
sambodhana
dheno

dhenubhym
dhenvo
dhenvo
dhen

dhenubhya
dhennm
dhenuu
dhenava

In this regard, the current stra is applied only when a hari is naturally in the feminine
gender. Thus it is not applied in priya-haraye riyai <4.1> or priya-viave riyai
<4.1>. It is also not applied to the word priya-tri. When []as is applied we get priyahar <2.3>. The replacement n is also not applied and thus we get priya-hary
<3.1>. In the feminine gender, the word tri undergoes the following changes:
AmtaY[p] is not applied after the [p] caused by a vi because a word ending in
that [p] is lkaika (see vtti 50), and therefore it cannot be called rdh. Someone
may argue, In the seventh case singular m is ordained in the place of []i by
accepting that a word ending in the [p] caused by a vi is called rdh. But why
isnt such a word lkaika there also? The answer is that in that case the m
ordained by n-rdhbhym er m (135) is a virici, but in this case y[p] is a viu
because it is ordained in between the prakti and pratyaya. Although, in the seventh
case singular, the word ending in the [p] caused by a vi is lkaika, there is no
fault in replacing []i with m because the following maxim allows it: viricir
lkaikatva sahate kvacin na viu (A virici may sometimes defy the rule of
lkaika. But a viu may not).
SaodhinWords like priya-hari, priya-viu, priya-tri and so on are not considered
naturally feminine because they only assume the feminine gender when used in
ptmbara-samsas. In such cases the emphasis of meaning is on another word as
was demonstrated by Jva Gosvm with the examples priya-haraye riyai (unto the
goddess of fortune for whom Hari is dear) and priya-viave riyai (unto the goddess
of fortune for whom Viu is dear).
151 / lamaIsTayaAeicataur"Aeistas$a{catas$a{ ivaSNAuBa(AE /
151. lakm-sthayos tri-caturos tis-catas viubhaktau
lakm-sthayooccuring in the feminine gender; tri-caturoof the words tri
(three) and catur (four); tis-catasthe replacements tis and catas;
viubhaktauwhen a viubhakti follows.
When the words tri and catur are used in the feminine gender, they are
replaced by tis and catas respectively, provided a viubhakti follows.
AmtaIn this stra, the word tis-catas is a samhra-dvandva-samsa, thus it is
neuter and singular. Why do we say provided a viubhakti follows? Consider tritvam
and catuayam. Due to the modifier lakm-sthayo, when we have the vigraha
(separation of the constituent words of a compound word) priys tisro yasya (for
whom three (feminine) are dear), the replacement certainly takes place even though
the samsa is in the masculine gender. Thus we get priya-tis <1.1>, priya-tisrau
<1.2>, priya-tisra <1.3>, priya-tisr <3.1>, priya-tisre <4.1>, priya-tisra <5.1>,
and so on.1

1 In these forms the of tis changes to r by the next stra. In this regard, the next
vtti explains that the change to r blocks the govinda, trivikrama, and change to u that
would normally take place by the previous rules.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
121
152 / itas$a{cataaAe r": s$avaeRre" /
152. tis-catasro ra sarvevare
tis-catasroof the words tis and catas; rathe replacement ra-rma; sarvevare
when a sarvevara follows.
The of the words tis and catas1 becomes r when a viubhakti beginning
with a sarvevara follows2.
govinda-trivikramo-rmm apavda. atve kevala-sa-rmo viricir ghta. tisra
tisra tisbhi tisbhya tisbhya. mi tu na tis-catasror iti jpakt nu eva
tism tisu. -rmnto gop-abda; b iti lakm-vihita-pratyaya
VttiThis stra is an apavda of the govinda, trivikrama, and u-rma. Regarding the
change to a-rma (by stra 108), only a virici comprised solely of sa-rma is
accepted.
tri + [j]as (151) tis + as (152) tisras (93) tisra <1.3>.
tri + []as (151) tis + as (152) tisras (93) tisra <2.3>.
tri + bhis (151) tis + bhis (93) tisbhi <3.3>.
tri + bhyas (151) tis + bhyas (93) tisbhya <4.3>.
tri + bhyas (151) tis + bhyas (93) tisbhya <5.3>.
But, when m follows, n[u] is certainly applied because of the jpaka3 na tiscatasro (in stra 107):
tri + m (151) tis + m (105) tis + n[u] + m tisnm (111) tism
<6.3>.
tri + su[p] (151) tis + su (108) tisu <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

bahu-vacana
tisra
tisra
tisbhi
tisbhya
tisbhya
tism
tisu

Now we begin the declension of the word gop (a cowherd woman), a word ending in
-rma. [p] is a taddhita pratyaya that is ordained in the feminine gender.

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).
2 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).
3 Indicator; An expression or rule that implies something more than what is directly
said by the rule itself.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
122
AmtaGovinda would usually be applied by -rmasya govinda paveu au ca
(136), trivikrama would usually be applied by davatrasya trivikramo asi (95), and
the change to u-rma would usually be applied by -rmato asi-asor asya uc (137).
However the current stra blocks all of these. In the stra ordaining the change to arma, only a virici comprised solely of sa-rma is accepted by the phrase pratyayavirici-sasya a. Therefore the s of the viricis tis and catas doesnt become
because of the presence of other varas besides s.
Someone may argue, Because of the general statement when a sarvevara follows,
in the sixth case plural the words tis and catas should definitely become r. In
answer to that Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning But, when m follows.
In the stra beginning vmanasya trivikramo nmi, the phrase na tis-catasro, which
prohibits trivikrama, is a jpaka of n[u], since only when there is nm can the
trivikrama that is normally applicable when nm follows be prohibited. If n[u] were
not applied then there would be no question of nm nor any possibility of prohibitions
in relation to nm. Therefore, in accordance with the maxim viricito viur balavn (A
viu is stronger than a virici), n[u] is applied before the substitution of r takes
place, and when n[u] is applied there is no chance for the substitution of r to even
take place because there is no longer a sarvevara following. This is the implied
meaning.
153 / wROlamaIgAAeRpaIs$aMaA /
153. --lakmr gop-saj
--lakma feminine word ending in -rma or -rma; gop-sajcalled gop.
A feminine word ending in or is called gop.
gop gopyau gopya. gopm gopyau gop. gopy gopbhym gopbhi. gopyai
gopbhym gopbhya. gopy gopbhym gopbhya. gopy gopyo gopnm.
gopym gopyo gopu. he gopi. atra vidhna-smarthyn na govinda. eva sakh
casakh sakhyau. ausakhym. trivikramd iti viean neha sor hara, ati-gopi.
pusi viu ati-gopaye ity-di, lakmymati-gopyai ati-gopaye ity-di. vadh
vadh vadhvau vadhva. he vadhu.
Vtti gop + s[u] (138) gop <1.1>.
gop + au (50) gopyau <1.2>.
gop + [j]as (50) gopyas (93) gopya <1.3>.
gop + am (94) gopm <2.1>.
gop + au (50) gopyau <2.2>.
gop + []as (94) gops (93) gop <2.3>.
gop + [] (50) gopy <3.1>.
gop + bhym gopbhym <3.2>.
gop + bhis (93) gopbhi <3.3>.
gop + []e (150) gop + [p] + e (50) gopy + e (48) gopyai <4.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
123
gop + bhym gopbhym <4.2>.
gop + bhyas (93) gopbhya <4.3>.
gop + []as[i] (150) gop + [p] + as (50) gopy + as (42) gopys
(93) gopy
<5.1>.
gop + bhym gopbhym <5.2>.
gop + bhyas (93) gopbhya <5.3>.
gop + []as (150) gop + [p] + as (50) gopy + as (42) gopys
(93) gopy
<6.1>.
gop + os (50) gopyos (93) gopyo <6.2>.
gop + m (105) gop + n[u] + m gopnm <6.3>.
gop + []i (150) gop + [p] + []i (50) gopy + []i (135) gopy +
m (42) gopym <7.1>.
gop + os (50) gopyos (93) gopyo <7.2>.
gop + su[p] (108) gopu <7.3>.
gop + s[u] (147) gopi + s[u] (110) gopi <8.1>.
In he gopi <8.1> there is no govinda due to the strength of stra 147.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
gop
gopm
gopy
gopyai
gopy
gopy
gopym
gopi

dvi-vacana
gopyau
gopyau
gopbhym
gopbhym
gopbhym
gopyo
gopyo
gopyau

bahu-vacana
gopya
gop
gopbhi
gopbhya
gopbhya
gopnm
gopu
gopya

Words like sakh (female friend) are declined in the same way:
sakh + s[u] (138) sakh <1.1>.
sakh + au (50) sakhyau <1.2>.
sakh + []i (150) sakh + [p] + []i (50) sakhy + []i (135) sakhy
+ m (42)
sakhym <7.1>.
Because of the modifier trivikramt (in stra 138) the deletion of s[u] doesnt take
place in the case of ati-gopi <1.1>. In the masculine gender, when the vis follow,
the forms are ati-gopaye <4.1> and so on. In the feminine gender they are ati-gopyai

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
124
<4.1> or ati-gopaye <4.1>, and so on. Now we begin the declension of the word
vadh (a young bride or woman in general):
vadh + s[u] vadhs (93) vadh <1.1>.
vadh + au (51) vadhvau <1.2>.
vadh + [j]as (51) vadhvas (93) vadhva <1.3>.
vadh + s[u] (147) vadhu + s[u] (110) vadhu <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
vadh
vadhm
vadhv
vadhvai
vadhv
vadhv
vadhvm
vadhu

dvi-vacana
vadhvau
vadhvau
vadhbhym
vadhbhym
vadhbhym
vadhvo
vadhvo
vadhvau

bahu-vacana
vadhva
vadh
vadhbhi
vadhbhya
vadhbhya
vadhnm
vadhu
vadhva

AmtaThe word --lakm means a feminine word ending in -rma or -rma.


The etymology of the word gopa (cowherd) is as follows: g pti rakatti gopa (A
gopa is so named because he tends (pti) the cows (g)). Or else the etymology is
gopyati rakati uddha-bhakti-rasa tad-adhihnatvd iti gopa (A gopa is so
named because he keeps (gopyati) the tastes of pure devotion as he is their resting
place). More specifically a gopa refers to the particular class of cowherds that reside
in Vraja. The word gopa is formed either by applying the kt pratyaya [k]a after go +
p rakae or by applying the kt pratyaya a[l] after gup[] rakae. Then [p] is
applied in the feminine gender by a-rmnta-jte (1094) and we get the word gop
(cowherd woman).
The modifier trivikramt (in stra 138) informs us that [p] can also exist in a vmana
form. The vigraha of ati-gopi <1.1> is gopm atikrnta (he who surpasses a
gop). The word ati-gopi is a ka-purua-samsa formed by aty-dayo dvityay
(959), which becomes vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana
(939). In the feminine gender, the vigraha of ati-gopi <1.1> is gopm atikrnt (she
who surpasses a gop).
154 / @vaItanaItar"IlamaI"IDaIaINAAmauNAAid"naA /
zAbd"AnaAM tau BavatyaeSaAM s$aulaAepaAe na k(d"Acana //
154.
av-tantr-tar-lakmhr-dh-rm udin
abdn tu bhavaty e
su-lopo na kadcana
av-tantr-tar-lakm-hr-dh-rmof av (a woman in her courses), tantr
(the string of a v), tar (a boat), lakm (prosperity, beauty, the goddess of
fortune), hr (shyness), dh (intelligence), and r (prosperity, beauty, the
goddess of fortune); u-dincharacterized as udis; abdnmof the words; tu
but; bhavatiis; emof these; su-lopadeletion of s[u]; nanot; kadcana
ever.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
125
But the udi words av, tantr, tar, lakm, hr, dh, and r never
undergo deletion of s[u].
lakm lakmyau lakmya ity-di gop-vat. str-abdastr.
Vtti lakm + s[u] (154) lakms (93) lakm <1.1>.
The forms lakmyau <1.2>, lakmya <1.3>, and so on are made in the same way as
the word gop. Now we begin the declension of the word str (woman).
str + s[u] (138) str <1.1>.
AmtaIn the word udin, the third case ending has been used in the sense of
upalakaa1 (characteristic), thus udin means udinopalakitnm
(characterized as udis). Among these words hr, dh, and r are words ending in
[k]vi[p] which are counted among the udis, the rest of the words end in the udi
pratyaya .
SaodhinThe udi pratyayas are a set of pratyayas that are applied after dhtus
to form proper names (saj-abdas). They are treated in detail in the five chaptered
grammatical treatise called the Udi-stras. Basically the udi pratyayas are the
missing kt pratyayas that are supplied to support the theory that all nmas are
derived from dhtus. Words that are made from udi pratyayas are called udi
words. For further details, see Saodhin 880.
155 / IauvaAeir"yauvaAE s$avaeRre" , iyaA @mzAs$aAevaAR
155. str-bhruvor iy-uvau sarvevare, striy am-asor v
str-bhruvoof the words str (woman) and bhr (eyebrow); iy-uvauthe
replacements iy and uv; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; striyof the word
str; am-asowhen the viubhaktis am or []as follow; voptionally.
The and of the words str and bhr2 become iy and uv respectively when
a viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara follows3, but this change is
optional for the word str when the viubhaktis am or []as follow.
striyau striya. striyam strm striyau striya str. striy strbhym strbhi. nitya
gopystriyai strbhym strbhya. striy strbhym strbhya. striy striyo.
viricito viur balavn, strm. striym striyo stru. he stri. r-abdar.
dhtor d-tor iti riyau riya.
Vtti str + au (155) striyau <1.2>.
str + [j]as (155) striyas (93) striya <1.3>.
str + am (two options by 155):
1) (the change to iy is done) striyam <2.1>.
1 This use of the third case is described in viea-lakat tty (678), a stra which
other grammarians previously formulated as upalakae tty.
2 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).
3 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
126
2) (the change to iy isnt done, 94) strm <2.1>.
str + au (155) striyau <2.2>.

1)
2)

str + []as (two options by 155):


(the change to iy is done) striyas (93) striya <2.3>.
(the change to iy isnt done, 94) strs (93) str <2.3>.
str + [] (155) striy <3.1>.

str + bhym strbhym <3.2>.


str + bhis strbhis (93) strbhi <3.3>.
str + []e (150) str + [p] + []e (155) striy + e (48) striyai <4.1>.
str + bhym strbhym <4.2>.
str + bhyas strbhyas (93) strbhya <4.3>.
str + []as[i] (150) str + [p] + []as[i] (155) striy + as (42) striys
(93) striy
<5.1>.
str + []as (150) str + [p] + []as (155) striy + as (42) striys
(93) striy
<6.1>.
str + os (155) striyos (93) striyo <6.2>.
Viricito viur balavn (a viu is stronger than a virici):
str + m (105) str + n[u] + m strnm (111) strm <6.3>.
str + []i (150) str + [p] + []i (155) striy + []i (135) striy + m
(42)
striym <7.1>.
str + su[p] (108) stru <7.3>.
str + s[u] (147) stri + s[u] (110) stri <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
str
striyam / strm
striy
striyai
striy
striy
striym
stri

dvi-vacana
striyau
striyau
strbhym
strbhym
strbhym
striyo
striyo
striyau

bahu-vacana
striya
striya / str
strbhi
strbhya
strbhya
strm
stru
striya

Now we begin the declension of the word r (prosperity, beauty, the goddess of
fortune):
r + s[u] (154) rs (93) r <1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
127
r + au (134) riyau <1.2>.
r + [j]as (134) riyas (93) riya <1.3>.
AmtaSomeone may wonder In the sixth case plural, when m follows, should the
change to iy be applied or should n[u] be inserted? To reconcile the conflict between
these two rules, Jva Gosvm speaks the maxim beginning viricita.
SaodhinDhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare bahulam (134) is applicable to the
word r because it comes from the dhtu ri[] sevym (1U, to serve, worship,
dwell, depend on). When [k]vi[p] is applied to the dhtu ri[], the dhtu becomes
trivikrama by pracchdn trivikramo, na ca sakaraa (Bhat 1558) and [k]vi[p] is
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (612). Thus we get the word r.
156 / naeyauvsTaAnaM gAAepaI , iyaM ivanaA , va{iSNASvaAima ca vaA /
156. ney-uv-sthna gop, striya vin, viv mi ca v
nanot; iy-uv-sthnama word in which there is occasion for (the change to) iy or uv;
gopgop; striyamthe word str; vinexcept; viuwhen the vis follow;
miwhen m follows; caand; voptionally.
Any word ending in or , except str, which undergoes a change to iy or uv
is not called gop. But when the vis follow or when m follows, such a
word is optionally called gop.
riyai riye, rbhym rbhya. riy riya. riy riya, riyo, rm riym.
riym riyi, riyo ru. he r. eva dh-prabhtaya bhr-prabhtaya ca. bhr
bhruvau bhruva. eva su-bhr. buddhe vmana iti kecit
kaa bata h citra / h mtar daivatni dhik
h pita kvsi he su-bhru / bahv eva vilalpa sa. iti bhai (6.11).
ki ca, aniy-uv pact-pustve pi gop-sajm hu. tato bahu-preyasabda asa vin pusy api gop-abda-vat. evam ati-lakm lakm-abda-vat.
vmanatve tu gop-sajatva necchanti. sakhm atikrntasya atisakher iti bhyam.
--rmayor asvbhvika-lakmtve goptva na; viva-nye riyai. mt-abda pitvat. mt mtarau mtara. asi tu mt. svas-abda kart-vat. svas svasrau
svasra. asi tu svas. go-abda prva-vat. dyo-abdo go-vat. naur glau-vat. iti
sarvevarnt lakm-lig.
Vtti r + []e (two options by 156):
1) (r is a gop, 150) r + [p] + []e (134) riy + e (48) riyai <4.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 134) riy + e riye <4.1>.
r + bhym rbhym <4.2>.
r + bhyas (93) rbhya <4.3>.
r + []as[i] (two options by 156):
1) (r is a gop, 150) r + [p] + []as[i] (134) riy + as (42) riys
(93) riy <5.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 134) riyas (93) riya <5.1>.
r + []as (two options by 156):

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
128
1) (r is a gop, 150) r + [p] + []as (134) riy + as (42) riys (93)
riy <6.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 134) riyas (93) riya <6.1>.
r + os (134) riyos (93) riyo <6.2>.
r + m (two options by 156):
1) (r is a gop, 105) r + n[u] + m rnm (111) rm <6.3>.
2) (r is a gop, 134) riym <6.3>.
r + []i (two options by 156):
1) (r is a gop, 150) r + [p] + []i (134) riy + []i (135) riy + m
(42) riym
<7.1>.
2) (r isnt a gop, 134) riyi <7.1>.
r + os (134) riyos (93) riyo <7.2>.
r + su[p] (108) ru <7.3>.
r + s[u] (156, 154) rs (93) r <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
r
riyam
riy
riyai / riye
riy / riya
riy / riya
riym / riyi
r

dvi-vacana
riyau
riyau
rbhym
rbhym
rbhym
riyo
riyo
riyau

bahu-vacana
riya
riya
rbhi
rbhya
rbhya
rm / riym
ru
riya

Words like dh and bhr are declined in the same way:


bhr + s[u] (93) bhr <1.1>.
bhr + au (155) bhruvau <1.2>.
bhr + [j]as (155) bhruvas (93) bhruva <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
bhr
bhruvam
bhruv
bhruvai / bhruve
bhruv / bhruva
bhruv / bhruva
bhruvm / bhruvi
bhr

dvi-vacana
bhruvau
bhruvau
bhrbhym
bhrbhym
bhrbhym
bhruvo
bhruvo
bhruvau

bahu-vacana
bhruva
bhruva
bhrbhi
bhrbhya
bhrbhya
bhrm / bhruvm
bhru
bhruva

In the same way we get su-bhr <1.1>. Some say that the word su-bhr (one who
has nice eyebrows) becomes vmana when buddha follows. An example of this is
Bhai-kvya 6.11:
kaa bata h citra

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
129
h mtar daivatni dhik.
h pita kvsi he su-bhru
bahv eva vilalpa sa
Alas, alas, alas, alas. How strange this is! O Mother! Fie on providence! O Father!
Where are you? O beautiful browed one! In this way he lamented greatly.
AmtaThe word iy-uv-sthnam is understood as follows: iya uvo v sthna sthitir
yatra tad iy-uv-sthnam (iy-uv-sthnam is that in which there is occasion for (the
change to) iy or uv). In regards to he r <8.1>, ambdn gopy ca vmano
buddhe (147) doesnt apply because the word r is not a gop (as it undergoes a
change to iy by stra 134). The verse of Bhai expresses Lord Rmacandras words of
distress due to the pain of separation He felt after St had been taken away. Klidsa
also has vimnat subhru pitur ghe kuta. However, Bhaoji-dkita says iaprayogo py anupapanna (The usage of the learned is impossible to explain. It is
inconsistent).
VttiFurthermore, authorities say that words ending in or that dont undergo a
change to iy or uv are called gop even when they later appear in the masculine
gender. Thus even in the masculine gender, the word bahu-preyas (he who has
many lovers, name of Ka) is declined like the word gop, except for when []as
follows. Similarly, the word ati-lakm (he who surpasses lakm) is declined like the
word lakm. But earlier grammarians dont consider that words ending in or that
dont undergo a change to iy or uv are called gop when they later become vmana in
the masculine gender. Thus the Mah-bhya says sakhm atikrntasya atisakhe
(the word ati-sakhe <6.1> which means of he who surpasses a sakh). A word
that ends in or but is not naturally feminine is not called gop. Thus viva-nye
riyai (unto the goddess of fortune, the leader of the universe). The word mt is
declined like the word pit:
mt + s[u] (127) mt + [c] (124) mt <1.1>.
mt + au (136) mtarau <1.2>.
mt + [j]as (136) mtaras (93) mtara <1.3>.
But when []as follows, we get the form mt <2.3>:
mt + []as (94) mt + s (95) mt + s (93) mt <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
mt
mtaram
mtr
mtre
mtu
mtu
mtari
mta

dvi-vacana
mtarau
mtarau
mtbhym
mtbhym
mtbhym
mtro
mtro
mtarau

The word svas is declined like the word kart:


svas + s[u] (127) svas + [c] (124) svas <1.1>.
svas + au (139) svasrau <1.2>.

bahu-vacana
mtara
mt
mtbhi
mtbhya
mtbhya
mtm
mtu
mtara

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
130
svas + [j]as (139) svasras (93) svasra <1.3>.
But when []as follows, we get the form svas <2.3>:
svas + []as (94) svas + s (94) svas <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
svas
svasram
svasr
svasre
svasu
svasu
svasari
svasa

dvi-vacana
svasrau
svasrau
svasbhym
svasbhym
svasbhym
svasro
svasro
svasrau

bahu-vacana
svasra
svas
svasbhi
svasbhya
svasbhya
svasm
svasu
svasra

When the word go is used in the feminine gender the declension is the same as before.
The feminine word dyo (heaven, the sky) is declined like the word go, and the
feminine word nau (boat) is declined like the word glau. Thus ends the declension of
feminine words ending in a sarvevara.
AmtaThe stra neyasy ptmbare (938) prohibits the word bahu-preyas from
becoming vmana. Because the word ati-lakm doesnt end in [p] (see Amta 154)
it doesnt become vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana (939).
But the sakh in the word ati-sakhi (from the Mah-bhyas example ati-sakhe
<6.1>) does become vmana by gor pa pa a cntasypradhnasya vmana
(939). The word r undergoes a change to iy by dhtor d-tor iy-uvau sarvevare
(134) therefore it is not called gop. The word viva-n is vcya-liga (adjectival,
sharing the gender of the substantive). Thus since it is not naturally feminine it is not
called gop, and therefore it undergoes the change to y by stra 134

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
131

Atha sarvevarnt brahma-lig


Now we begin the declension of neuter words ending in a sarvevara.
tatra a-rmnto gokula-abda.
Among them is the word gokula (Gokula, the place where Ka spent his
childhood), a word ending in a-rma.
157 / ak{(SNAAts$aAer"ma, /
157. brahma-kt sor am
brahma-ktafter a brahma-ka (a neuter word ending in a-rma); soof
the viubhakti
s[u]; amthe replacement am.
After a brahma-ka, s[u] is replaced by am.
davatrd am-asor a-rma-haragokulam. rdh-brahmabhym au gokule.
Vtti gokula + s[u] (157) gokula + am (94) gokulam <1.1>.
gokula + au (144) gokula + (43) gokule <1.2>.
158 / ataAe jas$zAs$aAe: izA: /
158. brahmato jas-aso i
brahmataafter a brahma (neuter word); jas-asoof the viubhaktis [j]as and
[]as; ithe replacement []i.
After a brahma, [j]as and []as are replaced by []i.
eka-varatvd ante prpte it sarvasyeti id-dea sarvasya bhavati.
VttiWhere the replacement would normally be applied at the end since it is
comprised of a single vara, a replacement whose indicatory letter is replaces
everything in accordance with the maxim it sarvasya (that which has the indicatory
letter replaces everything).
AmtaWhere []i would usually replace only the s of [j]as and []as by the maxim
eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate (vtti 98), that is removed by making []i with the
indicatory letter , since the rule is that a replacement with the indicatory letter
replaces the entire original. Thus here the replacement []i replaces the entire as of
[j]as and []as.
159 / s$avaeRr"vaESNAvaAntayaAenau< zAAE /
159. sarvevara-vaiavntayor nu au

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
132
sarvevara-vaiava-antayoof words ending in a sarvevara or vaiava; numthe
gama n[um]; auwhen []i follows.
Words ending in a sarvevara or vaiava take the gama n[um] when []i
follows.
160 / @ntyas$avaeRr"AtparM" imata: sTaAnama, /
160. antya-sarvevart para mita sthnam
antya-sarvevartthe final sarvevara; paramafter; mitaof anything that has
the indicatory letter m; sthnamthe place.
The place of insertion for anything that has the indicatory letter m is after
the final sarvevara.
161 / @ntyaAtpaUvaRvaNAR: o"vas$aMa: /
161. antyt prva-vara uddhava-saja
antytthan the last vara; prva-varathe previous vara; uddhava-saja
called uddhava.
The vara which comes before the last vara is called uddhava.
AmtaThe word uddhava is formed by applying the kt pratyaya a[l] after ud + hu
vahnau dne. The rimad-bhgavatam (10.46.1) described Uddhava as follows:
r-uka uvca
vn pravaro mantr
kasya dayita sakh
iyo bhaspate skd
uddhavo buddhi-sattama
ukadeva Gosvm said: The supremely intelligent Uddhava was the best counselor
of the Vi dynasty, a beloved friend of Lord r Ka and a direct disciple of
Bhaspati.
162 / @apaANx"vaA: izA k{(SNAsTaAnas$aMaA: /
162. abrahma-pav i ca ka-sthna-saj
a-brahma-pavthe pavas, except when they are in brahma-liga; i[]i; ca
and; ka-sthna-sajcalled kasthna.
The pavas, except when they are in brahma-liga, and []i are called
kasthna.
AmtaIn effect the word abrahma-pav means the pavas when used in the
masculine and feminine genders. Those pavas as well as []i, which belongs to the
neuter gender, are called kasthna. The word sthna means dhma (abode).
Thus the word kasthna refers to Kas holy abode, Vndvana.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
133
163 / naAntaDaAtauvaijaRtas$aAntas$ats$amah"d"paAmau"vasya iaiva(ma:
k{(SNAsTaAnae , bauM" ivanaA /
163. nnta-dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-saga-mahad-apm uddhavasya trivikrama
kasthne, buddha vin
na-antaof a word ending in na-rma; dhtu-varjita-sa-anta-sat-sagaof a word,
except a dhtu, in which there is a sat-saga ending in sa-rma; mahatof the word
mahat[u] (great); apmof the word ap (water); uddhavasyaof the uddhava;
trivikramathe change to trivikrama; kasthnewhen a kasthna follows;
buddhambuddha; vinexcept.
The uddhava of words ending in na-rma and words, except for dhtus, in
which there is a sat-saga ending in sa-rma, as well as the uddhava of the
words mahat[u] and ap becomes trivikrama when any kasthna except
buddha follows.
gokulni. eva dvityym. ttydau puruottama-vat. buddha-sthnyatvd am api
buddha-sajahe gokula.
Vtti gokula + [j]as (158) gokula + []i (159) gokula + n[um] + i (160)
gokulan + i (163)
gokuln + i gokulni <1.3>.
The declension is the same for the second case. From the third case onwards the
declension is the same as that of a masculine word. Because am occupies the place of
buddha, it is also called buddha:
gokula + s[u] (157) gokula + am (110) gokula <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
gokulam
gokulam
gokulena
gokulya
gokult
gokulasya
gokule
gokula

dvi-vacana
gokule
gokule
gokulbhym
gokulbhym
gokulbhym
gokulayo
gokulayo
gokule

bahu-vacana
gokulni
gokulni
gokulai
gokulebhya
gokulebhya
gokulnm
gokuleu
gokulni

AmtaBecause of the general mention of a word ending in na-rma, both the narma that is naturally present in a nma as well as the na-rma which belongs to a
viu but is inside a nma are accepted by the word na. The na-rma which belongs to
a virici is also accepted provided it is inside the nma since it is accepted that the
replacement of a nma, dhtu, pratyaya, or viupada is also counted as a nma,
dhtu, pratyaya, or viupada respectively. An example of a natural na-rma is
rjnau <1.2>. Because by stra 160 the gama n[um] is inserted into a nma after
its last sarvevara, a nma thus supplemented (as, for example, gokulan) is accepted
as a word ending in na-rma. Thus we get gokulni <1.3>. An example of a word that
is a virici and ends in na-rma is ri <2.3>. Why do we say except for a dhtu?
Consider kasa-hin <1.1> (see vtti 207).
164 / $d"yasya $u"Sau vaA , zAISaRsya zAISaRna, vaetyaeke( /
164. hdayasya hd yaduu v, rasya ran vety eke

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
134
hdayasyaof the word hdaya (heart); hdthe replacement hd; yaduuwhen
the yadus follow; voptionally; rasyaof the word ra (head); ranthe
replacement ran; voptionally; itithus; ekesome.
The word hdaya is optionally replaced by hd when the yadus follow. And
some say the word ra is optionally replaced by ran when the yadus
follow.
prayog ca pake viujannta-vaj jey. yathhndi hdayni, hd hdayena.
ubhayatrpi ri. jary jaras v sarvevarenirjaram nirjarasam, nirjare nirjaras.
numa prva jaras-dea manyante.
VttiIn the case when the replacement is made, the declension is like that of a word
ending in a viujana. For example:
hdaya + []as (158) hdaya + []i (two options by 164):
1) (hdaya is replaced by hd) hd + []i (159, 160) h + n[um] + d + []i
(165) hdi (73, Bhat 273) hndi <2.3>.
2) (hdaya isnt replaced by hd, 159, 160) hdaya + n[um] + []i hdayan +
i (163) hdayni <2.3>.
hdaya + [] (two options by 164):
1) (hdaya is replaced by hd) hdaya + [] (164) hd + [] hd <3.1>.
2) (hdaya isnt replaced by hd, 97) hdaya + ina (43) hdayena <3.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

eka-vacana
hdayam
hdayam
hdayena / hd

caturth

hdayya / hde

pacam

hdayt / hda

ah

hdayasya /
hda
hdaye / hdi
hdaya

saptam
sambodha
na

dvi-vacana
hdaye
hdaye
hdaybhym /
hdbhym
hdaybhym /
hdbhym
hdaybhym /
hdbhym
hdayayo / hdo
hdayayo / hdo
hdaye

bahu-vacana
hdayni
hdayni / hndi
hdayai / hdbhi
hdayebhya /
hdbhya
hdayebhya /
hdbhya
hdaynm / hdm
hdayeu / htsu
hdayni

In both cases we get ri <2.3>:


ra + []as (158) ra + []i (two options by 164):
1) (ra is replaced by ran) ran + []i (163) rni (111) rsi
<2.3>.
2) (ra isnt replaced by ran, 159, 160) ra + n[um] + []i ran + i
(163)
rni (111) rsi <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

eka-vacana
ram
ram
rea / r

dvi-vacana
re
re
rbhym /
rabhym

bahu-vacana
ri
ri
rai / rabhi

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
135
caturth
rya / re
pacam

rt / ra

ah
saptam

rasya / ra
re / ri /
rai
ra

sambodha
na

rbhym /
rabhym
rbhym /
rabhym
rayo / ro
rayo / ro

rebhya /
rabhya
rebhya /
rabhya
rm / irm
reu / rasu

re

ri

By jary jaras v sarvevare (148) the jara portion of the neuter word nirjara
(nectar) is optionally replaced by jaras1 when a viubhakti beginning with a
sarvevara follows:
nirjara + s[u] (157) nirjara + am (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjarasam <1.1>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 94) nirjaram <1.1>.
nirjara + au (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjaras + au (144) nirjaras <1.2>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 144) nirjara + (43) nirjare <1.2>.
It is considered that the substitution of jaras takes place before the application of
n[um].
AmtaThe substitution of jaras is done first by the maxim viricito viur balavn,
viuta sarva-virici (a viu is stronger than a virici, but a sarva-virici (the
replacement of a whole word) is stronger than a viu).
165 / @ivaSNAupad"Antasya nasya masya ca ivaSNAucaM( vaESNAvae /
165. aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave
a-viupada-antasyanot at the end of a viupada; nasyaof na-rma; masyaof
ma-rma; caand; viucakramthe replacement viucakra; vaiavewhen a
vaiava follows.
Na-rma or ma-rma not at the end of a viupada become viucakra when
a vaiava follows.
nirjari nirjarsi. punas tadvat. buddhehe nirjara. he nirjarasam ity api kecit. irmnto dadhi-abda.
Vtti nirjara + [j]as (158) nirjara + []i (two options by 148):
1) (jara is replaced by jaras) nirjaras + []i (159, 160) nirjara + n[um] + s +
[]i
nirjarans + i (163) nirjarns + i (165) nirjarsi <1.3>.
2) (jara isnt replaced by jaras, 159, 160) nirjara + n[um] + []i nirjaran + i
(163)
nirjarni (111) nirjari <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case. When buddha follows the form is
he nirjara <8.1>. Some say the form is he nirjarasam <8.1>. Now we begin the
declension of the word dadhi (yogurt), a word ending in i-rma.
1 In this regard, one should recall the explanation given in vtti 148.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
136
AmtaWhy do we say not at the end of a viupada? Consider sambhavati and
kra jayati. Why do we say when a vaiava follows? Consider manyate and
gamyate. From the third case onward the the declension of nirjara is like that of a
masculine word, and that was already shown under stra 148. In the opinion of those
who say the form should be he nirjarasam <8.1>, s[u] alone is called buddha, and am
which occupies the place of s[u] is not called buddha. Therefore, because am doesnt
disappear by e-o-vmanebhyo buddhasydaranam (110), the subsitution of jaras
takes place and we get he nirjarasam <8.1>.
SaodhinRegarding nirjarsi <1.3>, it will be explained in Amta 208 that the
sat-saga referred to in vtti 163 with the phrase dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-sagasya is
treated as if it were a single vara, otherwise the sarvevara coming before it wouldnt
be the uddhava and thus there would be the fault of asambhava (impossibility) since
a viujana cannot take trivikrama. Thus, when we have nirjarans + []i, the sat-saga
ns is treated as a single vara and thus a-rma is the uddhava. It should be
understood, however, that this unusual treatment of the sat-saga as a single vara
only happens in relation to stra 163.
166 / ata: svamaAemaRh"Ah"r": /
166. brahmata sv-amor mahhara
brahmataafter a brahma; su-amoof the viubhaktis s[u] and am; mahhara
mahhara.
After a brahma, the viubhaktis s[u] and am undergo mahhara.
dadhi. katha gokula? tatrkarat.
Vtti dadhi + s[u] (166) dadhi <1.1>.
Well, how can there be gokulam <2.1>? Due to the very fact that this rule was not
made back then.
AmtaPractically this stra means after any brahma except one ending in a-rma,
the viubhaktis s[u] and am undergo mahhara. Since the deleted am is not sthnivat because it undergoes mahhara, the insertion of n[uk] ordained in the next stra
cannot be applied. Regarding the phrase katha gokulam in the vtti, only the second
case singular is doubtful, because in the first case singular the mahhara doesnt take
place due to the ordainment of stra 157.
167 / aezAAntaAaufs$avaeRre" , na tvaAima /
167. brahmentn nuk sarvevare, na tv mi
brahma-a-anttafter a brahma that ends in an a; nukthe gama n[uk];
sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; nanot; tubut; miwhen the viubhakti
m follows.
The gama n[uk] is inserted after a brahma that ends in an a when any
viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara, except m, follows1.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
137
dadhin dadhni. punas tadvat.
Vtti dadhi + au (144) dadhi + (167) dadhi + n[uk] + dadhin +
dadhin <1.2>.
dadhi + [j]as (158) dadhi + []i (167) dadhi + n[uk] + []i dadhin + i
(163)
dadhni <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case.
SaodhinIn this regard, one should remember the following information from
vtti 105: kid-gama prva-sambandh (an gama which has the indicatory letter k
is connected with the previous element). Thus the gama n[uk] is added onto the
prakti and becomes part of it.
168 / d"iDa@isTas$aifTa@iazAbd"AnaAimar"Amasya @nq%Aid"s$avaeRre" /
168. dadhi-asthi-sakthi-aki-abdnm i-rmasya an di-sarvevare
dadhi-asthi-sakthi-aki-abdnmof the words dadhi (yogurt), asthi (a bone),
sakthi (the thigh), and aki (the eye); i-rmasyaof the i-rma; anthe
replacement an; -di-sarvevarewhen any viubhakti beginning with a
sarvevara2, from [] onwards, follows.
The i of the words dadhi, asthi, sakthi, and aki is replaced by an when any
viubhakti beginning with a sarvevara, from [] onwards, follows.
169 / @k{(SNAsTaAnas$avaeRr"Ae BagAvats$aMa: , tai"tae ya /
169. akasthna-sarvevaro bhagavat-saja, taddhite ya ca
a-kasthna-sarvevaraa sarvevara that is not a kasthna; bhagavat-saja
called bhagavat; taddhiteamong the taddhita pratyayas; yaya-rma; caand.
Any sv-di that is not a kasthna and that begins with a sarvevara is
called bhagavat. Similarly, any taddhita pratyaya that begins with a
sarvevara or ya-rma is also called bhagavat.
AmtaBecause of the word ca, a taddhita pratyaya beginning with a sarvevara is
also called bhagavat.
170 / vamas$ats$ah"InasyaAnaAe'r"Amah"r"Ae BagAvaita , na tau yae ,
wRx~YaAestau vaA /
170. va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyno -rma-haro bhagavati, na tu ye, -yos tu v
va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyawithout a sat-saga containing v or m; anaof the an
portion of a word ending in an; a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma; bhagavatiwhen a
bhagavat follows; nanot; tubut; yewhen a taddhita pratyaya beginning with yarma follows; -yowhen or []i follow; tubut; voptionally.
2 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
138
The a of the an portion of a word ending in an is deleted when a bhagavat
follows, provided the an portion isnt preceded by a sat-saga containing v or
m. However, the a of the an portion is not deleted when a taddhita pratyaya
beginning with y follows, and it is only optionally deleted when or []i
follow.
dadhn dadhibhym dadhibhi. dadhne dadhibhym dadhibhya ity-di. audadhni
dadhani.
Vtti dadhi + [] (168) dadhan + (170) dadhn + dadhn <3.1>.
dadhi + bhym dadhibhym <3.2>.
dadhi + bhis (93) dadhibhi <3.3>.
dadhi + []e (168) dadhan + e (170) dadhn + e dadhne <4.1>.
dadhi + bhym dadhibhym <4.2>.
dadhi + bhyas (93) dadhibhya <4.3>.
When []i is applied we get dadhni <7.1> or dadhani <7.1>:
dadhi + []i (168) dadhan + i (two options by 170):
1) (the a of an is deleted) dadhni <7.1>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) dadhani <7.1>.
AmtaThe word ana (of an) actually means of the an portion of a word ending in
an. In the word -yo, the refers to the arrived at by rdh-brahmabhym au
(144), and the []i of course refers to the seventh case singular ending. However the
can also refer to the taddhita pratyaya [p], and thus we get rj, un, and so on.
Why do we say when a bhagavat follows? Consider rjnau <1.2>. Why do we say
but not when a taddhita pratyaya beginning with y follows? Consider rjanya.
SaodhinFor the declension of words ending in an which have a sat-saga
containing v or m, see Saodhin 190 and vtti 215.
171 / aNAAe gAAeivand"Ae vaA baue" /
171. brahmao govindo v buddhe
brahmaaof a brahma; govindagovinda; voptionally; buddhewhen buddha
follows.
A brahma optionally takes govinda when buddha follows.
he dadhe he dadhi. eva asthi-sakthi-aki. vri vri vri. vri vri vri. vri
vribhym vribhi. vrie ity-di. vrm. madhu madhun madhni.
Vtti dadhi + s[u] (two options by 171):
1) (govinda is done) dadhe + s[u] (110) dadhe <8.1>.
2) (govinda isnt done, 110) dadhi <8.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
139
case
eka-vacana
pratham
dadhi
dvity
dadhi
tty
dadhn
caturth
dadhne
pacam
dadhna
ah
dadhna
saptam
dadhni / dadhani
sambodhana
dadhi / dadhe

dvi-vacana
dadhin
dadhin
dadhibhym
dadhibhym
dadhibhym
dadhno
dadhno
dadhin

bahu-vacana
dadhni
dadhni
dadhibhi
dadhibhya
dadhibhya
dadhnm
dadhiu
dadhni

The words asthi, sakthi and aki are declined in the same way. Now we begin the
declension of the word vri (water):
vri + s[u] (166) vri <1.1>.
vri + au (144) vri + (167) vri + n[uk] + vrin + vrin
(111) vri
<1.2>.
vri + [j]as (158) vri + []i (167) vri + n[uk] + i vrin + i (163)
vrni (111)
vri <1.3>.
vri + am (166) vri <2.1>.
vri + au (144) vri + (167) vri + n[uk] + vrin + vrin
(111) vri
<2.2>.
vri + []as (158) vri + []i (167) vri + n[uk] + i vrin + i (163)
vrni (111)
vri <2.3>.
vri + [] (167) vri + n[uk] + vrin (111) vri <3.1>.
vri + bhym vribhym <3.2>.
vri + bhis (93) vribhi <3.3>.
vri + []e (167) vri + n[uk] + e vrine (111) vrie <4.1>.

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
vri
vri
vri
vrie
vria
vria
vrii
vri / vre

dvi-vacana
vri
vri
vribhym
vribhym
vribhym
vrio
vrio
vri

Now we begin the declension of the word madhu (honey):


madhu + s[u] (166) madhu <1.1>.

bahu-vacana
vri
vri
vribhi
vribhya
vribhya
vrm
vriu
vri

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
140
madhu + au (144) madhu + (167) madhu + n[uk] + madhun +
madhun
<1.2>.
madhu + [j]as (158) madhu + []i (167) madhu + n[uk] + i madhun
+ i (163)
madhni <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
madhu
madhu
madhun
madhune
madhuna
madhuna
madhuni
madhu / madho

dvi-vacana
madhun
madhun
madhubhym
madhubhym
madhubhym
madhuno
madhuno
madhun

bahu-vacana
madhni
madhni
madhubhi
madhubhya
madhubhya
madhnm
madhuu
madhni

172 / aAntaiaiva(masya vaAmana: /


172. brahmnta-trivikramasya vmana
brahma-anta-trivikramasyaa trivikrama situated at the end of a brahma (neuter
word); vmanavmana.
A trivikrama at the end of a brahma becomes vmana.
viva-ni viva-nin viva-nni viva-nin. miviva-nnm.
Vtti viva-n + s[u] (172) viva-ni + s[u] (166) viva-ni <1.1>.
viva-n + au (172) viva-ni + au (144) viva-ni + (167) viva-ni +
n[uk] +
viva-nin + viva-nin <1.2>.
viva-n + [j]as (172) viva-ni + [j]as (158) viva-ni + []i (167)
viva-ni + n[uk] + i viva-nin + i (163) viva-nni <1.3>.
viva-n + [] (172) viva-ni + [] (167) viva-ni + n[uk] + vivanin + viva- nin <3.1>.
viva-n + m (172) viva-ni + m (105) viva-ni + n[u] + m
viva-ni + nm
(107) viva-nnm <6.3>.
173 / WWesTaAnae wr"Ama: , @Ae@AEsTaAnae or"AmaAe vaAmana: syaAta, /
173. e-ai-sthne i-rma, o-au-sthne u-rmo vmana syt
e-ai-sthnein the place of e-rma and ai-rma; i-rmai-rma; o-au-sthnein the
place of o-rma and au-rma; u-rmau-rma; vmanavmana; sytshould be.
The vmana for e and ai is i-rma, and the vmana for o and au is u-rma.
ka-ri ka-ri ka-ri. ka-ry ka-ri. eka-dea-viktam
ananya-vatka-rbhym. kartpthak-vidhnena brahma-kryasya balavattvn
na vndra, kart karti. daukartr kart. he karta he kart. iti
sarvevarnt brahma-lig

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
141
Vtti ka-rai + s[u] (172, 173) ka-ri + s[u] (166) ka-ri <1.1>.
ka-rai + au (172, 173) ka-ri + au (144) ka-ri + (167)
ka-ri + n[uk] +
ka-rin + ka-rin (111) ka-ri <1.2>.
ka-rai + [j]as (172, 173) ka-ri + [j]as (158) ka-ri + []i
(167) ka-ri + n[uk] + i ka-rin + i (163) ka-rni (111) ka-ri
<1.3>.
By the maxim eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (vtti 85) we get ka-rbhym <3.2>:
ka-rai + bhym (172, 173) ka-ri + bhym (140) ka-rbhym
<3.2>.
When the word kart (doer) is used in the neuter gender, its forms are as follows:
kart + s[u] (166) kart <1.1>.
Because the brahma-krya (stra 167) is stronger since it is ordained separately, the
change to vndra by stra 139 doesnt take place:
kart + au (144) kart + (167) kart + n[uk] + kartn +
kartn (111) kart <1.2>.
kart + [j]as (158) kart + []i (167) kart + n[uk] + i kartn + i
(163)
kartni (111) karti <1.3>.
kart + [] (167) kart + n[uk] + kartn + kartn (111)
kart <3.1>.
kart + s[u] (two options by 171):
1) (govinda is done) kartar + s[u] (138) kartar (93) karta <8.1>.
2) (govinda isnt done, 110) kart <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
kart
kart
kart
karte
karta
karta
karti
kart / karta

dvi-vacana
kart
kart
kartbhym
kartbhym
kartbhym
karto
karto
kart

Thus ends the declension of neuter words ending a sarvevara.

bahu-vacana
karti
karti
kartbhi
kartbhya
kartbhya
kartm
kartu
karti

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
142

Atha viujannt puruottama-lig.


tatra ca-rmnt kecana-abd vcya-lig. tatra pratyak. prati-prvd acu-dhto
kvip-pratyaya. kvip-lopo na-lopa ca. yatva, tata pratyac-abdt sv-daya.
Among the words ending in a viujana, some words ending in ca-rma are vcya-liga
(adjectival, sharing the gender of the substantive). Among such words is the word
pratyac (backward, western, inner). This word is formed by applying the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] after prati + ac[u] gati-pjanayo (1P, to go; to worship). The kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] is then deleted by stra 612 and the n in ac[u]1 is deleted by stra
343. The i of prati becomes y by stra 50, and then the sv-dis are applied after the
word pratyac.
174 / @catauBauRjaAnaubanDaAnaAM ca nauM k{(SNAsTaAnae /
174. aca caturbhujnubandhn ca nu kasthne
acaof the word ac (going); caturbhuja-anubandhnmof words whose indicatory
letter is a caturbhuja; caand; numthe gama n[um]; kasthnewhen a
kasthna follows.
When a kasthna follows, the gama n[um] is applied to words ending in
ac and words that have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter.
BlaThe word aca means of the word ac which results from applying the kt
pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu ac[u] gati-pjanayo and subsequently deleting
[k]vi[p] by kevalasya-pratyaya-ver hara (612) and na-rma by ani-rmet
viujanntnm uddhava-na-rma-hara kasrau (343).
AmtaThat the word ac (the kvib-anta form of the dhtu ac[u]) is mentioned
separately even though it is already included among the words that have a caturbhuja
as their indicatory letter, since it has the indicatory letter u, informs us that the gama
n[um] is applied only to those words which are not dhtus but have a caturbhuja as
their indicatory letter and that among the dhtus2 it is applied only to ac[u] and not to
any other dhtu. This will become clear later, in vtti 208. One should not suspect, by
the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (vtti 178), that, when s[u] is deleted,
n[um] disappears due to the deletion of its nimitta in the form of a kasthna
because the deleted s[u] is sthni-vat since it only undergoes hara.
SaodhinExamples of words ending in ac are pratyac (backward, western,
inner), nyac (downward, humble), tiryac (horizontal, an animal), udac (upward,
northern), vivac (all-pervading), prc (eastern, previous), avc (downward,
southern), and so on.
Examples of words that have a caturbhuja as their indicatory letter are bhagavat[u]
(the Supreme Personality of Godhead), bhavat[u] (your good self), aghavat[u]
(sinful person), mahat[u] (great), hanumat[u] (Hanumn), dhmat[u] (wise),
vadat[] (saying), vasat[] (living), kurvat[] (doing), and so on.
1 When, in a dhtu, a viucakra or hariveu comes before a vaiava, it is considered that the
viucakra or hariveu was originally na-rma. Thus the grammatical operations pertaining to na-rma
are applied. For further details, see vtti 420.

2 In this regard, one should remember the explanation in vtti 134 that words whose
kt pratyaya has been deleted, that is to say words ending in [k]vi[p], are considered
to be both dhtus and nmas.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
143
175 / tavagARsya cavagARvagARyaAegAe /
175. ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga-yoge
ta-vargasyaof ta-varga; ca-vargathe change to ca-varga; ca-varga-yogewhen
there is conjuction with ca-varga.
When ta-varga is conjoined with ca-varga, ta-varga changes to ca-varga.
AmtaThis happens regardless of whether ta-varga is conjoined with ca-varga that
comes before it or ca-varga that comes after it. In the case of pratyanc (pratyac with
n[um] inserted), when ta-varga is conjoined with ca-varga that comes after it, n
changes to by the current stra and we get pratyac.
176 / s$ats$aAntasya h"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
176. sat-sagntasya haro viupadnte
sat-saga-antasyaof the last viujana of a sat-saga; haradeletion; viupadaanteat the end of a viupada.
The final viujana in a sat-saga is deleted when it is at the end of a
viupada.
177 / cavagARsya k(vagAAeR ivaSNAupad"Antae , vaESNAvae tvas$avagAeR /
177. ca-vargasya ka-vargo viupadnte, vaiave tv asa-varge
ca-vargasyaof ca-varga; ka-vargathe change to ka-varga; viupada-anteat the
end of a viupada; vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; tubut; a-sa-vargenot of
the same varga.
Ca-varga changes to ka-varga when it is at the end of a viupada or when a
vaiava of a different varga follows.
pratya. pratyacau pratyaca. pratyacam pratyacau. katha tac aure bhavagc
ra? tatrkarat.
Vtti pratyac + s[u] (174, 160) pratya + n[um] + c + s[u] (138) pratyanc
(175) pratyac (176) pratya (177) pratya <1.1>.
pratyac + au (174, 160) pratya + n[um] + c + au (175) pratyacau
<1.2>.
pratyac + [j]as (174, 160) pratya + n[um] + c + as (175) pratyacas
(93) pratyaca <1.3>.
pratyac + am (174, 160) pratya + n[um] + c + am (175) pratyacam
<2.1>.
pratyac + au (174, 160) pratya + n[um] + c + au (175) pratyacau
<2.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
144
Why doesnt the change to ka-varga by the current stra take place in tac aure
(vtti 71) and bhavagc ra (vtti 75)? Due to the very fact that this rule was not
made back then.
178 / @caAe'r"Amah"r"Ae BagAvaita , paUvaRsya iaiva(ma /
178. aco -rma-haro bhagavati, prvasya trivikrama ca
acaof the word ac (going); a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma; bhagavatiwhen a
bhagavat follows; prvasyathe preceding vara; trivikramatrivikrama; caand.
The a of ac is deleted when a bhagavat follows, and the preceding vara
becomes trivikrama.
nimittpye naimittikasypy apya iti nyyena ya-rmasya i-rmas tatas
trivikramapratca pratc.
VttiBy the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (When the cause
disappears, the effect also disappears) ya-rma reverts back to i-rma which then
becomes trivikrama.
pratyac + []as (178) pratic + as pratcas (93) pratca <2.3>.
pratyac + [] (178) pratic + pratc <3.1>.
SaodhinHere the cause (nimitta) is a-rma and the effect (naimittika) is yarma. The a of ac previously caused the i-rma of prati to become ya-rma, but that is
undone when a is deleted.
179 / paUvaRsya ivaSNAupad"vavaM svaAid"tai"tayaAer"yas$avaeRr"AAe: /
179. prvasya viupada-vattva svdi-taddhitayor aya-sarvevardyo
prvasyaof the prakti (see stra 88); viupada-vattvamtreatment like a
viupada; sv-di-taddhitayowhen a sv-di or taddhita pratyaya follows; a-yasarvevara-dyothat doesnt begin with ya-rma or a sarvevara.
When a sv-di or taddhita pratyaya that doesnt begin with y or sarvevara
follows, the prakti is treated as if it were a viupada.
pratyagbhym ity-di. ca-vargasyety-dau vaiava-grahaa kevala-dhtv-artham,
anyem api str tat-paryanta-vypter jpakam. tiryactirya tiryacau tiryaca.
Vtti pratyac + bhym (179, 177) pratyak + bhym (179, 61) pratyagbhym
<3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

eka-vacana
pratya
pratyacam
pratc
pratce
pratca

dvi-vacana
pratyacau
pratyacau
pratyagbhym
pratyagbhym
pratyagbhym

bahu-vacana
pratyaca
pratca
pratyagbhi
pratyagbhya
pratyagbhya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
145
ah
pratca
saptam
pratci
sambodhana
pratya

pratco
pratco
pratyacau

pratcm
pratyaku
pratyaca

In the stra beginning ca-vargasya (stra 177) the mention of a vaiava is solely for
the sake of dhtus and it suggests that other stras also apply to dhtus. Now we
begin the declension of the word tiryac (horizontal, an animal):
tiryac + s[u] (174, 160) tirya + n[um] + c + s[u] (138) tiryanc (175)
tiryac (176)
tirya (177) tirya <1.1>.
tiryac + au (174, 160) tirya + n[um] + c + au (175) tiryacau <1.2>.
tiryac + [j]as (174, 160) tirya + n[um] + c + as (175) tiryacas (93)
tiryaca <1.3>.
AmtaSomeone may argue, In pratyagbhym <3.2> there is already a vaiava
following. When the desired form can be achieved through that alone, there is no point
in ordaining that the prakti be treated like a viupada here. In answer to that, Jva
Gosvm says that the para-nimitta vaiave mentioned in stra 177 is only in
relation to dhtus, and that the mention of a vaiava suggests that other stras in
the Nma-prakaraa also apply to dhtus.
SaodhinThis stra is an atidea because it ordains that the prakti should be
treated like a viupada. In this way it has ordained similarity to another and thus
fulfilled the definition anya-tulyatva-vidhnam atidea (see Saodhin 41). Generally
one can recognize an atidea-stra by the presence of the word vat (like). One
should not make the mistake of treating the prakti like a viupada when s[u] follows
because s[u] always gets deleted by rdh-viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor
hara (138) and then the viaya is naturally viupadnta. Indeed Jva Gosvm
himself makes this clear by first making pratya <1.1> in vtti 177 and then only later
introducing this stra to make pratyagbhym <3.2>. If this stra were to be applied
when s[u] follows, then he should have given it back then.
180 / itayaRcaistar"i&d"ca od"IicaBaRgAvaita /
180. tiryacas tiracir udaca udcir bhagavati
tiryacaof the word tiryac; tiracithe replacement tirac[i]; udacaof the word
udac; udcithe replacement udc[i]; bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows.
When a bhagavat follows, the word tiryac is replaced by tirac[i], and the
word udac is replaced by udc[i].
tiraca. tirac tiryagbhym tiryagbhi. eva udacuda udacam udacau udca
udc ity-di. kruc. kru krucau kruca. kruc krubhym kruu. ovrasc chedane
dhtur dantya-madhya.
Vtti tiryac + []as (180) tirac[i] + as (93) tiraca <2.3>.
tiryac + [] (180) tirac[i] + tirac <3.1>.
tiryac + bhym (179, 177) tiryak + bhym (179, 61) tiryagbhym
<3.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
146
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
tirya
tiryacam
tirac
tirace
tiraca
tiraca
tiraci
tirya

dvi-vacana
tiryacau
tiryacau
tiryagbhym
tiryagbhym
tiryagbhym
tiraco
tiraco
tiryacau

bahu-vacana
tiryaca
tiraca
tiryagbhi
tiryagbhya
tiryagbhya
tiracm
tiryaku
tiryaca

The word udac (upward, northern) is declined in the same way:


udac + s[u] (174, 160) uda + n[um] + c + s[u] (138) udanc (175)
udac (176)
uda (177) uda <1.1>.
udac + am (174, 160) uda + n[um] + c + am (175) udacam <2.1>.
udac + au (174, 160) uda + n[um] + c + au (175) udacau <2.2>.
udac + []as (180) udc[i] + as (93) udca <2.3>.
udac + [] (180) udc[i] + udc <3.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
uda
udacam
udc
udce
udca
udca
udci
uda

dvi-vacana
udacau
udacau
udagbhym
udagbhym
udagbhym
udco
udco
udacau

bahu-vacana
udaca
udca
udagbhi
udagbhya
udagbhya
udcm
udaku
udaca

Now be begin the declension of the word kruc (a kind of snipe):


kruc + s[u] (138) kruc (176) kru (177) kru <1.1>.
kruc + au krucau <1.2>.
kruc + [j]as (93) kruca <1.3>.
kruc + [] kruc <3.1>.
kruc + bhym (179, 176) kru + bhym (179, 177) krubhym <3.2>.
kruc + su[p] (179, 176) kru + su (179, 177) krusu (108) kruu
<7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

eka-vacana
kru
krucam
kruc
kruce
kruca

dvi-vacana
krucau
krucau
krubhym
krubhym
krubhym

bahu-vacana
kruca
kruca
krubhi
krubhya
krubhya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
147
ah
kruca
saptam
kruci
sambodhana
kru

kruco
kruco
krucau

krucm
kruu
kruca

The dhtu [o]vrasc[] chedane (6P, to cut) has a dental vara in its midsection (sarma in this case).
AmtaThe word kruc is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu
kruc[a] kauilylp-bhvayo (1P, to be crooked, make crooked; to become small,
make small) with the irregularity that na-rma is not deleted by stra 343.
181 / s$asya zAvagARyaAegAe /
181. sasya a ca-varga-yoge
sasyaof sa-rma; athe replacement a-rma; ca-varga-yogewhen there is
conjuction with ca-varga.
When sa-rma is conjoined with ca-varga, sa-rma changes to a-rma.
tato vrac iti sthite tasya daitya-abda-prvasya kvip-pratyaya-lope ra-rmasya rmadaitya-vc..
VttiThen, when (by applying the current stra) we have vrac, the kt pratyaya
[k]vi[p] which is applied after daitya + vrac is deleted by stra 612, the ra of vrac
becomes by stra 473, and we end up with the word daitya-vc (demon-slasher).
AmtaThis happens regardless of whether sa-rma is conjoined with ca-varga that
comes before it or ca-varga that comes after it. In this case there is conjuction with cavarga that comes after sa-rma. An example when it is conjoined with ca-varga that
comes before sa-rma is nicu (see vtti 188).
182 / C$zAAe r"AjyajaAjpair"aAjs$a{jma{jas$jaAM ca SaAe ivaSNAupad"Antae
vaESNAvae ca /
182. cha-o rj-yaj-bhrj-parivrj-sj-mj-bhrasj-vrac ca o viupadnte vaiave
ca
cha-oof cha-rma and a-rma; rj-yaj-bhrj-parivrj-sj-mj-bhrasj-vracmof
the dhtus rj[] dptau (1U, to shine), yaj[a] deva-pja-sagati-karaa-dneu (1U,
to worship, sacrifice; to meet; to give), [u]bhrj[] dptau (1A, to shine), parivrj
(see explanation below), sj[a] visarge (4A or 6P, to create, let loose), mj[]
uddhau (2P, to clean, purify), bhrasj[a] pke (6U, to roast, fry), and [o]vrac[]
chedane (6P, to cut); caand; athe replacement a-rma; viupada-ante
when the viaya is viupadnta; vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; caand.
The final ch and of a dhtu, and the final vara1 of the dhtus rj, yaj,
bhrj, parivrj, sj, mj, bhrasj, and vrac change to when the viaya is
viupadnta or when a vaiava follows.
atha naimittikpye dantya-madhya eva.

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
148
VttiThen, when the naimittika disappears, it again has a dental vara in its
midsection.
AmtaOnly the cha-rma and a-rma of a dhtu is taken by the mention of cha-o
in this stra. In the same way, in this stra the dhtu forms of the eight words headed
by rj are used. Examples sequentially are: pr1 <1.1> (one who inquires), from the
dhtu pracch[a] jpsym (6P, to ask, question), via-vi2 <1.1> (one who enters
the lotus fibres), from the dhtu vi[a] praveane (6P, to enter), samr <1.1>
(emperor), deve <1.1> (one who worships the gods), parivr <1.1> (one who
wanders around as a religious mendicant), viva-s <1.1> (creator of the world),
mandira-m <1.1> (one who cleanses the temple), dhn-bh <1.1> (one who
roasts corn), and daitya-v <1.1> (demon-slasher). Here the naimittika is arma, and the nimitta is ca-rma. The mention of a vaiava here is also for the sake
of dhtus (see vtti 179).
SaodhinAll the dhtus mentioned here refer both to the dhtus proper and to
their kvib-anta forms (the nma formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the
particular dhtu). This is because the kvib-anta forms are also considered dhtus in
accordance with vtti 134. Thus viupadnte is for the kvib-anta forms rj and so on,
while vaiave is for the proper dhtus rj[] and so on. The only exception to this is
parivrj which is formed by applying the kt pratyaya []vi after pari + vraj[a] gatau
(1P, to go) by tursh jalsh phavh parivrj ity ete ca sdhava (Bhat 1477).
Parivrj is also considered a dhtu, but pari + vraj[a], the dhtu proper, cannot
undergo the change to a-rma prescribed here because there is no possibility of a
vaiava following since the dhtu vraj[a] always takes i[]. This is also the case with
the dhtus rj[] and [u]bhrj[], since they also always take i[]. As confirmed by
Amta, in this stra, rj and so on are listed in their dhtu forms and not their kvibanta forms as the kvib-anta form of yaj[a] is ij, the kvib-anta form of bhrasj[a] is bhjj,
and the kvib-anta form of [o]vrac[] is vc. Again the exception here is parivrj
which is listed in its form ending with []vi.
One will also notice that in vtti 180 the dhtu was listed as [o]vrasc[], while in this
stra it is listed as vrac, and in the Dhtu-pha and all the commentaries it is listed
as [o]vrac[]. It is not that separate dhtus are being described here. . Rather, it is to
be understood that Jva Gosvm often first mentions a dhtu in its crudest form in a
vtti when it comes time to make the forms of that dhtu, but then, after that first
mention, he later refers to the dhtu by citing its form after it has undergone the
change to ca-varga by ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga yoge (175) or sasya a cavarga-yoge (181). Indeed, with the exception of the dhtus anj[a] sage, vanj[a]
parivage, ranj[a] rge, and bhanj[o] mardane all the dhtus are listed in the Dhtupha by citing their forms after they have undergone the change to ca-varga, and
one is just supposed to understand what the crude form of the dhtus is by applying
the rule na-rma-jv anusvra-pacamau jhali dhtuu / sa-rma-ja a-rma ce rabhy us ta-varga-ja (vtti 420). In this edition we will list the dhtu according to
how it is listed in the Dhtu-pha even though Jva Gosvm may sometimes give
the crude form of the dhtu in his vttis, for this is the method followed by Amta and
Bla.
183 / s$k(Ae: s$ats$aAAehR"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae vaESNAvae ca /
183. s-ko sat-sagdyor haro viupadnte vaiave ca

1 The trivikrama here is by pracchdn trivikramo, na ca sakaraa (Bhat 1558).


2 This should probably be bisa-vi as via is wrong for bisa according to MW.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
149
s-koof sa-rma and ka-rma; sat-saga-dyosituated at the beginning of a satsaga; haradeletion; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; vaiave
when a vaiava follows; caand.
An s or k at the beginning of a sat-saga is deleted when the viaya is
viupadnta or when a vaiava follows.
AmtaExamples of when a vaiava follows are abhrkt <bhtea pa. 1.1 of
bhrasj[a] pke> and amkt <bhtea pa. 1.1 of [u]masj[a] uddhau>. Why do we
say situated at the beginning of a sat-saga? Consider abhrkt (same as above)
and hista <acyuta pa. 1.2 of his[i] hisym>. Why do we say when the viaya is
viupadnta? Consider pratyaku <7.3>. Why do we say when a vaiava
follows? Consider vakyati <kalki pa. 1.1 of vac[a] paribhae> and ikate
<acyuta t. 1.1 of ik[a] vidyopdne>.
SaodhinAgain, the mention of a vaiava here is for the sake of dhtus (see
vtti 179). In Amta, abhrkt is first given as an example of when a vaiava follows
because the s of bhrasj is deleted by the current stra while the j becomes k by stras
177 and 63, but then abhrkt is given again as a counterexample of the phrase satsagdyo because, even though a vaiava follows, k is not deleted as it is not at the
beginning of the sat-saga rk.
184 / Sasya x"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae h"ir"GaAeSae ca /
184. asya o viupadnte harighoe ca
asyaof a-rma; athe replacement a-rma; viupada-antewhen the viaya
is viupadnta; harighoewhen a harighoa follows; caand.
becomes when the viaya is viupadnta or when a harighoa follows.
SaodhinThe mention of a harighoa here is for the sake of dhtus (see vtti
179). An example of when a harighoa follows is akhvam <bhtea t. 2.3 of
k[a] vilekhane karae ca>.
185 / ivaSNAud"As$asya h"ir"k(malaM vaA ivar"Amae /
185. viudsasya harikamala v virme
viudsasyaof viudsa; harikamalamthe replacement harikamala; v
optionally; virmewhen there is virma (see explanation below).
A viudsa optionally becomes a harikamala when there is virma.
virmo para-vardaranam.daitya-v daitya-v, daitya-vcau daitya-vbhy
daitya-vsu. yadu-rj, yadu-r yadu-r yadu-rjau. bhrasj-dhto kvipi bhjjbh
bh bhjjau bhjja.
VttiVirma is the absence of subsequent varas.
daitya-vc + s[u] (138) daitya-vc (182) daitya-vs1 (183) daitya-v
(184) daitya-v (185) daitya-v <1.1> or daitya-v <1.1>.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim nimittpye naimittikasypy apya
(vtti 178). Here the nimitta is ca-rma and the naimittika is a-rma.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
150
daitya-vc + au daitya-vcau <1.2>.
daitya-vc + bhym (179, 182) daitya-vs + bhym (179, 183)
daitya-v + bhym (179, 184) daitya-vbhym <3.2>.
daitya-vc + su[p] (179, 182) daitya-vs + su (179, 183) daitya-v +
su (179, 184) daitya-v + su (63) daitya-vsu <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
daitya-v / daitya-v
daitya-vcam
daitya-vc
daitya-vce
daitya-vca
daitya-vca
daitya-vci
daitya-v / daitya-v

dvi-vacana
daitya-vcau
daitya-vcau
daitya-vbhym
daitya-vbhym
daitya-vbhym
daitya-vco
daitya-vco
daitya-vcau

bahu-vacana
daitya-vca
daitya-vca
daitya-vbhi
daitya-vbhya
daitya-vbhya
daitya-vcm
daitya-vsu
daitya-vca

Now we begin the declension of the word yadu-rj (king of the Yadus):
yadu-rj + s[u] (138) yadu-rj (182) yadu-r (184) yadu-r (185)
yadu-r
<1.1>
or yadu-r <1.1>.
yadu-rj + au yadu-rjau <1.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
yadu-r / yadu-r
yadu-rjam
yadu-rj
yadu-rje
yadu-rja
yadu-rja
yadu-rji
yadu-r / yadu-r

dvi-vacana
yadu-rjau
yadu-rjau
yadu-rbhym
yadu-rbhym
yadu-rbhym
yadu-rjo
yadu-rjo
yadu-rjau

bahu-vacana
yadu-rja
yadu-rja
yadu-rbhi
yadu-rbhya
yadu-rbhya
yadu-rjm
yadu-rsu
yadu-rja

When the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the dhtu bhrasj[a] pke (6U, to roast,
fry) we get the word bhjj (one who fries / roasts).
bhjj + s[u] (138) bhjj (182) bhs (183) bh (184) bh (185)
bh <1.1> or
bh <1.1>.
bhjj + au bhjjau <1.2>.
bhjj + [j]as (93) bhjja <1.3>.
AmtaWhy do we say viudsasya? Consider pratya <1.1>. Why do we say
virme? Consider daitya-vbhym <3.2>. In the word bhjj (kvib-anta form of
bhrasj[a] pke), the sakaraa takes place by grahi-jy-vayi-vyadhi-vai-vyaci-vracipracchi-bhrasjn sakaraa kasrau (473) and the s changes to j by sasya jo je
na tu vaiave (376). Therefore, in the formation of bh / bh <1.1>, when bhjj
undergoes the change to by stra 182 and the nimitta j thus disappears, the
naimittika j reverts back to s.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
151
SaodhinThe word sva-rj (self-ruling, independent) is declined in the same
way as yadu-rj. Thus we get sva-r <1.1> in Bhgavatam 1.1.1.
186 / aijd"z{"Za{itvajauiSNAh."d"Da{Sanaud"k(paUvaRs$pa{ztaA{"izAtyaAd"InaAM
k(Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
186. sraj di d tvij uih dadh anudaka-prva-sp td ity-dn ko
viupadnte
sraj di d tvij uih dadh an-udaka-prva-sp td ity-dnmof the words
sraj (garland), di (direction), d (seeing, the eye), tvij (a priest), uih
(name of a Vedic meter), dadh (bold), sp (touching) that is not in samsa
with the word udaka (water), td (like that), and so on; kathe replacement
ka-rma; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
The final vara1 of the words sraj, di, d, tvij, uih, dadh, sp not in
samsa with the word udaka, td, and so on changes to k when the viaya
is viupadnta.
tau yajatitvik tvig tvijau. viva-sjviva-s viva-s viva-sjau viva-sja.
atva neti kecitviva-sk. viva-ssu. kasa-jit kasa-jitau kasa-jita kasajidbhym kasa-jitsu. u-rmnubandho mahatu. tasya pusi, nnta-dhtu-varjiteti
trivikrama, aca caturbhujeti num, sor hara, sat-sagntasya hara. atrkarat;
brahmentn nug ity atra jpakena sarvevarea tv gama-na-rma-harbhvasya
nmni nicayt nasya haro na sytmahn mahntau mahnta. mahntam
mahntau mahata. mahat mahadbhym. he mahan. bhagavatu.
VttiThe word tvij (tu + ij) means tau yajati (one who sacrifices at the proper
time, a priest).
tvij + s[u] (138) tvij (186) tvik (61) tvig (185) tvik <1.1> or tvig
<1.1>.
tvij + au tvijau <1.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
tvik / tvig
tvijam
tvij
tvije
tvija
tvija
tviji
tvik / tvig

dvi-vacana
tvijau
tvijau
tvigbhym
tvigbhym
tvigbhym
tvijo
tvijo
tvijau

bahu-vacana
tvija
tvija
tvigbhi
tvigbhya
tvigbhya
tvijm
tviku
tvija

AmtaAll these words are kvib-antas. The words d (like this), kd (like
what?), amd (like that), sad (like that), anyd (like something else), and
so on are included by the word ity-dnm. When the words ending in mentioned in
this stra would usually undergo the change to by stra 182, this stra blocks that
and instead ordains a change to k.

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
152
SaodhinSraj is irregularly formed1 by adding [k]vi[p] to the dhtu sj[a] visarge
(4A or 6P, to create, let loose), and tvij is formed by adding [k]vi[p] to the dhtu
yaj[a] deva-pja-sagati-karaa-dneu (1U, to worship, sacrifice; to meet; to give)
preceded by the word tu and then doing sakaraa by vaci-svapi-yaj-dn
sakaraa kapile (471) whereby the ya of yaj become i. Thus, where sraj and tvij
would usually undergo the change to by stra 182 since they are made from sj and
yaj, this stra blocks that and instead ordains a change to k.
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word viva-sj (creator of the world):
viva-sj + s[u] (138) viva-sj (182) viva-s (184) viva-s (185)
viva-s <1.1> or viva-s <1.1>.
viva-sj + au viva-sjau <1.2>.
viva-sj + [j]as (93) viva-sja <1.3>.
Some say that the change to doesnt take place, and thus they get viva-sk <1.1>.
viva-sj + su[p] (179, 182) viva-s + su (179, 184) viva-s + su
(63) viva-ssu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-jit (the conqueror of Kasa):
kasa-jit + s[u] (138) kasa-jit (61) kasa-jid (185) kasa-jit <1.1> or
kasa-jid
<1.1>.
kasa-jit + au kasa-jitau <1.2>.
kasa-jit + [j]as (93) kasa-jita <1.3>.
kasa-jit + bhym (179, 61) kasa-jidbhym <3.2>.
kasa-jit + su[p] kasa-jitsu <7.3>.
The word mahat[u] (great) has the indicatory letter u. In the masculine gender it is
declined as follows: Trivikrama is applied by stra 163, then n[um] is applied by stra
174, then s[u] is deleted by stra 138, and then the final vara of the sat-saga is
deleted by stra 176. The deletion of n by stra 190 certainly doesnt take place here
due to the very fact that that rule is not made here and also because the word
sarvevare in stra 167 suggests that the n of an gama is not deleted when it is in a
nma.
mahat[u] + s[u] (163) maht + s[u] (174, 160) mah + n[um] + t + s[u]
(138)
mahnt (176) mahn <1.1>.
mahat[u] + au (163) maht + au (174, 160) mah + n[um] + t + au
mahntau <1.2>.
mahat[u] + [j]as (163) maht + as (174, 160) mah + n[um] + t + as
(93) mahnta
<1.3>.
mahat[u] + am (163) maht + am (174, 160) mah + n[um] + t + am
mahntam
<2.1>.

1 See kruc-dadh-sraj-uiha ca kvib-ant (848)

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
153
mahat[u] + au (163) maht + au (174, 160) mah + n[um] + t + au
mahntau <2.2>.
mahat[u] + []as (93) mahata <2.3>.
mahat[u] + [] mahat <3.1>.
mahat[u] + bhym (179, 61) mahadbhym <3.2>.
mahat[u] + s[u] (174, 160) maha + n[um] + t + s[u] mahant + s[u]
(138)
mahant (176) mahan <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
mahn
mahntam
mahat
mahate
mahata
mahata
mahati
mahan

dvi-vacana
mahntau
mahntau
mahadbhym
mahadbhym
mahadbhym
mahato
mahato
mahntau

bahu-vacana
mahnta
mahata
mahadbhi
mahadbhya
mahadbhya
mahatm
mahatsu
mahnta

Now we begin the declension of the word bhagavat[u] (the Supreme Personality of
Godhead):
AmtaThe order of applying the stras to form mahn <1.1> should be properly
understood. If n[um] were applied first by stra 174, then it would prevent the
uddhava from becoming trivikrama by stra 163. Thus it is proper that the trivikrama
is done first, also because the trivikrama is antaraga as it is comes earlier in the
prakti. Someone may wonder, Why isnt n deleted by the future stra nmntasya
nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (190)? Jva Gosvm reconciles that doubt
with the two reasons mentioned above. If the n should have been deleted here, then
the rule of nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (190) should have
been ordained right here. Thus, since it was not ordained here, it doesnt apply in this
case. Regarding the second reason, even if, in stra 167, n[uk] was ordained without
mentioning a para-nimitta, the forms like dadhibhym <3.2> and so on would still be
obtained because n would be deleted by stra 190, since, by stra 179, the prakti is
treated like a viupada when a viubhakti beginning with a viujana follows.
Therefore, the fact that the para-nimitta sarvevare was nonetheless mentioned in
stra 167 suggests that the n of an gama is certainly not deleted when it is in a
nma. Thus, since n[um] is an gama, n is not deleted here either.
Furthermore, the separate mention of the word mahat[u] in stra 163, when the
trivikrama could be accomplished by the mention of nnta alone, informs us that even
though a word which has undergone sat-sagnta-hara by stra 176 may have the n of
n[um] as its final vara it is still not considered nnta. Therefore, ascertaining that,
when s[u] follows, the change to trivikrama cannot take place by stra 163, Jva
Gosvm makes a separate rule (the next stra) to enable the change to trivikrama. In
he mahan <8.1>, the uddhava doesnt become trivikrama due to the prohibition
buddha vin (163).
187 / @tvas$antaAe"vasya iaiva(maAe bau"vaijaRtas$aAE , DaAtauM ivanaA /
187. atv-as-antoddhavasya trivikramo buddha-varjita-sau, dhtu vin

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
154
atu-as-anta-uddhavasyaof the uddhava of words ending in at[u] or as; trivikrama
the change to trivikrama; buddha-varjita-sauwhen s[u] follows, with the exception of
buddha; dhtuma dhtu; vinexcept.
The uddhava of words ending in at[u] or as, except dhtus, become
trivikrama when s[u] follows, but not when buddha follows.
bhagavn bhagavantau bhagavanta. bhagavantam bhagavantau bhagavata.
bhagavat bhagavadbhym. -rmnubandho bhavat, tat-pusibhavan bhavantau
bhavanta. bhavadbhym. he bhavan. ka vettti ka-vid, tat-pusi. ka-vit
ka-vid ka-vidau. su-pc-chabdasyasu-pt su-pd.
Vtti bhagavat[u] + s[u] (187) bhagavt + s[u] (174, 160) bhagav + n[um]
+ t + s[u]
(138) bhagavnt (176) bhagavn <1.1>.
bhagavat[u] + au (174, 160) bhagava + n[um] + t + au bhagavantau
<1.2>.
bhagavat[u] + [j]as (174, 160) bhagava + n[um] + t + as (93)
bhagavanta <1.3>.
bhagavat[u] + am (174, 160) bhagava + n[um] + t + am bhagavantam
<2.1>.
bhagavat[u] + au (174, 160) bhagava + n[um] + t + au bhagavantau
<2.2>.
bhagavat[u] + []as (93) bhagavata <2.3>.
bhagavat[u] + [] bhagavat <3.1>.
bhagavat[u] + bhym (179, 61) bhagavadbhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
bhagavn
bhagavantam
bhagavat
bhagavate
bhagavata
bhagavata
bhagavati
bhagavan

dvi-vacana
bhagavantau
bhagavantau
bhagavadbhym
bhagavadbhym
bhagavadbhym
bhagavato
bhagavato
bhagavantau

bahu-vacana
bhagavanta
bhagavata
bhagavadbhi
bhagavadbhya
bhagavadbhya
bhagavatm
bhagavatsu
bhagavanta

AmtaThe prohibition dhtu vin applies to words ending in as. In bhagavn <1.1>
also, the trivikrama by stra 187 is applied first (as was done in mahn <1.1>) even
though the application of n[um] by stra 174 is nitya. This is because stra 163 is
antaraga as it applies earlier in the prakti, and thus it is stronger because, by the
phrase teu cottarottara (vtti 51), an antaraga rule is stronger than a nitya rule.
VttiThe word bhavat[] (being, present) has the indicatory letter . In the
masculine gender it is declined as follows:
bhavat[] + s[u] (174, 160) bhava + n[um] + t + s[u] (138) bhavant
(176) bhavan
<1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
155
bhavat[] + au (174, 160) bhava + n[um] + t + au bhavantau <1.2>.
bhavat[] + [j]as (174, 160) bhava + n[um] + t + as (93) bhavanta
<1.3>.
bhavat[] + bhym (179, 61) bhavadbhym <3.2>.
bhavat[] + s[u] (174, 160) bhava + n[um] + t + s[u] (138) bhavant
(176) bhavan
<8.1>.
case
eka-vacana
dvi-vacana
bahu-vacana
pratham
bhavan
bhavantau
bhavanta
dvity
bhavantam
bhavantau
bhavata
tty
bhavat
bhavadbhym
bhavadbhi
caturth
bhavate
bhavadbhym
bhavadbhya
pacam
bhavata
bhavadbhym
bhavadbhya
ah
bhavata
bhavato
bhavatm
saptam
bhavati
bhavato
bhavatsu
sambodhana
bhavan
bhavantau
bhavanta
The word ka-vid means ka vetti (one who knows Ka). In the masculine
gender it is declined as follows:
ka-vid + s[u] (138) ka-vid (185) ka-vit <1.1> or ka-vid
<1.1>.
ka-vid + au ka-vidau <1.2>.
Now be begin the declension of the word su-pd (one who has beautiful feet):
su-pd + s[u] (138) su-pd (185) su-pt <1.1> or su-pd <1.1>.
Amta The vigraha of the word su-pd is obhanau pdau yasya sa (he whose two
feet are beautiful). In forming this word, the final a-rma of the word pda (foot) is
deleted by sakhy-spamnebhya pdasynta-hara (1032).

188 / paAcC$bd"sya vaAmanaAe BagAvaita /


188. pc-chabdasya vmano bhagavati
pd-abdasyaof the word pd (the word pda when it loses its final a-rma in
samsa by stra 1032); vmanathe change to vmana; bhagavatiwhen a
bhagavat follows.
The word pd becomes vmana when a bhagavat follows.
su-pada. eva pda-abdasya pad-dee pi pada ity-di. mi nua bdhitv viricir
eva, viricito viur balavn, viuta sarva-virici iti nyyenapadm. ni viricisad-bhve tu asya a iti vat asya jo mantavya. cha-o rj ity-dika ca dhtuparam evam, tatonijbhym nicu nicchu. ka-prvasya budh-dhto ka
budhyate iti kvipi ka-budh tat-pusi,
Vtti su-pd + []as (188) su-padas (93) su-pada <2.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
156
Similarly, when, by stra 113, the word pda is replaced by pad, we also get pada
<2.3> and so on. When m follows, this virici still happens, because it blocks the
application of n[u] by stra 105, in accordance with the maxim viricito viur
balavn, viuta sarva-virici (a viu is stronger than a virici, but a sarva-virici
(the replacement of a whole word) is stronger than a viu). Thus we get padm
<6.3>1:
pda + m (113) pad + m padm <6.3>.
When the substitution of ni is done by stra 149, it is considered that becomes j
(asya jo mantavya), just like becomes by stra 184. In this regard, it should
be understood that the stra beginning cha-o rj (stra 182) is applicable only to
dhtus.
ni + bhym (149) ni + bhym (179, asya jo mantavya) nijbhym
<3.2>.
ni + su[p] (149) ni + su (179, asya jo mantavya) nij + su (63)
nicsu (181)
nicu (64) nicu <7.3> or nicchu <7.3>.
The word ka-budh which means ka budhyate (one who understands Ka)
is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after ka + budh[a] avagamane. In
the masculine gender it is declined as follows:
SaodhinDue to the fact that Jva Gosvm said asya jo mantavya and not
asya go mantavya, the change to ka-varga by ca-vargasya ka-vargo viupadnte,
vaiave tv asa-varge (177) cannot take place in nijbhym <3.2> and nicu <7.3>,
because, if the change to ka-varga were applicable, there would never be any
possibility of keeping j and thus it would be pointless to say asya jo mantavya when
asya go mantavya saves us from doing the extra step.
189 / javajaRh"ir"gAd"Ade"re"k(s$avaeRr"sya DaAtaAehR"ir"GaAeSaAntasyaAd"AE
h"ir"GaAeSatvaM ivaSNAupad"Antae s$aDvaAe /
189. ja-varja-harigadder eka-sarvevarasya dhtor harighontasydau
harighoatva viupadnte sa-dhvo ca
ja-varja-harigad-debeginning with a harigad, except ja-rma; eka-sarvevarasya
having only one sarvevara; dhtoof a dhtu; harighoa-antasyaending with a
harighoa; dauin the beginning; harighoatvamthe change to harighoa;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; sa-dhvowhen s or dhv follows;
caand.
If a dhtu has the following three characteristics, then its initial vara
changes to a harighoa when the viaya is viupadnta or when s or dhv
follows: (i) begins with a harigad other than j, (ii) has only one sarvevara,
and (iii) ends with a harighoa.
ka-bhut ka-bhud ka-budhau ka-budha. ja-varjeti kim? jabhjap jabhau
jabha ity-di. rjan,
Vtti ka-budh + s[u] (138) ka-budh (189) ka-bhudh (61)
ka-bhud (185)
ka-bhut <1.1> or ka-bhud <1.1>.
1 But in the case that the optional substitution of pad for pda is not done, we get
pdnm <6.3> as usual.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
157
ka-budh + au ka-budhau <1.2>.
ka-budh + [j]as (93) ka-budha <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhan
a

eka-vacana
ka-bhut / ka-bhud
ka-budham
ka-budh
ka-budhe
ka-budha
ka-budha
ka-budhi
ka-bhut / ka-bhud

dvi-vacana
ka-budhau
ka-budhau
ka-bhudbhym
ka-bhudbhym
ka-bhudbhym
ka-budho
ka-budho
ka-budhau

bahu-vacana
ka-budha
ka-budha
ka-bhudbhi
ka-bhudbhya
ka-bhudbhya
ka-budhm
ka-bhutsu
ka-budha

Why do we say except ja-rma? Consider the declension of the word jabh (one who
yawns):
jabh + s[u] (138) jabh (61) jab (185) jap <1.1> or jab <1.1>.
jabh + au jabhau <1.2>.
jabh + [j]as (93) jabha <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word rjan (king).
190 / naAmaAntasya nasya h"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae bauM" ivanaA /
190. nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin
nma-antasyasituated at the end of a nma; nasyaof na-rma; haradeletion;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; buddhambuddha; vinexcept.
The final n of a nma is deleted when the viaya is viupadnta, except in
the sambodhana eka-vacana.
prathamato na-lopbhva, pathin mathin ity-dau vakyama-na-lopa-vaiyarthyt.
nnteti trivikrama, sor hararj rjnau rjna. rjnam rjnau. va-ma-satsaga-hnasya ity a-rma-hara, ta-vargasya ca-varga, j-o sat-sage jarja,
rj. rjabhym rjabhi. rje rjabhym rjabhya. rja rjabhym rjabhya.
rja rjo rjm. -yos tu v, rji rjani rjo rjasu. he rjan.eva van yuvan
maghavan. kvacid viea
VttiThe deletion of n is not done first, for, if it were, the deletion of n which will be
prescribed in the stra beginning pathin mathin (stra 193) would be pointless.
rjan + s[u] (163) rjn + s[u] (138) rjn (190) rj <1.1>.
rjan + au (163) rjnau <1.2>.
rjan + [j]as (163) rjnas (93) rjna <1.3>.
rjan + am (163) rjnam <2.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
158
rjan + au (163) rjnau <2.2>.
A-rma is deleted by va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya (stra 170), ta-varga becomes ca-varga
by stra 175. And when there is sat-saga of ja-rma and a-rma we get ja1.
rjan + []as (170) rjn + as (175) rjas (93) rja <2.3>.
rjan + [] (170) rjn + (175) rj <3.1>.
Words which have undergone deletion of their final n or v are not called ka.
rjan + bhym (179, 190) rjabhym <3.2>.
rjan + bhis (179, 190) rjabhis (93) rjabhi <3.3>.
rjan + []e (170) rjn + e (175) rje <4.1>.
rjan + bhym (179, 190) rjabhym <4.2>.
rjan + bhyas (179, 190) rjabhyas (93) rjabhya <4.3>.
rjan + []as[i] (170) rjn + as (175) rjas (93) rja <5.1>.
rjan + bhym (179, 190) rjabhym <5.2>.
rjan + bhyas (179, 190) rjabhyas (93) rjabhya <5.3>.
rjan + []as (170) rjn + as (175) rjas (93) rja <6.1>.
rjan + os (170) rjn + os (175) rjos (93) rjo <6.2>.
rjan + m (170) rjn + m (175) rjm <6.3>.
By -yos tu v (170) we get rji <7.1> or rjani <7.1>:
rjan + []i (two options by 170):
1) (the a of an is deleted) rjni (175) rji <7.1>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) rjani <7.1>.
rjan + os (170) rjn + os (175) rjos (93) rjo <7.2>.
rjan + su[p] (179, 190) rjasu <7.3>.
rjan + s[u] (138) rjan <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

eka-vacana
rj
rjnam
rj

dvi-vacana
rjnau
rjnau
rjabhym

bahu-vacana
rjna
rja
rjabhi

1 In the Devangar script, the special character a (ja) is used to represent the satsaga of ja-rma and a-rma, just as the special character a (ka) is used to represent
the sat-saga of ka-rma and a-rma. Thus a special effort is taken to point that out
here, just as was done in vtti 16 with the phrase ka-a-samyoge tu ka.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
159
caturth
rje
pacam
rja
ah
rja
saptam
rji / rjani
sambodhana
rjan

rjabhym
rjabhym
rjo
rjo
rjnau

rjabhya
rjabhya
rjm
rjasu
rjna

The words van (dog), yuvan (a youth), and maghavan (name of Indra) are
declined like the word rjan. However, sometimes they differ:
AmtaThe intended meaning of the sentence beginning The deletion of n is not
done first is as follows: The desired form could be achieved without applying pathinmathin-bhukinn ity e nasya hara sau (193). For example, by applying pathydnm i-rmasy-rma, tht prva nuk ca (194), then deleting the n by
nmntasya nasya haro viupadne buddha vin (190), and making the s
viusarga by sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte (93) we get the desired form
panth <1.1>. Thus the desired form can be fully achieved without doing the deletion
of n as the first step. Still, the fact that the deletion of n is done first by the rule pathinmathin-bhukinn ity e nasya hara sau (193) suggests that, among words ending
in n, only the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin first undergo the deletion of n, while
other words ending in n do it later. Otherwise the effort to make such a rule would be
useless like grinding flour1 since the desired form could be achieved by other stras.
Moreover if words like rjan and rgin were to first undergo the deletion of n, then
the deletion of s[u] by stra 138 wouldnt take place as there would be no viujana to
cause it. Thus we would get the unwanted forms rj <1.1> and rg <1.1>. This
is the fault.
SaodhinAnother prominent masculine word ending in na-rma is the word
tman. tman is declined differently than rjan, however, in that its a-rma is not
deleted due to the phrase va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya (170). Amara-koa defines the
word tman as follows: tm yatno dhtir buddhi sva-bhvo brahma varma ca
(The word tman can mean yatna (effort), dhti (firmness), buddhi
(intelligence), sva-bhva (nature), brahman (the spirit soul or the Supreme Spirit,
the Absolute Truth) and varman (body)). On top of this, tman is often used as a
pronoun equivalent in meaning to the pronoun sva (see vttis 224 and 233). A table of
tman is given below:
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
tm
tmnam
tman
tmane
tmana
tmana
tmani
tman

dvi-vacana
tmnau
tmnau
tmabhym
tmabhym
tmabhym
tmano
tmano
tmnau

bahu-vacana
tmna
tmana
tmabhi
tmabhya
tmabhya
tmanm
tmasu
tmna

191 / na, yauvanmaGavainatyaeSaAM vasya oBaRgAvaita /


wRbvaijaRtatai"tae tau na yauvataItyaeta"jaRma, //
191.
van yuvan maghavan ity e
vasya ur bhagavati
1 This alludes to the pia-peaa-nyya (the maxim of grinding flour) or literally
(the maxim of grinding that which has already been ground). Such grinding is a
useless endeavour.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
160
b-varjita-taddhite tu na
yuvatty etad-varjam
van yuvan maghavan itithe words van (dog), yuvan (a youth), and maghavan
(name of Indra); emof these; vasyaof the portion va; uthe replacement u;
bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows; p-varjita-taddhitewhen a taddhita pratyaya,
except [p], follows; tubut; nanot; yuvati itithe word yuvati (a young woman);
etad-varjamexcluding this.
The va of the words van, yuvan, and maghavan is replaced by u when a
bhagavat follows. But this doesnt happen when a taddhita pratyaya other
than [p] follows. Nor does it apply to the word yuvati.
vasyeti srma-nirdea. una un vabhym vabhi. yna yn yuvabhym
yuvabhi. eva maghona maghon. saumaghav. maghavn iti tu klp.
vahati svecchay vyur / udgacchati ca bhskara
havir jakiti niako / makheu maghavn asau. iti bhai (18.19).
maghavatu-abdo py asti, maghavad-vajra-lajj-nidnam sa evam uktv
maghavantam ity-di-prayoga-darant. maghavn maghavantau maghavadbhym.
atha divasa-vc pratidivan-abdapratidiv pratidivnau pratidivna. pratidivna
pratidivnau.
VttiThe word vasya indicates va-rma along with a-rma.
van + []as (191) unas (93) una <2.3>.
van + [] (191) un <3.1>.
van + bhym (179, 190) vabhym <3.2>.
van + bhis (179, 190) vabhis (93) vabhi <3.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
v
vnam
un
une
una
una
uni
van

dvi-vacana
vnau
vnau
vabhym
vabhym
vabhym
uno
uno
vnau

bahu-vacana
vna
una
vabhi
vabhya
vabhya
unm
vasu
vna

yuvan + []as (191) yu + un + as (42) ynas (93) yna <2.3>.


yuvan + [] (191) yu + un + (42) yn <3.1>.
yuvan + bhym (179, 190) yuvabhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah

eka-vacana
yuv
yuvnam
yn
yne
yna
yna

dvi-vacana
yuvnau
yuvnau
yuvabhym
yuvabhym
yuvabhym
yno

bahu-vacana
yuvna
yna
yuvabhi
yuvabhya
yuvabhya
ynm

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
161
saptam
yni
sambodhana
yuvan

yno
yuvnau

yuvasu
yuvna

maghavan + []as (191) magha + un + as (44) maghonas (93)


maghona <2.3>.
maghavan + [] (191) magha + un + (44) maghon <3.1>.
When s[u] follows, we get maghav <1.1>:
maghavan + s[u] (163) maghavn + s[u] (138) maghavn (190)
maghav <1.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
maghav
maghavnam
maghon
maghone
maghona
maghona
maghoni
maghavan

dvi-vacana
maghavnau
maghavnau
maghavabhym
maghavabhym
maghavabhym
maghono
maghono
maghavnau

bahu-vacana
maghavna
maghona
maghavabhi
maghavabhya
maghavabhya
maghonm
maghavasu
maghavna

But the Kalpa grammarians say the form should be maghavn <1.1>. An example of
this is Bhai-kvya (18.19):
vahati svecchay vyur
udgacchati ca bhskara
havir jakiti niako
makheu maghavn asau
The wind blows and the sun rises of its own accord. In the sacrifice, Indra (Maghavn)
fearlessly consumes the oblation.
There is also a word maghavat[u] (Name of Indra) as we see examples like
maghavad-vajra-lajj-nidnam and sa evam uktv maghavantam.
maghavat[u] + s[u] (187) maghavt + s[u] (174, 160) maghav +
n[um] + t + s[u]
(138) maghavnt (176) maghavn <1.1>.
maghavat[u] + au (174, 160) maghava + n[um] + t + au maghavantau
<1.2>.
maghavat[u] + bhym (179, 61) maghavadbhym <3.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word pratidivan which means a day:
pratidivan + s[u] (163) pratidivn + s[u] (138) pratidivn (190)
pratidiv <1.1>.
pratidivan + au (163) pratidivnau <1.2>.
pratidivan + [j]as (163) pratidivnas (93) pratidivna <1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
162
pratidivan + am (163) pratidivnam <2.1>.
pratidivan + au (163) pratidivnau <2.2>.
AmtaThe va of the words van, yuvan, and maghavan is not replaced by u when a
taddhita pratyaya other than [p] follows. For example, aunavam, yauvanam, and
mghavna. But, among the words ending in [p], the word yuvati, which is
irregularly formed by the stra yno yuvati sdhu (1085), is excluded. The word
but in the sentence But the Kalpa grammarians say the form should be maghavn
<1.1> shows that the form maghavn <1.1> is unacceptable as a form of the word
maghavan. But, in Bhai-kvya, maghavn <1.1> is a form of the word maghavat[u],
not of the word maghavan. In the other two examples, the forms are also forms of the
word maghavat[u], not of the word maghavan.
192 / DaAtaAe r"vaaAigAu"taAeiiva(maAe r"vataAe ivaSNAujanae , na ku(r"C]
$r"naAmaDaAtaUnaAM , na ca tai"tayae /
192. dhto ra-va-prg-id-utos trivikramo ra-vato viujane, na kura-chura-nmadhtn, na ca taddhita-ye
dhtoof a dhtu; ra-va-prkbefore ra-rma or va-rma; it-uto1of the i-rma and
u-rma; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; ra-vataafter ra-rma or va-rma;
viujanewhen a viujana follows; nanot; kura-chura-nma-dhtnmof kur
(see explanation below), chur[a] chedane, or a nma-dhtu; nanot; caand;
taddhita-yewhen a taddhita pratyaya beginning with ya-rma follows.
The i or u of a dhtu becomes trivikrama when they come before r or v,
provided there is a viujana after the r or v. But this doesnt happen when a
taddhita pratyaya beginning with y follows. Nor also do the i or u of kur,
chur[a] or a nma-dhtu become trivikrama.
nmno jto dhtur nma-dhtur iti vakyate. atra phd viujana-vara-mtra
ghyate, na kevala-svdaya. kurdi-niedhn nmno nyatrpi jeyam. tata asi
pratidvna. pratidvn. pratidivabhym.
VttiIt will described later that a dhtu produced from a nma is called a nmadhtu. Because the word viujana is listed in a rule related to dhtus, any vara
which is a viujana is accepted. It is not that only the sv-dis are accepted. Because
of the prohibition beginning kura, it is to be known that this rule also applies to things
other than nmas.
pratidivan + []as (170) pratidivn + as (192) pratidvnas (93) pratidvna
<2.3>.
pratidivan + [] (170) pratidivn + (192) pratidvn <3.1>.
pratidivan + bhym (179, 190) pratidivabhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

eka-vacana
pratidiv
pratidivnam
pratidvn

dvi-vacana
pratidivnau
pratidivnau
pratidivabhym

bahu-vacana
pratidivna
pratidvna
pratidivabhi

1 The word it-uto is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara. This was
described in vtti 35.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
163
caturth
pratidvne
pacam
pratidvna
ah
pratidvna
saptam
pratidvni / pratidivani
sambodhana
pratidivan

pratidivabhym
pratidivabhym
pratidvno
pratidvno
pratidivnau

pratidivabhya
pratidivabhya
pratidvnm
pratidivasu
pratidivna

BlaThe i or u of kur, chur[a] or a nma-dhtu doesnt become trivikrama. Thus, in


those cases, we get kurva <acyuta 3.2>, kurma <acyuta 3.3>, kuryt <vidhi 1.1>,
and so on, churyate <acyuta karmai 1.1> and so on, and caturyati, giryati and so on,
respectively. The change to trivikrama also doesnt take place when a taddhita
pratyaya beginning with y follows. Thus, in dhuryam, divyam and so on, there is no
trivikrama. Why do we say of a dhtu? In nirgua, caturdh, and so on, there is no
trivikrama.
SaodhinThe kur referred to in the phrase na kura-chura-nma-dhtnm is
formed as follows: By dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye (289), the dhtu [u]k[]
karae (8U, to do, make) takes govinda when the vikaraa u follows, then the
vikaraa u is deleted by karotes tu nitya ye ca (432), and finally the a of kar becomes
u by karoty-a-rmasya ur nirgue (556). Thus kur refers to an aspect of the dhtu
[u]k[] karae. This is confirmed by the examples given by Bla in that kurva,
kurma, and kuryt are all forms of [u]k[] karae.
The word pratidivan is formed by applying the udi pratyaya [k]an[in] after prati +
div[u] kr-vijig-vyavahra-dyuti-stuti-knti-gatiu by kanin yu-vi-taki-rjidhanvi-dyu-pratidiva (Udi-stra 1.157). The nmas referred to here are kdantas,
since kdantas alone are considered both nmas and dhtus. Other nmas are not
considered dhtus, and thus this rule doesnt apply to them as they are excluded by
the word dhto in this rule. The purpose of this sentence is to say that this rule also
applies to the dhtus themselves, and not only to kdantas. Thus we get dvyati, the
acyuta pa. 1.1 form of the dhtu div[u], and so on.
193 / paiTanmaiTana{BauiaiatyaeSaAM nasya h"r": s$aAE /
193. pathin mathin bhukinn ity e nasya hara sau
pathin mathin bhukin itithe words pathin (a path), mathin (a churning stick),
and bhukin (name of Indra); emof these; nasyaof na-rma; haradeletion;
sauwhen s[u] follows.
The final n of the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin is deleted when s[u]
follows.
194 / paTyaAd"InaAimar"AmasyaAr"Ama: k{(SNAsTaAnae , TaAtpaUva< naufca /
194. pathy-dnm i-rmasy-rma kasthne, tht prva nuk ca
pathi-dnmof the words pathin and so on; i-rmasyaof i-rma; -rmathe
replacement -rma; kasthnewhen a kasthna follows; thttha-rma;
prvambefore; nukthe gama n[uk]; caalso.
The i-rma of the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin changes to -rma
when a kasthna follows, and the gama n[uk] is inserted before the th
of the words pathin and mathin.
panth panthnau panthna. panthna panthnau.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
164
Vtti pathin + s[u] (193) pathi + s[u] (194) path + s[u] pa + n[uk] + th
+ s[u] (165)
paths (73) panths (93) panth <1.1>.
pathin + au (194) pathn + au pa + n[uk] + thn + au (165)
pathnau (73)
panthnau <1.2>.
pathin + [j]as (194) pathn + as pa + n[uk] + thn + as (165)
pathnas (73)
panthnas (93) panthna <1.3>.
pathin + am (194) pathn + am pa + n[uk] + thn + am (165)
pathnam (73)
panthnam <2.1>.
pathin + au (194) pathn + au pa + n[uk] + thn + au (165)
pathnau (73)
panthnau <2.2>.
195 / paTyaAd"InaAM s$aMs$aAr"h"r"Ae BagAvaita /
195. pathy-dn sasra-haro bhagavati
pathi-dnmof the words pathin and so on; sasra-haradeletion of the sasra;
bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows.
The sasra of the words pathin, mathin, and bhukin is deleted when a
bhagavat follows.
patha path pathibhym pathibhi. eva manth manthnau manthna. bhuk
bhukau bhuka. atha rgin
pathin + []as (195) pathas (93) patha <2.3>.
pathin + [] (195) path <3.1>.
pathin + bhym (179, 190) pathibhym <3.2>.
pathin + bhis (179, 190) pathibhis (93) pathibhi <3.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
panth
panthnam
path
pathe
patha
patha
pathi
panth

dvi-vacana
panthnau
panthnau
pathibhym
pathibhym
pathibhym
patho
patho
panthnau

bahu-vacana
panthna
patha
pathibhi
pathibhya
pathibhya
pathm
pathiu
panthna

mathin + s[u] (193) mathi + s[u] (194) math + s[u] ma + n[uk] +


th + s[u]
(165) maths (73) manths (93) manth <1.1>.
mathin + au (194) mathn + au ma + n[uk] + thn + au (165)
mathnau (73)
manthnau <1.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
165
mathin + [j]as (194) mathn + as ma + n[uk] + thn + as (165)
mathnas (73)
manthnas (93) manthna <1.3>.
bhukin + s[u] (193) bhuki + s[u] (194) bhuk + s[u] (93)
bhuk <1.1>.
bhukin + au (194) bhukn + au (111) bhukau <1.2>.
bhukin + [j]as (194) bhukn + as (111) bhukas (93)
bhuka <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word rgin (one who has the bow named rga,
name of Ka).
196 / wna, h"na, paUSanayaRmainatyaeSaAmau"vasya iaiva(ma: s$auzyaAere"va /
196. in han pan aryaman ity em uddhavasya trivikrama su-yor eva
in han pan aryaman itiwords ending in in, and the words han (killer), pan
(sun), and aryaman (sun); emof these; uddhavasyaof the uddhava;
trivikramathe change to trivikrama; su-yowhen s[u] or []i follow; evaonly.
The uddhava of words ending in in and the uddhava of the words han,
pan, and aryaman becomes trivikrama only when s[u] or []i follow.
rg rgiau rgia. rgiam rgiau rgia. rgibhym he rgin. han
iti han-dhtu. tata kasa-hankasa-h kasa-hanau kasa-hana. kasa-hanam
kasa-hanau.
Vtti rgin + s[u] (196) rgn + s[u] (138) rgn (190) rg <1.1>.
rgin + au (111) rgiau <1.2>.
rgin + [j]as (111) rgias (93) rgia <1.3>.
rgin + am (111) rgiam <2.1>.
rgin + au (111) rgiau <2.2>.
rgin + []as (111) rgias (93) rgia <2.3>.
rgin + bhym (179, 190) rgibhym <3.2>.
rgin + s[u] (138) rgin <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
rg
rgiam
rgi
rgie
rgia
rgia
rgii
rgin

dvi-vacana
rgiau
rgiau
rgibhym
rgibhym
rgibhym
rgio
rgio
rgiau

bahu-vacana
rgia
rgia
rgibhi
rgibhya
rgibhya
rgim
rgiu
rgia

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
166
The han referred to in this stra is the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to
go). Thus the word kasa-han (killer of Kasa, name of Ka) is declined as
follows:
kasa-han + s[u] (196) kasa-hn + s[u] (138) kasa-hn (190)
kasa-h <1.1>.
kasa-han + au kasa-hanau <1.2>.
kasa-han + [j]as (93) kasa-hana <1.3>.
kasa-han + am kasa-hanam <2.1>.
kasa-han + au kasa-hanau <2.2>.
AmtaIn this stra, in refers to a word ending in in, han refers to the kvib-anta form
of the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go), and pan and aryaman
refer to the sun. This is a restriction (niyama) where trivikrama would otherwise be
applicable when any kasthna follows by nnta-dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-sagamahad-apm uddhavasya trivikrama kasthne, buddha vin (163). The word eva
is used here to point out that this stra is a niyama.
SaodhinRegarding rgin <8.1>, the uddhava doesnt become trivikrama, even
though s[u] is following, because, since this stra is just a limitation (niyama) of the
main stra nnta-dhtu-varjita-snta-sat-saga-mahad-apm uddhavasya trivikrama
kasthne, buddha vin (163), the same prohibition buddha vin applies here
also. Similarly, the deletion of n is also prohibited by the phrase buddha vin in
nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte buddha vin (190).
197 / h"naAe h"sya GaAe iNAayaAe: /
197. hano hasya gho in-nayo
hanaof the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go); hasyaof harma; ghathe replacement gha-rma; it-nayowhen it (something that has the
indicatory letter ) or na-rma follows.
When it or n follow, the h of han changes to gh.
va-ma-sat-saga-hnasyety a-rma-harakasa-ghna. kasa-ghn kasa-habhym.
aukasa-hani kasa-ghni. he kasa-han. sakhy-abd pacan-prabhtayo nityabahu-vacannt triu sa-rp. a-nnta-sakhyta kate ceti paca paca pacabhi
pacabhya.
Vtti kasa-han + []as (170) kasa-hn + as (197) kasa-ghn + as (93)
kasa-ghna
<2.3>.
kasa-han + [] (170) kasa-hn + (197) kasa-ghn <3.1>.
kasa-han + bhym (179, 190) kasa-habhym <3.2>.
When []i follows, we get kasa-ghni <7.1> or kasa-hani <7.1>:
kasa-han + []i (two options by 170):

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
167
1) (the a of an is deleted) kasa-hni (197) kasa-ghni <7.1>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) kasa-hani <7.1>.
kasa-han + s[u] (138) kasa-han <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
kasa-h
kasa-hanam
kasa-ghn
kasa-ghne
kasa-ghna
kasa-ghna
kasa-ghni / kasa-hani
kasa-han

dvi-vacana
kasa-hanau
kasa-hanau
kasa-habhym
kasa-habhym
kasa-habhym
kasa-ghno
kasa-ghno
kasa-hanau

bahu-vacana
kasa-hana
kasa-ghna
kasa-habhi
kasa-habhya
kasa-habhya
kasa-ghnm
kasa-hasu
kasa-hana

The numerals from pacan (five) onwards are always used in bahu-vacana and have
the same form in all three genders. By applying a-nnta-sakhyta kate ca jasasor mahhara svrthe (126), we get the following forms:
pacan + [j]as (126) pacan (190) paca <1.3>.
pacan + []as (126) pacan (190) paca <2.3>.
pacan + bhis (179, 190) pacabhis (93) pacabhi <3.3>.
AmtaBecause Jva Gosvm mentions in vtti 196 that han refers to the dhtu
han[a] his-gatyo (2P, to strike, kill; to go), this stra doesnt apply to words which
are not dhtus. Thus in ahna <5.1 / 6.1>, a form of the word ahan (a day), the
change to gh doesnt take place. An example of when it follows is jaghna
<adhokaja pa. 1.1 of han[a] his-gatyo>. Na-rma follows when the a of han is
deleted by stra 170. But, regarding the khytas and so on, na-rma follows only
when the uddhava disappears by gama-hana-jana-khana-ghasm uddhavdarana
kasri-sarvevare a vin (437). Therefore when a-rma intervenes, as in hananam
and so on, the change to gh doesnt take place.
198 / r"SanaAntas$aYaAByaAe naux"Aima svaATaeR /
198. ra-a-nnta-sakhybhyo nu mi svrthe
ra-a-na-anta-sakhybhyaafter numerals ending in ra-rma, a-rma, or na-rma;
nuthe gama n[u]; miwhen m follows; sva-artheprovided their own meaning
is predominant.
The gama n[u] is inserted after numerals ending in r, , or n when m
follows, provided their own meaning is predominant.
AmtaAmong the numerals, the word catur (four) ends in r, the word a (six)
ends in , and the words pacan (five), saptan (seven), aan (eight), navan
(nine), and daan (ten) end in n.
199 / naAntaAe"vasya iaiva(maAe naAima /
199. nntoddhavasya trivikramo nmi

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
168
na-anta-uddhavasyaof the uddhava of a numeral ending in na-rma; trivikrama
the change to trivikrama; nmiwhen nm (n[u] + m) follows.
The uddhava of a numeral ending in n becomes trivikrama when nm follows.
pacn pacasu.
Vtti pacan + m (198) pacan + n[u] + m pacan + nm (199) pacn
+ nm (179, 190) pacnm <6.3>.
pacan + su[p] (179, 190) pacasu <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

bahu-vacana
paca
paca
pacabhi
pacabhya
pacabhya
pacnm
pacasu

AmtaThe word sakhy (a numeral) is carried forward from the previous stra.
200 / @"na @A ivaSNAuBai(Sau vaA /
200. aana viubhaktiu v
aanaof the word aan (eight); the replacement -rma; viubhaktiu
when any viubhakti follows; voptionally.
The final n of aan1 optionally becomes when any viubhakti follows.
201 / tasmaAtjas$zAs$aAer"AEzsvaATaeR /
201. tasmt jas-asor au svrthe
tasmtafter that -rma; jas-asoof [j]as and []as; authe replacement au[];
sva-artheprovided its own meaning is predominant.
After that, [j]as and []as are replaced by au[], provided the meaning of the
word aan is predominant.
it sarvasyeti nyyena id-dea sarvdea. aau aa, aau aa, abhi
aabhi, abhya aabhya, abhya aabhya. paka-dvaye py anm.
asu aasu. catur nitya bahu-vacanntas tasya pusi
VttiIn accordance with the maxim it sarvasya (vtti 158) a replacement that has
the indicatory letter replaces everything.
aan + [j]as (two options by 200):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + [j]as (42) a + [j]as (201) a
+ au[] (49)
aau <1.3>.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
169
2) (the change to isnt done, 126) aan (190) aa <1.3>.
aan + []as (two options by 200):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + []as (42) a + []as (201) a
+ au[] (49)
aau <2.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done, 126) aan (190) aa <2.3>.
aan + bhis (two options by 200):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + bhis (42) abhis (93) abhi
<3.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done, 190) aabhis (93) aabhi <3.3>.
aan + bhyas (two options by 200):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + bhyas (42) abhyas (93)
abhya <4.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done. 190) aabhyas (93) aabhya <4.3>.
aan + bhyas (two options by 200):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + bhyas (42) abhyas (93)
abhya <5.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done, 190) aabhyas (93) aabhya <5.3>.
In both cases we get anm <6.3>:
200):

aan + m (198) aan + n[u] + m aan + nm (two options by


1) (the change to is done) aa + + nm (42) anm <6.3>
2) (the change to isnt done, 199) an + nm (179, 190) anm <6.3>.
aan + su[p] (two options by 200):
1) (the change to is done) aa + + su[p] (42) asu <7.3>.
2) (the change to isnt done, 190) aasu <7.3>.
case

pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

bahu-vacana
aa / aau
aa / aau
aabhi / abhi
aabhya / abhya
aabhya / abhya
anm
aasu / asu

The word catur (four) is always used in bahu-vacana. In the masculine gender it is
declined as follows:
202 / cataur"nax"]h"Aer"Amk{(SNAsTaAnae , baue" tvama, /
202. catur-anauhor m kasthne, buddhe tv am
catur-anauhoof the words catur (four) and anauh (an ox); mthe gama
[m]; kasthnewhen a kasthna follows; buddhewhen buddha follows; tu
but; amthe gama a[m].

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
170
The words catur and anauh take the gama [m] when a kasthna
follows, but when buddha follows, they take the gama a[m].
catvra catura. viusarge kte pun ra-rmacaturbhi caturbhya. ra-anteti nucaturm.
Vtti catur + [j]as (202, 160) catu + [m] + r + as (51) catvras (93)
catvra
<1.3>.
catur + []as (93) catura <2.3>.
When the change to viusarga is done by stra 93, the viusarga again becomes rarma by stra 83:
catur + bhis (179, 93) catubhis (83) caturbhis (93) caturbhi <3.3>.
catur + m (198) catur + n[u] + m (179, 93) catunm (83)
caturnm (111) caturm <6.3>.
203 / r"r"Amasya na ivaSNAus$agAR: s$auipa /
203. ra-rmasya na viusarga supi
ra-rmasyara-rma; nanot; viusargaviusarga; supiwhen the viubhakti
su[p] follows.
Ra-rma doesnt change to viusarga by stra 93 when su[p] follows.
caturu. ka-spka-spk ka-spau. udaka-prvatve tu udaka-sp. armnto dadh, dadhk dadhau dadha. kasa-dviasya a iti kasa-dvi
kasa-dvi kasa-dviau. a nitya bahu-vacannta. a-nteti, a a abhi
abhya. ra-a-nteti nu, asya a
Vtti catur + su[p] (179, 203) catursu (108) caturu <7.3>.
case
bahu-vacana
pratham
catvra
dvity
catura
tty
caturbhi
caturth
caturbhya
pacam
caturbhya
ah
caturm
saptam
caturu
Now we begin the declension of the word ka-sp (one who touches Ka):
ka-sp + s[u] (138) ka-sp (186) ka-spk (61) kaspg (185) kaspk <1.1> or ka-spg <1.1>.
ka-sp + au ka-spau <1.2>.
But when the word sp is in samsa with the word udaka, the form is udaka-sp
<1.1> or udaka-sp <1.1>:

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
171
udaka-sp + s[u] (138) udaka-sp (182) udaka-sp (184) udakasp (185)
udaka-sp <1.1> or udaka-sp <1.1>.
Now we begin the declension of the word dadh (bold), a word ending in a-rma:
dadh + s[u] (138) dadh (186) dadhk (61) dadhg (185)
dadhk <1.1> or dadhg <1.1>.
dadh + au dadhau <1.2>.
dadh + [j]as (93) dadha <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-dvi (enemy of Kasa, name of
Ka):
kasa-dvi + s[u] (138) kasa-dvi (184) kasa-dvi (185) kasa-dvi
<1.1> or kasa-dvi <1.1>.
kasa-dvi + au kasa-dviau <1.2>.
The word a (six) is always used in bahu-vacana and is declined as follows:
a + [j]as (126) a (184) a (185) a <1.3> or a <1.3>.
a + []as (126) a (184) a (185) a <2.3> or a <2.3>.
a + bhis (179, 184) abhis (93) abhi <3.3>.
204 / inatyaM h"ir"vaeNAuivaiDa: atyayah"ir"vaeNAAE /
204. nitya hariveu-vidhi pratyaya-hariveau
nityamalways; hariveu-vidhithe rule of hariveu; pratyaya-hariveauwhen a
hariveu that is part of a pratyaya follows.
The rule of hariveu is always applied when a hariveu that is part of a
pratyaya follows.
AmtaThis stra is for making the change to a hariveu compulsory where it would
usually only be optional in accordance with hariveau hariveur v (62).
205 / SaAtpar"sya q%vagARyau(sya ca tavagARsya q%vagAR: , na tau
ivaSNAupad"AntaA%vagAARd"naAavaitanagAr"INAAma, /
205. t parasya a-varga-yuktasya ca ta-vargasya a-varga, na tu viupadnt
a-vargd anm-navati-nagarm
ta-rma; parasyaafter; a-varga-yuktasyaconjoined with a-varga; caand;
ta-vargasyaof ta-varga; a-vargathe change to a-varga; nanot; tubut;
viupada-anttsituated at the end of a viupada; a-vargtafter a-varga; a-

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
172
nm-navati-nagarmwith the exception of nm (n[u] + m), navati (ninety),
and nagar (city).
When ta-varga comes after or is conjoined with a-varga, it changes to avarga. But when ta-varga comes after a-varga which is at the end of a
viupada, it doesnt change to a-varga, with the exception of nm, navati,
and nagar.
tena nma a-vargatva, am asu. navati-nagaryo a-vargatvamaavati a-avati, a-agarya a-agarya. neha, a-nara a-nara. da-tau
para-varau ity-dni tu sandhi-mtra-subodhya pthag uktni. saju
Vtti a + m (198) a + n[u] + m a + nm (179, 184) a +
nm (204) a +

nm (179, 205) am <6.3>.

a + su[p] (179, 184) a + su (63) asu <7.3>.


case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

bahu-vacana
a / a
a / a
abhi
abhya
abhya
am
asu

The words navati and nagar also undergo the change to a-varga:
a-navati (184) a-navati (two options by 62):
1) (the change to hariveu is done) a-navati (205) a-avati <1.1>.
2) (the change to hariveu isnt done, 205) a-avati <1.1>.
a-nagarya (184) a-nagarya (two options by 62):
1) (the change to hariveu is done) a-nagarya (205) a-agarya <1.3>.
2) (the change to hariveu is done, 205) a-agarya <1.3>.
But the change to a-varga doesnt take place here:
a-nara (184) a-nara (62) a-nara <1.3> or a-nara <1.3>.
Stras like da-tau para-varau la-ca-a-vargeu nityam (66) were separately
formulated so that students may easily understand the subject matter of sandhi alone.
Now we begin the declension of the word saju (an associate).
AmtaThe word saju is formed by first applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the
dhtu ju[] prti-sevanayo (6A, to be pleased, to like; to serve, visit, dwell) to get
the word ju and then compounding ju with the word saha in the sense of ju saha
vartate. The word saha then becomes sa by sahasya sa (1012) and we get saju.
Regarding a-nara <1.3> and a-nara <1.3>, the n of nara doesnt change to
because the of a is situated at the end of a viupada. In a compound each word
inside the compound is considered a separate viupada (see stra 916).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
173
SaodhinRegarding da-tau para-varau la-ca-a-vargeu nityam (66), almost
everything mentioned there is covered by other more prominent stras. For example,
the change of d or t to ca-varga is covered by ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga-yoge
(175), after which harivenau hariveur v (62) can be applied to get a-rma, and the
change of d or t to a-varga is covered by t parasya a-varga-yuktasya ca tavargasya a-varga (205), after which harivenau hariveur v (62) can be applied to
get a-rma. Thus the only thing not covered by other stras is the change of d or t to
la-rma. So it would have been sufficient to make this stra do lo le (da-rma
becomes la-rma when la-rma follows). When we make the stra like this it is not
even necessary to include ta-rma, because by viudso viupadnte harighoe ca
harigad (61), ta-rma will automatically become da-rma when la-rma follows.

206 s$ajauSaAizAiSatyanayaAeir"s$aus$antaDaAtaAe r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae , tasya


ivaSNAus$agAR s$auipa
206. saju i ity anayor is-us-anta-dhto ca ro viupadnte, tasya viusarga ca
supi
saju i itithe words saju (an associate) and i (wish, blessing); anayoof
these two; is-us-anta-dhtoof a dhtu ending in is or us; caand; rathe
replacement ra-rma; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; tasyathat
(ra-rma); viusargaviusarga; caand; supiwhen the viubhakti su[p]
follows.
The final vara of the words saju and i and the final vara of dhtus
ending in is or us1 change to r when the viaya is viupadnta, and that r
changes to viusarga when su[p] follows.
AmtaEven though saju and i are dhtus, they are mentioned separately
because they end in a mrdhanya (retroflex) vara. The phrase tasya viusarga ca
supi is an apavda of ra-rmasya na viusarga supi (203). The implied meaning is
that only a natural ra-rma is forbidden to change to viusarga when su[p] follows as
was seen in caturu <7.3>, but in this case ra-rma should change to viusarga
when su[p] follows because the ra-rma is artificially made by the current stra. This
rule is also an apavda of stra 184, where the of saju and i would usually
become by asya o viupadnte harighoe ca (184).
SaodhinAmta 205 demonstrated how saju was a dhtu, and Amta 902 will
explain how i is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu [] +
s[u] icchym (2A, to desire) in bhve prayoga, at which point the stra sa i
kasri-viujana-ayo (509) is applied, thus causing the s of the dhtu [] +
s[u] to be replaced by i.
207 / w&r"ntaDaAtaAe&"vasya iaiva(maAe ivaSNAupad"Antae /
207. ir-ur-anta-dhtor uddhavasya trivikramo viupadnte

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
174
ir-ur-anta-dhtoof a dhtu ending in ir or ur; uddhavasyaof the uddhava;
trivikramathe change to trivikrama; viupada-antewhen the viaya is
viupadnta.
The uddhava of a dhtu ending in ir or ur becomes trivikrama when the
viaya is viupadnta.
saj sajuau sajrbhym saju, auritva saju. pis-dhto sa-rmnta su-pis;
tus-dhto su-tussu-p su-pisau su-pisa. su-t su-tusau su-tusa. atva supu, su-tu. vedhasatv-as-antoddhavasyeti trivikramavedh vedhasau
vedhasa. vedhobhy vedhasu, he vedha. pta vastepta-vas. dhtu vineti
trivikrambhvapta-va pta-vasau. kasa hinastti kasa-hisantarlaphd viucakra-viusargayo sarvevaratva viujanatva cstti satsagntatvt sasya hara, nimittpyn na-rma eva, dhtu-varjiteti viean ntra
trivikramakasa-hin kasa-hisau kasa-hinbhym. atva-vidhau num
viucakram eva ghyate, tato neha atvamkasa-hinsu. vaikuha-dhvas
Vtti saju + s[u] (138) saju (206) sajur (207) sajr (93) saj <1.1>.
saju + au sajuau <1.2>.
saju + bhym (179, 206) sajur + bhym (179, 207) sajrbhym
(179, 93) sajbhym (83) sajrbhym <3.2>.
saju + su[p] (179, 206) sajur + su (179, 207) sajr + su (206)
sajsu (108) saju <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
saj
sajuam
saju
sajue
sajua
sajua
sajui
saj

dvi-vacana
sajuau
sajuau
sajrbhym
sajrbhym
sajrbhym
sajuo
sajuo
sajuau

bahu-vacana
sajua
sajua
sajrbhi
sajrbhya
sajrbhya
sajum
saju
sajua

Now we begin the declension of the words su-pis (one who moves well) and su-tus
(one who sounds well), words ending in sa-rma which come from the dhtus pis[]
gatau and tus[a] abde respectively:
su-pis + s[u] (138) su-pis (206) su-pir (207) su-pr (93) su-p
<1.1>.
su-pis + [j]as (93) su-pisa <1.3>.
su-pis + su[p] (179, 206) su-pir + su (179, 207) su-pr + su (206) supsu (108)
su-pu <7.3>.
su-tus + s[u] (138) su-tus (206) su-tur (207) su-tr (93) su-t
<1.1>.
su-tus + [j]as (93) su-tusa <1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
175
su-tus + su[p] (179, 206) su-tur + su (179, 207) su-tr + su (206) sutsu (108)
su-tu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word vedhas (the creator, name of Lord Brahm
or Lord Viu) Atv-as-antoddhavasya trivikramo buddha-varjita-sau, dhtu vin (187)
is applied and we get vedh <1.1>:
vedhas + s[u] (187) vedhs + s[u] (138) vedhs (93) vedh <1.1>.
vedhas + au vedhasau <1.2>.
vedhas + bhym (179, 93) vedha + bhym (80) vedha + u + bhym
(44) vedhobhym <3.2>.
vedhas + su[p] (179, 93) vedhasu <7.3>.
vedhas + s[u] (138) vedhas (93) vedha <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
vedh
vedhasam
vedhas
vedhase
vedhasa
vedhasa
vedhasi
vedha

dvi-vacana
vedhasau
vedhasau
vedhobhym
vedhobhym
vedhobhym
vedhaso
vedhaso
vedhasau

bahu-vacana
vedhasa
vedhasa
vedhobhi
vedhobhya
vedhobhya
vedhasm
vedhasu
vedhasa

Now we begin the declension of the word pta-vas which means pta vaste (one who
wears yellow, name of Ka). There is no trivikrama due to the phrase dhtu vin
in stra 187.
pta-vas + s[u] (138) pta-vas (93) pta-va <1.1>.
pta-vas + au pta-vasau <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-his which means kasa hinasti (one
who kills Kasa, name of Ka). The viucakra and viusarga are both
sarvevaras and viujanas because in the vara-krama they are listed in between the
sarvevaras and the viujanas. Thus, since the s in kasa-his is at the end of a satsaga, it is deleted, and, due to the disappearance of its nimitta, the viucakra
changes back to n. Furthermore, due to the modifier dhtu-varjita in stra 163, there is
no trivikrama here:
kasa-his + s[u] (138) kasa-his (176) kasa-hin <1.1>.
kasa-his + au kasa-hisau <1.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
176
kasa-his + bhym (179, 176) kasa-hinbhym <3.2>.
In the rule causing the change to (stra 108), the word num only indicates the
viucakra, thus the change to doesnt take place in kasa-hinsu <7.3>:
kasa-his + su[p] (179, 176) kasa-hinsu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word vaikuha-dhvas (one who falls down from
Vaikuha).
AmtaOne cannot say, The desired result of making the uddhava of ir and ur
trivikrama can be accomplished merely by dhto ra-va-prg-id-utos trivikramo ra-vato
viujane (192), so what is the need of the current stra? Because the viujana is
mentioned as a general (smnya) nimitta, the change to trivikrama there is valid only
when the viaya is not viupadnta. Whereas the change to trivikrama prescribed in
the current stra is valid only when the viaya is viupadnta. Thus the current stra
is more specific (viea). Furthermore, when s[u] follows, only this stra is successful
in terms of accomplishing saj <1.1> and so on.
SaodhinThe word kasa-his is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
after kasa + his[i] hisym (7P, to harm, kill). The dhtu his[i] takes the gama
n[um] by i-rmed-dhtor num (344), and n[um] then becomes viucakra by
aviupadntasya nasya masya ca viucakra vaiave (165). But when the s of his
is deleted by stra 176, the viucakra changes back to n due to the disappearance of
its nimitta in the form of a vaiava. Regarding kasa-hinsu <7.3>, when the s of his
is deleted by stra 176, the viucakra changes back to n by nimittpye
naimittikasypy apya (vtti 178) as it is no longer aviupadntasya (see stra 165)
since by stra 179 the prakti is treated like a viupada, and the n of n[um] is thus at
the end of a viupada. Therefore, since the word num in stra 108 only indicates the
n[um] that has become a viucakra by stra 165, the change to doesnt take place
in kasa-hinsu <7.3>
208 / DvaMs$auaMs$auvasvanax"]h"AM d"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /
208. dhvasu-srasu-vasv-anauh do viupadnte
dhvasu-srasu-vasu-anauhmof the dhtus dhvans[u] adha-patane (1A, to fall
down, perish) and srans[u] adha-patane (1A, to fall down, perish)1, the kt
pratyaya vas[u], and the word anauh (an ox); dathe replacement da-rma;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
The final vara of dhvans[u], srans[u], vas[u], and anauh2 changes to d
when the viaya is viupadnta.
dhvasu srasu dht. caturbhujnubandhatva nmvasthym eva ghtam, aca
updnt. tentra na numvaikuha-dhvad vaikuha-dhvat vaikuha-dhvasau.
vaikuha-dhvadbhym. eva vaikuha-srasvaikuha-srat vaikuha-srad. atra

1 These dhtus are listed with viucakras in this stra because the n of the dhtus
dhvans[u] and srans[u] later becomes viucakra by aviupadntasya nasya masya
ca viucakra vaiave (165).
2 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
177
vasu-pratyayavidvasu. udittvc caturbhujnubandhn ca num, nnteti
trivikrama, sat-sagnta-haravidvn vidvsau vidvsa. vidvsam vidvsau.
VttiDhvans[u] and srans[u] are dhtus and thus they cannot take n[um] since, in
stra 174, due to the mention of ac, the quality of having a caturbhuja as an indicatory
letter is accepted only in relation to nmas. Now we begin the declension of the word
vaikuha-dhvas (one who falls down from Vaikuha).
vaikuha-dhvas + s[u] (138) vaikuha-dhvas (208) vaikuha-dhvad
(185)
vaikuha-dhvat <1.1> or vaikuha-dhvad <1.1>.
vaikuha-dhvas + au vaikuha-dhvasau <1.2>.
vaikuha-dhvas + bhym (179, 208) vaikuha-dhvadbhym <3.2>.
The word vaikuha-sras (one who falls down from Vaikuha) is declined in the
same way, thus we get vaikuha-srat <1.1> or vaikuha-srad <1.1>. Among the
words mentioned in this stra is the kt pratyaya vas[u]. Now we will begin the
declension of the word vidvas[u] (one who knows), a word ending in the kt pratyaya
vas[u].
vidvas[u] + s[u] (174, 160) vidva + n[um] + s + s[u] vidvans + s[u]
(163)

vidvns + s[u] (138) vidvns (176) vidvn <1.1>.


vidvas[u] + au (174, 160) vidva + n[um] + s + au vidvans + au (163)

vidvns + au

(165) vidvsau <1.2>.

vidvas[u] + [j]as (174, 160) vidva + n[um] + s + as vidvans + as


(163) vidvns + as

(165) vidvsas (93) vidvsa <1.3>.

vidvas[u] + am (174, 160) vidva + n[um] + s + am vidvans + am


(163) vidvns + am

(165) vidvsam <2.1>.

vidvas[u] + au (174, 160) vidva + n[um] + s + au vidvans + au (163)


vidvns + au

(165) vidvsau <2.2>.

AmtaFor dhvans, srans and vas[u] this rule is an apavda of stra 93, and for
anauh it is an apavda of stra 211. The dhtu ac[u] gati-pjanayo has a
caturbhuja as its indicatory letter, still the fact that in stra 174 it is mentioned
separately as aca informs us that only nmas which have a caturbhuja as their
indicatory letter take n[um] and that dhtus which have a caturbhuja as their
indicatory letter dont take n[um]. Someone may argue, When s[u] comes after the
word vidvas[u], n[um] is applied and thus we get vidvans. How can the uddhava then
become trivikrama by stra 163 since n[um] is in the uddhava position? True, but in
this regard, the sat-saga referred to in vtti 163 with the phrase dhtu-varjita-sntasat-sagasya is treated as if it were a single vara, otherwise the sarvevara coming
before it wouldnt be the uddhava and thus there would be the fault of asambhava
(impossibility) in stra 163.
SaodhinWhen the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtus dhvans[u] adhapatane and srans[u] adha-patane, the uddhava-na-rma is deleted by ani-rmet

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
178
viujanntnm uddhava-na-rma-hara kasrau (343) and [k]vi[p] is deleted by
kevalasya pratyaya ver hara (612). Thus we get dhvas and sras respectively as seen
here in the words vaikuha-dhvas and vaikuha-sras.
209 / vas$aAevaRsya oBaRgAvaita /
209. vasor vasya ur bhagavati
vasoof the kt pratyaya vas[u]; vasyaof the portion va; uthe replacement u;
bhagavatiwhen a bhagavat follows.
The va of vas[u] is replaced by u when a bhagavat follows.
vasyeti srma-nirdea. atvamvidua. vidu vidvadbhym vidvadbhi. vidue.
he vidvan. pus
VttiThe word vasya indicates va-rma along with a-rma.
vidvas[u] + []as (209) vidus + as (108) viduas (93) vidua <2.3>.
vidvas[u] + [] (209) vidus + (108) vidu <3.1>.
vidvas[u] + bhym (208) vidvadbhym <3.2>.
vidvas[u] + bhis (208) vidvadbhis (93) vidvadbhi <3.3>.
vidvas[u] + []e (209) vidus + e (108) vidue <4.1>.
vidvas[u] + s[u] (174, 160) vidva + n[um] + s + s[u] vidvans + s[u]
(138)

vidvans (176) vidvan <8.1>.

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
vidvn
vidvsam
vidu
vidue
vidua
vidua
vidui
vidvan

dvi-vacana
vidvsau
vidvsau
vidvadbhym
vidvadbhym
vidvadbhym
viduo
viduo
vidvsau

bahu-vacana
vidvsa
vidua
vidvadbhi
vidvadbhya
vidvadbhya
vidum
vidvatsu
vidvsa

Now we begin the declension of the word pus (a man).


AmtaThe general mention of vaso in this stra (and of vasu in the previous stra)
is for the sake of also including [k]vas[u].
210 / pauMs$a: paumas$au: k{(SNAsTaAnae /
210. pusa pumasu kasthne
pusaof the word pus (a man); pumasuthe replacement pumas[u];
kasthnewhen a kasthna follows.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
179
The word pus is replaced by pumas[u] when a kasthna follows.
pumn pumsau pumsa. pumsam pumsau pusa. pus pubhym
pumbhym. go-duh
Vtti pus + s[u] (210) pumas[u] + s[u] (174, 160) puma + n[um] + s +
s[u] pumans +
s[u] (163) pumns + s[u] (138) pumns (176) pumn
<1.1>.
pus + au (210) pumas[u] + au (174, 160) puma + n[um] + s + au
pumans + au (163) pumns + au (165) pumsau <1.2>.
pus + [j]as (210) pumas[u] + [j]as (174, 160) puma + n[um] + s + as
pumans + as (163) pumns + as (165) pumsas (93) pumsa <1.3>.
pus + am (210) pumas[u] + am (174, 160) puma + n[um] + s + am
pumans + am
(163) pumns + am (165) pumsam <2.1>.
pus + au (210) pumas[u] + au (174, 160) puma + n[um] + s + au
pumans + au (163) pumns + au (165) pumsau <2.2>.
pus + []as (93) pusa <2.3>.
pus + [] pus <3.1>.
pus + bhym (179, 176) pum + bhym (179, 72) pubhym (179,
73) pumbhym <3.2>
or pubhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhan
a

eka-vacana
pumn
pumsam
pus
puse
pusa
pusa
pusi
puman

dvi-vacana
pumsau
pumsau
pubhym / pumbhym
pubhym /pumbhym
pubhym / pumbhym
puso
puso
pumsau

bahu-vacana
pumsa
pusa
pubhi / pumbhi
pubhya / pumbhya
pubhya / pumbhya
pusm
pusu
pumsa

Now we begin the declension of the word go-duh (one who milks cows).
AmtaWhen the final s of the sat-sanga s is deleted by stra 176, the viucakra
changes back to m due to the disappearance of its nimitta in the form of a vaiava,
then the m again becomes a viucakra by mo viucakra viujane (72).
SaodhinThe word pus is formed by applying the udi pratyaya []ums[un]
after the dhtu p rakae (2P, to protect) by pter umsun (Udi-stra 4.177). The
sasra of p is then deleted by sasrasya hara citi (124) because the udi
pratyaya []ums[un] has the indicatory letter which is the Pinian equivalent to the
indicatory letter c in our system. Thus we get pums. The m of pums then changes to
viucakra by stra 165 and we get the word pus (a man).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
180
211 / h"sya X#: , nah"Ae Da: , d"Ade"stau DaAtaAeGaR: ,
u"h"mauh"nazAauh"iah"AM vaA ivaSNAupad"Antae vaESNAvae ca /
211. hasya ha, naho dha, ddes tu dhtor gha, druha-muha-naa-snuha-snih
v viupadnte vaiave ca
hasyaof ha-rma; hathe replacement ha-rma; nahaof the dhtu ah[a]
bandhane (4U, to bind, tie); dhathe replacement dha-rma; da-debeginning
with da-rma; tubut; dhtoof a dhtu; ghathe replacement gha-rma; druhamuha-naa-snuha-snihmof the dhtus druh[a] jighsym (4P, to hate, seek to
harm), muh[a] vaicittye (4P, to be bewildered), a[a] adarane (4P, to perish,
disappear), uh[a] udgirae (4P, to vomit), and ih[a] prtau (4P, to love, have
affection for)1; voptionally; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta;
vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; caand.
When the viaya is viupadnta or when a vaiava follows, the final h of a
dhtu becomes h. But the final h of the dhtu nah becomes dh, the final h
of a dhtu beginning with d becomes gh, and the final vara of the dhtus
druh, muh, na, snuh, and snih optionally becomes gh.
ja-varja-harigadder ity-digo-dhuk go-dhug go-duhau go-dhugbhym go-dhuku.
kasa-druhkasa-dhruk kasa-dhrug kasa-dhru kasa-dhru kasa-druhau. kasadhrugbhym kasa-dhrubhym. eva ka-muh ka-snih ity-daya. iti
viujannt puruottama-lig.
VttiThe stra beginning ja-varja-harigadde (stra 189) is applied and the forms
are as follows:
go-duh + s[u] (138) go-duh (211) go-dugh (189) go-dhugh (61) go-dhug
(185)
go-dhuk <1.1> or go-dhug <1.1>.
go-duh + au go-duhau <1.2>.
go-duh + bhym (179, 211) go-dugh + bhym (179, 189) go-dhugh +
bhym (61)
go-dhugbhym <3.2>.
go-duh + su[p] (179, 211) go-dugh + su (179, 189) go-dhugh + su
(63) go-dhuksu
(108) go-dhuku <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word kasa-druh (enemy of Kasa, name of
Ka).
kasa-druh + s[u] (138) kasa-druh (two options by 211):
1) (h changes to gh) kasa-drugh (189) kasa-dhrugh (61) kasa-dhrug
(185)
kasa-dhruk <1.1> or kasa-dhrug <1.1>.
2) (h changes to h) kasa-druh (189) kasa-dhruh (61) kasa-dhru
(185)
kasa-dhru <1.1> or kasa-dhru <1.1>.
kasa-druh + au kasa-druhau <1.2>.
1 The dhtus a[a], uh[a], and ih[a] are mentioned in this stra with their initial
varas already changed to n and s by dhtv-der o na (366) and dhtv-de a
sa (346) respectively.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
181
kasa-druh + bhym (179, two options by 211):
1) (h changes to gh) kasa-drugh + bhym (179, 189) kasa-dhrugh + bhym
(179, 61)
kasa-dhrugbhym <3.2>.
2) (h changes to h) kasa-druh + bhym (179, 189) kasa-dhruh + bhym

(179, 61) kasa-dhrubhym <3.2>.


The words ka-muh (one who bewilders Ka), ka-snih (one who loves
Ka), and so on are declined in a similar fashion.
Thus ends the declension of masculine words ending in a viujana.
AmtaIn the other case the final vara of the five dhtus headed by druh[a]
becomes h and so on respectively. Where the dhtu druh[a] would normally always
undergo the change to gh because it begins with d, there is an optional change to h.
Where the dhtu a[a] would normally always undergo the change to by stra 182,
there is an optional change to gh. And where the rest of these dhtus would normally
always undergo the change to h by the phrase hasya ha (211), there is an optional
change to gh. Examples of the other dhtus will be given later, but examples of a[a]
(in its kvib-anta form) are as follows:
na + s[u] (138) na (two options by 211):
1) (the change to gh is done) nagh (61) nag (185) nak <1.1> or nag <1.1>.
2) (the change to gh isnt done, 182) na (184) na (185) na <1.1> or na
<1.1>.
na + bhym (179, two options by 211):
1) (the change to gh is done) nagh + bhym (179, 61) nagbhym <3.2>.
2) (the change to gh isnt done, 182) na + bhym (179, 184) nabhym
<3.2>.
na + su[p] (179, two options by 211):
1) (the change to gh is done) nagh + su (63) naksu (108) naku <7.3>.
2) (the change to gh isnt done, 182) na + su (179, 184) na + su (63)
nasu <7.3>.
SaodhinAll the dhtus mentioned here refer both to the dhtus proper and to
their kvib-anta forms (the nma formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the
particular dhtu). This is because the kvib-anta forms are also considered dhtus in
accordance with vtti 134. Thus viupadnte is for the kvib-anta forms nah, druh, and
so on, while vaiave is for the proper dhtus nah[a], druh[a], and so on.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
182

Atha viujannt lakm-lig.


tatra ca-rmnta cca-vargasyetik g cau ca. gbhym ku. eva tvac vc.
srajsrak srag srajau sraja. samidhsamit samid. smansm smnau smna.
smna. smn. -yos tu vsmni smani. ap nitya bahu-vacannta. nnteti
trivikramapa apa.
Among the feminine words ending in a viujana is the word c (the g-veda or a
sacred verse recited in praise of a deity), a word ending in ca-rma.
c + s[u] (138) c (177) k (61) g (185) k <1.1> or g <1.1>.
c + au cau <1.2>.
c + [j]as (93) ca <1.3>.
c + bhym (179, 177) k + bhym (179, 61) gbhym <3.2>.
c + su[p] (179, 177) k + su (63) ksu (108) ku <7.3>.
The words tvac (skin, the sense of touch) and vc (speech, a word / statement, a
name of Sarasvat) are declined in the same way. Now we begin the declension of the
word sraj (a garland).
sraj + s[u] (138) sraj (186) srak (61) srag (185) srak <1.1> or srag
<1.1>.
sraj + au srajau <1.2>.
sraj + [j]as (93) sraja <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word samidh (firewood):
samidh + s[u] (138) samidh (61) samid (185) samit <1.1> or samid
<1.1>.
Now we begin the declension of the word sman (boundary / limit):
sman + s[u] (163) smn + s[u] (138) smn (190) sm <1.1>.
sman + au (163) smnau <1.2>.
sman + [j]as (163) smnas (93) smna <1.3>.
sman + []as (170) smnas (93) smna <2.3>.
sman + [] (170) smn <3.1>.
Due to the phrase -yos tu v (170) we get smni <7.1> or smani <7.1>:
sman + []i (170) smni <7.1> or smani <7.1>.
The word ap (water) is always used in bahu-vacana. There is trivikrama by stra 163
and thus we get pa <1.3>:

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
183
ap + [j]as (163) pas (93) pa <1.3>.
ap + []as apas (93) apa <2.3>.
212 / @paAe d"Ae Bae /
212. apo do bhe
apaof the word ap (water); dathe replacement da-rma; bhewhen bha-rma
follows.
The p of ap1 changes to d when bh follows.
adbhi apsu. kakubhkakup kakub kakubhau kakubbhym kakupsu. girir-ur-antadhtog girau gira. grbhym gru. eva purp purau pura. caturstriy
catasr-deacatasra catasra catasbhi catasbhya catasbhya catasm
catasu. div
Vtti ap + bhis (212) adbhis (93) adbhi <3.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

bahu-vacana
pa
apa
adbhi
adbhya
adbhya
apm
apsu
pa

Now we begin the declension of the word kakubh (a direction / region):


kakubh + s[u] (138) kakubh (61) kakub (185) kakup <1.1> or kakub <1.1>.
kakubh + au kakubhau <1.2>.
kakubh + bhym (179, 61) kakubbhym <3.2>.
kakubh + su[p] (63) kakupsu <7.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word gir (speech, a word / statement). Ir-ur-antadhtor uddhavasya trivikramo viupadnte (207) is applied and the forms are as
follows:
gir + s[u] (138) gir (207) gr (93) g <1.1>.
gir + au girau <1.2>.
gir + [j]as (93) gira <1.3>.
gir + bhym (179, 207) gr + bhym (179, 93) gbhym (83)
grbhym <3.2>.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
184
gir + su[p] (179, 207) grsu (203) grsu (108) gru <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
g
giram
gir
gire
gira
gira
giri
g

dvi-vacana
girau
girau
grbhym
grbhym
grbhym
giro
giro
girau

bahu-vacana
gira
gira
grbhi
grbhya
grbhya
girm
gru
gira

The word pur (a town / city) is declined in the same way:


pur + s[u] (138) pur (207) pr (93) p <1.1>.
pur + au purau <1.2>.
pur + [j]as (93) pura <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
p
puram
pur
pure
pura
pura
puri
p

dvi-vacana
purau
purau
prbhym
prbhym
prbhym
puro
puro
purau

bahu-vacana
pura
pura
prbhi
prbhya
prbhya
purm
pru
pura

Now we begin the declension of the word catur (four). In the feminine gender it is
replaced by catas:
catur + [j]as (151) catas + as (152) catasras (93) catasra <1.3>
catur + []as (151) catas + as (152) catasras (93) catasra <2.3>
catur + bhis (151) catas + bhis (93) catasbhi <3.3>
catur + m (151) catas + m (105) catas + n[u] + m catasnm
(111)
catasm <6.3>
catur + su[p] (151) catas + su (108) catasu <7.3>
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

bahu-vacana
catasra
catasra
catasbhi
catasbhya
catasbhya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
185
ah
saptam

catasm
catasu

Now we begin the declension of the word div (heaven, the sky).
SaodhinThe words gir and pur are formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
after the dhtus g abde (9P, to speak, praise, call out to) and p plana-praayo
(3P or 9P, to nourish; to fill, fulfill) respectively. Then the of g becomes ir by rmasyer kasrau (439) and the of p becomes ur by ohyoddhavasya ta ur
kasrau (522). Finally [k]vi[p] is deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (610) and
we get gir and pur respectively.
213 / id"va @AE s$aAE /
213. diva au sau
divaof the word div (heaven, the sky); authe replacement au-rma; sauwhen
s[u] follows.
The v of div1 changes to au when s[u] follows.
dyau divau diva. divam divau diva. div.
Vtti div + s[u] (213) di + au + s[u] (50) dyaus (93) dyau <1.1>.
div + au divau <1.2>.
div + [j]as divas (93) diva <1.3>.
div + [] div <3.1>.
AmtaAmara-koa offers the following definition: sura-loko dyo-divau dve striy
klbe tri-viapam (sura-loka, dyo, div and tri-viapa all refer to heaven. The two
words dyo and div are used in the feminine gender, while the word tri-viapa2 is used
in the neuter gender).
214 / id"va oivaRSNAupad"Antae /
214. diva ur viupadnte
divaof the word div (heaven, the sky); uthe replacement u-rma; viupadaantewhen the viaya is viupadnta.
The v of div3 changes to u when the viaya is viupadnta..
dyubhym dyuu. didik dig diau digbhym diku. eva d. athisaju itydin ra. iau ia. rbhym u. uihuik uig uihau.
upnahnaho dhaupnat upnad upnahau. iti viujannt lakm-lig.
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).
2 Sometimes spelt tri-piapa.
3 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
186
Vtti div + bhym (179, 214) di + u + bhym (50) dyubhym <3.2>.
div + su[p] (179, 214) di + u + su (50) dyusu (108) dyuu <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
dyau
divam
div
dive
diva
diva
divi
dyau

dvi-vacana
divau
divau
dyubhym
dyubhym
dyubhym
divo
divo
divau

bahu-vacana
diva
diva
dyubhi
dyubhya
dyubhya
divm
dyuu
diva

Now we begin the declension of the word di (direction):


di + s[u] (138) di (186) dik (61) dig (185) dik <1.1> or dig
<1.1>.
di + [j]as (93) dia <1.3>.
di + bhym (179, 186) dik + bhym (179, 61) digbhym <3.2>.
di + su[p] (179, 186) dik + su (63) diksu (108) diku <7.3>.
The word d (seeing, the eye) is declined in the same way. Now we begin the
declension of the word i (wish, blessing).
i + s[u] (138) i (206) ir (207) r (93) <1.1>.
i + au iau <1.2>.
i + [j]as (93) ia <1.3>.
i + bhym (179, 206) ir + bhym (179, 207) r + bhym
(179, 93) + bhym (83) rbhym <3.2>.
i + su[p] (179, 206) ir + su (179, 207) r + su (206) su
(108) u
<7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana

iam
i
ie
ia
ia
ii

dvi-vacana
iau
iau
rbhym
rbhym
rbhym
io
io
iau

bahu-vacana
ia
ia
rbhi
rbhya
rbhya
im
u
ia

Now we begin the declension of the word uih (name of a Vedic meter):
uih + s[u] (138) uih (186) uik (61) uig (185) uik <1.1>
or uig <1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
187
uih + au uihau <1.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word upnah (a shoe / sandal). Naho dha (211)
is applied and the forms are as follows:
upnah + s[u] (138) upnah (211) upnadh (61) upnad (185)
upnat <1.1> or upnad <1.1>.
upnah + au upnahau <1.2>.
Thus ends the declension of feminine words ending in a viujana.
AmtaFeminine words ending in sa-rma such as apsaras (heavenly nymph) and
su-manas (a flower, name of a plant) are declined like vedhas.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
188

Atha viujannt brahma-lig


tatrpi pratyacpratyak pratc pratyaci. pratc pratyagbhym. jagat, jagat jagat
jaganti. mahac-chabdamahat mahat mahnti. brahmanbrahma. va-ma-satsaga-hnasyeti viead a-rma-harbhvabrahma brahmi. brahma
brahmabhym.
Also among the neuter words ending in a viujana is the word pratyac (backward,
western, inner). It is declined as follows.
pratyac + s[u] (166) pratyac (177) pratyak (61) pratyag (185)
pratyak <1.1> or
pratyag <1.1>.
pratyac + au (144) pratyac + (178) pratic + pratc <1.2>.
pratyac + [j]as (158) pratyac + []i (159, 160) pratya + n[um] + c + i
pratyanci
(175) pratyaci <1.3>.
pratyac + [] (178) pratic + pratc <3.1>.
pratyac + bhym (179, 177) pratyak + bhym (179, 61) pratyagbhym
<3.2>.
Now we begin the declension of the word jagat (the world, universe):
jagat + s[u] (166) jagat (61) jagad (185) jagat <1.1> or jagad <1.1>.
jagat + au (144) jagat + jagat <1.2>.
jagat + [j]as (158) jagat + []i (159, 160) jaga + n[um] + t + i jaganti
<1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
jagat / jagad
jagat / jagad
jagat
jagate
jagata
jagata
jagati
jagat / jagad

dvi-vacana
jagat
jagat
jagadbhym
jagadbhym
jagadbhym
jagato
jagato
jagat

bahu-vacana
jaganti
jaganti
jagadbhi
jagadbhya
jagadbhya
jagatm
jagatsu
jaganti

Now we begin the declension of the word mahat[u] (great):


mahat[u] + s[u] (166) mahat (61) mahad (185) mahat <1.1> or
mahad <1.1>.
mahat[u] + au (144) mahat + mahat <1.2>.
mahat[u] + [j]as (158) mahat + []i (163) maht + i (159, 160)
mah + n[um] + t + i mahnti <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word brahman (the Absolute Truth):

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
189
brahman + s[u] (166) brahman (190) brahma <1.1>.
Due to the modifier va-ma-sat-saga-hnasya in stra 170, a-rma is not deleted:
brahman + au (144) brahman + brahman (111) brahma <1.2>.
brahman + [j]as (158) brahman + []i (163) brahmn + i brahmni
(111)
brahmi <1.3>.
brahman + [] brahman (111) brahma <3.1>.
brahman + bhym (179, 190) brahmabhym <3.2>.
215 / nasya h"r"Ae vaA aiNA baue" /
215. nasya haro v brahmai buddhe
nasyaof na-rma; haradeletion; voptionally; brahmaiin the neuter gender;
buddhein the sambodhana eka-vacana.
In the neuter gender, n is optionally deleted in the sambodhana eka-vacana.
he brahma he brahman. atha ahan
Vtti brahman + s[u] (166) brahman (215) brahma <8.1> or brahman
<8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
brahma
brahma
brahma
brahmae
brahmaa
brahmaa
brahmai
brahma / brahman

dvi-vacana
brahma
brahma
brahmabhym
brahmabhym
brahmabhym
brahmao
brahmao
brahma

bahu-vacana
brahmi
brahmi
brahmabhi
brahmabhya
brahmabhya
brahmam
brahmasu
brahmi

Now we begin the declension of the word ahan (a day).


AmtaWhere the deletion of n would normally never take place due to the phrase
buddha vin in stra 190, this rule makes the deletion of n optional. The word nman
(name) is declined as follows:
nman + s[u] (166) nman (190) nma <1.1>.
nman + au (144) nman + (two options by 170)
1) (the a of an is deleted) nmn <1.2>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) nman <1.2>.
nman + [j]as (158) nman + []i (163) nmn + i nmni <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty

eka-vacana
nma
nma
nmn

dvi-vacana
nmn / nman
nmn / nman
nmabhym

bahu-vacana
nmni
nmni
nmabhi

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
190
caturth
nmne
pacam
nmna
ah
nmna
saptam
nmni / nmani
sambodhana
nma / nman

nmabhym
nmabhym
nmno
nmno
nmn / nman

nmabhya
nmabhya
nmnm
nmasu
nmni

The words preman (love), dhman (abode, effulgence), vyoman (sky), and so on
are declined like the word nman, while the words janman (birth), karman
(activity), marman (mortal spot, secret), vartman (path), bhasman (ashes),
chadman (disguise), sadman (abode), and so on are declined like the word
brahman (in that they dont undergo deletion of their a-rma by stra 170 because
they have a sat-saga containing m).
216 / @"Ae ivaSNAus$agAAeR ivaSNAupad"Antae , na s$amaAs$ae pauMs$aIita
vaAcyama, /
216. ahno viusargo viupadnte, na samse pusti vcyam
ahnaof the word ahan (a day); viusargathe replacement viusarga;
viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; nanot; samsein samsa;
pusiin the masculine gender; itithus; vcyamit is said.
The n of ahan1 changes to viusarga when the viaya is viupadnta, but
not when ahan is in samsa in the masculine gender.
aha. -yos tu v. ahn ahan ahni. ahn. ahobhym. buddhe pihe aha. darginda-rgi da-rgi da-rgi. da-kasa-ha da-kasaha da-kasa-han da-kasa-ghn da-kasa-hni. atrpi caturcatvri.
payaspaya payas paysi. payobhym. havishavi. audika-sa-rmo ya
pratyaya, ata atvamhavi havi. havirbhym. viusarga, atvam
haviu. eva dhanus. iti viujannt brahma-lig. iti liga-traya daritam.
Vtti ahan + s[u] (166) ahan (216) aha <1.1>.
ahan + au (144) ahan + (two options by 170):
1) (the a of an is deleted) ahn <1.2>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) ahan <1.2>.
ahan + [j]as (158) ahan + []i (163) ahni <1.3>.
ahan + bhym (179, 216) aha + bhym (80) aha + u + bhym (44)
ahobhym <3.2>.
ahan + s[u] (166) ahan (216) aha <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

eka-vacana
aha
aha
ahn
ahne
ahna

dvi-vacana
ahn / ahan
ahn / ahan
ahobhym
ahobhym
ahobhym

bahu-vacana
ahni
ahni
ahobhi
ahobhya
ahobhya

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim eka-vara-vidhir ante pravartate
(vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
191
ah
ahna
saptam
ahni / ahani
sambodhana
aha

ahno
ahno
ahn / ahan

ahnm
ahasu
ahni

Now we begin the declension of the word da-rgin (That which has seen
rg):
da-rgin + s[u] (166) da-rgin (190) da-rgi <1.1>.
da-rgin + au (144) da-rgin + (111) da-rgi <1.2>.
da-rgin + [j]as (158) da-rgin + []i (163) da-rgni
(111) dargi <1.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word da-kasa-han (That which has seen
Kasa-han):
da-kasa-han + s[u] (166) da-kasa-han (190) da-kasa-ha
<1.1>.
da-kasa-han + au (144) da-kasa-han + (two options by 170):
1) (the a of an is deleted) da-kasa-hn (197) da-kasa-ghn <1.2>.
2) (the a of an isnt deleted) da-kasa-han <1.2>.
da-kasa-han + [j]as (158) da-kasa-han + []i (163) dakasa-hni <1.3>.
Also among the neuter words ending in a viujana is the word catur (four).
catur + [j]as (158) catur + []i (202, 160) catu + [m] + r + i (51)
catvri <1.3> / <2.3>.
Now we begin the declension of the word payas (milk):
payas + s[u] (166) payas (93) paya <1.1>.
payas + au (144) payas + payas <1.2>.
payas + [j]as (158) payas + []i (159, 160) paya + n[um] + s + i
payans + i (163)
paynsi (165) paysi <1.3>.
payas + bhym (179, 93) paya + bhym (80) paya + u + bhym
(44) payobhym <3.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
paya
paya
payas
payase
payasa
payasa
payasi
paya

dvi-vacana
payas
payas
payobhym
payobhym
payobhym
payaso
payaso
payas

bahu-vacana
paysi
paysi
payobhi
payobhya
payobhya
payasm
payasu
paysi

Now we begin the declension of the word havis (ghee, an oblation):

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
192
havis + s[u] (166) havis (93) havi <1.1>.
The s in havis belongs to an udi pratyaya, and thus the change to by stra 108
takes place.
havis + au (144) havis + havis (108) havi <1.2>.
havis + [j]as (158) havis + []i (159, 160) havi + n[um] + s + i havins
+ i (163)
havnsi (165) havsi (108) havi <1.3>.
havis + bhym (179, 93) havi + bhym (83) havirbhym <3.2>.
havis + su[p] (179, 93) havisu (108) haviu <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
havi
havi
havi
havie
havia
havia
havii
havi

dvi-vacana
havi
havi
havirbhym
havirbhym
havirbhym
havio
havio
havi

bahu-vacana
havi
havi
havirbhi
havirbhya
havirbhya
havim
haviu
havi

The word dhanus is declined in the same way. Thus ends the declension of neuter
words ending in a viujana. Thus the three genders have been shown.
SaodhinThe word havis is formed by applying the udi pratyaya is[i] after the
dhtu hu vahnau dne (3P, to offer into the sacrificial fire, to sacrifice) by arci-ucihu-spi-chdi-chardibhya isi (Udi-stra 2.108). The dhtu hu then takes govinda by
dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye (289), and we thus get ho + is[i]. The o then
becomes av by o av (55), and we get the word havis. The word dhanus is formed by
applying the udi pratyaya us[i] after the dhtu dhan[a] dhnye (3P, to bear fruit)1
by arti-p-vapi-yaji-tani-dhani-tapibhyo nit (Udi-stra 2.117).

1 This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but it is listed in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
193

Atha vieya-vieadi-viveka
217 / taa k{(SNAAid"zAbd"A: s$aMaAivazAeSaAd"AE inayatapau&SaAeamaAd"ya:
/
217. tatra kdi-abd saj-viedau niyata-puruottamdaya
tatrawithin those (the three genders); ka-di-abdthe words ka and so
on; saj-viea-dauused as saj-vieas (proper names) and so on; niyata
always; puruottama-dayapuruottama (masculine) and so on.
Within the three genders, the words ka and so on are proper names and
so on and are always masculine and so on.
AmtaThe word tatra here means liga-traye (within the three genders). The word
di in kdi refers to the words rma and so on, rdh and so on, and gokula and so
on. The word di in puruottamdaya refers to lakm (feminine) and brahma
(neuter). The word saj-viedau in effect means rhi-viee yoga-rhi-viee
yaugika-viee ca (used as particular rhi words, particular yoga-rhi words, or
particular yaugika words). For instance, yadcch-abdas (saj-abdas or proper
names given randomly without any attention to derivation or authority) like ittha (a
wooden toy elephant) and avittha (a wooden toy deer) are rhi words (words
having a conventional meaning), words like pakaja (lotus) are yoga-rhi words
(words that have both an etymological and a conventional meaning), and words like
pcaka (a cook) are yaugika words (words having an etymological meaning). This
subject will be described in greater detail in the Kdanta-prakaraa, in vtti 740.
218 / s$aYaAid"zAbd"Astau vaAcyailaA: /
218. sakhydi-abds tu vcya-lig
sakhy-di-abdwords like numerals and so on; tubut; vcya-ligvcya-liga
words (words whose gender is the same as that of the vcya (substantive)).
But words like numerals and so on share the gender of the substantive.
AmtaThe word vcya-lig means vieya-ligdi-bhja (they share the gender
and so on of the vieya (substantive)). Because words like numerals and so on are
samndhikaraa-vieaas, they share the gender and so on of the substantive. The
word di in sakhydi-abd refers to jtis, guas, and kriys (see vtti 87).
SaodhinVcya-liga words are modifiers. The words ka and so on described
in the previous stra are substantives in that they have their own gender and are fixed
in that. Vcya-liga words, however, dont have their own gender but rather share the
gender of the substantive. The examples given in vtti 220 show how jtis, guas, and
kriys are vcya-liga.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
194
219 / s$amaAnaAiDak(r"NAivazAeSaNA&paA ivazAeSyailaivaSNAuBai(vacanaAina
Bajantae /
219. samndhikaraa-vieaa-rp vieya-liga-viubhakti-vacanni bhajante
samna-adhikaraawhich have the same adhikaraa (object); vieaa-rp
words that have the form of vieaas (modifiers); vieya-liga-viubhaktivacannithe liga (gender), viubhakti (case ending), and vacana (number) of
the vieya (substantive); bhajanteshare.
Samndhikaraa-vieaas share the liga, viubhakti, and vacana of the
vieya.
SaodhinThe Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar gives the following definition of
samndhikaraa: Words which have got the same individual object (dravya) referred
to by means of their own sense, and which are put in the same case. Similarly,
Kik, commenting on Adhyy 1.2.42, says adhikaraa-abda abhidheya-vc.
samndhikaraa samnbhidheya (The word adhikaraa signifies the abhidheya
(that which is expressed or referred to, the object). Having the same adhikaraa
means having the same abhidheya). So, if the qualities expressed by the two words
that are the vieaa and the vieya reside in the same object, then it is understood
that the vieaa has the same adhikaraa as the vieya and vice versa (see vtti
922 and Saodhin 920). For example, while explaining ymo rma (green1
Rma) in vtti 922, Jva Gosvm says yatraiva ymatva tatraiva rma-sajatvam
iti tulydhikaraatvam (The condition of being tulydhikaraa (samndhikaraa) is
fulfilled because the quality of being green resides in the same object that the quality
of being one whose name is Rma resides in). Amta 628 further explains that in
ymo rma (green Rma) there is no desire to express that the two things are
different, rather the desire is to express the nondifference that the same person who
is rma is the same person who is green. Thus only the relationship of vieya and
vieaa that have the same adhikaraa (samndhikaraa) is valid here. But if there
were a desire to express the two things as being different, then we would say
something like rmasya ymo vara (the green color of Rma) and the
relationship of vieya and vieaa that have a different adhikaraa (vyadhikaraa)
would come into play. The vyadhikaraa-vieaa, which doesnt share the liga,
viubhakti, and vacana of the vieya, will be described in the Kraka-prakaraa,
under stras 627 and 678.
220 / jaAitagAuNAi(yaA"Ar"A yasya ivazAeSa: k(Tyatae tai"zAeSya: , yaena tasya
ivazAeSa: k(Tyatae tai"zAeSaNAma, /
220. jti-gua-kriy-dvr yasya viea kathyate tad vieya, yena tasya viea
kathyate tad vieaam
jti-gua-kriy-dvrby means of a jti, gua, or kriy (see vtti 87); yasyawhose;
vieadistinguishing feature; kathyatedescribed; tatthat; vieyavieya

1 In this regard, Amara-koa says triu symau harit-kau (The word syma is used
in all three genders and means harit (green) or ka (black or dark blue)). Rma
here refers to Rma, the son of Daaratha, as proven by Amta 1679. The proof that
ka can mean black or dark blue is Amara-koas statement ke nlsitayma-kla-ymala-mecak (The words nla, asita, yma, kla, ymala, and
mecaka all refer to the ka color). For example, both the peacock and Lord iva are
called nla-kaha, kla-kaha, and mecaka-gala, indicating that they are both bluenecked.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
195
(substantive); yenaby which; tasyaof the vieya; vieadistinguishing
feature; kathyatedescribed; tatthat; vieaamvieaa (modifier).
That whose distinguishing feature is described by means of a jti, gua, or
kriy is called vieya, and that by which the distinguishing feature of the
vieya is described is called vieaa.
yathgopa ka, gop rdh, kauma vasanam. yma ka, gaur rdh,
pta vasanam. vihr ka, vihri rdh, vihri gokulam ity-di.
VttiFor example, gopa ka (Ka, the cowherd boy), gop rdh (Rdh,
the cowherd girl), kauma vasanam (linen cloth), yma ka (bluish
Ka), gaur rdh (golden Rdh), pta vasanam (yellow cloth), vihr
ka (Ka, the enjoyer), vihri rdh (Rdh, the enjoyer), vihri gokulam
(Gokula, the enjoyer), and so on.
AmtaThe following information should be added: Viupadas are actually of two
kinds, sub-antas (nouns) and ti-antas (verbs). Ti-antas are called kriy-padas
(verbs). Recent authorities say that sub-antas are of four kinds: the vieyas,
vieaas, sarvanmas (kanmas), and avyayas. And in that regard, the
sarvanmas (kanmas) are also considered vieaas, because, even though they
act as replacement words for the vieyas, they still share the liga, viubhakti, and
vacana of the vieya. Therefore, in vtti 223, Jva Gosvm will personally say
vieaa-abdeu kanmkhya-abd ucyante (the words called kanma are
said to be among the vieaa words). Among the avyayas, the vcakas such as svar
and so on are included among the vieyas, while the dyotakas are similar to
vieaas.
Now we will discuss vieaas. First of all, vieaas are of two kinds,
samndhikaraa and vyadhikaraa. The samndhikaraa-vieaas are of a further
three kinds since they can either be the vieaa of a vieya, vieaa, or kriy. An
example of when a vieaa modifies a vieya is gopa ka (Ka, the cowherd
boy), an example of when a vieaa modifies a vieaa is ghana yma ka
(dark-bluish Ka), and an example of when a vieaa modifies a kriy is ghra
ml karoti (he quickly makes a flower garland). The gender and so on of the
vieya is applied to the samndhikaraa-vieaa, while it will be described later, in
stra 680, that only tty is applied to the vyadhikaraa-vieaa.1
Furthermore, when the vieaa comes after the vieya, it is called vidheyavieaa, and its vieya is called uddeya or anuvda. The definition of these terms
is as follows: yad uddiya kriy pravartate arthd yad vastu prg-vijta tad
uddeyam anuvdo vocyate yac ca vidhyate tad vidheyam (that by reference to
which the kriy takes place, or, in other words, that which is already known, is called
the uddeya or anuvda, and that which is established is called the vidheya). For
example, updhyya pit-tulyo bhavet (the teacher is like a father). Because the
verb (kriy) takes place with reference to the already known teacher (updhyya),
updhyya is the subject (uddeya). It was previously unknown to the student that
the teacher is like a father (pit-tulya), thus since this is what is established, pittulya is the predicate (vidheya). It is not required that the subject and predicate have
the same gender and so on. Thus, in the example dharme ved pramam (the
Vedas are the authority on dharma), the liga and vacana of the subject ved and
the predicate pramam are different. However the rule is that the subject should
1 Actually what Amta is referring to here is the vyadhikaraa kriy-vieaa. A
normal vyadhikaraa-vieaa will take a a viubhakti by sambandhe tadrayt ah (626). For futher details see vttis 626 and 922.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
196
always come before the predicate. In this regard, the authorities on Alakra-stra
(kvya) say anuvdyam anuktvaiva na vidheyam udrayet (one cannot mention the
predicate without first mentioning the subject).1
SaodhinAmong the examples in this vtti, the first three are examples of when
the vieaa is a jti, the next three are examples of when the vieaa is a gua, and
the last three are examples of when the vieaa is a kriy. In Sanskrit grammar, the
word vieaa sometimes refers to an adjective, sometimes to an adverb, sometimes
to a word in apposition, and sometimes to a predicate. Therefore the best translation
of the word vieaa is modifier, for this includes all of the above categories. All the
examples in this vtti are examples where the vieaa is an adjective. The example
ghra ml karoti is an example where the vieaa (ghram in this case) is an
adverb. This kind of vieaa is often specifically called kriy-vieaa (modifier of a
verb, i.e adverb). All the examples in vtti 221 are examples where the vieaa is a
word in apposition2, and the example updhyya pit-tulyo bhavet is an example
where the vieaa is a predicate.
221 / ke(icacC$bd"A ivazAeSaNAtvae'ipa svailaM na tyajainta /
221. kecic chabd vieaatve pi sva-liga na tyajanti
kecitsome; abdwords; vieaatve apieven though they are vieaas; svaligamtheir own gender; nanot; tyajantigive up.
Some words, even though vieaas, dont give up their own gender.
yathpradhna ka, pradhna rdh. gati ka, rayo rdh ity-di.
VttiFor example, pradhna ka (Ka, the Supreme), pradhna rdh
(Rdh, the Supreme), gati ka (Ka, the refuge), rayo rdh (Rdh,
the shelter), and so on.
AmtaBecause the nature of these words is to not deviate in such ways, they are
also called ajahal-liga (words that dont give up their own gender). And it cannot be
said that the quality of samndhikaraa is lacking when there is difference of gender,
as it will be described in vtti 922 that smndhikaraya (the condition of being
samndhikaraa) is the existence of the two different qualities in one object. For
instance, in the example pradhna ka, even though the qualities expressed by
the words pradhna and ka, namely rehatva (the quality of being the

1 This is a stylistic rule mentioned in Sanskrit poetry textbooks, and breaking it


constitutes the fault called avima-vidheya (impure predicate). Nonetheless, in
reality this rule is often broken without any serious consequences. Examples are
varo ham (I am the Lord) in Bhagavad-gt 16.14, kim svapna etat (Is this a
dream?) in Bhgavatam 10.8.40, and so on. In these examples there is no ambiguity
about what is the subject and what is the predicate because only one possibility makes
sense in the context, since it would be ridiculous to say the Lord is I, Is a dream
this?, and so on. However, in cases like kas tu bhagavn svayam (Bhgavatam
1.3.28), where both possibilities could make sense, this rule is strictly observed to
avoid any ambiguity about what is the subject and what is the predicate, since a major
philosophical point is at stake.
2 Apposition is when one noun modifies another noun.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
197
Supreme) and nanda-nandanatva (the quality of being the son of Nanda)3, are
different, they still exist in the same one object. Thus there is smndhikaraya.
The word pradhna is formed by applying the kt pratyaya ana after pra + [u]dh[]
dhraa-poaayo in bhve prayoga. This word is declined in the neuter gender in
accordance with the phrase bhva-kd brahmai (733). Although the word pradhna is
a vieaa of the masculine word ka, it doesnt become masculine itself due to
strength of the injunction bhva-kd brahmai (733). Similarly, although the word gati
is a vieaa of the masculine word ka, it doesnt become masculine itself due to
the injunction ktir bhve lakmym (903). In the same way, although the word raya
is a vieaa of the feminine word rdh it doesnt become feminine itself due to the
injunction gha-al-athu-kaya pusi (888).

222 / (ica""naAM ivazAeSaNAtvae'pyaek(tvama, /


222. kvacid bahn vieaatve py ekatvam
kvacitsometimes; bahnmof many; vieaatve apieven though a vieaa;
ekatvamsingularity.
Sometimes a word is used in eka-vacana, even though it is the vieaa of
something that is in bahu-vacana.
yathdharme ved pramam ity-di.
VttiFor example, dharme ved pramam (the Vedas are the authority on
dharma) and so on.
AmtaIt is only required that the vacana of the vieya and vieaa be the same
when the gender of the vieya and vieaa are the same, but not when their gender
is different. In the example dharme ved pramam the vacana of the vieya
(ved) and vieaa (pramam) is different because their gender is different.
Further examples of this are pradhnam avatr (the predominant avatras),
rdh-kau gatir mama (Rdh and Ka are my refuge), and so on. Because a
pratyaya that is applied in bhve prayoga doesnt express a sattva (dravya), there is
no regard for a number, but eka-vacana is still used for the sake of propriety1.
Therefore the word pramam is used in eka-vacana here.
223 / ivaMzAtyaAA: s$adE"k(tvae @naAva{aAE /
223. viaty-dy sadaikatve anvttau
viati-dythe numerals from viati (twenty) onwards; sadalways; ekatve
in eka-vacana; anvttauwhen there is no vtti (multiplication).
The numerals from viati onwards are always used in eka-vacana except
when they are multiplied.
3 Actually the quality expressed by the word ka is ka-sajatva (the quality of
being one whose name is Ka). See vtti .
1 See stra 636 for further details.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
198
viatir vaiav. tsm evvttau tudve viat, tisro viataya. evam ekaviatir ity-di. tad-antatvd na-viati ca. atra vieaa-abdeu ka-nmkhyaabd ucyante.
VttiFor example, viatir vaiav (twenty vaiavas). But when they are
multiplied we get dve viat (two twenties) and tisro viataya (three twenties).
Similarly, eka-viati (twenty one) and so on. And because it ends in the word
viati, we get na-viati (one less than twenty, nineteen). In this regard, the
words called kanma are said to be among the vieaa words.
AmtaWhen the numerals from viati onwards are multiplied, they are definitely
used in dvi-vacana and so on. In this regard there is the following analysis: It will be
described in the Samsa-prakaraa that adaa-paryanta-sakhy sakhyeye
vartante; tata par sakhy sakhyne ca (the numerals up til and including
adaa (eighteen) refer to the sakhyeya (the object of enumeration), while the
numerals after that can refer either to the sakhyeya or to the sakhyna (total
number)) Therefore, when the numerals from viati onwards refer to the sakhyeya
and would thus normally be used in bahu-vacana since they are vieaas of a
vieya in bahu-vacana, this stra amends that by saying they should be used in ekavacana. But when the numerals from viati onwards refer to the sakhyna, there is
no possibility of using bahu-vacana because the total number is only one1. An example
of this is vimatir vaiavnm, wherein viati is treated as a vieya (vaiavnm
being its vyadhikaraa-vieaa). According to Padmanbha Datta, when there is
multiplication, the numerals from viati onwards refer to the sakhyna. An example
of this is dve viat vaiav2.
The words called kanma are described here as being vieaas because almost
all of them are vieaas. But, among the kanmas, the words yumad and asmad
are actually vieyas. This can be proven as follows: In vtti 632, Jva Gosvm
explains uktnurpam eva purua-vacandika kriy-pade (632), a stra establishing
the purua and vacana of the vieya and the kriy (verb), to mean vivakite nmni
prathama purua, yumadi madhyama, asmady uttama (When the speaker
wants to express a particular nma, prathama-purua is used in the verb. When the
speaker wants to express the word yumad, madhyama-purua is used in the verb.
And when the speaker wants to express the word asmad, uttama-purua is used in the
verb.). Furthermore, in vtti 623, Jva Gosvm prohibits the use of the word asmad
in bahu-vacana with the phrase sa-vieaatve na (not when the word asmad has a
vieaa connected with it) and gives the example vaiavo ha bravmi.

1 Each numeral is considered a single unit of measurement. Thus in the example


viatir vaiavnm (a viati of vaiavas), the word viati is used in eka-vacana
because the total number (sakhyna) of viatis is only one.
2 Here vimati is multiplied by two. Thus the total number (sakhyna) of viatis is
two. Since, when there is multiplication, the numerals from viati onwards refer to the
sakhyna and not the sakhyeya, the word viati is used here in dvi-vacana, and not
in bahu-vacana, which is the vacana of the sakhyeya (vaiav).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
199

Atha kanma-prakaraam
224 / s$avaARd"Iina k{(SNAnaAmaAina /
224. sarvdni ka-nmni
sarva-dnithe words beginning with sarva; ka-nmnicalled kanmas
(pronouns).
The words sarva and so on are called kanmas.
sarva-nmnty anye. sarva viva ubha ubhaya anya anyatara tatara tatama yatara
yatama katara katama ekatara ekatama itara tvat tva nema sama sima prva para
avara dakia uttara apara adhara sva antara (tyad chndasa) tad yad etad idam
adas eka dvi yumad asmad bhavatu kim. tatra pusi, sarva sarvau.
VttiOthers call them sarvanmas. The full list of sarvdis is as follows:
1

sarvaall

vivaall

ubhaboth

ubhayaboth

anyaother

anyataraeither (of two)

tatarathat one (of two)

tatamathat one (of many)

yatarawho / which (of two)

1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1

yatamawho / which (of many)


katarawho? / which? (of two)
katamawho? / which? (of
many)
ekataraone (of two)
ekatamaone (of many)

2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
3
0
3
1
3
2
3
3
3

parasubsequent, superior, other


avaraprevious1, subsequent, below,
inferior
dakiasouth, right
uttaranorth, left, subsequent, higher,
superior
aparawest, subsequent, inferior, other
adharabelow, inferior
svamyself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself,
my own, your own, his own, her own, its
own
antaraouter, an undergarment
tyad(Vedic)2 he, she, it, that
tadhe, she, it, that
yadwho, which
etadhe, she, it, this
idamhe, she, it, this

1 As opposed to the kanma para.


2 In all the editions except Kadsa the phrase tyad chndasa is found in brackets,
indicating that it has been added later in order to make the list of sarvdis identical
with the one found in Pinian grammar. But tyad, being a Vedic pronoun, obviously
wasnt included by Jva Gosvm himself, as he formulated stra 238 with the words
tad-di-saptnm whereas the equivalent Pinian stra tyad-dnm a
(Adhyy 7.2.102) included tyad in this group of words. Tyad is declined exactly
like the kanma tad. Thus the forms are sya <1.1>, tyau <1.2>, tye <1.3>, and
so on.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
200
4
1 itaraother
5
1 tvatother
6
1 tvaother
7
1 nemahalf
8
1 samaall
9
2 simaall
0
2 prvaeast, previous, the front
1 part

4
3
5
3
6
3
7
3
8
3
9
4
0
4
1

adashe, she, it, that


ekaone
dvitwo
yumadyou
asmadI
bhavat[u](second person, honorific) you
kimwho? what? which?

In that regard, the word sarva (all) is declined as follows in the masculine gender:
sarva + s[u] (93) sarva <1.1>.
sarva + au (49) sarvau <1.2>.
225 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe jas$a: zAI: /
225. kanma-kato jasa
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in a-rma);
jasaof the viubhakti [j]as; the replacement [].
After a kanma that is a ka, [j]as is replaced by [].
sarve. sarvam sarvau sarvn. sarvea sarvbhym sarvai.
Vtti sarva + [j]as (225) sarva + [] (43) sarve <1.3>.
sarva + am (94) sarvam <2.1>.
sarva + au (49) sarvau <2.2>.
sarva + []as (94) sarva + s (95) sarvs sarvn <2.3>.
sarva + [] (97) sarva + ina (43) sarvena (111) sarvea <3.1>.
sarva + bhym (98) sarvbhym <3.2>.
sarva + bhis (99) sarva + ais (48) sarvais (93) sarvai <3.3>.
AmtaIn this regard, one cannot say there is no extra advantage in making the
replacement [] because the desired form can also be achieved by making the
replacement []i, for if []i were applied after the word sarva there would be a doubt
about whether to apply sarvevara-vaiavntayor nu au (159) or not, since no
specific gender is mentioned in that stra. Therefore, by making the replacement [],
there is no occasion for such a doubt.
226 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe xe~: smaE /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
201
226. kanma-kato e smai
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in a-rma);
eof the viubhakti []e; smaithe replacement smai.
After a kanma that is a ka, []e is replaced by smai.
sarva esarvasmai sarvbhym sarvebhya.
Vtti sarva + []e (226) sarva + smai sarvasmai <4.1>.
sarva + bhym (98) sarvbhym <4.2>.
sarva + bhyas (101) sarve + bhyas (93) sarvebhya <4.3>.
227 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe x~s$ae: smaAta, /
227. kanma-kato ase smt
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in a-rma);
aseof the viubhakti []as[i]; smtthe replacement smt.
After a kanma that is a ka, []as[i] is replaced by smt.
sarvasmt. pacamys tas-pratyayas taddhitasarvata. sarvbhym sarvebhya.
sarvasya sarvayo.
Vtti sarva + []as[i] (227) sarva + smt sarvasmt <5.1>.
The taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied after a word ending in pacam. Thus an
alternate form is sarvata.
sarva + bhym (98) sarvbhym <5.2>.
sarva + bhyas (101) sarve + bhyas (93) sarvebhya <5.3>.
sarva + []as (103) sarva + sya sarvasya <6.1>.
sarva + os
<6.2>.

(104) sarve + os (54) sarvay + os (93) sarvayo

SaodhinThe alternate form sarvata is made by applying the taddhita pratyaya


tas[i] after the word sarvasmt by pacamtas tasi (1236) and then applying
antaraga-sv-der mahhara eka-padatvrambhe (601) and sa-ra-rmayor viusargo
viupadnte (93). Amta 1236 adds that, in the same way, sarvata could also be the
alternate form of sarvbhym <5.2>, sarvebhya <5.3>, sarvasy <5.1>,
sarvbhym <5.2> or sarvbhya <5.3>1. Thus sarvata can represent the masculine,
neuter, or feminine pacam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, or bahu-vacana form of the word
sarva.
228 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAr"ADaAByaAM s$aux"Aima /
1 These last three are feminine forms of the word sarva. From tty onwards, the
neuter forms are the same as the masculine ones, thus they are not separately
mentioned here.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
202
228. kanma-ka-rdhbhy su mi
kanma-ka-rdhbhymafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in
a-rma) or a rdh (feminine word ending in [p]); suthe gama s[u]; mi
when the viubhakti m follows.
When m follows, s[u] is inserted after a kanma that is a ka or
rdh.
sarva mkasya eatva. sarvem.
Vtti sarva + m (228) sarva + s[u] + m sarva + sm (101) sarvesm
(108) sarvem <6.3>.
AmtaThis rule is an apavda of vmana-gop-rdhbhyo nu mi (105).
229 / k{(SNAnaAmak{(SNAtaAe xe~: ismana, /
229. kanma-kato e smin
kanma-kataafter a kanma that is a ka (word ending in a-rma);
eof the viubhakti []i; sminthe replacement smin.
After a kanma that is a ka, []i is replaced by smin.
sarvasmin sarvayo sarveu. saptamys tra-pratyayas taddhitasarvatra. he sarva.
Vtti sarva + []i (229) sarva + smin sarvasmin <7.1>.
sarva + os
<7.2>.

(104) sarve + os (54) sarvay + os (93) sarvayo

sarva + su[p] (101) sarvesu (108) sarveu <7.3>.


The taddhita pratyaya tra is applied after a word ending in saptam. Thus an alternate
form for any of these is sarvatra.
sarva + s[u] (110) sarva <8.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
sarva
sarvam
sarvea
sarvasmai
sarvasmt
sarvasya
sarvasmin
sarva

dvi-vacana
sarvau
sarvau
sarvbhym
sarvbhym
sarvbhym
sarvayo
sarvayo
sarvau

bahu-vacana
sarve
sarvn
sarvai
sarvebhya
sarvebhya
sarvem
sarveu
sarve

SaodhinThe alternate form sarvatra is made by applying the taddhita pratyaya


tra after sarvasmin <7.1>, sarvayo <7.2>, sarveu <7.3>, sarvasym <7.1>,
sarvayo <7.2>, or sarvsu <7.3> by saptamtas tra (1237) and then applying
antaraga-sv-der mahhara eka-padatvrambhe (601). Thus sarvatra can represent

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
203
the masculine, neuter, or feminine saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, or bahu-vacana
form of the word sarva.
230 / s$avaARid": k{(SNAnaAmaAKyaAe gAAENAs$aMae ivanaA Bavaeta, /
230. sarvdi kanmkhyo gaua-saje vin bhavet
sarvdithe words beginning with sarva; kanma-khyacalled kanmas;
gaua-sajegaua (secondary usage in samsa) and saj (a name); vin
except; bhavetare.
The words sarva and so on are called kanmas, but not when their
meaning is secondary or when they are used as names.
tena nehasarvam atikrntyaati-sarvya. da sarvo yena tasmaidasarvya. sarvo nma kasyacit tasmaisarvya.
VttiTherefore the word sarva is not a kanma in the following examples:
1) ati-sarvya <4.1>unto he who surpasses all.
2) da-sarvya <4.1>unto he who has seen all.
3) sarvya <4.1>unto someone of the name sarva.
AmtaThere is need to prohibit gaua here because the rule of tad-anta (vtti 148)
is applicable to the kanmas, a fact established by examples like paramasarvasmai nama and su-sarvasminn utsuka. In ati-sarvya, the uttara-pada, sarva, is
gaua (secondary) since the prva-pada is predominant in accordance with atydayo dvityay (959). In da-sarvya, the word sarva is gaua because, in
ptmbara-samsas, another word outside the samsa is predominant. In sarvya, the
word sarva is someones name.
231 / paUvaARid" ca vyavasTaAyaAM s$aakM( k{(SNAnaAmak(ma, /
231. prvdi ca vyavasthy saptaka kanmakam
prva-dibeginning with prva; caand; vyavasthymwhen vyavasth is
understood (see explanation below); saptakamthe seven words; kanmakam
kanmas.
The seven words beginning with prva are kanmas only when they
signify direction, part, or time.
dig-dea-kla-vibhgo tra vyavasth, tasy gamyamnym. prvasmai digantarya dedaye v. tathprvasmai klya dinya padrtha-vieya v. anyatra
tu prvya, rehya ity artha. dakiya, pravya ity artha. gaua-saje
vinety eva, aty-uttarya, uttar kurava.
VttiHere vyavasth refers to the divisions of direction, part, and time, and the word
vyavasthym in this stra means when vyavasth is understood. Thus, for example,
prvasmai <4.1> means unto the eastern direction or unto the front part.
Prvasmai <4.1> can also mean unto a previous time, unto a previous day, or
unto a certain previous thing. But when something else is understood we get

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
204
prvya <4.1> which means unto the best1 and dakiya <4.1>2 which means
unto the expert.
prva (when it is a kanma) + []e (226) prva + smai prvasmai <4.1>.
prva (when it is not a kanma) + []e (100) prva + ya (98)
prvya <4.1>.
The phrase gaua-saje vin (230) certainly applies here too. Thus we get atyuttarya <4.1> (unto one who surpasses the upper part) and uttar kurava (the
northern Kurus).
AmtaIn unto a certain previous thing the division of time is figuratively imposed
upon a thing. With the two examples aty-uttarya and uttar kurava, Jva Gosvm
indicates that the phrase gaua-saje vin (230) is carried forward up to the end of
the kanma section.
BlaIn uttar kurava, the word uttara is not a kanma even though the
division of direction is understood. This is because the word kuru (a particular
country) is a name.
232 / s$amaAe'taulyae k{(SNAnaAma /
232. samo tulye kanma
samathe word sama; a-tulyewhen it does not mean tulya (equal, similar);
kanmakanma.
The word sama is a kanma when it does not mean equal.
samasmai sarvasmai ity artha. nehasamya, tulyya ity artha.
VttiFor example, samasmai <4.1> means unto all. The counterexample is
samya <4.1>, which means unto that which is equal.
sama (when it is a kanma) + []e (226) sama + smai samasmai
<4.1>.
sama (when it is not a kanma) + []e (100) sama + ya (98) samya
<4.1>.
AmtaThe meaning of this rule is that the word sama is only a kanma when it
means sarva (all).
233 / svamaaAitaDanaA"yae /
233. svam ajti-dhanhvaye
svamthe word sva; a-jti-dhana-hvayewhen the meaning is not jti (relative) or
dhana (riches);
The word sva is a kanma when it does not mean relative or riches.
1 Best meaning first in the order of superiority.
2 The word dakia is also a kanma, but Jva Gosvm only gives a
counterexample of it here and doesnt give any example of its forms as a kanma.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
205
svo jtv tmani sva triv tmye svo striy dhane ity amara. svasmai tmane
tmyya vety artha. nehasvya, jtaye dhanya vety artha.
VttiAmara-koa explains the word sva as follows: svo jtv tmani sva triv
tmye svo striy dhane (the word sva is used in the masculine gender when it
refers to a relative (jti), in the neuter gender when it refers to the self (tman), in all
three genders when it refers to something belonging to the self (tmya), and in any
gender except the feminine gender when it refers to riches (dhana)). For example,
svasmai <4.1> means unto myself / yourself / himself / herself / itself or unto my
own / your own / his own / her own / its own. The counterexample is svya <4.1>
which means unto the relative or unto the riches.
sva (when it is a kanma) + []e (226) sva + smai svasmai <4.1>.
sva (when it is not a kanma) + []e (100) sva + ya (98) svya
<4.1>.
BlaThe meaning of this rule is that the word sva is only a kanma when it
means tman (the self) or tmya (something belonging to the self).
234 / @ntar"Ae baApair"DaAnaIyayaAenaR tvas$aAE pauir" /
234. antaro bhya-paridhnyayor, na tv asau puri
antarathe word antara; bhya-paridhnyayowhen the meaning is bhya
(outer, exterior) or paridhnya (an undergarment); nanot; tubut; asauit (the
word antara); puriin reference to pur (a city).
The word antara is a kanma only when it means outer or an
undergarment. But, even if the word antara means outer, it is not a
kanma if it used in reference to a city.
antarasmai bhyya ity artha. vastrntarvta-paridhnyyeti v. bhyatve pi puri
vartamnas tu naantarya purya, bhyya ity artha.
VttiFor example, antarasmai <4.1> means unto the outer or unto a cloth
covered by another cloth (in other words, an undergarment). But, even if the word
antara means outer, it is not a kanma if it used in reference to a city. For
example, antarya purya1 which means unto the outer city.
antara (when it is a kanma) + []e (226) antara + smai antarasmai
<4.1>.
antara (when it is not a kanma) + []e (100) antara + ya (98)
antarya
<4.1>.
AmtaWhy do we say when it means outer or an under garment? Consider
grmayor antare tpasas tihati (the ascetic lives between two villages). Here the
words grmayor antare mean grma-dvayasya madhye (between two villages).
235 / paUvaARd"Iina nava k{(SNAnaAmaAina jais$a vaA /
235. prvdni nava kanmni jasi v

1 Just like the word pur, the word pura also means a city.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
206
prva-dnibeginning with prva; navathe nine words; kanmni
kanmas; jasiwhen the viubhakti [j]as follows; voptionally.
The nine words beginning with prva are optionally kanmas when [j]as
follows.
prve prv, sve sv, antare antar. sarva-vad vivdayo py a-rmnt. tatra
ubha-abdo nitya dvi-vacanntaubhau ubhau ubhbhym ubhbhym
ubhbhym ubhayo ubhayo. tvat-tvau anya-paryyau. nemo rdha-paryya.
samdaya uktrth. sima ca sarvrtha, anye tu prasiddh.
Vtti prva + [j]as (two options by 235):
1) (prva is a kanma, 225) prva + [] (43) prve <1.3>.
2) (prva isnt a kanma, 42) prvs (93) prv <1.3>.
sva + [j]as (two options by 235):
1) (sva is a kanma, 225) sva + [] (43) sve <1.3>.
2) (sva isnt a kanma, 42) svs (93) sv <1.3>.
antara + [j]as (two options by 235):
1) (antara is a kanma, 225) antara + [] (43) antare <1.3>.
2) (antara isnt a kanma, 42) antars (93) antar <1.3>.
All kanmas ending in a-rma from viva to sima are declined like the word sarva.
Among them is the word ubha (both) which is always used in dvi-vacana.
ubha + au (49) ubhau <1.2>.
ubha + au (49) ubhau <2.2>.
ubha + bhym (98) ubhbhym <3.2>.
ubha + bhym (98) ubhbhym <4.2>.
ubha + bhym (98) ubhbhym <5.2>.
ubha + os

(104) ubhe + os (54) ubhay + os (93) ubhayo <6.2>.

ubha + os

(104) ubhe + os (54) ubhay + os (93) ubhayo <7.2>.

dvi-vacana
pratham
ubhau
dvity
ubhau
tty
ubhbhym
caturth
ubhbhym
pacam
ubhbhym
ah
ubhayo
saptam
ubhayo
sambodhana
ubhau
The words tvat and tva are synonyms of the word anya (other). The word nema is a
synonym of the word ardha (half). The meanings of the words sama and so on have
already been spoken. The word sima also means sarva (all). The rest of the words
are well-known.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
207
236 / paUvaARid"ByaAe navaBya: smaAitsmanaAE vaA /
236. prvdibhyo navabhya smt-sminau v
prva-dibhyabeginning with prva; navabhyaafter the nine words; smtsminauthe replacements smt and smin; voptionally.
After the nine words beginning with prva, smt and smin are optional.
prvasmt prvt, prvasmin prve.
Vtti prva + []as[i] (two options by 236):
1) ([]as[i] is replaced by smt) prva + smt prvasmt <5.1>.
2) ([]as[i] isnt replaced by smt, 102) prva + t (49) prvt <5.1>.
prva + []i (two options by 236):
1) ([]i is replaced by smin) prva + smin prvasmin <7.1>.
2) ([]i isnt replaced by smin, 44) prve <7.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
prva
prvam
prvea
prvasmai
prvasmt / prvt
prvasya
prvasmin / prve
prva

dvi-vacana
prvau
prvau
prvbhym
prvbhym
prvbhym
prvayo
prvayo
prvau

bahu-vacana
prve / prv
prvn
prvai
prvebhya
prvebhya
prvem
prveu
prve / prv

237 / aTamacar"matayaAyaAlpaADaRk(itapayanaemaA: k{(SNAnaAmaAina jais$a


vaA /
237. prathama-carama-tayylprdha-katipaya-nem kanmni jasi v
prathama-carama-taya-aya-alpa-ardha-katipaya-nemthe words prathama (first)
and carama (last), the taddhita pratyayas taya and aya, and the words alpa (little),
ardha (half), katipaya (some), and nema (half); kanmnikanmas; jasi
when the viubhakti [j]as follows; voptionally.
The following words are optionally kanmas when [j]as follows:
prathama, carama, words ending in the taddhita pratyayas taya and aya,
alpa, ardha, katipaya, and nema.
prathame pratham.dvitaye dvitay, dvaye dvay. ea ka-vat. ubhayasya
dvi-vacanbhvaubhaye ubhay. neme nem.
Vtti prathama + [j]as (two options by 237):
1) (prathama is a kanma, 225) prathama + [] (43) prathame <1.3>.
2) (prathama isnt a kanma, 42) prathams (93) pratham <1.3>.
dvitaya + [j]as (two options by 237):
1) (dvitaya is a kanma, 225) dvitaya + [] (43) dvitaye <1.3>.
2) (dvitaya isnt a kanma, 42) dvitays (93) dvitay <1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
208
dvaya + [j]as (two options by 237):
1) (dvaya is a kanma, 225) dvaya + [] (43) dvaye <1.3>.
2) (dvaya isnt a kanma, 42) dvays (93) dvay <1.3>.
The rest of the forms are like those of the word ka. The word ubhaya (ubha + the
taddhita pratyaya aya) has no dvi-vacana.
ubhaya + [j]as (two options by 237):
1) (ubhaya is a kanma, 225) ubhaya + [] (43) ubhaye <1.3>.
2) (ubhaya isnt a kanma, 42) ubhays (93) ubhay <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
ubhaya
ubhayam
ubhayena
ubhayasmai
ubhayasmt
ubhayasya
ubhayasmin
ubhaya

bahu-vacana
ubhaye / ubhay
ubhayn
ubhayai
ubhayebhya
ubhayebhya
ubhayem
ubhayeu
ubhaye / ubhay

nema + [j]as (two options by 237):


1) (nema is a kanma, 225) nema + [] (43) neme <1.3>.
2) (nema isnt a kanma, 42) nems (93) nem <1.3>.
AmtaWhere the words from prathama to katipaya usually wouldnt be kanmas
since they arent listed among the sarvdis, this rule is given so that they may
optionally be kanmas when [j]as follows. But, where the word nema would
normally always be a kanma since it is listed among the sarvdis, this rule is
given so that it will only optionally be a kanma when [j]as follows. The word
dvitaya is formed by applying taya after the word dvi (two) by avayava-vtte
sakhyy keavas taya (1212), the word dvaya is formed by applying aya after the
word dvi by dvi-tribhym aya ca (1212), and the word ubhaya is formed by applying
aya after the word ubha (both) by ubhd aya (1212).
238 / tad"Aid"s$aaAnaAM s$aMs$aAr"syaAr"Ama: svaAd"AE , d"sya ca ma: ,
tad"Ade"sta: s$a: s$aAE /
238. tad-di-saptn sasrasy-rma sv-dau, dasya ca ma, tad-des ta sa
sau
tad-di-saptnmof the seven words beginning with tad; sasrasyaof the
sasra; a-rmathe replacement a-rma; sv-dauwhen a sv-di follows; dasyaof
da-rma; caand; mathe replacement ma-rma; tad-deof the tad-dis; ta
of ta-rma; sathe replacement sa-rma; sauwhen the viubhakti s[u] follows.
When a sv-di follows, the sasra of the tad-dis changes to a-rma, and
their da-rma changes to ma-rma. When s[u] follows, their ta-rma also
changes to sa-rma.
sa tau te. tam tau tn. tena tbhym tai. tasmai tbhym tebhya. tasmt ity-di.
taddhite pacamymtata, saptamymtatra. yadya yau ye. taddhite
pacamymyata, saptamymyatra. etadea etau ete. etam. taddhite
pacamymata, saptamymatra.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
209
Vtti tad + s[u] (238) ta + s[u] sa + s[u] (93) sa <1.1>.
tad + au (238) ta + au (49) tau <1.2>.
tad + [j]as (238) ta + [j]as (225) ta + [] (43) te <1.3>.
tad + am (238) ta + am (94) tam <2.1>.
tad + au (238) ta + au (49) tau <2.2>.
tad + []as (238) ta + []as (94) ta + s (95) ts tn <2.3>.
tad + [] (238) ta + [] (97) ta + ina (43) tena <3.1>.
tad + bhym (238) ta + bhym (98) tbhym <3.2>.
tad + bhis (238) ta + bhis (99) ta + ais (48) tais (93) tai <3.3>.
tad + []e (238) ta + []e (226) ta + smai tasmai <4.1>.
tad + bhym (238) ta + bhym (98) tbhym <4.2>.
tad + bhyas (238) ta + bhyas (101) tebhyas (93) tebhya <4.3>.
tad + []as[i] (238) ta + []as[i] (227) ta + smt tasmt <5.1>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form
tata. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the
alternate form tatra.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
sa
tam
tena
tasmai
tasmt
tasya
tasmin

dvi-vacana
tau
tau
tbhym
tbhym
tbhym
tayo
tayo

bahu-vacana
te
tn
tai
tebhya
tebhya
tem
teu

AmtaIn essence, this rule means that when a sv-di follows, the sasra of the taddis changes to a-rma, the da-rma of idam and adas changes to ma-rma, and,
when s[u] follows, the ta-rma of tad and etad changes to sa-rma.
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word yad (who, which).
yad + s[u] (238) ya + s[u] (93) ya <1.1>.
yad + au (238) ya + au (49) yau <1.2>.
yad + [j]as (238) ya + [j]as (225) ya + [] (43) ye <1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
210
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form
yata. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the
alternate form yatra.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
ya
yam
yena
yasmai
yasmt
yasya
yasmin

dvi-vacana
yau
yau
ybhym
ybhym
ybhym
yayo
yayo

bahu-vacana
ye
yn
yai
yebhya
yebhya
yem
yeu

SaodhinYad is a relative pronoun. It must always be used in relationship with its


correlative pronoun tad. Tad can be used alone, but yad cannot. For example, in the
sentence sa ka-mandira gacchati (He goes to the temple of Ka) the sense
is complete, but in the sentence ya ka-mandira gacchati (who goes to the
temple of Ka) the sense is not complete. It only becomes complete when the
correlative pronoun tad is used, as in ya ka-mandira gacchati sa yama-loka na
gacchati (He who goes to the temple of Ka doesnt go to the abode of Yamarja).
In English the relative pronoun and correlative pronoun are usually placed side by side
with the correlative pronoun first as in He who..., but in Sanskrit the relative pronoun
and correlative pronoun are usually quite some distance apart from each other with
the relative pronoun coming first. In fact, in Sanskrit, the relative pronoun is used in its
own clause with its own verb and the correlative pronoun is used in its own clause with
its own verb. So literally ya ka-mandira gacchati sa yama-loka na gacchati
means Who goes to the temple of Ka, He doesnt go to the abode of Yamarja.
Thus wherever one sees a form of the word yad one should understand that it is
connected with its own verb which is different than the verb to which the form of tad is
connected. Usually the form of yad and the form of tad will have the same gender and
vacana, but the viubhakti may differ. Some examples of this are given below.
ye ka payati te deha kampate (The bodies of those who see
Ka tremble, or
more literally: Who see Ka, their bodies tremble)
yena sarva loka vypta sa viu (Viu is He by whom the world is
pervaded, or
more literally: By whom the world is pervaded, He is Viu)
yasmin yogino ramante tasmai nama (I offer my obeisances unto Him in
whom the yogs take pleasure, or more literally: In whom the yogs take pleasure, to
Him I offer my
obeisances)
yasya rpa sarva-saundarya-mrtis tasmd amta pravahati (Nectar flows
from Him whose form is the embodiment of all beauty, or more literally: Whose form
is the embodiment
of all beauty, from Him nectar flows).
Examples with forms of yad and tad in the feminine and neuter genders should be
understood in the same way.
The avyayas formed from yad and tad also function in a relative / correlative
relationship. This is shown in the table below:
yatas (because)
yatra (where)
yath (in which way, as)

tatas (therefore)
tatra (there)
tath (in that way, so, similarly)

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
211
yad (because)
tad (therefore)
yad (when)
tad (then) or tarhi (then)
yadi (if)
tad (then) or tarhi (then)
yvat (as much)
tvat (that much)
An example of yath / tath is found in Bhagavad-gt 2.22:
vssi jrni yath vihya navni ghti naro 'pari / tath arri
vihya jrny
anyni sayti navni deh (As a person puts on new garments, giving up old
ones, the soul
similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless
ones)
An example of yadi / tarhi is found in Bhgavatam 10.8.35:
nha bhakitavn amba sarve mithybhiasina / yadi satya-giras tarhi
samaka paya me mukham (Lord r Ka replied: My dear mother, I have never
eaten dirt. All My friends complaining against Me are liars. If you think they are being
truthful, you can directly
look into My mouth and examine it)
Sometimes the forms of the relative pronoun yad are doubled to give a distributive
sense, and at such times the forms of the correlative pronoun tad are also doubled. A
famous example of this is found in Bhagavad-gt 3.21:
yad yad carati rehas tat tad evetaro jana (Whatever a great man does,
other people do, or more literally: Which various things a great man does, those
various things other people do).
A more complex example is seen in Bhagavad-gt 7.21:
yo yo y y tanu bhakta raddhayrcitum icchati / tasya tasycal
raddh
tm eva vidadhmy aham (As soon as one desires to worship some demigod, I
make his faith
steady. or more literally: Whoever the devotee and whatever the
form he wants to worship
with faith, I make that faith of his steady)
But sometimes, the forms of the correlative pronoun tad are not doubled. An example
of this is found in Bhgavatam 7.9.11:
yad yaj jano bhagavate vidadhta mna tac ctmane (Whatever1 service a
person may render to the Lord is actually for his own benefit)
Another example is found in Bhagavad-gt 4.7:
yad yad hi dharmasya glnir bhavati bhrata / abhyutthnam adharmasya
tadtmna
sjmy aham (Whenever there is a decline in religious practice, O
descendant of Bharata,
and a predominant rise of irreligionat that time I
descend Myself)
VttiNow we begin the declension of the word etad (this).
1 rdhara Svm says yat yat here means yam yam. This is because yat yat is an
adjective of the masculine second case singular word mnam (worship, service). The
Vedic stra sup su-luk (Adhyy 7.1.39) has been applied here so, the sv-dis
have undergone mahhara. Thus we get yat yat instead of yam yam. For further
details, see Saodhin 257.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
212
etad + s[u] (238) eta + s[u] esa + s[u] (108) eas (93) ea
<1.1>.
etad + au (238) eta + au (49) etau <1.2>.
etad + [j]as (238) eta + [j]as (225) eta + [] (43) ete <1.3>.
etad + am (238) eta + am (94) etam <2.1>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form
ata. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the
alternate form atra1.

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
ea
etam
etena
etasmai
etasmt
etasya
etasmin

dvi-vacana
etau
etau
etbhym
etbhym
etbhym
etayo
etayo

bahu-vacana
ete
etn
etai
etebhya
etebhya
etem
eteu

AmtaThe t of etad changes to s by tad-des ta sa sau (238) and, because that s


is a virici, it changes to by stra 108.
SaodhinThe following verse illustrates the subtle differences in meaning that
exist between the words idam and etad, and the words adas and tad:
idamas tu sannika
sampatara-varti caitado rpam
adasas tu vipraka
tad iti paroke vijnyt
The word idam refers to an object that is nearby, and the word etad refers to an
object that is closer still. The word adas, however, refers to an object that is distant,
and the word tad refers to an object that is out of sight. This one should know.
239 / wd"maAe'yaM s$aAE , wyaM tau lamyaAma. /
239. idamo ya sau, iya tu lakmym
idamaof the word idam; ayamthe replacement ayam; sauwhen the viubhakti
s[u] follows; iyamthe replacement iyam; tubut; lakmymin the feminine gender.
When s[u] follows, idam is replaced by ayam in the masculine gender and
iyam in the feminine gender.
1 The alternate forms ata and atra are irregularly formed by etado to tra, idama ita iha, adaso muto
mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu sdhava, kutrasya kveti ca (1241). As
always, words ending in the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra can be used to represent the masculine,
neuter, and feminine pacam and saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and bahu-vacana forms of the
particular kanma.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
213
ayam imau ime. imam imau imn.
Vtti idam + s[u] (239) ayam + s[u] (138) ayam <1.1>.
idam + au (238) ida + au ima + au (49) imau <1.2>.
idam + [j]as (238) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as (225) ima + [] (43) ime
<1.3>.
idam + am (238) ida + am ima + am (94) imam <2.1>.
idam + au (238) ida + au ima + au (49) imau <2.2>.
idam + []as (238) ida + []as ima + []as (94) ima + s (95) ims
imn <2.3>.

240 / wd"maAe'na"AEs$aAe: /
240. idamo na auso
idamaof the word idam; anathe replacement ana; -osowhen the
viubhaktis [] and os follow.
Idam is replaced by ana when [] and os follow.
anena.
Vtti idam + [] (240) ana + [] (97) ana + ina (43) anena <3.1>.
241 / vaESNAvae tvazA, /
241. vaiave tv a
vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; tubut; athe replacement a[].
When a vaiava follows, idam is replaced by a[].
it sarvasyeti sarvdeabhym.
VttiIn accordance with the maxim it sarvasya (vtti 158) the replacement a[]
replaces everything:
idam + bhym (241) a[] + bhym (98) + bhym bhym <3.2>.

242 / wd"mad"AeByaAM naEs$a, /


242. idam-adobhy nais
idam-adobhymafter the words idam and adas; nanot; aisthe replacement ais.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
214
After the words idam and adas, bhis is not replaced by ais.
ebhi. asmai bhym ebhya. asmt bhym ebhya. taddhite pacamymita.
asya anayo em. asmin anayo eu. taddhite saptamymiha.
Vtti idam + bhis (241) a[] + bhis (242, 101) ebhis (93) ebhi <3.3>.
idam + []e (238) ida + []e ima + []e (226) ima + smai (241) a[]
+ smai asmai <4.1>.
idam + bhym (241) a[] + bhym (98) + bhym bhym <4.2>.
idam + bhyas (241) a[] + bhyas (101) ebhyas (93) ebhya <4.3>.
idam + []as[i] (238) ida + []as[i] ima + []as[i] (227) ima + smt
(241) a[] +
smt asmt <5.1>.
idam + bhym (241) a[] + bhym (98) + bhym bhym <5.2>.
idam + bhyas (241) a[] + bhyas (101) ebhyas (93) ebhya <5.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form
ita.
idam + []as (238) ida + []as ima + []as (103) ima + sya (241)
a[] + sya
asya <6.1>.
idam + os (240) ana + os (104) ane + os (54) anay + os (93)
anayo <6.2>.
idam + m (238) ida + m ima + m (228) ima + s[u] + m ima
+ sm (241) a[] + sm (101) esm (108) em <6.3>.
idam + []i (238) ida + []i ima + []i (229) ima + smin (241)
a[] + smin
asmin <7.1>.
idam + os (240) ana + os (104) ane + os (54) anay + os (93)
anayo <7.2>.
idam + su[p] (241) a[] + su (101) esu (108) eu <7.3>.
In the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the alternate
form iha1.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth

eka-vacana
ayam
imam
anena
asmai

dvi-vacana
imau
imau
bhym
bhym

bahu-vacana
ime
imn
ebhi
ebhya

1 The alternate forms ita and iha are irregularly formed by etado to tra, idama ita iha, adaso muto
mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu sdhava, kutrasya kveti ca (1241). As always,
words ending in the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra can be used to represent the masculine, neuter,
and feminine pacam and saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and bahu-vacana forms of the particular
kanma.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
215
pacam
asmt
ah
asya
saptam
asmin

bhym
anayo
anayo

ebhya
em
eu

AmtaWhere kd bhisa ais (99) would usually be applied when the substitution
of a[] by vaiave tv a (241) is done, this rule prohibits it. When the vis follow,
the sasra changes to a-rma, and da-rma changes to ma-rma by stra 238. When
this is done, the substitution of smai and so on is done2, and then idam changes to a[]
since there is a vaiava following.
243 / Wtaid"d"maAere"na: k(iTataAnauk(Tanae i"taIyaAq%AEss$au /
243. etad-idamor ena kathitnukathane dvity-aussu
etad-idamoof the words etad and idam; enathe replacement ena; kathitaanukathanewhen there is kathitnukathana (see explanation below); dvity--ossu
when a dvity viubhakti follows, or when the viubhaktis [] and os follow.
When there is kathitnukathana and dvitya, [], or os follow, etad and
idam are replaced by ena.
etam ima v dkaya, atho ena phaya. enam enau enn. enena. enayo. enayo.
adas s[u], sasrasy-rma,
VttiExamples of when there is kathitnukathana are eta dkaya, atho ena
phaya (Initiate this person. (then) Teach him) and ima dkaya, atho ena
phaya (Initiate this person. (then) Teach him).
etad or idam + am (243) ena + am (94) enam <2.1>.
etad or idam + au (243) ena + au (49) enau <2.2>.
etad or idam + []as (243) ena + []as (94) ena + s (95) ens enn
<2.3>.
etad or idam + [] (243) ena + [] (97) ena + ina (43) enena
<3.1>.
etad or idam + os (243) ena + os (104) ene + os (54) enay + os
(93) enayo <6.2>.
etad or idam + os (243) ena + os (104) ene + os (54) enay + os
(93) enayo <7.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana

enam
enena

enau

enn

2 Stra 238 must be applied first so that the word idam may come to end in a-rma
and thus be called ka. Otherwise the replacements smai and so on would not be
applied as they are only applied after kanmas that are kas.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
216
ah
saptam

enayo
enayo

SaodhinKathitnukathana is the repetition (anukathana) of something that has


already been mentioned (kathita). In other words, it is the re-employment of the same
word in a subsequent part of a sentence. Kathitnukathana is a synonym of the word
anvdea, a word used in stra 249 and in Adhyy 2.4.32 (the Pinian equivalent
to the current stra). In the examples of kathitnukathana here, the words etad and
idam are first used in their <2.1> forms, etam and imam, in the phrase etam ima v
dkaya, and then they are used again in the phrase ena phaya. But when they are
used again like this, they change to ena by the current stra and we get the form
enam <2.1> in both cases. In all the examples of kathitnukathana given by Jva
Gosvm, the words atha or atho (both meaning then) are used to indicate that at a
later time the second statement is made, wherein there is a repeated reference to the
person or thing that has already been mentioned. In the translation we have indicated
this by placing the English word then in parenthesis.
AmtaExamples of kathitnukathana where enena <3.1> is used are etena rtrau
harir gta, atha enena ahar api pjita (This person praised Hari with songs at night.
(then) He worshiped Hari all day long as well) and anena rtrau harir gta, atha
enena ahar api pjita (Hari was praised with songs at night by this person. (then) He
was worshiped all day long by him as well). Examples of kathitnukathana where
enayo <6.2> is used are etayor namra-sva-bhva, atha enayo uddh prti ca
(These two persons have a submissive nature. (then) They have pure love as well)
and anayor namra-sva-bhva, atha enayo uddh prti ca (These two persons
have a submissive nature. (then) They have pure love as well).
244 / @d"s$aAe d"sya s$a: s$aAE , s$aAer"AEca, /
244. adaso dasya sa sau, sor auc
adasaof the word adas; dasyaof the da-rma; sathe replacement sa-rma; sau
when the viubhakti s[u] follows; soof the viubhakti s[u]; aucthe
replacement au[c].
The d of adas changes to s when s[u] follows, then s[u] becomes au[c].
asau.
Vtti adas + s[u] (238) ada + s[u] (244) asa + s[u] asa + au[c] (124)
asau <1.1>.
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of the phrase dasya ca ma in stra 238.
245 / @d"AemaAtpar"sya s$avaeRr"sya o O yaTae"is$ai" /
245. ado-mt parasya sarvevarasya u yathea-siddhi
ada-mtthe ma-rma of the word adas; parasyacoming after; sarvevarasyaof a
sarvevara; u the replacement u-rma or -rma; yath-ia-siddhiaccording to
the result that best fits.
A sarvevara that comes after the m of adas either becomes u or ,
depending on whether that sarvevara is a vmana or a trivikrama.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
217
vmanasya vmana, trivikramasya trivikrama. am.
VttiA vmana becomes vmana and a trivikrama becomes trivikrama.
adas + au (238) ada + au ama + au (49) amau (245) am <1.2>.
AmtaThe word yathea-siddhi is an avyay-bhva-samsa formed by stra 983,
thus it is declined in the neuter gender. Its vigraha is ia-siddhim anatikramya
(according to the ia-siddhi). A sarvevara that comes after the m of adas, which is
brought about by the application of dasya ca ma (238), either becomes u or ,
according to the ia-siddhi. That is to say a sarvevara that is a vmana becomes u,
while a sarvevara that is a trivikrama becomes .
246 / @d"s$a Wta wR ba"tvae /
246. adasa eta bahutve
adasaof the word adas; etaof the e-rma; the replacement -rma; bahutve
when the viaya is bahutva.
The e of adas changes to in the plural.
am. amum am amn. matve cotve ca kte harita namun. bhymi kasya
trivikrama, pacd ambhym ambhi. smai-prabhtau kte pacd u-rma
amumai ambhym ambhya. amumt ambhym ambhya. taddhite
pacamymamuta. amuya. etve ay-dee ca kte pacd u-rmaamuyo
amm. amumin amuyo amu. taddhiteamutra. eka sarva-vat. atha dvi-abdo
nitya dvi-vacannta
Vtti adas + [j]as (238) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as (225) ama + [] (43)
ame (246) am
<1.3>.
adas + am (238) ada + am ama + am (94) amam (245) amum
<2.1>.
adas + au (238) ada + au ama + au (49) amau (245) am <2.2>.
adas + []as (238) ada + []as ama + []as (94) ama + s (95)
ams amn (245) amn <2.3>.
When the change to m by stra 238 and the change to u by stra 245 are done,
harita t n, na tu lakmym (120) is applied and we get amun <3.1>:
adas + [] (238) ada + [] ama + [] (245) amu + [] (120)
amu + n
amun <3.1>.
When bhym follows, the final a of the ka first becomes trivikrama by stra 98, and
then the change to takes place by stra 245:
(245)

adas + bhym (238) ada + bhym ama + bhym (98) ambhym


ambhym <3.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
218
adas + bhis (238) ada + bhis ama + bhis (242, 101) amebhis (246)
ambhis (93) ambhi <3.3>.
The change to u by stra 245 occurs only after the substitution of smai and so on has
been done:
adas + []e (238) ada + []e ama + []e (226) ama + smai (245)
amusmai
(108) amumai <4.1>.
adas + bhym (238) ada + bhym ama + bhym (98) ambhym
(245)
ambhym <4.2>.
adas + bhyas (238) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas (101) amebhyas
(246) ambhyas
(93) ambhya <4.3>.
adas + []as[i] (238) ada + []as[i] ama + []as[i] (227) ama + smt
(245)
amusmt (108) amumt <5.1>.
(245)

adas + bhym (238) ada + bhym ama + bhym (98) ambhym


ambhym <5.2>.

adas + bhyas (238) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas (101) amebhyas


(246) ambhyas
(93) ambhya <5.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form
amuta.
adas + []as (238) ada + []as ama + []as (103) ama + sya (245)
amusya (108) amuya <6.1>.
The change to u by stra 245 occurs only after the change to e by stra 104 and the
substitution of ay by stra 55 have been done:
adas + os (238) ada + os ama + os (104) ame + os (54) amayos
(245) amuyos
(93) amuyo <6.2>.
adas + m (238) ada + m ama + m (228) ama + s[u] + m
ama + sm (101)
amesm (246) amsm (108) amm <6.3>.
adas + []i (238) ada + []i ama + []i (229) ama + smin (245)
amusmin
(108) amumin <7.1>.
adas + os (238) ada + os ama + os (104) ame + os (54) amayos
(245) amuyos
(93) amuyo <7.2>.
adas + su[p] (238) ada + su ama + su (101) amesu (246) amsu
(108) amu
<7.3>.
In the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the alternate
form amutra1.
1 The alternate forms amuta and amutra are irregularly formed by etado to tra,
idama ita iha, adaso muto mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu
sdhava, kutrasya kveti ca (1241). As always, words ending in the taddhita pratyayas

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
219
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
asau
amum
amun
amumai
amumt
amuya
amumin

dvi-vacana
am
am
ambhym
ambhym
ambhym
amuyo
amuyo

bahu-vacana
am
amn
ambhi
ambhya
ambhya
amm
amu

The word eka is declined like the word sarva. Now we begin the declension of the word
dvi, a word which is always used in dvi-vacana.
247 / na e"maR: /
247. na dver ma
nanot; dveof the word dvi; mathe replcement ma-rma.
The d of dvi doesnt change to m.
dvau dvau dvbhym dvbhym dvbhym dvayo dvayo. yumad-asmadau triv
api samnau
Vtti dvi + au (238, 247) dva + au (49) dvau <1.2>.
dvi + bhym (238, 247) dva + bhym (98) dvbhym <3.2>.
dvi + os (238, 247) dva + os (104) dve + os (54) dvayos (93)
dvayo <6.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

dvi-vacana
dvau
dvau
dvbhym
dvbhym
dvbhym
dvayo
dvayo

The words yumad and asmad have the same forms in all three genders.
AmtaThe change to m by dasya ca ma (238) is prohibited here. Someone may
argue, It was described previously (in Amta 223) that the words yumad and asmad
are vieyas, but we see here that they have the same forms in all three genders. How
then can there be certainty regarding the gender of the words used as their
vieaas? For instance, in the example vaiavas tva bravi (You, a Vaiava, are
speaking), since the word tvam doesnt indicate any particular gender, there is no
certainty of the gender of the word vaiava which is acting as its vieaa. True, but
in spoken language a word is employed only after the object it refers to is understood.
tas[i] and tra can be used to represent the masculine, neuter, and feminine pacam
and saptam eka-vacana, dvi-vacana, and bahu-vacana forms of the particular
kanma.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
220
Therefore it is up to the intelligence of the speaker to determine the gender of the
object which is expressed by the word tvam before employing the word tvam. Then it
is easy to ascertain the gender of the vieaa of the word tvam as it shares the same
gender. Thus there is no possibility of uncertainty regarding gender here.
248 / yauSmad"smad"Aestvamah"maAd"ya: svaAid"naA s$ah" /
248. yumad-asmados tvam-aham-daya sv-din saha
yumad-asmadoof the words yumad and asmad; tvam-aham-dayathe
replacements beginning with tvam and aham; sv-din sahaalong with the sv-di.
The niptas beginning with tvam and aham simultaneously replace yumad
and asmad and the sv-di that comes after them.
tatra yumac-chabdasyatvam yuvm yyam. tvm yuvm yumn. tvay
yuvbhym yumbhi. tubhyam yuvbhym yumabhyam. tvat yuvbhym yumat.
tava yuvayo yumkam. tvayi yuvayo yumsu. asmac-chabdasyaaham vm
vayam. mm vm asmn. may vbhym asmbhi. mahyam vbhym
asmabhyam. mat vbhym asmat. mama vayo asmkam. mayi vayo asmsu.
VttiThe forms of the word yumad are as follows:
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
tvam
tvm
tvay
tubhyam
tvat
tava
tvayi

dvi-vacana
yuvm
yuvm
yuvbhym
yuvbhym
yuvbhym
yuvayo
yuvayo

bahu-vacana
yyam
yumn
yumbhi
yumabhyam
yumat
yumkam
yumsu

The forms of the word asmad are as follows:


case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
aham
mm
may
mahyam
mat
mama
mayi

dvi-vacana
vm
vm
vbhym
vbhym
vbhym
vayo
vayo

bahu-vacana
vayam
asmn
asmbhi
asmabhyam
asmat
asmkam
asmsu

BlaTvam, aham, and so on are given as niptas in place of yumad and asmad and
the sv-di that comes after them.
SaodhinIn the Adhyy there are more than twenty stras dealing
exclusively with the declension of the words yumad and asmad. But, not wanting to
burden the students with this, Jva Gosvm has simply given one stra and a list of
niptas for the students to memorize. The definition of a nipta given by Jva Gosvm
in the vtti to Bhat 257 is prva-parayo sahaivdeo nipta (the simultaneous
replacement of both the prakti (prva) and the pratyaya (para) is called a nipta). In
this regard, one should also remember the maxim yath-sakhyam anudea
samnm (vtti 113) and thus understand that the niptas tvam and so on replace

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
221
yumad and the sv-di that comes after it, while the niptas aham and so on replace
asmad and the sv-di that comes after it.
249 / ivaSNAupad"A"A , @nvaAde"zAe tau inatyama, /
249. viupadd v, anvdee tu nityam
viupadtafter a viupada; voptionally; anvdeewhen there is anvdea
(same as kathitnukathana, see stra 243); tubut; nityamalways.
The words viupadt v and anvdee tu nityam are to be supplied in the
subsequent stras.
adhikro yam. v-nau-paryant ye viricayo vakyante te sarve viupadd
vaktavy. te ca ananvdee v, anvdee tu nityam ity artha.
VttiThis is an adhikra.All the viricis, which are just about to be described, up til
and including vm and nau are applicable only when the original comes after a
viupada. These viricis are optional when there is no anvdea, but compulsory
when there is anvdea.
SaodhinAn adhikra-stra is a stra that merely announces the word or words
which are to be supplied in all the stras up to a certain limit. An adhikra is more
official than ordinary anuvtti, which has to be inferred by the reader. There are three
kinds of adhikras as will be described in vtti 260: prabhu, vibhu, and vsudeva. This
is a prabhu adhikra. Jva Gosvm personally specifies the limit of this adhikra with
the phrase up til and including vm and nau. Thus this adhikra extends up to stra
253.

250 / yauSmaAna, yauSmaByaM yauSmaAk(imatyaeSaAM vas$a, ,


@smaAnasmaByamasmaAk(imatyaeSaAM nas$a. /
250. yumn yumabhya yumkam ity e vas, asmn asmabhyam asmkam ity
e nas
yumn yumabhyam yumkam itiyumn <2.3>, yumabhyam <4.3>, and
yumkam <6.3>; emof these; vasthe replacement vas; asmn asmabhyam
asmkam itiasmn <2.3>, asmabhyam <4.3>, and asmkam <6.3>; emof
these; nasthe replacement nas.
When yumn, yumabhyam, and yumkam come after a viupada, they
are optionally replaced by vas, but they are always replaced by vas when
there is anvdea. Similarly, when asmn, asmabhyam, and asmkam come
after a viupada, they are optionally replaced by nas, but they are always
replaced by nas when there is anvdea.
harir yumn avatu, harir vo vatu. harir yumabhya rocat, harir vo rocatm. harir
yumka sarva-sva, harir va sarva-svam. harir asmn avatu, harir na. harir
asmabhya rocat, harir na. harir asmka sarvasva, harir na. anvdee tu
nityamharir asmn avatu, atho nas tad-bhakt kpayantu.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
222
Vtti harir yumn avatu or harir vo vatu (May Hari protect you all).
harir yumabhya rocatm or harir vo rocatm (May Hari please you all).
harir yumka sarva-svam or harir va sarva-svam (Hari is your
everything).
harir asmn avatu or harir no vatu (May Hari protect us all).
harir asmabhya rocatm or harir no rocatm (May Hari please us all).
harir asmka sarva-svam or harir na sarva-svam (Hari is our everything).
But the replacements are always made when there is anvdea:
harir asmn avatu, atho nas tad-bhakt kpayantu (May Hari protect us all.
(then) May His devotees show us mercy).
251 / tauByaMtavayaAestae , maMmamayaAemaeR /
251. tubhya-tavayos te, mahya-mamayor me
tubhyam-tavayoof tubhyam <4.1> and tava <6.1>; tethe replacement te;
mahyam-mamayorof mahyam <4.1> and mama <6.1>; methe replacement me.
When tubhyam and tava come after a viupada, they are optionally
replaced by te, but they are always replaced by te when there is anvdea.
Similarly, when mahyam and mama come after a viupada, they are
optionally replaced by me, but they are always replaced by me when there is
anvdea.
haris tubhya rocat, haris te.haris tava, haris te. harir mahya, harir me. harir
mama, harir me. haris tubhya rocatm, atho haris te prema dadtu..
Vtti haris tubhya rocatm or haris te rocatm (May Hari please you).
haris tava or haris te (Hari is yours).
harir mahya rocatm or harir me rocatm (May Hari please me).
harir mama or harir me (Hari is mine).
An example of when there is anvdea is haris tubhya rocatm, atho haris te prema
dadtu (May Hari please you. (then) May Hari give you prema).
252 / tvaAM maAM tvaA maA /
252. tv m tv m
tvmof tvm <2.1>; mmof mm <2.1>; tvthe replacement tv; mthe
replacement m.
When tvm comes after a viupada, it is optionally replaced by tv, but it is
always replaced by tv when there is anvdea. Similarly, when mm comes

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
223
after a viupada, it is optionally replaced by m, but it is always replaced
by m when there is anvdea.
haris tv ptu, haris tv ptu. harir m ptu, harir m. haris tv ptu, atho haris
tv payatu. harir m payatu, atho harir m rakatu.
Vtti haris tv ptu or haris tv ptu (May Hari protect you).
harir m ptu or harir m ptu (May Hari protect me).
Examples of when there is anvdea are haris tv ptu, atho haris tv payatu (may
Hari protect you. (then) May Hari see you) and harir m payatu, atho harir m
rakatu (may Hari see me. (then) May Hari protect me).

253 / yauSmad"smai"SNAupad"yaAevaA<naAE i"taIyaAcatauTaI=Sa"Ii"tvae , na


tau s$amaAs$ae , na tae vaAfyaAd"AE Aek(paAd"Ad"AE ca /
253. yumad-asmad-viupadayor v-nau dvity-caturth-ah-dvitve, na tu
samse, na te vkydau loka-pddau ca
yumad-asmad-viupadayoof the declined forms (viupadas) of the words
yumad and asmad; vm-nauthe replacements vm and nau; dvity-caturthah-dvitvein the dvi-vacana of dvity, caturth, and ah; nanot; tubut;
samsein a compound. nanot; tethese viricis; vkya-dauat the beginning of a
vkya (sentence); loka-pda-dauat the beginning of the pda (quarter) of a
loka (verse); caand.
When the declined forms of yumad and asmad come after a viupada, they
are optionally replaced, in the dvi-vacana of dvity, caturth, or ah, by
vm and nau respectively, but they are always replaced by vm and nau
respectively when there is anvdea.
However, the viricis mentioned in stras 250 to 253 are not applicable in
compounds. Nor are they applicable at the beginning of a sentence or at the
beginning of a quarter of a verse.
harir yuv ptu, harir vm. harir yuv rakatu, atha harir v payatu. harir
yuvbhy rocat, harir vm. harir yuvayo svm, harir vm. harir v ptu, harir
nau. harir vbhy rocat, harir nau. harir vayo svm, harir nau.
samastatve tu naharir asmat-svm. he vaiava tva sukh bhava. tv hari
ptu. m hari ptu. kaika-araasysya tava hanta kuto bhayam ity-di.
Vtti harir yuv ptu or harir v ptu (May Hari protect you both).
harir yuvbhy rocatm or harir v rocatm (May Hari please you both).
harir yuvayo svm or harir v svm (Hari is your master).
harir v ptu or harir nau ptu (May Hari protect us both).
harir vbhy rocatm or harir nau rocatm (May Hari please us both).
harir vayo svm or harir nau svm (Hari is our master).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
224
An example of when there is anvdea is harir yuv rakatu, atho harir v payatu
(May Hari protect you both. (then) May Hari see you both).
SaodhinThe forms of the words yumad and asmad are now listed below
with their respective viricis:
case
eka-vacana
dvi-vacana
bahu-vacana
pratham
tvam
yuvm
yyam
dvity
tvm
tv
yuvm
vm
yumn
tty
tvay
yuvbhym
yumbhi
caturth
tubhyam
te
yuvbhym
vm
yumabhyam
pacam
tvat
yuvbhym
yumat
ah
tava
te
yuvayo
vm
yumkam
saptam
tvayi
yuvayo
yumsu
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
aham
mm
may
mahyam
mat
mama
mayi

m
me
me

dvi-vacana
vm
vm
vbhym
vbhym
vbhym
vayo
vayo

nau
nau
nau

bahu-vacana
vayam
asmn
asmbhi
asmabhyam
asmat
asmkam
asmsu

along

va
va
va

na
na
na

VttiAs stated above, the replacements dont take place when yumad and asmad
are used in a compound or when they are used at the beginning of a sentence or at
the beginning of a quarter of a verse. For example:
harir asmat-svm (Hari is our master).
tv hari ptu (may Hari protect you).
m hari ptu (may Hari protect me).
kaika-araasysya
tava hanta kuto bhayam (where is fear for you whose only shelter is Ka?).
.......................................
.......................................
SaodhinIn the first example asmad is used in the compound asmat-svm for
which the vigraha is asmka svm. In the next two examples, the original words
tvm and mm are at the beginning of sentences, and thus the viricis tv and m do
not replace them. In the last example, the original word tava is at the beginning of the
second quarter of the verse, and thus the virici te does not replace it.
The Bla and Amta commentaries explain the phrase na tu samse in such a way that
it only applies to vm and nau. But the proof that the phrase na tu samse prohibits
the use of all the viricis in compounds and not just vm and nau is the Pinian stra
anudtta sarvam apddau (Adhyy 8.1.18) where the word anudttam
(unaccented) is carried forward into all the stras ordaining the replacements. In
terms of accents, normal words are considered unaccented whereas compounds get
accents. Thus anudttam in effect means uncompounded.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
225
254 / ik(ma: k(Ae ivaSNAuBa(AE /
254. kima ko viubhaktau
kimaof the word kim; kathe replacement ka; viubhaktauwhen a viubhakti
follows.
Kim is replaced by ka when a viubhakti follows.
ka kau ke, kam kau kn. taddhite pacamymkuta, saptamymkva kutra.
Vtti kim + s[u] (254) ka + s[u] kas (93) ka <1.1>.
kim + au (254) ka + au (49) kau <1.2>.
kim + [j]as (254) ka + [j]as (225) ka + [] (43) ke <1.3>.
kim + am (254) ka + am (94) kam <2.1>.
kim + au (254) ka + au (49) kau <2.2>.
kim + []as (254) ka + []as (94) ka + s (95) ks kn <2.3>.
In the fifth case, when the taddhita pratyaya tas[i] is applied, we get the alternate form
kuta. And in the seventh case, when the taddhita pratyaya tra is applied, we get the
alternate forms kva and kutra1.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
ka
kam
kena
kasmai
kasmt
kasya
kasmin

dvi-vacana
kau
kau
kbhym
kbhym
kbhym
kayo
kayo

bahu-vacana
ke
kn
kai
kebhya
kebhya
kem
keu

AmtaWhere the sasra of kim usually wouldnt become a-rma since kim is not
among the tad-dis mentioned in stra 238, this rule ordains that the sasra of kim
should become a-rma.

1 The alternate forms kuta, kva, and kutra are irregularly formed by etado to tra,
idama ita iha, adaso muto mutra, kima kuta kutreti tas-trbhy triv api ligeu
sdhava, kutrasya kveti ca (1241).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
226
atha kanmn lakm-ligodharaam. kd p lakmym iti vakyamastrt sarva-abdd psarv sarve ity-di rdh-vat. viv mi ca viea. sarv
e
Now we will give examples of the kanmas in the feminine gender. The taddhita
pratyaya [p] is applied after the word sarva by the future stra kd p lakmym
(1081). Thus we get sarv <1.1>, sarve <1.2>, and so on, as in the declension of the
word rdh:
sarv + s[u] (138) sarv <1.1>.
sarv + au (144) sarv + (43) sarve <1.2>.
But the forms are different when the vis and m follow:
SaodhinThe taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word sarva by kd p
(1081), a stra which comes under the adhikra nmno lakmym (1080). When we
thus have sarva + [p], the final a of sarva is deleted by a-i-dvayasya haro bhagavati
(1053). Thus we get the feminine nma sarv to which the sv-dis are applied. The
stras kd p (1081) and a-i-dvayasya haro bhagavati (1053) will also be applied in
forming the feminines of the tad-dis and of the word kim, but the difference is that
they will be applied only after the sv-dis have been applied and tad-di-saptn
sasrasy-rma sv-dau, dasya ca ma, tad-des ta sa sau (238) has been
applied. Jva Gosvm himself will establish this order of application in the next vtti.
255 / k{(SNAnaAmar"ADaAta: syaApva{iSNASau , paUvaRsya ca vaAmana: /
255. kanma-rdhta syp viu, prvasya ca vmana
kanma-rdhtaafter a kanma that is a rdh (feminine word ending in
[p]); sypthe gama sy[p]; viuwhen the vis follow; prvasyaof the
preceding vara; caand; vmanathe change to vmana.
When the vis follow, the gama sy[p] is inserted after a kanma that
is a rdh, and the preceding vara becomes vmana.
sarvasyai. asisarvasy. assarvasy. mikanma-ka-rdhbhym iti
susarvsm. in-rdhbhy er m itisarvasym. taddhite prva-vat. tad-disaptn sasrasy-rme kte pacd p, tad-des ta sa saus te t. tm te
t. eva yad, etad. idamiya tu lakmymiyam ime im. imm ime im. idamo
ka-rmasya ana ausoanay. vaiave tv abhym bhi. asyai asy. su,
a, pacd psm. adas-abdasya sau pu-vatasau. dasya ma, p, ado-mt
parasya u am am. amm am am. amuy ambhym ambhi. syp
prvasya ca vmana, amuyai ambhym ambhya. amuy ambhym
ambhya. amuy amuyo amm. amuym amuyo amu. dvi-abdasya dve
dve dvbhym dvbhym dvbhym dvayo dvayo. bhavatu-abdd pbhavat
bhavatyau. kim-abdasyak ke k. km ke k. sarva-vat. atha brahmai. sarvam
sarve sarvi. punas tad-vat. ttydau puruottama-vat.
Vtti sarv + []e (255) sarv + sy[p] + e sarvasy + e (48) sarvasyai
<4.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
227
sarv + []as[i] (255) sarv + sy[p] + as sarvasy + as (42)
sarvasys (93) sarvasy <5.1>.
sarv + []as (255) sarv + sy[p] + as sarvasy + as (42) sarvasys
(93)
sarvasy <6.1>.
sarv + m (228) sarv + s[u] + m sarvsm <6.3>.
sarv + []i (255) sarv + sy[p] + []i sarvasy + []i (135) sarvasy
+ m (42)
sarvasym <7.1>.
When the taddhita pratyayas tas[i] and tra are applied, the forms are the same as
those described in vtti 227.
case
eka-vacana
dvi-vacana
bahu-vacana
pratham
sarv
sarve
sarv
dvity
sarvm
sarve
sarv
tty
sarvay
sarvbhym
sarvbhi
caturth
sarvasyai
sarvbhym
sarvbhya
pacam
sarvasy
sarvbhym
sarvbhya
ah
sarvasy
sarvayo
sarvsm
saptam
sarvasym
sarvayo
sarvsu
sambodhana
sarve
sarve
sarv
When tad-di-saptn sasrasy-rma (238) is applied, the taddhita pratyaya [p]
is applied, then tad-des ta sa sau (238) is applied, and we get s <1.1>:
tad + s[u] (238) ta + s[u] (1081) ta + [p] + s[u] (1053) t + s[u]
(238) s + s[u] (138) s <1.1>.
tad + au (238) ta + au (1081) ta + [p] + au (1053) t + au (144)
t + (43) te <1.2>.
tad + [j]as (238) ta + [j]as (1081) ta + [p] + [j]as (1053) t + as
(42) ts (93) t <1.3>.
tad + am (238) ta + am (1081) ta + [p] + am (1053) t + am (94)
tm <2.1>.
tad + au (238) ta + au (1081) ta + [p] + au (1053) t + au (144)
t + (43) te <2.2>.
tad + []as (238) ta + []as (1081) ta + [p] + []as (1053) t + as
(94) ts (93) t <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
s
tm
tay
tasyai
tasy
tasy
tasym

dvi-vacana
te
te
tbhym
tbhym
tbhym
tayo
tayo

The words yad and etad are declined in the same way:

bahu-vacana
t
t
tbhi
tbhya
tbhya
tsm
tsu

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
228
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
y
ym
yay
yasyai
yasy
yasy
yasym

dvi-vacana
ye
ye
ybhym
ybhym
ybhym
yayo
yayo

bahu-vacana
y
y
ybhi
ybhya
ybhya
ysm
ysu

case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
e
etm
etay
etasyai
etasy
etasy
etasym

dvi-vacana
ete
ete
etbhym
etbhym
etbhym
etayo
etayo

bahu-vacana
et
et
etbhi
etbhya
etbhya
etsm
etsu

idam + s[u] (239) iyam + s[u] (138) iyam <1.1>.


idam + au (238) ida + au ima + au (1081) ima + [p] + au (1053)
im + au (144) im +
(43) ime <1.2>.
idam + [j]as (238) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as (1081) ima + [p] + [j]as
(1053) im + as (42) ims (93) im <1.3>.
idam + am (238) ida + am ima + am (1081) ima + [p] + am
(1053) im + am (94) imm <2.1>.
idam + au (238) ida + au ima + au (1081) ima + [p] + au (1053)
im + au (144) im +
(43) ime <2.2>.
idam + []as (238) ida + []as ima + []as (1081) ima + [p] + []as
(1053) im + as (94) ims (93) im <2.3>.
idam + [] (240) ana + [] (1081) ana + [p] + [] (1053) an +
(145) ane + (54) anay <3.1>.
idam + bhym (241) a[] + bhym (1081) a + [p] + bhym (1053)
bhym <3.2>.
idam + bhis (241) a[] + bhis (1081) a + [p] + bhis (1053) bhis
(93) bhi <3.3>.
idam + []e (238) ida + []e ima + []e (1081) ima + [p] + []e
(1053) im + e (255) im + sy[p] + e ima + sy[p] + e (241) a[] +
sy[p] + e (48) asyai <4.1>.
idam + []as[i] (238) ida + []as[i] ima + []as[i] (1081) ima + [p] +
[]as[i] (1053) im + as (255) im + sy[p] + as ima + sy[p] + as
(241) a[] + sy[p] + as (42) asys (93) asy <5.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
229
When m follows, the gama s[u] is applied by stra 228, the substitution of a[] is
done by stra 241, and then the taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied. Thus we get sm
<6.3>:
idam + m (238) ida + m ima + m (228) ima + s[u] + m ima
+ sm (241) a[] + sm (1081) a + [p] + sm (1053) sm <6.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
iyam
imm
anay
asyai
asy
asy
asym
eka-vacana

dvi-vacana
ime
ime
bhym
bhym
bhym
anayo
anayo
dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana
im
im
bhi
bhya
bhya
sm
su
bahu-vacana

enm
enay

ene

en

enayo
enayo

The form of the word adas is like that of the masculine gender when s[u] follows:
adas + s[u] (238) ada + s[u] (1081) ada + [p] + s[u] (1053) ad +
s[u] (244)
as + s[u] as + au[c] (124) asau <1.1>.
Dasya ca ma <238> is applied, then the taddhita pratyaya [p], and then ado-mt
parasya sarvevarasya u yathea-siddhi (245):
adas + au (238) ada + au ama + au (1081) ama + [p] + au
(1053) am + au (144) am + (43) ame (245) am <1.2>.
adas + [j]as (238) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as (1081) ama + [p] + [j]as
(1053) am + as (42) ams (245) ams (93) am <1.3>.
adas + am (238) ada + am ama + am (1081) ama + [p] + am
(1053) am + am (94) amm (245) amm <2.1>.
adas + au (238) ada + au ama + au (1081) ama + [p] + au
(1053) am + au (144) am + (43) ame (245) am <2.2>.
adas + []as (238) ada + []as ama + []as (1081) ama + [p] +
[]as (1053) am + as (94) ams (245) ams (93) am <2.3>.
adas + [] (238) ada + [] ama + [] (1081) ama + [p] + []
(1053) am + (145) ame + (54) amay (245) amuy <3.1>.
adas + bhym (238) ada + bhym ama + bhym (1081) ama + [p]
+ bhym (1053) ambhym (245) ambhym <3.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
230
adas + bhis (238) ada + bhis ama + bhis (1081) ama + [p] + bhis
(1053) ambhis (245) ambhis (93) ambhi <3.3>.
By stra 255 the gama sy[p] is applied and the preceding vara becomes vmana:
adas + []e (238) ada + []e ama + []e (1081) ama + [p] + []e
(1053) am + e (255) am + sy[p] + e amasy + e (48) amasyai
(245) amusyai (108) amuyai <4.1>.
adas + bhym (238) ada + bhym ama + bhym (1081) ama + [p]
+ bhym (1053) ambhym (245) ambhym <4.2>.
adas + bhyas (238) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas (1081) ama + [p] +
bhyas (1053) ambhyas (245) ambhyas (93) ambhya <4.3>.
adas + []as[i] (238) ada + []as[i] ama + []as[i] (1081) ama + [p] +
[]as[i] (1053) am + as (255) am + sy[p] + as amasy + as (42)
amasys (245) amusys (108) amuys (93) amuy <5.1>.
adas + bhym (238) ada + bhym ama + bhym (1081) ama + [p]
+ bhym (1053) ambhym (245) ambhym <5.2>.
adas + bhyas (238) ada + bhyas ama + bhyas (1081) ama + [p] +
bhyas (1053) ambhyas (245) ambhyas (93) ambhya <5.3>.
adas + []as (238) ada + []as ama + []as (1081) ama + [p] + []as
(1053) am + as (255) am + sy[p] + as amasy + as (42) amasys
(245) amusys (108) amuys (93) amuy <6.1>.
adas + os (238) ada + os ama + os (1081) ama + [p] + os (1053)
am + os (145) ame + os (54) amayos (245) amuyos amuyo <6.2>.
adas + m (238) ada + m ama + m (1081) ama + [p] + m
(1053) am + m (228) am + s[u] + m amsm (245) amsm
(108) amm <6.3>.
adas + []i (238) ada + []i ama + []i (1081) ama + [p] + []i
(1053) am + []i (255)
am + sy[p] + []i amasy + []i (135)
amasy + m (42) amasym (245) amusym (108) amuym <7.1>.
adas + os (238) ada + os ama + os (1081) ama + [p] + os (1053)
am + os (145) ame + os (54) amayos (245) amuyos amuyo <7.2>.
adas + su[p] (238) ada + su[p] ama + su[p] (1081) ama + [p] +
su[p] (1053) amsu (245) amsu (108) amu <7.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam

eka-vacana
asau
amm
amuy
amuyai
amuy

dvi-vacana
am
am
ambhym
ambhym
ambhym

bahu-vacana
am
am
ambhi
ambhya
ambhya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
231
ah
amuy
saptam
amuym

amuyo
amuyo

amm
amu

dvi + au (238, 247) dva + au (1081) dva + [p] + au (1053) dv + au


(144) dv + (43) dve <1.2>.
dvi + bhym (238, 247) dva + bhym (1081) dva + [p] + bhym
(1053) dvbhym <3.2>.
dvi + os (238, 247) dva + os (1081) dva + [p] + os (1053) dv + os
(145) dve + os (54) dvayos (93) dvayo <7.2>.
case

dvi-vacana
dve
dve
dvbhym
dvbhym
dvbhym
dvayo
dvayo

pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

The taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word bhavat[u], and we get bhavat
<1.1>, bhavatyau <2.1>, and so on:
bhavat + s[u] (138) bhavat <1.1>.
bhavat + au (50) bhavatyau <1.2>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
bhavat
bhavatm
bhavaty
bhavatyai
bhavaty
bhavaty
bhavatym
bhavati

dvi-vacana
bhavatyau
bhavatyau
bhavatbhym
bhavatbhym
bhavatbhym
bhavatyo
bhavatyo
bhavatyau

bahu-vacana
bhavatya
bhavat
bhavatbhi
bhavatbhya
bhavatbhya
bhavatnm
bhavatu
bhavatya

The forms of the word kim are like those of the word sarva:
kim + s[u] (254) ka + s[u] (1081) ka + [p] + s[u] (1053) k + s[u]
(138) k <1.1>.
kim + au (254) ka + au (1081) ka + [p] + au (1053) k + au (144)
k + (43) ke <1.2>.
kim + [j]as (254) ka + [j]as (1081) ka + [p] + [j]as (1053) k + as
(42) ks (93) k <1.3>.
kim + am (254) ka + am (1081) ka + [p] + am (1053) k + am
(94) km <2.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
232
kim + au (254) ka + au (1081) ka + [p] + au (1053) k + au (144)
k + (43) ke <2.2>.
kim + []as (254) ka + []as (1081) ka + [p] + []as (1053) k + as
(94) ks (93) k <2.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
k
km
kay
kasyai
kasy
kasy
kasym
ke

dvi-vacana
ke
ke
kbhym
kbhym
kbhym
kayo
kayo
ke

bahu-vacana
k
k
kbhi
kbhya
kbhya
ksm
ksu
k

SaodhinThe taddhita pratyaya [p] is applied after the word bhavat[u] by rmc caturbhujnubandhn na-rmd acater vha ca man-mt-pacdi-varjam
(1084). Thus we get the feminine nma bhavat to which the sv-dis are applied.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
233
atha brahmai. sarvam sarve sarvi. punas tad-vat. ttydau puruottama-vat.
ubhe.
VttiNow we will give examples of the kanmas in the neuter gender.
sarva + s[u] (157) sarva + am (94) sarva + m sarvam <1.1>.
sarva + au (144) sarva + (43) sarve <1.2>.
sarva + [j]as (158) sarva + []i (159) sarva + n[um] + i (160) sarvan
+ i (163)
sarvni (111) sarvi <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case. From the third case onwards, the
forms are the same as the masculine ones.
256 / @nyaAid"ByastaufsvamaAeaRiNA /
256. anydibhyas tuk sv-amor brahmai
anya-dibhyaafter the words anya and so on; tukthe gama t[uk]; su-amo
when the viubhaktis s[u] and am follow; brahmaiin the neuter gender.
In the neuter gender, when s[u] or am follow, t[uk] is inserted after the
words anya and so on.
anyat anyad. anydaya ekdaaikatara-varjam. tat te tni. idam ime imni.
Vtti anya + s[u] (256) anya + t[uk] + s[u] anyat + s[u] (166) anyat
(61) anyad
(185) anyat <1.1> or anyad <1.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
anyat
anyat
anyena
anyasmai
anyasmt
anyasya
anyasmin
anyat

dvi-vacana
anye
anye
anybhym
anybhym
anybhym
anyayo
anyayo
anye

bahu-vacana
anyni
anyni
anyai
anyebhya
anyebhya
anyem
anyeu
anyni

The anydis are the eleven words beginning with anya, minus the word ekatara.
tad + s[u] (166) tad (185) tat <1.1> or tad <1.1>.
tad + au (238) ta + au (144) ta + (43) te <1.2>.
tad + [j]as (238) ta + [j]as (158) ta + []i (159) ta + n[um] + i
(160) tan + i (163) tni <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth

eka-vacana
tat / tad
tat / tad
tena
tasmai

dvi-vacana
te
te
tbhym
tbhym

bahu-vacana
tni
tni
tai
tebhya

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
234
pacam
tasmt
ah
tasya
saptam
tasmin
idam + s[u] (166) idam <1.1>.

tbhym
tayo
tayo

tebhya
tem
teu

idam + au (238) ida + au ima + au (144) ima + (43) ime <1.2>.


idam + [j]as (238) ida + [j]as ima + [j]as (158) ima + []i (159)
ima + n[um] + i (160) iman + i (163) imni <1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
idam
idam
anena
asmai
asmt
asya
asmin

dvi-vacana
ime
ime
bhym
bhym
bhym
anayo
anayo

bahu-vacana
imni
imni
ebhi
ebhya
ebhya
em
eu

BlaIn forming tat <1.1> / tad <1.1>, the mahhara is done first, then, since a svdi no longer follows, the sasra cannot change to a-rma by stra 238.
257 / i"taIyaEk(tvae k(iTataAnauk(Tanae wd"maetad"Aere"nad"Ade"zAAe aiNA
vaAcya: /
257. dvityaikatve kathitnukathane idam-etador enad-deo brahmai vcya
dvity-ekatvein the second case singular; kathita-anukathane(see explanation
under stra 250); idam-etadoof the words idam and etad; enat-deathe
replacement enat; brahmaiin the neuter gender; vcyait should be stated.
In the neuter gender, in the second case singular, the words idam and etad
are replaced by enat, provided there is kathitnukathana.
etad gacchati atho enat paya. ada. ame iti sthite pacd am amni.dve dve.
bhavat bhavat bhavanti. punas tadvat. kim ke kni. punas tadvat.
VttiAn example of when there is kathitnukathana is etad gacchati atho enat
paya (He goes to this. (then) See this).
etad or idam + am (257) enat + am (166) enat (61) enad (185)
enat <2.1> or enad
<2.1>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana

dvi-vacana

bahu-vacana

enat / enad
enena

ene

enni

enayo
enayo

adas + s[u] (166) adas (93) ada <1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
235
When we have ame, the change to is then done.
adas + au (238) ada + au ama + au (144) ama + (43) ame
(245) am <1.2>.
adas + [j]as (238) ada + [j]as ama + [j]as (158) ama + []i (159)
ama + n[um] + i (160) aman + i (163) amn + i amni (245) amni
<1.3>.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam

eka-vacana
ada
ada
amun
amumai
amumt
amuya
amumin

dvi-vacana
am
am
ambhym
ambhym
ambhym
amuyo
amuyo

bahu-vacana
amni
amni
ambhi
ambhya
ambhya
amm
amu

dvi + au (238, 247) dva + au (144) dva + (43) dve <1.2>.


dvi + au (238, 247) dva + au (144) dva + (43) dve <2.2>.
bhavat[u] + s[u] (166) bhavat (61) bhavad (185) bhavat <1.1> or
bhavad <1.1>.
bhavat[u] + au (144) bhavat + bhavat <1.2>.
bhavat[u] + [j]as (158) bhavat + []i (159) bhava + n[um] + t + i
bhavanti <1.3>.
The declension is the same again in the second case.
case
pratham
dvity
tty
caturth
pacam
ah
saptam
sambodhana

eka-vacana
bhavat / bhavad
bhavat / bhavad
bhavat
bhavate
bhavata
bhavata
bhavati
bhavat / bhavad

dvi-vacana
bhavat
bhavat
bhavadbhym
bhavadbhym
bhavadbhym
bhavato
bhavato
bhavat

bahu-vacana
bhavanti
bhavanti
bhavadbhi
bhavadbhya
bhavadbhya
bhavatm
bhavatsu
bhavanti

kim + s[u] (166) kim <1.1>.


kim + au (254) ka + au (144) ka + (43) ke <1.2>.
(160)

kim + [j]as (254) ka + [j]as (158) ka + []i (159) ka + n[um] + i


kan + i (163) kn + i kni <1.3>.

The declension is the same again in the second case.


case
pratham

eka-vacana
kim

dvi-vacana
ke

bahu-vacana
kni

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
236
dvity
kim
tty
kena
caturth
kasmai
pacam
kasmt
ah
kasya
saptam
kasmin

ke
kbhym
kbhym
kbhym
kayo
kayo

kni
kai
kebhya
kebhya
kem
keu

AmtaHowever, in the second case dual and plural and also when [] and os
follow, the words etad and idam are replaced by ena as previously ordained by etadidamor ena kathitnukathane dvity-aussu (243).
SaodhinOne has to be careful whenever one sees the words kim, tat, or yat in a
sentence, because each of these words has many possible meanings. For example,
kim could be the neuter first or second case singular form of the kanma kim, or it
could be any form of the kanma kim appearing as the first word in a samsa, or it
could be the avyaya kim. In the first scenario the sv-di is deleted by brahmata svamor mahhara (166), in the second scenario the sv-di is deleted by antaraga-svder mahhara eka-padatvrambhe (601), and in the third scenario the sv-di is
deleted by avyayt sv-der mahhara (258). Examples of these scenarios are sa ki
ktavn (What did he do?), ki-rpa (one of which shape?), and kim svapna etat
(Is this a dream?) respectively.
Similarly, tat and yat could be the neuter first or second case singular forms of the
kanmas tad and yad, or they could be any form of the kanmas tad and yad
appearing as the first word in a samsa, or they could be the avyayas tad and yad. In
these scenarios the sv-dis are deleted by the same stras mentioned above.
Examples of tat are jagma tat sthnam (He went to that place), ka tadbhaktn playati (Ka protects His devotees), and tad dharim rayeta
(Therefore, one should take shelter of Hari) respectively, and examples of yat are
yad rpam priyam (which form is dear), yat-dir bhaktn madayati (Whose
glance maddens the devotees), and yat ka parama-purua (Because Ka is
the Supreme Person...) respectively.
In the Vedas and in texts like the Upaniads and the Bhgavatam, which contain traces
of the Vedic language, tat and yat can also stand for any form of the kanmas tad
and yad. This is in accordance with the Pinian stra sup su-luk-prva-savarcche-y--y-yj-la (Adhyy 7.1.39), a stra that describes, among other
things, the luk (mahhara) of the sups (sv-dis) sometimes seen in the Vedas. Thus the
cryas explain that yat in Bhgavatam 1.1.1 means yasmin, that yad in Bhgavatam
1.1.14 means yato nmna, that yat in Bhgavatam 1.8.25 means ysu vipatsu, that
yat in Bhgavatam 10.31.15 means yad, and that tat in Bhgavatam 10.83.28 means
tad. In the same way yad api and tad api are sometimes used in the place of yady api
(even if / even though) and tathpi (still / nevertheless). Examples of this can be
seen in Bhgavatam 11.13.2 and Rpa Gosvms song Deva bhavanta vande.
258 / @vyayaAtsvaAde"maRh"Ah"r": /
258. avyayt sv-der mahhara
avyaytafter an avyaya; sv-deof any sv-di; mahharamahhara.
After an avyaya, all the sv-dis undergo mahhara.
259 / svar"Aid" caAid" vad"Aid"tai"ta: ftvaA maAnta k{(d"vyayama, /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
237
259. svar-di cdi vad-di-taddhita ktv mnta ca kd avyayam
svar-dithe words svar (heaven) and so on; ca-dithe words ca (and) and so
on; vat-di-taddhitathe taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so on; ktv[k]tv; ma-anta
which end in ma-rma; caand; ktthe kt pratyayas; avyayamavyayas.
The following are avyayas: (i) the words svar and so on, (ii) the words ca and
so on, (iii) words which end1 in the taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so on, and
(iv) words which end in the kt pratyaya [k]tv or a kt pratyaya which ends
in m.
avyay khalu vcak dyotak ca. tatra vcaksvar prtar ity-daya. e
vieaasya brahmatvam eva. sundara sva, sundare sva, sundari sva itydaya. dyotakca v ha aha vai tu api ity-daya. prdaya ca. etebhyo
dyotyatay arth vidyante em ity arthavattvt svdy-utpatti. kintu prathamaikavacanam eva.
vad-di-taddhitahari-vat k-bhavati ity-daya. ktv mnta ktktv
kartu kra kram ity-di ca. mahharatvd o au paveu naaho ity-di jeyam.
iti kanma-prakaraam iti r-hari-nmmtkhye vaiava-vykarae nmaviupada-prakaraa dvityam.
SaodhinIn the printed editions of Hari-nmmta this stra appears in the vtti.
But it is actually meant to be a separate stra because it is Jva Gosvms equivalent
for the Pinian stras svar-di-niptam avyayam (Adhyy 1.1.37), taddhita
csarva-vibhakti (Adhyy 1.1.38), kn m-ej-anta (Adhyy 1.1.39), and
ktvtosun-kasuna (Adhyy 1.1.40). Indeed without this stra, there would be
nothing to tell us that words which end in the taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so on are
avyayas. Thus it is required. Ktv mnta ca kd avyayam is listed as a separate stra
in the Kraka-prakaraa of the printed editions of Hari-nmmta, but it should be
taken as vtti material because it is just Jva Gosvm quoting a portion of the current
stra.
VttiAvyayas are actually of two kinds, vcakas (expressive words) and dyotakas
(suggestive words). In that regard, the vcakas are the words svar, prtar, and so on.
The vieaa of a vcaka avyaya can only be neuter. For example, sundara sva
(the beautiful heaven), sundare sva (the beautiful two heavens), sundari sva
(the beautiful heavens), and so on. The dyotakas are the words ca, v, ha, aha, vai,
tu, api, and so on, as well as the words pra and so on. The application of a sv-di takes
place after the dyotakas because they are arthavat since, through the power of
suggestion, they have meanings. But only the first case singular ending (s[u]) is
applied.
AmtaAn avyaya is that which doesnt undergo any vyaya (change), in other
words that which doesnt have a different form in the various genders, viubhaktis,
and vacanas. In this regard, the previous authorities have spoken the following verse:
sada triu ligeu
sarvsu ca vibhaktiu
vacaneu ca sarveu
yan na vyeti tad avyayam
1 We have translated vad-di-taddhita as words which end in the taddhita pratyayas
vat[i] and so on because, in vtti 1252, Jva Gosvm says tasim rabhya sarvam
etad-antam avyayam (All words which end in one of the taddhita pratyayas from tas[i]
up to now are avyayas). Siddhnta-kaumud, commenting on Adhyy 1.1.38-40
also explains things in the same way. For example, commenting on ktvtosun-kasuna
(Adhyy 1.1.40), it says etad-antam avyayam syt.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
238
An avyaya is that which doesnt change (vyeti), but remains the same in the three
genders and in all the vibhaktis and vacanas.
The following words are also vcakas: antar, punar, uccais, ncais, anais, te, rt,
pthak, hyas, vas, syam, mank, at, joam, tm, addh, nika, samay,
bahis, svayam, naktam, div, vth, mudh, m, mithy, vin, nn, sahas,
namas, svasti, svadh, asti, pur, mitho, mithas, pryas, muhur, saha, skam,
srdham, ajas, akasmt, adhun, prdur, vir, samyak, prabhti, prasahya, drk,
jhaiti, ahnya, diy, dhruvam, param, jtu, kte, cirm, sakt, sapadi, alam,
avayam, and so on.
The following words are also dyotakas: eva, iva, evam, nnam, avat, yugapat,
bhyas, yadi, cet, kaccit, hanta, m, m[], msma, sma, na[], svh, khalu, kila, atho,
atha, uta, aho, tu, hi, nu, nanu, suhu, nma, iti, and so on.
The dyotakas only take pratham eka-vacana because they are devoid of gender and
number since they dont express a dravya (thing). Pratham is used because they
express the mere meaning of the nma (see stra 625), while eka-vacana is used
simply for the sake of propriety.1
SaodhinAs explained above, the svar-dis are vcakas whereas the cdis are
dyotakas. Siddhnta-kaumud, commenting on the Pinian stra svar-di-niptam
avyayam (Adhyy 1.1.37), says that both the svar-dis and cdis are kti-gaas.2
The svar-dis are vcakas because they express a dravya whereas the cdis are
dyotakas since they dont express a dravya but merely indicate a certain kind of
relation (see Bhartharis Vkya-padya II. 189-206 for further details). Examples of
how the vcakas express a dravya are how the word svar expresses a particular place,
namely heaven, and how the word prtar expresses a particular time3, namely the
morning.
VttiExamples of words ending in the taddhita pratyayas vat[i] and so on are harivat (like Hari), k-bhavati (one who becomes black), and so on. Examples of
words ending in the kt pratyaya [k]tv or a kt pratyaya which ends in m are ktv
(having done), kartum (to do), kra kram (doing again and again), and so on.
One should know that, due to the mahhara of s[u] the dyotakas aho and so on dont
undergo the change to au by o au paveu (141). Thus ends the section on
kanmas. Thus ends the Nma-viupada-prakaraa, the second prakaraa in the
vaiava-vykaraa entitled r-hari-nmmta.
SaodhinWhile we are on the subject of avyayas, two other important avyayas
should be mentioned. They are cid and cana. Amara-koa lists cid and cana in the
Avyaya-varga (group of avyayas) and defines them by saying askalye tu cic cana:
Cid and cana are use in the sense of askalya (non-entirety) (Amara-koa 3.4.3).
1 In this regard, one should remember that Mah-bhya says npada stre
prayujta (That which is not a pada (viupada) cannot be used in an authoritative
work). So the pratham eka-vacana is used just to make a viupada.
2 An kti-gaa is a list of specimens, an inexhaustive collection of words that follow a
particular grammatical rule. Whereas a simple gaa like the tad-dis specifies all the
words that follow a particular rule, an kti-gaa like the svar-dis only gives a few
samples and leaves the group open for other words that follow the same pattern. For
example, even though they are not specifically mentioned in the list of specimens,
words like dhik (shame on, to hell with) and m (yes) are included among the svardis, and words like cid and cana are included among the cdis.
3 In the Kraka-prakaraa, Amta specifies that kla is a dravya by saying klas tu ...
jaa-dravya-viea (Time is a particular inert thing).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
239
The idea is not everything, something, not everyone, someone etc. The western
scholars call cid and cana indefinite particles. Cid and cana are added after
interrogative pronouns formed from the word kim, and they change the sense from an
interrogative one to an indefinite one. For example, ka means who / which? but
kacit (ka + cid) means someone / something. The avyaya api is also added after
interrogative pronouns with the same effect. Even though the interrogative pronoun
and the indefinite particles cid and cana are actually separate viupadas, by
convention they are written without a space between them, both in the native scripts
like Devangr and Bengal and also in the roman transliteration. Thus we get kecit
(ke(icata,,), for example, and not ke cit (ke( icata,). The avyayas cid, cana, and api can be
added after any form of the word kim, in any gender, without restriction. One simply
has to recognize the gender, viubhakti, and vacana by undoing the sandhi between
the interrogative word and the indefinite particle. Thus one will recognize that kacana
is the masculine first case singular form, and so on. A few prominent examples are
given below to help the student further grasp the idea:

kacit, kacana, or kopisomeone / something (masculine)


kcit, kcana, or kpisomeone / something (feminine)
kicit, kicana, or kim apisomeone / something (neuter)

kecit, kecana, or kepisome people / some things (masculine)


kcit, kcana, or k apisome people / some things (feminine)
knicit, knicana, or kny apisome people / some things (neuter)

kenacit, kenacana, or kenpiby someone / by something (masculine)


kaycit, kaycana, or kaypiby someone / by something (feminine)
kenacit, kenacana, or kenpiby someone / by something (neuter)

kasyacit, kasyacana, or kasypiof someone / of something (masculine)


kasycit, kasycana, or kasy apiof someone / of something (feminine)
kasyacit, kasyacana, or kasypiof someone / of something (neuter)

kecit, kecana, or kem apiof some people / of some things


(masculine)
kscit, kscana, or ksm apiof some people / of some things
(feminine)
kecit, kecana, or kem apiof some people / of some things
(neuter)

kasmicit, kasmicana, or kasminn apiin someone / in something


(masculine)
kasycit, kasycana, or kasym apiin someone / in something
(feminine)
kasmicit, kasmicana, or kasminn apiin someone / in something
(neuter)
In these examples the translations someone and so on are for when there is no
vieya mentioned in the sentence. Otherwise, if a vieya is mentioned, then these
words are simply translated as adjectives, i.e some / certain ... and so on. For
example, if we just have the word kacit, we will translate it as someone / something
or a certain person / a certain thing. But, if we have kacit kikara, we will translate
it as some servant or a certain servant.
When the negative particle na[] is used in conjuction with these words, the idea shifts
to not something, nothing, not someone, no one etc. For example, in Bhagavadgt 7.26, we find the statement m tu veda na kacana (but Me no one knows).
Moreover, when a parallel form of the word yad is used in conjuction with these words,

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
240
the idea shifts to whatever, whoever etc. For example, yat kicit pauruam
(whatever extraordinary power) in Bhgavatam 10.89.62, santuo yena kenacit
(satisfied with anything) in Bhagavad-gt 12.19, and yasya kasypi karmaa (of
any activity) in Bhad-bhgavatmta 2.4.107. Sometimes the same idea is
understood even when there is no usage of cid, cana, or api. An example of this is yni
kni ca papni ... tni tni pranayanti (whatever sins there are, they are all
destroyed). Here yni kni means yni knicit. Jva Gosvm explains things in the
same thing in his Sarva-savdin commentary, while commenting on the words yad
kad that appear in a verse in anuccheda 82 of the Ka-sandarbha. For example, he
says yad kadeti yad kadcid evety artha (yad kad just means yad kadcit
(whenever)).
The mention of kadcit here brings us to another point, namely that the avyayas cid,
cana, and api are also added after interrogative avyayas that are derived from the
word kim. These interrogative avyayas and their indefinite counterparts are shown in
the table below.
kati (how many?)
katham (how? in which
way?)
kad (at which time?)
karhi (at which time?)
kutas (from where? for
which reason?)
kutra (where?)
kva (where?)

katicit, katicana, katy api (some)


kathacit, kathacana, katham api (somehow, in some
way)
kadcit, kadcana, kadpi (at some time, sometimes)
karhicit, karhicana, karhy api (at some time,
sometimes)
kutacit, kutacana, kutopi (from somewhere, for some
reason)
kutracit, kutracana, kutrpi (somewhere, in some
place)
kvacit, kvacana, kvpi (somewhere, in some place)

Examples of when the negative particle na[] is used in conjuction with these words are
na kathacit (in no way), na kadcana (never), na kuto pi (from nowhere, for no
reason), na kutracit (nowhere, in no place), and so on. One should bear in mind that
in most sentences the negative particle na[] is usually in a different part of the
sentence than the indefinite word, since what na[] really negates is the verb. For
example, in Bhagavad-gt 2.20, we find na jyate mriyate v kadcit ([The soul]
never takes birth or dies, or more literally: [The soul] doesnt take birth or die at any
time).
Examples of when a parallel avyaya form of the word yad is used in conjuction with
these words are yath kathacit (in any way, somehow or other) in Bhakti-rasmtasindhu 2.4.49, yad kadcit (whenever) in Bhad-bhgavatmta 2.4.119, yatra
kutrpi (anywhere, wherever) in Bhad-bhgavatmta 2.1.162, and yatra kvpi
(wherever) in the following verse of Mdhavendra Pur:
sandhy-vandana bhadram astu bhavato bho snna tubhya namo
bho dev pitara ca tarpaa-vidhau nha kama kamyatm
yatra kvpi niadya ydava-kulottasasya kasa-dvia
smra smram agha harmi tad ala manye kim anyena me
"O my prayers three times a day, all glory to you. O bathing, I offer my obeisances
unto you. O demigods! O forefathers! Please excuse me for my inability to offer you
my respects. Now wherever I sit, I can remember the great descendant of the Yadu
dynasty [Ka], the enemy of Kasa, and thereby I can free myself from all sinful
bondage. I think this is sufficient for me." (from Padyval, quoted in rla
Prabhupdas purport to Bhagavad-gt 2.52).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
241

khyta-prakaraam
Invocation
avataRntae i(yaA: s$avaAR yataAe'vaARcaInavastauSau /
h"re"stasyaEva laIlaAstaA ina&pyantae yaTaAmaita //
pravartante kriy sarv
yato rvcna-vastuu
hares tasyaiva lls t
nirpyante yath-mati
pravartanteproceed; kriyactions; sarvall; yatafrom whom; arvcnavastuutowards modern-day1 objects; hareof Hari; tasyaof Him; evaonly;
llpastimes; tthese actions; nirpyanteare described; yath-matiaccording
to my understanding.
All actions currently directed towards material objects originally emanate
from Hari. They are actually His pastimes, and I will now describe them
according to my understanding.
atha dhtu-jni viupadni
Now the viupadas produced from dhtus are going to be described:
AmtaBy secondary implication (laka) the words sarv kriy (all actions)
also refer to the words which express these actions, namely the verbs bhavati,
obhate, nayati, and so on. The word arvcna-vastuu means laukika-vastuu
(towards material objects). The implied meaning is that what occurs as actions
manifesting in the material worlds is actually nothing but pastimes of Hari. Therefore
describing these activities is itself a study of Lord Haris pastimes.
SaodhinStrictly speaking khyta is the name of the pratyaya which is applied
after a dhtu to make a finite verb. This is seen in vttis 89 and 271. But often the
term khyta is used to refer to the finite verb which ends in the khyta pratyaya. In
the Pinian system, sup is the equivalent term for the sv-dis and ti is the equivalent
term for the khytas. There also the term sup is commonly used to refer to a subanta (a declined noun like ka that ends in a sup) and the term ti is commonly
used to refer to a ti-anta (a finite verb like bhavati that ends in a ti). Similarly, in
both systems, the terms kt and taddhita commonly refer to a kdanta (a word
ending in a kt pratyaya) and a taddhitnta (a word ending in the taddhita
pratyaya). Sometimes in older treatises the term khyta refers to the dhtu (verbal
root). For example, g-veda Prtikhya 12.5 says tan nma yenbhidadhti sattva,
tad khyta yena bhva sa dhtu A nma is that with which one expresses a
sattva (thing). An khyta is that with which one expresses a bhva (activity). An
khyta is also called a dhtu.
260 / BaUs$anantaAA DaAtava: /
260. bh-sanantdy dhtava

1 The word arvcna (recent, modern) is the opposite of the word prcna
(previous, ancient).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
242
bh-san-anta-dythose headed by bh and san-anta; dhtavadhtus (verbal
roots).
Bh and so on and san-anta and so on are called dhtus.
bh sattym ity-daya san-di-pratyaynt ca dhtu-saj syu.
VttiBh sattym and so on and those that end in the pratyayas sa[n] and so on
are called dhtus.
SaodhinIn this stra, the two kinds of dhtus, primary and secondary, are
referred to by listing a specimen from each group. Bh sattym, the first dhtu in the
Dhtu-pha (list of dhtus), is an example of a primary dhtu, while san-anta
(desiderative) is an example of a secondary dhtu. The primary dhtus are listed in the
Dhtu-pha, while the secondary dhtus are formed by applying pratyayas like sa[n]
and so on after a primary dhtu or nma-viupada. Almost 2000 primary dhtus are
listed in the Pinian Dhtu-pha, but many of them are repetitive or out of use. Thus
Jva Gosvm, selecting the essential ones among them, has listed 1122 primary
dhtus in his Dhtu-pha. The primary dhtus are divided into ten classes, named
after the first dhtu in each class: 1) bhv-di, 2) ad-di, 3) hv-di, 4) div-di, 5) sv-di,
6) tud-di, 7) rudh-di, 8) tan-di, 9) kry-di, and 10) cur-di.
As mentioned in the vtti here, the pratyayas used to form the secondary dhtus are
called the san-dis. The san-dis are the pratyayas sa[n], [k]ya[n], [k]ya[], kmya,
[k]vi[p] which has the sense of [k]ya[], []i, ya[k] that is applied after the words ka
and so on, ya, ya[], and ya[] . The secondary dhtus thus formed are called sananta, kyan-anta, kya-anta, and so on. The number of secondary dhtus that can be
formed by applying these pratyayas after a primary dhtu or nma-viupada is
practically unlimited, and thus the secondary dhtus are not listed in the Dhtu-pha.
1

261 / DaAtaAe: /
261. dhto
dhtoafter a dhtu, of a dhtu, when a dhtu follows (see explanation below).
The word dhto is to be supplied in the subsequent stras.
adhikro yam. prva-nimittdi-bhedena sa cdhikra catur-vidha. tatra krya ca
saj-vidhi-niedha-bhedena tri-vidham iti sapta-vidha. sa ca sajtyavijtynekdhikrasya vyp vsudeva-saja. tad-avntarnekdhikra-vyp
vibhu-saja. kevala prabhu-saja. tatra vsudevo yam. kintu dhtor iti
sambandha-smnya-nirded yath-yatha pacamy-dy-artho jeya.
VttiThis is an adhikra.2 There are actually four kinds of adhikras due to the
divisions of prva-nimitta and so on. In that regard, the krya is also of three kinds,
1 See the verse in vtti 392.
2 An adhikra-stra is a stra that merely announces the word or words which are to
be supplied in all the stras up to a certain limit. Sometimes Jva Gosvm himself
specifies the limit by saying X iti nirvtta (such and such adhikra ends here) in the
vtti of the last stra to which the adhikra extends. But often the limit of the adhikra
is left unspecified and it is up to the common sense of the reader to estimate the limit.
In this case Amta 599 specifies that this adhikra finishes at the end of the cakrapiprakriy.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
243
due to the divisions of saj (name), vidhi (rule), and niedha (prohibition). Thus
there are seven kinds of adhikra in total. An adhikra that pervades two or more
similar or dissimilar1 adhikras is called vsudeva, an adhikra that is inside of a
vsudeva and that pervades two or more adhikras is called vibhu, and a simple
adhikra is called prabhu. In that regard, the current stra is a vsudeva adhikra. But
one should know that, due to indicating a general relationship (sambandha-smnya),
the word dhto <6.1> in this stra can also take the meaning of pacam and so on,
depending on what is appropriate.2
AmtaThe four kinds of adhikras are pr-nimitta (same as prva-nimitta), kry,
krya, and para-nimitta. In this connection, because the adhikras are not of seven
kinds here since the divisions of saj and so on pertain to the krya itself, one should
understand that saj is of a further two kinds, namely prv (earlier) and avar
(later).3 In this way, the pr-nimitta, kry, and para-nimitta are three kinds of
adhikras, and the four divisions of kryas are another four kinds. Thus the adhikras
are of seven kinds.
BlaSometimes the word dhto in this stra has the meaning of pacam (prnimitta), sometimes it has the meaning of ah (sambandha-smnya), and
sometimes it has the meaning of saptam (para-nimitta).
SaodhinBefore discussing the next ten stras, it is necessary to first give some
preliminary information about verbal suffixes in the Sanskrit language:
1) As explained previously in vtti 87, the viubhaktis are of two kinds, the sv-dis
and the tib-dis. The sv-dis are nominal suffixes, while the tib-dis are verbal suffixes.
Tib-di is a general term for the 180 pratyayas which will be classified into ten groups
of eighteen each in the next ten stras.
2) The eighteen pratyayas of each group are divided into two categories, parapada and
tmapada, which will be explained in stras 278 to 287.
3) Throughout the khyta-prakaraa the following table will be used to list the ten
groups of tib-dis and the conjugations of verbs:
eka-vacana
(singular)

dvi-vacana
(dual)

bahu-vacana
(plural)

prathamapurua
(third person)4
madhyamapurua
(second
person)
uttama-purua
(first person)
1 Similar adhikras means when all the adhikras included within the vsudeva
adhikra are vibhu adhikras or when they are all prabhu adhikras. Dissimilar
adhikras means when some of the adhikras included within the vsudeva adhikra
are vibhu adhikras while others are prabhu adhikras.
2 In this regard, one should see Jva Gosvms discussion about sambandh in vtti
628 and the accompanying footnote also.
3 These two kinds of saj are described in detail in the vtti of Bhat 582.
4 In Sanskrit the order of personal pronouns is inverted, in relation to English
Grammar.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
244
262 / taa aAyaAe vataRmaAnak(Alae itabaAd"yaAe'"Ad"zAAcyautanaAmaAna: /
262. tatra pryo vartamna-kle tib-dayo dacyuta-nmna
tatrathere; pryagenerally; vartamna-klein the present tense; tib-daya
beginning with ti[p]; adaathe eighteen pratyayas; acyuta-nmnacalled
acyuta
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with ti[p] are generally applied after a
dhtu in the present tense, and they are called acyuta.
tip tas anti. sip thas tha. mip vas mas. te te ante. se the dhve. e vahe mahe. la
ity eke.
VttiThe acyuta pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
ti[p]
si[p]
mi[p]

tas
thas
vas

anti
tha
mas

te
se
e

te
the
vahe

ante
dhve
mahe

2) tmapada

Others call them la.


AmtaDue to the inclusion of the word prya here, it is hinted that the acyuta
pratyayas are used
in the past tense when there is syntactical connection with the words pur and so on1,
and in the future tense when there is syntactical connection with the word kad, karhi,
and so on2. As confirmed by the following phrase of the Amara-koa, the word acyuta
refers to Ka: ptmbaro cyuta rg ([Ka is called] Ptmbara, Acyuta, and
rg). He is called Acyuta because he doesnt fall down (cyavate / cyotati).
SaodhinIn this stra and in the stras up til stra 271, the word dhto, which is
carried forward from stra 261, takes the meaning of pacam. The definitions of the
various tenses and the various situations where acyuta and so on are to be used will
be further explained at the end of the Kraka-prakaraa.
263 / ivaiDas$amBaAvanaAd"AE yaAd"Ad"yaAe ivaiDanaAmaAna: /
263. vidhi-sambhvandau yd-dayo vidhi-nmna
vidhi-sambhvan-dauwhen vidhi, sambhavan, and so on are understood (see
explanation below); yt-dayabeginning with yt; vidhi-nmnacalled vidhi.
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with yt are applied after a dhtu when
vidhi, sambhvan, and so on are understood, and they are called vidhi.
1 This is in accordance with the stras pur-yoge bhtevardi-trayam acyuta ca (703) and smena
yoge tv aparoke ccyuta (704).

2 This is in accordance with the stra yvat-purbhym acyuta kad-karhibhy


blakalki-kalk ca (708).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
245
yt ytm yus. ys ytam yta. ym yva yma. ta ytm ran. ths ythm
dhvam. ya vahi mahi. ete saptam ity anye, vidhi-li ity eke.
VttiThe vidhi pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
yt
ys
ym

ytm
ytam
yva

yus
yta
yma

ta
ths

ytm
yth
m
vahi

ran
dhvam

2) tmapada

ya

mahi

Others call them vidhi-li.


AmtaThe word vidhi refers to Brahm who is so named because he creates
(vidhatte). It is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]i after vi + [u]dh[] dhraapoaayo. It will be described in vtti 714 that vidhir ajta-jpana preaa ca
(vidhi means making known that which was unknown and command). Sambhvan
means kriy-yogyat-nicaya (certainty about a persons ability to perform the
action).1 The word di refers to nimantramantradhi-saprana-prrthaneu
ca (714).
SaodhinThe word di also refers to hetu-tat-phalayo (711) and arha-aktyo
(716). The stra dealing with the usage of the vidhi pratyayas when sambhvan is
understood is bhrthotpyor yoge vidhi, akti-sambhvane cla-abdprayoge
tath (713).
264 / @AzAI:aer"NAAd"AE taubaAd"yaAe ivaDaAta{naAmaAna: /
264. -preradau tub-dayo vidht-nmna
-preraa-dauwhen i (wish, blessing), preraa (command), and so on are
understood; tup-dayabeginning with tu[p]; vidht-nmnacalled vidht.
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with tu[p] are applied after a dhtu when
i, preraa, and so on are understood, and they are called vidht.
tup tm antu. hi tam ta. nip vap map. tm tm antm. sva thm dhvam. aip
vahaip mahaip. lo ity eke.
VttiThe vidht pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
tu[p]
hi
ni[p]

tm
tam
va[p]

antu
ta
ma[p]

tm
sva
ai[p]

tm
thm
vahai[
p]

antm
dhvam
mahai[
p]

2) tmapada

1 It is in this sense that MW says sambhvan means assumption.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
246
Others call them lo.
AmtaAs confirmed by the following phrase of the Amara-koa, the word vidht
refers to Brahm: vidht viva-s vidhi ([Brahm is called] Vidht, Viva-sj, and
Vidhi). It is formed by applying the kt pratyaya t[l] after vi + [u]dh[] dhraapoaayo. The word di refers to vidhi-nimantramantradhi-sapranaprrthaneu ca (714).
SaodhinThe word di also refers to praitisarga-prpta-klatveu (715).
265 / @natanaBaUtae id"baAd"yaAe BaUtaer"naAmaAna: /
265. anadyatana-bhte dib-dayo bhtevara-nmna
anadyatana-bhtein the past tense which is not of the same day; dip-daya
beginning with d[ip]; bhtevara-nmnacalled bhtevara.
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with d[ip] are applied after a dhtu in the
past tense which is not of the same day, and they are called bhtevara.
dip tm an. sip tam ta. pam va ma. ta tm anta. ths thm dhvam. i vahi mahi. ete
hyastan ity anye, la ity eke.
VttiThe bhtevara pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
d[ip]
s[ip]
[p]am

tm
tam
va

an
ta
ma

ta
ths
i

tm
thm
vahi

anta
dhvam
mahi

2) tmapada

Others call them la.


AmtaThe past tense is actually of two kinds, adyatana and anadyatana. It will be
described in vtti 701 that prvpara-niayor dvbhy ymbhy saha divasam
adyatana, tad-bhinno nadyatana (adyatana (today) means the four ymas1 of
the day along with two ymas of the previous night and two ymas of the following
night. Anadyatana (not today) is anything other than that). 2 The word bhtevara,
which means Lord of the bhtas (ghosts), refers to Lord iva.
266 / BaUtae id"baAd"yaAe BaUtaezAnaAmaAna: /
266. bhte dib-dayo bhtea-nmna
1 A particular division of time equivalent to three hours.
2 The two ymas of the previous night are 12am 6am, the four ymas of the day are
6am 6pm, and the two ymas of the following night are 6pm 12am. Thus the Vedic
adyatana (today) is the same as the modern one in that it refers to the 24 hour
period spanning from one midnight to the next.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
247
bhtein the past tense; dip-dayabeginning with d[ip]; bhtea-nmnacalled
bhtea.
The same eighteen pratyayas beginning with d[ip] are applied after a dhtu
in the past tense, and they are called bhtea.
lu ity eke.
VttiOthers call them lu.
AmtaSince there is no particular restriction here, the bhtea pratyayas are used
both in adyatana-bhta and anadyatana-bhta. The word bhtea (Lord of the
bhtas) also refers to Lord iva.
267 / par"AeaBaUtae NAlaAd"yaAe'DaAeajanaAmaAna: /
267. paroka-bhte al-dayo dhokaja-nmna
paroka-bhtein the past tense beyond the scope of the eyes; al-daya
beginning with []a[l]; adhokaja-nmnacalled adhokaja.
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with []a[l] are applied after a dhtu in
the past tense which was not witnessed by the speaker, and they are called
adhokaja.
al atus us. thal athus a. al va ma. e te ire. se the dhve. e vahe mahe. li ity eke.
VttiThe adhokaja pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
[]a[l]
tha[l]
[]a[l]

atus
athus
va

us
a
ma

e
se
e

te
the
vahe

ire
dhve
mahe

2) tmapada

Others call them li.


AmtaThe word paroka is a prva-nipta-samsa which means aka param
(beyond the eyes). Because of the impossibility of using the first person in the past
tense which was not witnessed by the speaker, it is considered that the adhokaja
pratyayas are also used in the sense of apahnava (denial of the truth). The word
adhokaja refers to Ka who is so named because He is manifest (jyate) beyond
the reach (adha) of the senses (akm)1. Furthermore, adhokaja is a name given
by Nanda and others after the breaking of the cart because it seemed as if Ka had
been born again (jta) under (adha) the axle (aka) of the cart
SaodhinThe example of apahnava will be given in vtti 702 and an example of
the usage of adhokaja when there is unawareness of ones own actions will also be
given there. Moreover, it will be further specified there that, as well as being paroka,
1 The exact words of Amta in this regard, are akm indriym adha bahir
jyate prakate ity adhokaja.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
248
the past tense must also be anadyatana for the adhokaja pratyayas to be used.
Laghu-bhgavatmta (1.5.75) explains the origin of the name adhokaja as follows:
eo dha akaasyke
punar-jta ivety ata
adhokaja iti prhur
iti k-ktoditam
Because He was so to speak born again under the axle of a cart, therefore
the cowherds named Him Adhokaja. Such is the stated opinion of the
commentator on these verses.
268 / @AizAiSa yaAtyaAstaAimatyaAd"ya: k(AmapaAlanaAmaAna: /
268. ii yt ystm ity-daya kma-pla-nmna
iiwhen i (wish, blessing) is understood; yt ystm ity-dayabeginning
with yt and ystm; kma-pla-nmnacalled kmapla.
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with yt and ystm are applied after a
dhtu when i is understood, and they are called kmapla.
yt ystm ysus. ys ystam ysta. ysam ysva ysma. sa systm sran.
shs systhm sdhvam. sya svahi smahi. r-li ity eke.
VttiThe kmapla pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
yt
ys
ysam

ystm
ystam
ysva

ysus
ysta
ysma

sa

syst
m
systh
m
svahi

sran

2) tmapada
shs
sya

sdhva
m
smahi

Others call them r-li.


AmtaAs confirmed by the following phrase of the Amara-koa, the word kmapla
refers to Baladeva: kmaplo halyudha ([Baladeva is called] Kmapla and
Halyudha). He is called Kmapla because, since He is the elder brother, He protects
(playati) the God of love, Ka (kmam).
269 / @h"ARTaeR'natanaBaivaSyaita ca taAd"yaAe baAlak(ilk(naAmaAna: /
269. arhrthe nadyatana-bhaviyati ca tdayo bla-kalki-nmna
arha-arthein the sense of arha (deserving / qualifying for); anadyatana-bhaviyati
in the future tense which is not of the same day; caand; t-dayabeginning with
t; bla-kalki-nmnacalled blakalki.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
249
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with t are applied after a dhtu in the
sense of arha or in the future tense which is not of the same day, and they
are called blakalki.
t trau tras. tsi tsthas tstha. tsmi tsvas tsmas. t trau tras. tse tsthe
tdhve. the tsvahe tsmahe. lu ity eke.
VttiThe blakalki pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
t
tsi
tsmi

trau
tsthas
tsvas

tras
tstha
tsmas

t
tse
the

trau
tsthe
tsvahe

tras
tdhve
tsmah
e

2) tmapada

Others call them lu.


AmtaKalki is a famous future incarnation of God. In His form as a child He is called
Bla-kalki.
270 / BaivaSyatk(Alae syatyaAd"ya: k(ilk(naAmaAna: /
270. bhaviyat-kle syaty-daya kalki-nmna
bhaviyat-klein the future tense; syati-dayabeginning with syati; kalkinmnacalled kalki.
The eighteen pratyayas beginning with syati are applied after a dhtu in the
future tense, and they are called kalki.
syati syatas syanti. syasi syathas syatha. symi syvas symas. syate syete syante.
syase syethe syadhve. sye syvahe symahe. l ity eke.
VttiThe kalki pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
syati
syasi
symi

syatas
syathas
syvas

syanti
syatha
symas

syate
syase

syete
syethe

sye

syvahe

syante
syadhv
e
symah
e

2) tmapada

Others call them l.


AmtaSince there is no particular restriction here, the kalki pratyayas are used both
in adyatana-bhaviyat and anadyatana-bhaviyat.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
250
271 / s$aAk(AM yaa i(yaAita(maAe inaidR"zyatae , taa k(AyaRk(Ar"NAyaAe:
syad"Aid"k(A @ijatanaAmaAnaAe BaUtae BaivaSyaita ca /
271. skka yatra kriytikramo nirdiyate, tatra krya-kraayo syad-dik ajitanmno bhte bhaviyati ca
sa-kkamin such a way that a complement is required (see Saodhin 711);
yatrawhere; kriy-atikramanon-accomplishment of the kriy (action); nirdiyate
indicated; tatrathere; krya-kraayowhen krya (effect) and kraa
(cause) are understood; syad-dikbeginning with syat; ajita-nmnacalled
ajita; bhtein the past tense; bhaviyatiin the future tense; caand.
When non-accomplishment of the action is indicated in such a way that a
complement is required and the relationship of cause and effect is
understood, the eighteen pratyayas beginning with syat are applied after a
dhtu in the past tense or future tense, and they are called ajita.
syat syatm syan. syas syatam syata. syam syva syma. syata syetm syanta.
syaths syethm syadhvam. sye syvahi symahi. l ity eke. acyutdayas ti ity
eke, khytam iti sarve. sarvatra pa-rma it, a-lau ca, dip-sipor i-rma ca.
VttiThe ajita pratyayas are as follows:
1) parapada
syat
syas
syam

syatm
syatam
syva

syan
syata
syma

syata
syaths

syetm
syeth
m
syvahi

syanta
syadhva
m
symah
i

2) tmapada

sye

Others call them l. Some call the acyutdis (all the pratyayas from acyuta til ajita) ti.
Everyone calls them khytas. In all these pratyayas the p is an indicatory letter, as
are the and l, and the i in d[ip] and s[ip].
AmtaThe word ajita, which means he who is not conquered (jita) by anyone, refers
to Viu or to the particular incarnation of Viu called Ajita.
272 / ipatpa{Tau: /
272. pit pthu
p-itthat which has the indicatory letter p; pthucalled pthu.
A pratyaya that comes after a dhtu and has the indicatory letter p is called
pthu.
AmtaThe word pthu refers to the king named Pthu who was a akty-veaavatra.
SaodhinIn this stra and in the stras up til stra 277, the word dhto, which is
carried forward from stra 261, takes the meaning of pacam. Thus the acyuta

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
251
pratyayas ti[p], si[p], mi[p] are pthus because they are applied after a dhtu, but the
sv-di su[p] is not a pthu because it is not applied after a dhtu.
273 / iNAa{is$aMh": /
273. in nsiha
-itthat which has the indicatory letter ; nsihacalled nsiha.
A pratyaya that comes after a dhtu and has the indicatory letter is called
nsimha.
AmtaThe word nsiha, which means kicid aga nara kicid aga siha (partman, part-lion), refers to the ll-avatra named Nsiha who killed the demon
Hirayakaipu and protected Prahlda.
274 / ik(tk(ipala: /
274. kit kapila
k-itthat which has the indicatory letter k; kapilacalled kapila.
A pratyaya that comes after a dhtu and has the indicatory letter k is called
kapila.
SaodhinLaghu-bhgavatmta (1.3.42) explains the origin of the name kapila as
follows:
prokta kapila-varatvt
kapilkhyo viricin
Because of His reddish complexion, Lord Brahm named Him Kapila.
And Laghu-bhgavatmta (1.3.43-44) says:
pdme
kapilo vsudevas
tattva skhya jagda ha
brahmdibhya ca devebhyo
bhgv-dibhyas tathaiva ca
tathaivsuraye sarvavedrthair upabhitam
In the Padma Pura: Lord Kapila, the partial expansion of Vsudeva, spoke the
science of Skhya, replete with all the purports of Vedas, to the demigods headed by
Brahm, to the sages headed by Bhgu, and also to suri.
sarva-veda-viruddha ca
kapilo nyo jagda ha
skhyam suraye nyasmai
kutarka-paribhitam

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252
A different Kapila spoke a Skhya philosophy altogether contrary to the Vedas and
full of bad logic, to a different suri.
To resolve the confusion of those who wonder whether this same Kapila was also the
author of the popular atheistic Skhya, the Padma Pura explains that the atheist
Kapila was a different person, an ordinary jva who happened to use the same name
and promoted a similar but deviant philosophy. What the son of Devahti taught is
perfectly consistent with the Skhya principles found in the Vedas and Upaniads, but
the other Kapila invented his own ideas without following Vedic authority. According to
Mrkaeya i speaking in the Mahbhrata (Vana-parva 152.21), the atheist Kapila
was a descendant and empowered representative of the fire-god:
kapila paramari ca / ya prhur yataya sad
agni sa kapilo nma / skhya-yoga-pravartaka
Self-controlled renunciants often refer to Kapila as one of the most exalted sages.
Actually it was Agni himself who appeared with the name Kapila and instituted the
yoga system of Skhya.
275 / ix~iagAuRNA: /
275. in nirgua
-itthat which has the indicatory letter ; nirguacalled nirgua.
A pratyaya that comes after a dhtu and has the indicatory letter is called
nirgua.
AmtaThe word nirgua, which means he in whom there are no guas like the
material modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance, refers to Lord Hari. For example,
rmad-bhgavatam (10.88.5) says harir hi nirgua (Hari is certainly nirgua).
276 / ik(a ix~a kM(s$aAir": /
276. kic ca ic ca kasri
k-itthat which has the indicatory letter k; caand; -itthat which has the indicatory
letter ; caand; kasricalled kasri.
A pratyaya that comes after a dhtu and has the indicatory letter k or is
called kasri.
AmtaThe word kasri (enemy of Kasa) refers to Ka, the son of Vasudeva.
Even though the grammatical operations could be accomplished merely by the using
the names kapila and nirgua, still, where it is necessary to employ both names
simultaneously as nimittas, it is cumbersome to separately mention both names. Thus
one should know that the name kasri is made here for the sake of brevity.
SaodhinIt will be explained in stra 331 that a kmapla parapada pratyaya is
also called kapila. Thus the pratyayas yt, ystm, and so on are kapila even though
they dont have the indicatory letter k. Furthermore, in vtti 331 Jva Gosvm says
kapilatvt kasri (since they are kapila they are also kasri). Thus the forms
bhyt and so on are made in vtti 331 by applying the rule asya na govindavndrau kasriu (294). Similarly, it will be explained in stra 290 that a kadhtuka which is not pthu is also called nirgua. Thus pratyayas like tas, anti, and so

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
253
on are nirgua even though they dont have the indicatory letter . Futhermore, it is
obvious that Jva Gosvm also counts such nirgua pratyayas as kasris even
though they dont have the indicatory letter because we see he makes forms like
ma in vtti 502 and brta in vtti 517 by applying the rule asya na govindavndrau kasriu (294). Therefore, to avoid avypti, this rule should be
understood to mean kapila ca nirgua ca kasri (kapila and nirgua are also
called kasri).
277 / izAitzAva: /
277. it iva
-itthat which has the indicatory letter ; ivacalled iva.
A pratyaya that comes after a dhtu and has the indicatory letter is called
iva.
Amtaiva is the Lords guvatra.
278 / itabaAid"navanavaAnaAM paUvaRpaUvaARiNA par"pad"s$aMaAina /
278. tib-di-nava-navn prva-prvi para-pada-sajni
tib-di-nava-navnmof the two groups of nine among each group of tib-dis; prvaprvithe first group; para-pada-sajnicalled parapada.
The first nine pratyayas of each group of tib-dis are called parapada.
parasmaipadni ity anye. tip tas anti ity-dni. yt ytm yus ity-dni. evam
uttaratrpi.
VttiOthers call them parasmaipada. Thus tip, tas, anti, and so on are called
parapada, as are yt, ytm, yus, and so on. The same pattern also occurs in the other
groups.
AmtaThe meaning of this stra is that the first nine in every group like acyuta and
so on are called parapada. The word para-pada (supreme abode) is a name of the
Lord because it refers to Vaikuha.
279 / oar"Aear"ANyaAtmapad"s$aMak(Aina /
279. uttarottary tma-pada-sajakni
uttara-uttarithe second group; tma-pada-sajaknicalled tmapada.
The other nine pratyayas of each group of tib-dis are called tmapada.
tmanepadni ity anye. te te ante ity-dni. ta ytm ran ity-dni. evam
uttaratrpi.
VttiOthers call them tmanepada. Thus te, te, ante, and so on are called
tmapada, as are ta, ytm, ran, and so on. The same pattern also occurs in the
other groups.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
254
AmtaThe meaning of this stra is that the later nine in every group like acyuta and
so on are called tmapada. The word tma-pada (abode of the tma) is a name of
the Lord because the word tma refers to the Lords indwelling feature as Paramtma.
280 / navake(Sau aIiNA aIiNA aTamamaDyamaAeamapau&Sas$aMak(Aina /
280. navakeu tri tri prathama-madhyamottama-purua-sajakni
navakeuin each group of nine; tri trieach successive group of three;
prathama-madhyama-uttama-purua-sajaknicalled prathama-purua,
madhyama-purua, and uttama-purua.
Each group of nine pratyayas is divided into groups of three called
prathama-purua, madhyama-purua, and uttama-purua respectively.
yathtip tas anti iti prathama-purua. sip thas tha iti madhyama. mip vas mas iti
uttama. te te ante ity-di.
VttiFor example, ti[p], tas, and anti are called prathama-purua, si[p], thas, and
tha are called madhyama-purua, and mi[p], vas, and mas are called uttama-purua.
Similarly, te, te, and ante are called prathama-purua, and so on.
AmtaPrathama-purua refers to Kraodaka-y Viu, the creator of the mahattattva, madhyama-purua refers to Garbhodaka-y Viu, the Supersoul of the
universe, and uttama-purua refers to Krodaka-y Viu, the Supersoul dwelling
within each individual jva.
281 / @cyautaAd"ya: paa izAva k{(SNADaAtauk(A: /
281. acyutdaya paca iva ca ka-dhtuk
acyuta-dayabeginning with acyuta; pacafive; ivaiva; caand; kadhtukcalled ka-dhtukas.
The iva pratyayas and the five groups of tib-dis beginning with acyuta are
called ka-dhtukas.
srvadhtukni ity eke.
VttiSome call them srvadhtukas.
SaodhinThe ka-dhtukas are acyuta, vidhi, vidht, bhtevara, and
bhtea, plus all the iva pratyayas.
282 / @nyae atyayaA r"AmaDaAtauk(A:

282. anye pratyay rma-dhtuk


anyeother; pratyaypratyayas; rma-dhtukrma-dhtukas.
All other pratyayas that are applied after a dhtu are called rma-dhtukas.
rdhadhtukni ity eke.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
255
VttiSome call them rdhadhtukas.
AmtaAll pratyayas, apart from the ka-dhtukas, that are applied after a dhtu
are called rma-dhtukas.
SaodhinThe rma-dhtukas are adhokaja, kmapla, blakalki, kalki, ajita, and
any pratyaya which is not iva.
283 / par"pad"Aina k(taRir" /
283. parapadni kartari
parapadnithe parapada pratyayas; kartariwhen the kart (agent, subject) is to
be expressed.
The parapada pratyayas are applied after a dhtu in kartari prayoga.
SaodhinThe commentaries explain that, in the stras, words like kartari,
karmai, bhve and so on, really mean kartari vcye (when the kart is to be
expressed), karmai vcye (when the karma is to be expressed), bhve vcye
(when the bhva is to be expressed), and so on. The terms kartari prayoga (the
active voice), karmai prayoga (the passive voice), bhve prayoga (the impersonal
passive), and so on are commonly used to express the same idea. The terms kartvcya, karma-vcya, bhva-vcya, and so on, which have the same meaning, are also
occasionally used for this purpose. But in this edition we will translate kartari and so on
as in kartari prayoga and so on.
284 / @Atmapaid"Bya @Atmapad"Aina ix~ta /
284. tmapadibhya tmapadni ita ca
tmapadibhyaafter tmapad dhtus; tmapadnithe tmapada pratyayas; ita
after dhtus which have the indicatory letter ; caand.
The tmapada pratyayas are applied after tmapad dhtus and dhtus
which have the indicatory letter .
SaodhinThree kinds of dhtus are listed in the Dhtu-pha: parapads
(dhtus which take the parapada endings in kartari prayoga), tmapads (dhtus
which take the tmapada endings in kartari prayoga), and ubhayapads (dhtus
which take both the parapada endings and tmapada endings in kartari prayoga). The
word kartari is carried forward in this stra and the next stra. It should be understood
that the distinctions of parapad, tmapad, and ubhayapad only exist in kartari
prayoga, because it will be explained that, in karmai prayoga, all dhtus take only the
tmapada endings regardless of whether they are listed in the Dhtu-pha as
parapad, tmapad, or ubhayapad and, in bhve prayoga, all dhtus take only the
tmapada prathama-purua eka-vacana.
285 / oBayapaid"Bya oBayapad"Aina iHata /
285. ubhayapadibhya ubhayapadni ita ca

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
256
ubhayapadibhyaafter ubhayapad dhtus; ubhayapadniboth parapada and
tmapada pratyayas; itaafter dhtus which have the indicatory letter ; caand.
Both parapada and tmapada pratyayas are applied after ubhayapad
dhtus and dhtus which have the indicatory letter .
SaodhinIn this regard, there is a distinctionthe tmapada pratyayas are
applied when the result of the action goes to the kart whereas the parapada
pratyayas are applied when the result of the action goes to someone else. Thus the
names tmapada (a word (pada) for ones self (tm)) and parapada (a word (pada)
for another (para)) are significant. But these distinctions of meaning only apply in the
case of ubhayapad dhtus, y-anta-dhtus, and dhtus which have the indicatory
letter . For further details, see idbhya ubhayapadibhyo e kart-gmi-kriy-phale
(721).
286 / @Atmapad"Anyaeva k(maRiNA /
286. tmapadny eva karmai
tmapadnithe tmapada pratyayas; evaonly; karmaiwhen the karma
(object) is to be expressed.
Only the tmapada pratyayas are applied after a dhtu in karmai prayoga.
AmtaThis is a niyama (restriction) that only the tmapada pratyayas, and not the
parapada pratyayas, are applied after a dhtu in karmai prayoga.
287 / @Atmapad"aTamapau&SaEk(vacanamaeva BaAvae /
287. tmapada-prathama-puruaika-vacanam eva bhve
tmapada-prathama-purua-eka-vacanamthe tmapada prathama-purua ekavacana; evaonly; bhvewhen the bhva (see explanation below) is to be
expressed.
Only the tmapada prathama-purua eka-vacana is applied after a dhtu in
bhve prayoga.
bhvo dhtv-artha. kart-karma vakyete. atra bhv-di-gae parapadin padni
daryante. bh sattym; satt vidyamnat. tatra kartari.
VttiBhva means dhtv-artha (the meaning of a dhtu). Kart and karma will be
defined later. In this regard, the conjugations of the parapad dhtus in the bhv-digaa will now be shown. Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu bh sattym (1P,
to be, become, exist) in kartari prayoga. Satt means vidyamnat (existence).
AmtaThis is a niyama (restriction) that only tmapada prathama-purua ekavacana is applied after a dhtu in bhve prayoga. Kart will be defined in svatantra
tat-prayojaka ca kart (631), and karma will be defined in kriy yat-sdhik tat karma
(636).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
257

Bhv-di-parapada-prakriy
288 / zApk{(SNADaAtauke( /
288. ap ka-dhtuke
apthe vikaraa []a[p]; ka-dhtukewhen a ka-dhtuka follows.
[]a[p] is applied after a dhtu when a ka-dhtuka follows.
vikarakhyo yam. a-pv itau, a-rma-ea.
Vtti[]a[p] is called a vikaraa. The and p are indicatory letters, and a-rma is the
remainder.
AmtaEven though []a[p] is applied between the prakti and pratyaya, it is widely
known by the name vikaraa. The []a[p] that is applied after the bhv-dis and curdis, the []ya that is applied after the div-dis, the []a that is applied after the tuddis, the []nu that is applied after the sv-dis, the u that is applied after the tan-dis,
the []na[m] that is applied after the rudh-dis, and the []n that is applied after the
kry-dis. These seven are called vikaraas. But even though they are called vikaraas
they are sometimes still referred to as pratyayas. Someone may argue, It is wellknown that something which is applied between the prakti and pratyaya is an gama.
Why then is []a[p] called a vikaraa? The answer is that since []na[m] was
prohibited from being an gama by the phrase nama vin in stra 106, even though
it usually would be an gama since it has the indicatory letter m, the other six
vikaraas are also prohibited from being gamas.
289 / DaAtaAer"ntasya gAAeivand": atyayae /
289. dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye
dhtoof a dhtu; antasyaof the final vara; govindagovinda; pratyayewhen a
pratyaya follows.
The final vara of a dhtu takes govinda when a pratyaya follows.
ivatvt ka-dhtukatvam.
Vtti[]a[p] is a ka-dhtuka on account of being iva.
AmtaThe result of including the word dhto here, even though the word dhto is
already carried forward from stra 261, will be explained in vtti 617.
290 / @pa{Tauk{(SNADaAtauk(Ae inagAuRNA: /
290. apthu-ka-dhtuko nirgua
a-pthu-ka-dhtukaa ka-dhtuka that is not pthu; nirguanirgua.
Any ka-dhtuka that is not pthu is nirgua.

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258
tasmt pthutvn ntra nirguatvam. o avbhavati. bh tassa-ra-rmayor
viusargabhavata. bh anti
VttiThus, since []a[p] is pthu, it is not nirgua.
bh + ti[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + ti[p] (289) bho + a + ti (55) bhavati
(he is1) <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
bh + tas (288) bh + []a[p] + tas (289) bho + a + tas (55)
bhavatas (93) bhavata (they two are) <acyuta pa. 1.2>.
When we have bh + anti, the following rule applies:
AmtaBecause []a[p] is pthu since it has the indicatory letter p it is not nirgua,
and thus there is certainly govinda by dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye (289). Since
pratyaye is mentioned as the para-nimitta in stra 289, []a[p] is considered a
pratyaya in regard to that rule, even though it is a vikaraa. And one cannot say that,
by the future maxim yena nvyavadhna sambhavati tena vyavadhne pi syt (vtti
306), the pratyayas ti[p] and so on should be considered the nimittas even though
[]a[p] is intervening, for if that were the case govinda would not be able to be applied
when non-pthu pratyayas like tas and so on follow, since they are nirgua. Someone
may argue, Regarding the formation of bhavati, since []a[p] is a ka-dhtuka, why
isnt []a[p] applied a second time by making it the nimitta? The answer is that even
if []a[p] were applied a second time, it would be immediately deleted by a-rma-hara
e-ayor aviupadnte (291), and what is the point of such useless labour?
291 / @r"Amah"r" W@yaAer"ivaSNAupad"Antae /
291. a-rma-hara e-ayor aviupadnte
a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma; e-ayowhen e-rma or a-rma follow; aviupada-antewhen the viaya is not viupadnta.
A-rma is deleted when e or a follow, provided the viaya is not
viupadnta.
bhavanti bhavasi bhavatha bhavatha.
Vtti bh + anti (288) bh + []a[p] + anti (289) bho + a + anti (55)
bhava + anti (291) bhavanti (they are) <acyuta pa. 1.3>.
bh + si[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + si[p] (289) bho + a + si (55)
bhavasi (you are)
<acyuta pa. 2.1>.
bh + thas (288) bh + []a[p] + thas (289) bho + a + thas (55)
bhavathas (93)
bhavatha (you two are) <acyuta pa. 2.2>.
bh + tha (288) bh + []a[p] + tha (289) bho + a + tha (55)
bhavatha (you all
are) <acyuta pa. 2.3>.
1 Here we are translating bhavati as he is because there is no particular subject to
go with the verb here. But if a subject is mentioned, as in the sentence ko bhavati,
then the subject is put in place of the word he. So the translation of ko bhavati
would be Ka is. Things should be understood in the same way for the other forms
of bh. Thus pav bhavanti would be translated as the Pavas are, and so on.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
259
292 / @ @A vamaAe: /
292. a va-mo
aof a-rma; the replacement -rma; va-mowhen va-rma or ma-rma follow.
A changes to when v or m follow.
bhavmi bhavva bhavma.
akarmako yam; yata
satt-vddhi-viuddhi-siddhi-ayane sthnsane bhsane
lajj-jvana-rodane ca hadane ntye vilse krudhi
trsa-syanda-nivsa-oa-maraa-spardh-vihrev api
jto dhtur akarmaka kaya-madodvega-prakampev api.
upalakaa caitat, jgararthdiv api. tasmn nsya karmai prayoga. bhve
daryatebh te iti sthite
Vtti bh + mi[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + mi[p] (289) bho + a + mi (55)
bhava + mi
(292) bhavmi (I am) <acyuta pa. 3.1>.
bh + vas (288) bh + []a[p] + vas (289) bho + a + vas (55) bhava
+ vas (292)
bhav + vas (93) bhavva (we two are) <acyuta pa. 3.2>.
bh + mas (288) bh + []a[p] + mas (289) bho + a + mas (55)
bhava + mas (292) bhav + mas (93) bhavma (we are) <acyuta pa. 3.3>.
acyuta parapada of bh sattym
bhavati
bhavata
bhavanti
bhavasi
bhavatha
bhavatha
bhavmi
bhavva
bhavma
SaodhinThe verb to be is often left out in the Sanskrit language. Thus bhavati
and so on often have to be supplied to complete the sense of a sentence.1 The
following verse from rntha Cakravarts Caitanya-mata-maju is an excellent
example of this:
rdhyo bhagavn vrajea-tanayas tad-dhma vndvana
ramy kcid upsan vraja-vadh-vargea y kalpit
stra bhgavata pramam amala prem pum-artho mahn
ittha gaura-mahprabhor matam atas tatrdaro na para
The Supreme Lord to be worshiped is the son of the King of Vraja. His personal abode
is Vndvana. The most favorable mode of serving Him is that practiced by the young
maidens of Vraja. The scripture Bhgavatam is the spotless source of reliable
knowledge, and pure love of God is the supreme goal of human life. Such are the
opinions of Gaura Mahprabhu, and we therefore respect them implicity.
In the first sentence bhagavn is the subject, rdhya is its adjective, vrajeatanaya is the predicate, and the implied verb is bhavati. Similarly, in the second
sentence tad-dhma is the subject, vndvanam is the predicate, and the implied verb
is bhavati. In fact, bhavati is implied in every sentence of this verse. This one can see
1 Sometimes the synonymous verbs asti and so on are supplied instead (see vttis 496
to 498).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
260
by looking at the translation. Another example is aham sarvasya prabhava (I am the
origin of everything) in Bhagavad-gt 10.8. Here the subject is aham, the predicate
is prabhava, and the implied verb is bhavmi.
Sometimes bhavati and so on have to be implied even in sentences where there is no
predicate. An example of this is Bhagavad-gt 10.41: yad yad vibhtimat sattva
rmad rjitam eva v (whatever opulent, beautiful, or mighty things there are).
Here the subject is sattvam, the other words are its adjectives, and the implied verb is
bhavati.
VttiBh sattym is akarmaka (not able to take a karma, intransitive). This is in
accordance with the following verse:
satt-vddhi-viuddhi-siddhi-ayane sthnsane bhsane
lajj-jvana-rodane ca hadane ntye vilse krudhi
trsa-syanda-nivsa-oa-maraa-spardh-vihrev api
jto dhtur akarmaka kaya-madodvega-prakampev api
A dhtu is known as akarmaka when it conveys any of the following senses: satt
(existing), vddhi (growing, increasing), viuddhi (becoming pure), siddhi (being
fulfilled, becoming perfect), ayana (sleeping), sthna (standing, remaining),
sana (sitting), bhsana (shining), lajj (being shy, being ashamed), jvana
(living), rodana (crying), hadana (evacuating), ntya (dancing), vilsa
(playing, flirting), krudh (being angry), trsa (being afraid), syanda (flowing),
nivsa (residing), oa (becoming dry), maraa (dying), spardh (being
envious, being competitive), vihra (wandering), kaya (decaying, decreasing),
mada (being happy, becoming intoxicated), udvega (being agitated), and
prakampa (trembling).
Furthermore, this verse implies that a dhtu is also known as akarmaka when it
conveys the senses of jgaraa (staying awake) and so on. Thus the dhtu bh
sattym cant be used in karmai prayoga. The conjugation of bh sattym in bhve
prayoga will now be shown. When we have bh + te, the following rule applies:
AmtaA is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the strength of
the stra (see vtti 97). By the words and so on in the phrase jgaraa (staying
awake) and so on, dhvana (running), hasana (smiling, laughing), janana (being
born), and so on are also included.
SaodhinIt will be explained in the Kraka-prakaraa that dhtus are of three
kinds: sa-karmaka (taking a karma, transitive), akarmaka (not able to take a karma,
intransitive), and dvi-karmaka (taking two karmas). The dhtu bh sattym and all
the other akarmaka dhtus cant be used in karmai prayoga because it is impossible
to express the karma when there is none to express since by definition akarmaka
dhtus are unable to take a karma.
293 / yafk{(SNADaAtauke( BaAvak(maRNAAe: /
293. yak ka-dhtuke bhva-karmao
yakthe pratyaya ya[k]; ka-dhtukewhen a ka-dhtuka follows; bhvakarmaowhen the bhva or karma are to be expressed.
In bhve prayoga and karmai prayoga, ya[k] is applied after a dhtu when a
ka-dhtuka follows.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
261
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of ap ka-dhtuke (288). Ya[k] is both
kapila and kasri.

294 / wRzAsya na gAAeivand"va{SNAIn"AE kM(s$aAir"Sau /


294. asya na govinda-vndrau kasriu
asyaof an a; nanot; govinda-vndraugovinda and vndra; kasriu
when kasris follow.
An a doesnt take govinda or vndra when a kasri pratyaya follows.
bhyate. asyeti kim? kmayate. prpty-artho pi bh-dhtur asti. tad sakarmakatvena karmai ca. tath ckhyta-candrikprptau prpnoti bhavati
vindaty avaruaddhy api, tmane pi dvayam iti. bhavaty apy tmane iti kecit.
bhyate. bhya te
Vtti bh + te (293) bh + ya[k] + te (294) bhyate ([the act of] being is
[being done])
<acyuta bhve 1.1>.
The dhtu bh can also have the meaning of prpti (obtainment). At that time is can
also be used in karmai prayoga since it is sa-karmaka. Along the same lines, khytacandrik, a book on verbs written by Bhaa Malla, says prptau prpnoti bhavati
vindaty avaruaddhy api, tmane pi dvayam (Prpnoti, bhavati, vindati, and
avaruaddhi are all used in the sense of prpti, and these last two can also be
tmapad). Some say bhavaty apy tmane (bhavati can also be tmapad).
bh + te (293) bh + ya[k] + te (294) bhyate (he is being obtained)
<acyuta
karmai 1.1 of bh prptau>.
When we have bh + ya[k] + te, the following rule applies:
AmtaThe phrase tmane pi dvayam means the two dhtus mentioned last
(vindati and avaruaddhi) are also tmapad. Thus vindati or vindate and
avaruaddhi or avarundhe. Sometimes the reading prptau prpnoti bhavate is also
found in khyta-candrik. In this way there is a difference of opinions about whether
parapada or tmapada pratyayas should be used for bh prptau.
SaodhinThis stra blocks the govinda obtained by dhtor antasya govinda
pratyaye (289) and laghddhavasya govinda (333), and the vndra obtained by
mjer vndra (502). Both in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha and in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha the dhtu bh prptau is listed in the cur-di-gaa, and not in the bhvdi-gaa. But even though bh prptau belongs to the cur-di-gaa it also belongs to a
special sub-group within the cur-di-gaa called the yuj-dis. This sub-group of cur-didhtus only optionally take []i in accordance with the stra yuj-der ir v (568), and
in the case when they dont take []i their conjugation appears like the conjugation of
a dhtu from the bhv-di-gaa. In the Dhtu-pha, the dhtu bh prptau is listed as
a tmapad dhtu, but Jva Gosvm adds the comment ay-antas tbhayapad (but
when it doesnt take []i, it is ubhayapad). Thus bh prptau (10A, to obtain) has
three acyuta 1.1 forms: bhvayate, bhavati, and bhavate.
295 / @ta @A wstaTayaAe: /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
262
295. ata is ta-thayo
ataafter a-rma; of -rma; ithe replacement i-rma; ta-thayowhen tarma or tha-rma follow.
After a, changes to i when t or th follow.
bhyete bhyante. bhyase bhyethe bhyadhve. bhye bhyvahe bhymahe. atha
vidhau kartari
Vtti bh + te (293) bh + ya[k] + te (294, 295) bh + ya + ite (43)
bhyete (they two
are being obtained) <acyuta karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + ante (293) bh + ya[k] + ante (294, 291) bhyante (they are
being obtained) <acyuta karmai 1.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + se (293) bh + ya[k] + se (294) bhyase (you are being
obtained) <acyuta
karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + the (293) bh + ya[k] + the (294, 295) bh + ya + ithe (43)
bhyethe (you two are being obtained)<acyuta karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + dhve (293) bh + ya[k] + dhve (294) bhyadhve (you all are
being obtained) <acyuta karmai 2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + e (293) bh + ya[k] + e (294, 291) bhye (I am being obtained)
<acyuta
karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + vahe (293) bh + ya[k] + vahe (294, 292) bhyvahe (we two
are being obtained) <acyuta karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + mahe (293) bh + ya[k] + mahe (294, 292) bhymahe (we are
being
obtained) <acyuta karmai 3.3 of bh prptau>.
acyuta karmai of bh prptau
bhyate
bhyete
bhyante
bhyase
bhyethe
bhyadhve
bhye
bhyvahe
bhymahe
Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in vidhi kartari prayoga.
Amta is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the strength of
the stra (see vtti 97).
296 / @taAe yaA w: /
296. ato y i
ataafter a-rma; yof y; ithe replacement i-rma.
After a, y changes to i.
bhavet bhavetm.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
263
Vtti bh + yt (288) bh + []a[p] + yt (289) bho + a + yt (55) bhava
+ yt (296)
bhava + it (43) bh
avet (he should be) <vidhi pa. 1.1>.
bh + ytm (288) bh + []a[p] + ytm (289) bho + a + ytm
(55) bhava +
ytm (296) bhava + itm (43) bhavetm (they two should
be) <vidhi pa. 1.2>.
AmtaY is a word whose ah viubhakti has been deleted on the strength of
the stra (see vtti 97).
297 / @ta wq"Yauis$a /
297. ata i yusi
ataafter a-rma; ithe gama i[]; yusiwhen the vidhi pratyaya yus follows.
I[] is inserted after a when yus follows.
bhaveyu. bhave bhavetam bhaveta.
Vtti bh + yus (288) bh + []a[p] + yus (289) bho + a + yus (55)
bhava + yus (297) bhava + i[] + yus bhava + iyus1 (43) bhaveyus (93)
bhaveyu (they should be) <vidhi pa. 1.3>.
bh + ys (288) bh + []a[p] + ys (289) bho + a + ys (55) bhava
+ ys (296)
bhava + is (43) bhaves (93) bhave (you should be) <vidhi
pa. 2.1>.
bh + ytam (288) bh + []a[p] + ytam (289) bho + a + ytam
(55) bhava +
ytam (296) bhava + itam (43) bhavetam (you two should
be) <vidhi pa. 2.2>.
bh + yta (288) bh + []a[p] + yta (289) bho + a + yta (55)
bhava + yta (296) bhava + ita (43) bhaveta (you all should be) <vidhi pa.
2.3>.
298 / @taAe yaAma wyama, /
298. ato yma iyam
ataafter a-rma; ymaof the vidhi pratyaya ym; iyamthe replacement iyam.
Ym is replaced by iyam when it comes after a.
bhaveyam bhaveva bhavema. bhvebhyeta. prpty-arthe karmaibhyeta
bhyeytm bhyeran. bhyeth bhyeythm bhyedhvam. bhyeya bhyevahi
bhyemahi. atha vidhtari kartaribhavatu.
Vtti bh + ym (288) bh + []a[p] + ym (289) bho + a + ym (55)
bhava + ym (298) bhava + iyam (43) bhaveyam (I should be) <vidhi pa.
3.1>.
1 In this regard, one should remember that an gama that has the indicatory letter is
para-sambandh (see vtti 105).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
264
bh + yva (288) bh + []a[p] + yva (289) bho + a + yva (55)
bhava + yva (296) bhava + iva (43) bhaveva (we two should be) <vidhi pa.
3.2>.
bh + yma (288) bh + []a[p] + yma (289) bho + a + yma (55)
bhava + yma
(296) bhava + ima (43) bhavema (we should be) <vidhi pa.
3.3>.
vidhi parapada of bh sattym
bhavet
bhavetm
bhaveyu
bhave
bhavetam
bhaveta
bhaveyam
bhaveva
bhavema
In bhve prayoga we get bhyeta <vidhi bhve 1.1>:
bh + ta (293) bh + ya[k] + ta (294, 44) bhyeta ([the act of] being
should be [done]) <vidhi bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + ta (293) bh + ya[k] + ta (294, 44) bhyeta (he should be
obtained) <vidhi
karmai 1.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + ytm (293) bh + ya[k] + ytm (294, 44) bhyeytm
(they two should be
obtained) <vidhi karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + ran (293) bh + ya[k] + ran (294, 44) bhyeran (they should
be obtained)
<vidhi karmai 1.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + ths (293) bh + ya[k] + ths (294, 44) bhyeths (93)
bhyeth (you should be obtained) <vidhi karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + ythm (293) bh + ya[k] + ythm (294, 44) bhyeythm
(you two should be obtained) <vidhi karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + dhvam (293) bh + ya[k] + dhvam (294, 44) bhyedhvam
(you all should be
obtained) <vidhi karmai 2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + ya (293) bh + ya[k] + ya (294, 44) bhyeya (I should be
obtained) <vidhi karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + vahi (293) bh + ya[k] + vahi (294, 44) bhyevahi (we two
should be obtained) <vidhi karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + mahi (293) bh + ya[k] + mahi (294, 44) bhyemahi (we
should be obtained) <vidhi karmai 3.3 of bh prptau>.
vidhi karmai of bh prptau
bhyeta
bhyeytm
bhyeran
bhyeth
bhyeythm
bhyedhvam
bhyeya
bhyevahi
bhyemahi
Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in vidht kartari prayoga.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
265
bh + tu[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + tu[p] (289) bho + a + tu (55)
bhavatu (may he
be / let him be) <vidht pa. 1.1>.
299 / tauAestaAtax~AizAiSa vaA s$avaRa /
299. tu-hyos tta ii v sarvatra
tu-hyoof the vidht pratyayas tu[p] and hi; ttathe replacement tt[a]; ii
when i (wish, blessing) is understood; voptionally; sarvatra1in all cases.
In all cases tu[p] and hi can optionally be replaced by tt[a], provided i is
understood.
bhavatd v, bhavatm bhavantu.
Vtti bh + tu[p] (299) bh + tt[a] (288) bh + []a[p] + tt[a] (289)
bho + a + tt (55) bhavatt (may he be / let him be) <vidht pa. 1.1>.
bh + tm (288) bh + []a[p] + tm (289) bho + a + tm (55)
bhavatm (may they two be / let them both be) <vidht pa. 1.2>.
bh + antu (288) bh + []a[p] + antu (289) bho + a + antu (55)
bhava + antu (291) bhavantu (may they be / let them be) <vidht pa. 1.3>.
AmtaThe indicatory letter was included in tt[a] so that govinda and vndra
would be prohibited by stra 294 and so that the possibility of tt[a] being a pthu by
considering it like the original, tu[p], would be removed. Thus, in brtt <vidht pa.
1.1 or 2.1 of br[] vyakty vci> and mt <vidht pa. 1.1 or 2.1 of mj[]
uddhau>, there is no govinda or vndra. Furthermore, the is sometimes for the
sake of deletion, as in stt <vidht pa. 1.1 or 2.1 of as[a] bhuvi> and sometimes for
the sake of substitution as in it <vidht pa. 1.1 or 2.1 of s[u] anuiau>,
luntt <vidht pa. 1.1 or 2.1 of l[] chedane>, and kurutt <vidht pa. 1.1 or 2.1
of [u]k[] karae>.
300 / @taAe he"hR"r": /
300. ato her hara
ataafter a-rma; heof the vidht pratyaya hi; haradeletion.
After a, hi is deleted.
bhava bhavatd v, bhavatam bhavata. bhavni bhavva bhavma.
Vtti bh + hi (288) bh + []a[p] + hi (289) bho + a + hi (55) bhava + hi
(300) bhava
(may you be / Be) <vidht pa. 2.1>.
bh + hi (299) bh + tt[a] (288) bh + []a[p] + tt[a] (289) bho +
a + tt (51) bhavatt (may you be / Be) <vidht pa. 2.1>.
bh + tam (288) bh + []a[p] + tam (289) bho + a + tam (55)
bhavatam (may you two be / Be) <vidht pa. 2.2>.
1 The purpose of including this word will be seen in vtti 402 and so on.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
266
bh + ta (288) bh + []a[p] + ta (289) bho + a + ta (55) bhavata
(may you be /
Be) <vidht pa. 2.3>.
bh + ni[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + ni[p] (289) bho + a + ni (55)
bhava + ni
(42) bhavni (may I be / let me be) <vidht pa. 3.1>.
bh + va[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + va[p] (289) bho + a + va (55)
bhava + va (42) bhavva (may we two be / let us both be) <vidht pa. 3.2>.
bh + ma[p] (288) bh + []a[p] + ma[p] (289) bho + a + ma
(55) bhava +
ma (42) bhavma (may we be / let us be) <vidht pa. 3.3>.
vidht parapada of bh sattym
bhavatu /
bhavatm
bhavantu
bhavatt
bhava /
bhavatam
bhavata
bhavatt
bhavni
bhavva
bhavma
AmtaSomeone may argue, Just as the deletion of hi takes place in bhava, the
deletion of tt[a] should also take place in bhavatt since tt[a] occupies the place of
hi. But if that were the case it would be pointless to ordain tt[a] in the place of hi
here in the section dealing with bhv-dis. Thus due to the very fact that it was
ordained here, tt[a] should not be deleted.
301 / aAd"ya opaen"s$aMaA DaAtauyaAegAe , tae ca aAk,( /
301. prdaya upendra-saj dhtu-yoge, te ca prk
pra-dayathe avyayas pra and so on; upendra-sajcalled upendras; dhtuyogewhen there is yoga (combination, or in other words samsa1) with a dhtu; te
they; caand; prkbefore.
When pra and so on are combined with a dhtu, they are called upendras,
and they are applied before the dhtu.
upasarg iti prca.
pra-parpa-sam-anv-ava-nir-dur-abhivy-adhi-sd-ati-ni-prati-pary-apaya
upa iti viatir ea sakhe
upasarga-vidhi kathita kavin
pra par apa sam anu ava nir dur abhi vi adhi su ut ati ni prati pari api upa . nis iti
phntaram. o a it. tato bh-dhto pra-prvatve prdy-avyayt sv-der
mahhara. eva sarvatra. prabhavati prabhavata ity-di.
VttiEarlier grammarians called them upasargas.

1 In this regard, Amta 775 says prdaya upendra-saj dhtu-yoge ity atra dhtun
saha yoge samsa ity eva paryavasyate (In prdaya upendra-saj dhtu-yoge
(301), when there is yoga with a dhtu really just means when there is samsa with
a dhtu). As usual, when there is samsa, each of the words inside the compound
word is considered a separate viupada. Thus in prabhavati, for example, pra is one
viupada and bhavati is another viupada.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
267
pra-parpa-sam-anv-ava-nir-dur-abhivy-adhi-sd-ati-ni-prati-pary-apaya
upa iti viatir ea sakhe
upasarga-vidhi kathita kavin
O friend, the twenty words pra, par, apa, sam, anu, ava, nir, dur, abhi, vi, adhi, su,
ud, ati, ni, prati, pari, api, upa, and [] are the prdis. And this (dhtu-yoge te ca
prk1) is called the upasarga-vidhi by learned authorities.
The upendras are as follows2:
1) pra (forward, away, before)
2) par (away, back, towards)
3) apa (away, improper)
4) sam (together with, very, thoroughly)
5) anu (after, behind, along, by the side)
6) ava (away, off, down)
7) nir (away from, without)
8) dur (hard, difficult, bad)
9) abhi (to, towards, to express intensity)
10) vi (to express separation, disjunction, or the reverse of an action)
11) adhi (over, above, fully)
12) su (well, thoroughly, very, beautifully)
13) ud (up, upwards, upon, over, out from)
14) ati (very, extremely, over)
15) ni (down, under, below)
16) prati (towards, in the direction of, back again, upon)
17) pari (round, about, further, opposite to, extremely)
18) api (near, over, towards, up to)
19) upa (towards, near to, under, down)
20) [] (near, towards, all around, pervading, and the opposite sense before verbs of
motion)
There is another reading where nis is listed instead of nir. The of [] is an indicatory
letter. When pra is thus applied before the dhtu bh, the sv-di that is after the
avyayas pra and so on undergoes mahhara by stra 258. This is the case for all the
upendras. Thus we get prabhavati <acyuta pa. 1.1>, prabhavata <acyuta pa. 1.2>,
and so on.
AmtaWhen there is yoga with a dhtu, the same prdis which are called avyayas
are called upendras, and they are applied before the dhtu. The words prdayo
bhavanti need to be supplied in the verse, and the word ea refers to the rule dhtuyoge te ca prk (301). The etymology of the word upasarga is upa sampe sjyate
sambadhyate ity upasarga (An upasarga is so named because it is connected
(sjyate) beside (upa)). Upasargas are dyotakas and not vcakas, that is to say they
suggest a particular meaning but do not directly express it. This is because upasargas
merely bring out the various meanings that are inherent within the dhtus themselves.
Even though dhtus like bh sattym and so on are only listed with one meaning in
the Dhtu-pha, it is understood from the maxim dhtnm anekrthatvam (dhtus
have more than one meaning) that they also have meanings other than those
mentioned in the Dhtu-pha. These meanings are inherent within the dhtu.

1 Or, in the Pinian system, te prg dhto (Adhyy 1.4.80).


2 The English meanings given here are only to be taken as guidelines for inferring the
meaning of a dhtu when the upendras are applied to it.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
268
302 / paUvaAeR(inaimaatvae s$atyaeva SatvaNAtvae /
302. prvokta-nimittatve saty eva atva-atve
prva-ukta-nimittatve satiwhen those things previously described are the nimittas;
evaonly; atva-atveatva (the change to ) and atva (the change to ).
The changes to or prescribed in other rules can only take place when
those things previously described in stras 108 and 111 are the nimittas.
sarvatra niyamo yam.
VttiThis restriction applies in all circumstances.
BlaThe analysis of this stra is prvoktayo vardi-ra-dyor nimittatve saty eve
atva-atve bhavata (The changes to and take place only when the previously
described vara and so on, and ra, a, and so on are the nimittas).
SaodhinThus, when a change of s to is prescribed in a rule other than stra
108, it is understood that vara, harimitra, k, or is also required there as a prnimitta for the change to take place, and that without them the change cannot take
place. Similarly, when a change of n to is prescribed in a rule other than stra 111, it
is understood that r, , or -dvaya is also required there as a pr-nimitta for the
change to take place, and that without them the change cannot take place.
303 / opaen"ANNAAepade"zAsya NAtvama, /
303. upendr opadeasya atvam
upendrtafter an upendra; a-upadeasyaof a opadea dhtu (a dhtu listed in
the Dhtu-pha as beginning with ); atvamthe change to
After an upendra, the original of a opadea dhtu is re-established.
AmtaThe opadea dhtus will be described in the stra sarve ndayo opade
n-nti-nardi-nandi-nakki-nthi-ndhi-nai-varjam (367). Someone may argue,
Ordaining an already achieved to become is pointless, like grinding flour. Not so,
for this rule ordains that the n which will be ordained by dhtv-der o na (366)
should again become when it comes after an upendra. Thus this rule is necessary.
304 / ih"naumaInaAinapaAM ca /
304. hinu-mnnip ca
hinu-mn-nipmof hinu (the dhtu hi gatau vddhau ca + the vikaraa []nu),
mn (the dhtu m[] hisym + the vikaraa []n), and ni[p] the vidht
pratyaya ni[p]); caand.
After an upendra the n of hinu, mn, and ni[p] also changes to .
hi gatau nu hinu, m hisy n mn. nipaprabhavi. upendrd iti kim?
pragato nyaka pranyaka. dur-upasargasya pratiedha iti bhyam
durbhavni.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
269
VttiHinu is the combination of the dhtu hi gatau vddhau ca (5P, to go, move,
send, shoot; to promote) and the vikaraa []nu, and mn is the combination of the
dhtu m[] hisym (9U, to destroy, diminish) and the vikaraa []n. An example
of when ni[p] undergoes the change to is prabhavi:
pra + bh + ni[p] (288) pra + bh + []a[p] + ni[p] (289) pra + bho + a +
ni
(51) pra + bhava + ni (42) prabhavni (304) prabhavi <vidht
pa. 3.1 of pra + bh
sattym>.
Why do we say after an upendra? Consider pra-nyaka which means pragato
nyaka (a former leader). The Mah-bhya says dur-upasargasya pratiedha
(the upasarga dur is prohibited). Thus we get durbhavni:
dur + bh + ni[p] (288) dur + bh + []a[p] + ni[p] (289) dur + bho
+ a + ni
(51) dur + bhava + ni (39, dur-upasargasya pratiedha)
durbhavni <vidht pa. 3.1 of
dur + bh sattym>.
AmtaAfter an upendra, the n of hinu, mn, and ni[p] also changes to . Where
the change of n to would usually be impossible since the n is not situated in the
same viupada as the r, , or -dvaya (see stra 108), this rule (and the last rule)
states that the change of n to should take place.
Regarding pra-nyaka, since there is no yoga with a dhtu, the word pra is not an
upendra but is just a simple avyaya. Regarding the statement dur-upasargasya
pratiedha, the Mah-bhya also says su-duro pratiedho num-vidhitva-atvaatveu (The rule of n[um]1 and the changes to and dont apply in the case of su
and dur). Thus we get sulabham and durlabham, and sustutam and durneyam
respectively. But it is understood that this statement has its exceptions. For example,
duryam is formed by considering dur an upendra and thus applying the change to
by upendrt kn-nasya sarvevart parasya atva, bh-bh-pun-kami-gami-pyyivepa-varjam (734).
305 / vamaAd"yastae tvacyautaAde"re"va , naAnyasya /
305. va-mdayas te tv acyutder eva, nnyasya
va-ma-dayathe va-rma, ma-rma, and so on; tethey; tubut; acyuta-deof
the acyutdis (the pratyayas from acyuta til ajita); evaonly; nanot; anyasyaof
another.
The v, m, and so on are accepted only in relation to the acyutdis, and not to
anything else.
niyamo yam. tena avahad ity-dau na trivikramdi. bhvebhyatm. karmai
bhyatm bhyetm bhyantm. bhyasva bhyethm bhyadhvam. bhyai
bhyvahai bhymahai. bhtevare kartari
VttiThis is a niyama. Thus trivikrama and so on dont take place in avahat
<bhtevara pa. 1.1 of vah[a] prpae> and so on. In bhve prayoga we get
bhyatm <vidht bhve 1.1>:
bh + tm (293) bh + ya[k] + tm (294) bhyatm (may [the act of] being
be
[done] / let [the act of] being be [done]) <vidht bhve 1.1>.
1 The rule of n[um] referred to here is upendrl labher num khal-ghaor na su-durbhym anyopendrarahitbhym (), the Pinian equivalent of which is Adhyy 7.1.67-68.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
270
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + tm (293) bh + ya[k] + tm (294) bhyatm (may he be
obtained / let him be
obtained) <vidht karmai 1.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + tm (293) bh + ya[k] + tm (294, 295) bh + ya+ itm
(43) bhyetm
(may they two be obtained / let them both be obtained) <vidht
karmai 1.2 of bh
prptau>.
bh + antm (293) bh + ya[k] + antm (294, 291) bhyantm (may
they be
obtained / let them be obtained) <vidht karmai 1.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + sva (293) bh + ya[k] + sva (294) bhyasva (may you be
obtained / be
obtained) <vidht
karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + thm (293) bh + ya[k] + thm (294, 295) bh + ya+ ithm
(43) bhyethm (may you two be obtained / be obtained) <vidht karmai 2.2 of
bh prptau>.
all be

bh + dhvam (293) bh + ya[k] + dhvam (294) bhyadhvam (may you


obtained / be obtained) <vidht karmai 2.3 of bh prptau>.

bh + ai[p] (293) bh + ya[k] + ai[p] (294, 48) bhyai (may I be


obtained / let me be
obtained) <vidht karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + vahai[p] (293) bh + ya[k] + vahai[p] (294, 42) bhyvahai
(may we two be obtained / let us both be obtained) <vidht karmai 3.2 of bh
prptau>.
bh + mahai[p] (293) bh + ya[k] + mahai[p] (294, 42) bhymahai
(may we be
obtained / let us be obtained) <vidht karmai 3.3 of bh
prptau>.
vidht karmai of bh prptau
bhyatm
bhyetm
bhyantm
bhyasva
bhyethm
bhyadhvam
bhyai
bhyvahai
bhymahai
Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in bhtevara kartari prayoga.
AmtaThe meaning of this stra is that the v, m, and so on which were spoken as
para-nimittas in the stras a va-mo (292) and so on are accepted only in relation to
the acyutdis, and not to anything else. Thus, in avahat, the a doesnt become
because the v that follows is part of a dhtu.
306 / DaAtaAe: paUvaRmatBaUtaer"BaUtaezAAijataeSau /
306. dhto prvam at bhtevara-bhtejiteu
dhtoa dhtu; prvambefore; atthe gama a[t]; bhtevara-bhtea-ajiteu
when a bhtevara, bhtea, or ajita pratyaya follows.
A[t] is inserted before a dhtu when a bhtevara, bhtea, or ajita pratyaya
follows.

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271
viur ayam. yena nvyavadhna sambhavati tena vyavadhne pi syd iti
vacana-prmyt ap-di-vyavadhne piabhavat abhavatm abhavan. abhava
abhavatam abhavata. abhavam abhavva abhavma. bhveabhyata. karmai
abhyata abhyetm abhyanta. abhyath abhyethm abhyadhvam. abhye
abhyvahi abhymahi. bhtee kartaribh dip, ad-gama
VttiA[t] is a viu. On the authority of the maxim yena nvyavadhna
sambhavati tena vyavadhne pi syt (A krya takes place even when something
whose non-intervention is impossible intervenes), a[t] is inserted even when []a[p]
and so on intervene:
bh + d[ip] (288) bh + []a[p] + d[ip] (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] +
d[ip] (289) a +
bho + a + d (55) abhavad (185) abhavat1 (he was)
<bhtevara pa. 1.1>.
bh + tm (288) bh + []a[p] + tm (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + tm
(289) a + bho + a + tm (55) abhavatm (they two were) <bhtevara pa.
1.2>.
bh + an (288) bh + []a[p] + an (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + an
(289) a + bho + a + an (55) abhava + an (291) abhavan (they were)
<bhtevara pa. 1.3>.
bh + s[ip] (288) bh + []a[p] + s[ip] (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + s[ip]
(289) a +
bho +
a + s (55) abhavas (93) abhava (you were)
<bhtevara pa. 2.1>.
bh + tam (288) bh + []a[p] + tam (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + tam
(289) a +
bho + a + tam (55) abhavatam (you two were) <bhtevara
pa. 2.2>.
bh + ta (288) bh + []a[p] + ta (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + ta
(289) a + bho + a +
ta (55) abhavata (you all were) <bhtevara pa. 2.3>.
bh + [p]am (288) bh + []a[p] + [p]am (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] +
[p]am (289)
a + bho + a + am (55) abhava + am (291) abhavam (I was)
<bhtevara pa. 3.1>.
bh + va (288) bh + []a[p] + va (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + va
(289) a + bho + a
+ va (55) abhava + va (292) abhavva (we two were)
<bhtevara pa. 3.2>.
bh + ma (288) bh + []a[p] + ma (306) a[t] + bh + []a[p] + ma
(289) a + bho
+ a + ma (55) abhava + ma (292) abhavma (we were)
<bhtevara pa. 3.3>.
bhtevara parapada of bh sattym
abhavat
abhavatm
abhavan
abhava
abhavatam
abhavata
1 Due to the optionality of viudsasya harikamala virme (185), abhavad is also
possible. But it is not usually listed in verb tables and Jva Gosvm also doesnt
bother showing it. So, henceforth, throughout the khyta-prakaraa, we will not show
the case when the option of changing to harikamala by stra 185 is not taken.

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abhavam

abhavva

abhavma

In bhve prayoga we get abhyata <bhtevara bhve 1.1>:


bh + ta (293) bh + ya[k] + ta (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + ta (294)
abhyata ([the act of] being was [done]) <bhtevara bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + ta (293) bh + ya[k] + ta (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + ta (294)
abhyata (he
was obtained) <bhtevara karmai 1.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + tm (293) bh + ya[k] + tm (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + tm
(294, 295) a
+ bh + ya + itm (43) abhyetm (they two were obtained)
<bhtevara karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + anta (293) bh + ya[k] + anta (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + anta
(294, 291) abhyanta (they were obtained) <bhtevara karmai 1.3 of bh
prptau>.
bh + ths (293) bh + ya[k] + ths (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + ths
(294, 93) abhyath (you were obtained) <bhtevara karmai 2.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + thm (293) bh + ya[k] + thm (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] +
thm (294,
295) a + bh + ya + ithm (43) abhyethm (you two were
obtained) <bhtevara
karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + dhvam (293) bh + ya[k] + dhvam (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] +
dhvam (294) abhyadhvam (you all were obtained) <bhtevara karmai 2.3 of
bh prptau>.
bh + i (293) bh + ya[k] + i (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + i (294, 44)
abhye (I was obtained) <bhtevara karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + vahi (293) bh + ya[k] + vahi (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + vahi
(294, 292) abhyvahi (we two were obtained) <bhtevara karmai 3.2 of bh
prptau>.
bh + mahi (293) bh + ya[k] + mahi (306) a[t] + bh + ya[k] + mahi
(294, 292)
abhymahi (we were obtained) <bhtevara karmai 3.3 of bh
prptau>.
bhtevara karmai of bh prptau
abhyata
abhyetm
abhyanta
abhyath
abhyethm
abhyadhvam
abhye
abhyvahi
abhymahi
Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in bhtea kartari prayoga. When we
have bh + d[ip], the gama a[t] is inserted and the following rule applies:
AmtaSomeone may argue, How can a[t] be applied in abhavat and so on since the
bhtevara pratyaya doesnt directly follow since []a[p] is intervening? In answer to
that, Jva Gosvm speaks the maxim beginning yena which means yena
avyavadhna na sambhavati tena vyavadhne pi krya syt (A krya takes place

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273
even when something whose non-intervention is impossible intervenes). The implied
meaning is that it is impossible for []a[p] not to intervene, thus a[t] is inserted even
though []a[p] is intervening. Similarly, in abhyata, a[t] is inserted even though ya[k]
is intervening.
Someone may wonder, Why is the word dhto mentioned here again even though it
is already carried forward from the adhikra-stra dhto (261)? The answer is that in
the adhikra-stra the word dhto is generally accepted as a pr-nimitta. But in this
stra the word dhto is not in pacam because it is a pr-nimitta, but it is in
pacam because it is syntactically connected with the word prva which is expressing
dik (direction).
SaodhinA practical translation of yena nvyavadhna sambhavati tena
vyavadhne pi syt which does away with the double negative in the phrase
nvyavadhna sambhavati is a krya still takes place when something whose
intervention is necessary to arrive at the desired form intervenes. Thus, since []a[p]
is necessary in achieving the desired forms abhavat and so on, its intervening between
the dhtu and the bhtevara pratyaya does not hinder the application of a[t].
307 / is$aBaURtaezAe /
307. sir bhtee
sithe pratyaya s[i]; bhteewhen a bhtea pratyaya follows.
S[i] is applied after a dhtu when a bhtea pratyaya follows.
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of ap ka-dhtuke (288) in kartari prayoga
and an apavda of yak ka-dhtuke bhva-karmao (293) in bhave prayoga and
karmai prayoga.
308 / wNsTaAipabaitad"AmaAed"r"BaUBya: s$aemaRh"Ah"r": par"pade" /
308. i-sth-pibati-dmodara-bhbhya ser mahhara parapade
i-sth-pibati-dmodara-bhbhyaafter the dhtus i[] gatau (2P, to go, move),
h gati-nivttau (1P, to stand, remain), p pne (1P to drink), the dmodaras
(explained in the next stra), and bh sattym (1P, to be, become, exist); seof
s[i]; mahharamahhara; parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows.
After i[], h, p, the dmodaras, and bh, s[i] undergoes mahhara if it is
followed by a parapada pratyaya.
AmtaBy the mention of pibati here the dhtu p rakae (2P, to protect) is
excluded.
SaodhinIn this stra the dhtu p pne (1P, to drink) is indicated by the word
pibati, in accordance with the following principle: When there are two or more dhtus
that have the same form but belong to different gaas, the kt pratyaya []ti[p] is used
to identify a specific dhtu among them. When []ti[p] is applied after a dhtu by iktipau dhtu-nirdee (909), the resultant word looks like the acyuta parapada
prathama-purua eka-vacana form of that dhtu.

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274
309 / d"ApdE"pd"Ix~Ae ivanaA d"ADaA d"AmaAed"r"s$aMaA: /
309. dp-daip-do vin d-dh dmodara-saj
dp-daip-dathe dhtus d[p] lavane (2P, to cut), dai[p] odhane (1P, to
cleanse, purify), d[] kaye (4A, to decay, perish); vinexcept; d-dhdhtus
which have the form of d or dh; dmodara-sajcalled dmodaras.
Dhtus which have the form of d or dh are called dmodaras, except for
d[p], dai[p], and d[].
dp-daip-dm adst adsta ity-dau prayojanam.
VttiThe reason for excluding d[p], dai[p], and d[], lies in the need to attain forms
like adst <bhtea pa. 1.1 of d[p] lavane or dai[p] odhane> and adsta <bhtea
t. 1.1 of d[] kaye>.
Amta In adst, s[i] doesnt undergo mahhara since by the current stra d[p]
and dai[p] are not dmodaras. Similarly, in adsta, the change to i-rma by sthdmodarayor i-rmo vaiavdi-sv tmapade, si ca kapila (530) doesnt take place
since d[] is not a dmodara.
SaodhinThe word d-dh <1.3> in this stra also appears in the equivalent
Pinian stra, d-dh ghv adp (Adhyy 1.1.20). Commenting on this stra,
Siddhnta-kaumud explains d-dh as d-rp dh-rp ca dhtava (dhtus
which have the form of d or dh). Thus the proper list of dmodaras, as confirmed in
the English translation of Siddhnta-kaumud by ra Candra Vasu, is as follows:
d[] dne
de[] plane
[u]d[] dne
do avakhaane
dhe[] pne
[u]dh[] dhraa-poaayo

1P
1A
3U
4P
1P
3U

to
to
to
to
to
to

give
protect
give
break into pieces, destroy
suck, drink
hold; to maintain

Among the dmodaras, the dhtus de[] plane and do avakhaane change to d by
caturvyhntnm -rmnta-pho ive (412) and dhe[] pne changes to dh by
caturvyhntnm -rmnta-pho ive (412). The dhtu dai[p] odhane also
changes to d by caturvyhntnm -rmnta-pho ive (412) and the dhtu d[]
kaye changes to d by mnti-minoti-dm -rmnta-pha caturvyha-vidhisthne yapi ca (Bhat 723), but the current stra prohibits them from being
dmodaras.
310 / BauvaAe na gAAeivand": is$alauik( /
310. bhuvo na govinda si-luki
bhuvaof the dhtu bh; nanot; govindagovinda; si-lukiwhen there is luk
(mahhara) of s[i].
Bh doesnt take govinda when s[i] undergoes mahhara.
abht. atra apa bdhitv sir jta iti tasya mahhare hi ap na syt sakd api
vipratiedhe yad bdhita tad bdhitam eveti nyyt. abhtm.

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275
Vtti bh + d[ip] (306) a[t] + bh + d[ip] (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + d[ip]
(308) a + bh + d (310, 185) abht (he was) <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
[]a[p] cannot be applied when s[i] undergoes mahhara since s[i] appears by
removing []a[p]. This is in accordance with the maxim sakd api vipratiedhe yad
bdhita tad bdhitam eva (That which was already set aside once when there was
conflict between two rules remains set aside).
bh + tm (306) a[t] + bh + tm (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + tm (308)
a + bh + tm
(310) abhtm (they two were) <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
AmtaThis stra prohibits the govinda which would usually be applied by dhtor
antasya govinda pratyaye (289). Someone may argue, Then, since []a[p] is not
applied, it is pointless for a bhtea pratyaya to be a ka-dhtuka. Not so. The
result of a bhtea pratyaya being a ka-dhtuka is that i[] is not applied in atata
<bhtea t. 1.1 of tan[u] vistre> and so on. This will be shown in vtti 555.
Saodhinap ka-dhtuke (288) was already set aside by sir bhtee (307), in
accordance with the nyya utsargpavdayor apavda (vtti 50), because the
application of s[i] depends on a bhtea, which is more specific than a ka-dhtuka.
Thus, since []a[p] was already set aside one time, it cannot be applied again when
s[i] undergoes mahahra.
311 / BauvaAe BaUvBaUtaezAADaAeajas$avaeRre" /
311. bhuvo bhv bhtedhokaja-sarvevare
bhuvaof the dhtu bh; bhvthe replacement bhv; bhtea-adhokajasarvevarewhen a bhtea or adhokaja pratyaya beginning with a sarvevara
follows1.
Bh is replaced by bhv when a bhtea or adhokaja pratyaya beginning
with a sarvevara follows.
abhvan. abh abhtam abhta. abhvam abhva abhma.
Vtti bh + an (306) a[t] + bh + an (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + an (308) a
+ bh + an (310, 311) abhvan (they were) <bhtea pa. 1.3>.
bh + s[ip] (306) a[t] + bh + s[ip] (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + s[ip]
(308) a + bh + s
(310, 93) abh (you were) <bhtea pa. 2.1>.
bh + tam (306) a[t] + bh + tam (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + tam (308)
a + bh + tam
(310) abhtam (you two were) <bhtea pa. 2.2>.
bh + ta (306) a[t] + bh + ta (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + ta (308) a +
bh + ta
(310) abhta (you all were) <bhtea pa. 2.3>.
bh + [p]am (306) a[t] + bh + [p]am (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + [p]am
(308) a + bh + am (310, 311) abhvam (I was) <bhtea pa. 3.1>.

1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim pratyaya-varena tad-dir ghyate (vtti 134).

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276
bh + va (306) a[t] + bh + va (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + va (308) a +
bh + va
(310) abhva (we two were) <bhtea pa. 3.2>.
bh + ma (306) a[t] + bh + ma (307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + ma (308) a
+ bh + ma
(310) abhma (we were) <bhtea pa. 3.3>.
bhtea parapada of bh sattym
abht
abhtm
abhvan
abh
abhtam
abhta
abhvam
abhva
abhma
312 / @taitaSaeDaAe maAmaAsmayaAegAe /
312. at-pratiedho m-msma-yoge
at-pratiedhaprohibition of a[t]; m-msma-yogewhen there is yoga
(synctactical connection) with the avyayas m[] and m sma (a combination of
m[] + sma).
When there is yoga with m[] or m sma, a[t] cannot be applied before a
dhtu.
m bhavn bht, m sma bht. bhve
VttiFor example, m bhavn bht (you must not be) and m sma bhavn bht
(you must not be)1. In bhve prayoga, the following rule applies:
SaodhinThis stra modifies stra 306.
313 / wNBaUtaezAtae BaAvak(maRNAAe: /
313. i bhtea-te bhva-karmao
ithe pratyaya i[]; bhtea-tewhen the bhtea pratyaya ta follows; bhvakarmaowhen the bhva or karma are to be expressed.
In bhve prayoga and karmai prayoga, i[] is applied after a dhtu when
the bhtea pratyaya ta follows.
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of sir bhtee (307).
314 / @ntasya va{SNAIn"Ae na{is$aMhe" /
314. antasya vndro nsihe
antasyaof the final vara; vndravndra; nsihewhen a nsiha
pratyaya follows.
1 In combination with the avyayas m[] and m sma, which have the same meaning as the avyaya
na[] (not), the verb takes on an imperative meaning. When there is yoga with m[], only a bhtea
pratyaya is used, and when there is yoga with m sma, only a bhtea or bhtevara pratyaya is used.
This is in accordance with m-yoge sarvpavd bhtea (718) and msma-yoge bhtevara ca
(719). Thus, in these examples, the bhtea parapada 1.1 form is used without a[t].

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277
The final vara of a dhtu takes vndra when a nsiha pratyaya follows.
315 / wNAstaAe h"r": /
315. ias to hara
iaafter i[]; taof the bhtea pratyaya ta; haradeletion.
After i[], ta is deleted.
abhvi. karmaiabhvi.
Vtti bh + ta (306) a[t] + bh + ta (313) a[t] + bh + i[] + ta (314)
abhau + i[] + ta (51) abhv + i[] + ta (315) abhvi ([the act of] being was
[done]) <bhtea bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + ta (306) a[t] + bh + ta (313) a[t] + bh + i[] + ta (314)
abhau + i[] + ta
(51) abhv + i[] + ta (315) abhvi (he was obtained)
<bhtea karmai 1.1 of bh
prptau>.

316 / wq%. r"AmaDaAtauke( /


316. i rma-dhtuke
ithe gama i[]; rma-dhtukewhen a rma-dhtuka follows.
I[] is inserted after a dhtu when a rma-dhtuka follows.
AmtaSomeone may wonder, Why wasnt i[] applied in abhvi since i[] is also a
rma-dhtuka? The answer is that there is no chance for i[] to be applied because
the future stra ne ya-sarvevarayo (330) forbids it.
bh + tm (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + tm (316) a[t] + bh + i[]
+ s[i] + tm (289) a + bho + i + s + tm (55) abhavistm (108)
abhavitm (they two were obtained) <bhtea karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
317 / @r"AmaAnyavaNAARd"ntae@ntaAmantaAnaAM nasya h"r": /
317. a-rmnya-vard ante-antm-antn nasya hara
a-rma-anyaother than a-rma; vartafter a vara; ante-antm-antnmof the
pratyayas ante, antm, and anta (the tmapada 1.3 pratyayas of acyuta, vidht, and
bhtevara / bhtea respectively); nasyaof the na-rma; haradeletion.
When ante, antm, or anta come after a vara other than a-rma, their n is
deleted.

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278
318 / zAIx~Ae &q%. ca /
318. o ru ca
aafter the dhtu [] svapne (2A, to sleep, lie down); ruthe gama r[u];
caalso.
(When the n of ante, antm, or anta is deleted), r[u] is inserted after [].
abhaviata. t parasya a-varga-yuktasyetiabhavih, abhavithm.
Vtti bh + anta (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + anta (316) a[t] + bh + i[]
+ s[i] + anta (289) a + bho + i + s + anta (55) abhav + i + s + anta (317)
abhavisata (108) abhaviata (they were obtained) <bhtea karmai 1.3 of bh
prptau>.
By applying t parasya a-varga-yuktasya (205) we get abhavih:
bh + ths (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + ths (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
s[i] + ths (289) a + bho + i + s + ths
(55) abhavisths (108)
abhaviths (205) abhavihs (93) abhavih (you were obtained)
<bhtea karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + thm (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + thm (316) a[t] + bh +
i[] + s[i] + thm (289) a + bho + i + s + thm (55) abhavisthm (108)
abhavithm (you two were obtained) <bhtea karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.
319 / s$asya h"r"Ae Dae /
319. sasya haro dhe
sasyaof sa-rma; haradeletion; dhewhen dha-rma follows.
S is deleted when dh follows.
AmtaSome say only the s of s[i] is deleted, but this is not accepted by Jva
Gosvm, since in vtti 508 he will make the form cakdhi <vidht pa. 2.1 of
caks[] dptau>.
320 / wRr"h"ir"imaah"k(Are"Bya: s$aIDvaMBaUtaezAADaAeajaAnaAM Dasya X#: /
320. vara-harimitra-ha-krebhya sdhva-bhtedhokajn dhasya ha
vara-harimitra-ha-krebhyaafter an vara, harimitra, or ha-rma; sdhvambhtea-adhokajnmof sdhvam and the bhtea and adhokaja pratyayas;
dhasyaof the dha-rma; hathe replacement ha-rma.
After an vara, harimitra, or ha-rma, the dh of sdhvam (kmapla),
dhvam (bhtea), and dhve (adhokaja) changes to h.
321 / w"YavaDaAnae tau vaA /
321. i-vyavadhne tu v

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279
i-vyavadhnewhen there is intervention of i[]; tubut; voptionally.
But this change is optional when i[] intervenes.
abhavihvam abhavidhvam, abhavii, abhavivahi, abhavimahi. adhokaje kartari
Vtti bh + dhvam (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + dhvam (316) a[t] + bh +
i[] + s[i] + dhvam (289) a + bho + i + s + dhvam (55) a + bhav + i + s +
dhvam (319) abhavidhvam (320, 321) abhavihvam or
abhavidhvam (you
all were obtained) <bhtea karmai 2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + i (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + i (316) a[t] + bh + i[] + s[i] + i
(289) a + bho + i + s + i (55) abhavisi (108) abhavii (I was obtained)
<bhtea karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + vahi (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + vahi (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
s[i] + vahi (289) a + bho + i + s + vahi
(55) abhavisvahi (108)
abhavivahi (we two were obtained) <bhtea karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + mahi (306, 307) a[t] + bh + s[i] + mahi (316) a[t] + bh + i[]
+ s[i] + mahi (289) a + bho + i + s + mahi (55) abhavismahi (108)
abhavimahi (we were obtained) <bhtea karmai 3.3 of bh prptau>.
abhvi
abhavih

bhtea karmai of bh prptau


abhavitm
abhavithm

abhaviata
abhavidhvam /
abhavihvam
abhavii
abhavivahi
abhavimahi
Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in adhokaja kartari prayoga.
322 / DaAtaAeiR"vaRcanamaDaAeajas$aax~Yax.~Sau /
322. dhtor dvir-vacanam adhokaja-sann-a-yau
dhtoof a dhtu; dvir-vacanamreduplication; adhokaja-san-a-yauwhen an
adhokaja pratyaya or the pratyayas sa[n], a[], and ya[] follow.
A dhtu is reduplicated when adhokaja, sa[n], a[], or ya[] follow.
323 / s$avaeRr"payaRntasyaAid"BaAgAsya @nar"sya i"vaRcanama, /
323. sarvevara-paryantasydi-bhgasya anarasya dvir-vacanam
sarvevara-paryantasyaas far as the sarvevara; di-bhgasyaof the initial portion;
a-narasyaother than a nara (see stra 326 for definition); dvir-vacanam
reduplication.
It is the initial portion of a dhtu, as far as the first sarvevara, that is
reduplicated. But this initial portion cannot be a nara.
324 / s$avaeRr"Aid"tvae tau s$ats$aAid"nabad"r"vajaRsyaAnyaBaAgAsya /

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324. sarvevarditve tu sat-sagdi-na-ba-da-ra-varjasynya-bhgasya
sarvevara-ditvewhen there is the condition of beginning with a sarvevara; tu
but; sat-saga-diwhich are at the beginning of a sat-saga; na-ba-da-ra-varjasya
excluding na-rma, ba-rma, da-rma, and ra-rma; anya-bhgasyaof the other
portion.
But, if the dhtu begins with a sarvevara, it is the other portion of a dhtu,
as far as the second sarvevara but not including n, b, d, or r which are at
the beginning of a sat-saga, that is reduplicated. But this portion cannot be
a nara.
AmtaExamples are aundidat, aubjijat, idat, and rcicat in vtti 570. The words
sarvevara-paryantasya and anarasya are carried forward from the previous stra, and
therefore in examples like narda (see vtti 367) the initial portion is reduplicated even
though the dhtu begins with a sarvevara because the other portion (in this case d)
does not have a sarvevara.
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of the previous stra, and the next stra is an
apavda of this stra. Thus in a <adhokaja pa. 1.1 of a[a] gatau> a-rma, which
is the initial portion of the dhtu as far as the first sarvevara, is reduplicated even
though a[a] gatau begins with a sarvevara, because there is no other portion to
reduplicate. In some editions of Hari-nmmta-vykaraa this stra is listed as
sarvevarditve tu sat-sagdi-na-va-da-ra-varjasynya-bhgasya, but that reading is
incorrect for two reasons: First of all, there are no dhtus which begin with a
sarvevara and have v at the beginning of a sat-saga. Thus mentioning va here would
be useless. Furthermore, Jva Gosvm has specifically included ba in this stra
because Kik, commenting on the equivalent Pinian stra, na n-d-r
sayogdaya (Adhyy 6.1.3), which doesnt include b, says ba-krasypy aya
pratiedho vaktavya (it should be stated that this prohibition is also applicable to
ba-kra) and gives the example ubjijiati (see vtti 582). In this regard, ubj[a] rjave
is the only dhtu which begins with a sarvevara and has b at the beginning of a satsaga, and ad[a] abhiyoge, which is listed as a[a] abhiyoge in the Pinian Dhtupha, is the only dhtu which begins with a sarvevara and has d at the beginning of
a sat-saga. Thus when dealing with y-anta-dhtus like ubji (ubj[a] + []i) it is the ji
portion that is reduplicated by the current stra.
325 / s$anyax~Aestau tats$ambainDana: s$avaeRr"sya ca /
325. san-yaos tu tat-sambandhina sarvevarasya ca
san-yaowhen the pratyayas sa[n] or ya[] follow; tubut; tat-sambandhina
belonging to them (sa[n] and ya[]); sarvevarasyaof the sarvevara; caand.
But, if the dhtu begins with a sarvevara and the pratyayas sa[n] or ya[]
follow, it is both the other portion of a dhtu, excluding n, b, d, or r which
are at the beginning of a sat-saga, and the sarvevara belonging to sa[n] or
ya[] that are reduplicated.
tad eva bh ity asya dvir-vacana-rpe bh bh ity dee kte dvir-uktasya
VttiWhen the bh portion is thus reduplicated and we get bh + bh, the following
rule (stra 328) applies:

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AmtaExamples are pratiati in vtti 582 and ayate in vtti 590. Why did we
say anarasya in stra 323? Consider jugupsiate in vtti 585.
SaodhinPractically, this stra means that if, when the pratyayas sa[n] or ya[]
follow, a dhtu begins with a sarvevara and only has one sarvevara when its
indicatory letter is dropped, then it is the viujanas of the dhtu, excluding n, b, d, or
r which are at the beginning of a sat-saga, and everything up to the first sarvevara
belonging to sa[n] or ya[] that is reduplicated. It will be explained in vtti 582 that the
i of i[] is also considered to belong to sa[n] because gamas having the indicatory
letter are connected to the pratyaya (see vtti 105). Thus for dhtus which do not
take i[] the first sarvevara belonging to sa[n] or ya[] is the a of sa[n] or ya[], and
therefore in pratiati it is sa that is reduplicated (i[] gatau has no viujanas) and
in ayate it is ya (the of a[a] gatau + the ya of ya[]) that is reduplicated. But for
dhtus which take i[] the first sarvevara belonging to sa[n] is the i of i[], and
therefore in the example ubjijiati in vtti 582, it is ji (the j of ubj[a] rjave + the i of
i[]) that is reduplicated. In any case, it is impossible to apply i[] before ya[] because
the stra ne ya-sarvevarayo (330) prohibits it.
326 / paUvaAeR nar": /
326. prvo nara
prvathe first part; naracalled nara.
The first part of the reduplication is called nara.
327 / par"Ae naAr"AyaNA: /
327. paro nryaa
parathe other part; nryaacalled nryaa.
The second part of the reduplication is called nryaa.
prvo bhysa, paro bhyastam iti prca.
VttiEarlier grammarians called the first part abhysa and the second part
abhyasta.
AmtaNara and Nryaa are the two incarnations of the Lord situated at
Badarikrama.
328 / BaUnar"sya BaAe'DaAeajae /
328. bh-narasya bho dhokaje
bh-narasyaof the nara bh; bhathe replacement bha; adhokajewhen an
adhokaja pratyaya follows.
The nara bh is replaced by bha when an adhokaja pratyaya follows.
329 / h"ir"Ka"sya h"ir"k(malaM , h"ir"GaAeSasya h"ir"gAd"A nar"sya /

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329. harikhagasya harikamala, harighoasya harigad narasya
harikhagasyaof a harikhaga; harikamalamthe change to harikamala;
harighoasyaof a harighoa; harigadthe change to harigad; narasyaof a nara.
The harikhaga of a nara changes to harikamala, and the harighoa of a
nara changes to harigad.
330 / naeq"Yas$avaeRr"yaAe: /
330. ne ya-sarvevarayo
nanot; ithe gama i[] (see stra 316); ya-sarvevarayowhen ya-rma or a
sarvevara follow.
I[] is not inserted when y or a sarvevara follow.
nityatvd bhv-deababhva babhvatu babhvu. id-gama parasambandh, ata io py adhokajatbabhvitha babhvathu babhva. babhva
babhviva babhvima. bhvebabhve. karmaibabhve babhvte babhvire.
babhvie babhvthe babhvihve babhvidhve. babhve babhvivahe
babhvimahe. kmaple kartari
VttiThe substitution of bhv by stra 311 takes place because it is nitya.
bh + []a[l] (330, 311) bhv + a (322, 323) bh + bhv + a (328)
bha + bhv + a (329) babhva (he was) <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
bh + atus (330, 311) bhv + atus (322, 323) bh + bhv + atus
(328) bha + bhv +
atus (329) babhvatus (93) babhvatu (they two
were)<adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
bh + us (330, 311) bhv + us (322, 323) bh + bhv + us (328) bha
+ bhv + us (329) babhvus (93) babhvu (they were) <adhokaja pa.
1.3>.
gamas that have the indicatory letter are connected to the pratyaya (see vtti 105).
Thus the gama i[] is also considered an adhokaja pratyaya:
bh + tha[l] (316) bh + i[] + tha[l] (311) bhv + itha (322, 323)
bh + bhv +
itha (328) bha + bhv + itha (329) babhvitha (you were)
<adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
bh + athus (330, 311) bhv + athus (322, 323) bh + bhv + athus
(328) bha +
bhv + athus (329) babhvathus (93) babhvathu (you two
were) <adhokaja pa. 2.2>.
bh + a (330, 311) bhv + a (322, 323) bh + bhv + a (328) bha +
bhv + a
(329) babhva (you all were) <adhokaja pa. 2.3>.
bh + []a[l] (330, 311) bhv + a (322, 323) bh + bhv + a (328)
bha + bhv + a (329) babhva (I was) <adhokaja pa. 3.1>.

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bh + va (316) bh + i[] + va (311) bhv + iva (322, 323) bh +
bhv + iva
(328) bha + bhv + iva (329) babhviva (we two were)
<adhokaja pa. 3.2>.
bh + ma (316) bh + i[] + ma (311) bhv + ima (322, 323) bh +
bhv + ima
(328) bha + bhv + ima (329) babhvima (we were)
<adhokaja pa. 3.3>.
adhokaja parapada of bh sattym
babhva
babhvatu
babhvu
babhvitha
babhvathu
babhva
babhva
babhviva
babhvima
In bhve prayoga we get babhve <adhokaja bhve 1.1>:
bh + e (330, 311) bhv + e (322, 323) bh + bhv + e (328) bha +
bhv + e
(329) babhve ([the act of] being was [done]) <adhokaja bhve
1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + e (330, 311) bhv + e (322, 323) bh + bhv + e (328) bha +
bhv + e
(329) babhve (he was obtained) <adhokaja karmai 1.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + te (330, 311) bhv + te (322, 323) bh + bhv + te (328)
bha + bhv + te
(329) babhvte (they two were obtained) <adhokaja
karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + ire (330, 311) bhv + ire (322, 323) bh + bhv + ire (328)
bha + bhv + ire (329) babhvire (they were obtained) <adhokaja karmai 1.3
of bh prptau>.
bh + se (316) bh + i[] + se (311) bhv + ise (322, 323) bh +
bhv + ise (328)
bha + bhv + ise (329) babhvise (108) babhvie (you
were obtained) <adhokaja karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + the (330, 311) bhv + the (322, 323) bh + bhv + the
(328) bha + bhv
+ the (329) babhvthe (you two were obtained)
<adhokaja karmai 2.2 of bh
prptau>.
bh + dhve (316) bh + i[] + dhve (311) bhv + idhve (322, 323)
bh + bhv +
idhve (328) bha + bhv + idhve (329) babhvidhve (320,
321) babhvihve or
babhvidhve (you all were obtained) <adhokaja karmai
2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + e (330, 311) bhv + e (322, 323) bh + bhv + e (328) bha +
bhv + e
(329) babhve (I was obtained) <adhokaja karmai 3.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + vahe (316) bh + i[] + vahe (311) bhv + ivahe (322, 323)
bh + bhv +
ivahe (328) bha + bhv + ivahe (329) babhvivahe (we two
were obtained) <adhokaja karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.

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bh + mahe (316) bh + i[] + mahe (311) bhv + imahe (322, 323)
bh + bhv +
imahe (328) bha + bhv + imahe (329) babhvimahe (we
were obtained) <adhokaja karmai 3.3 of bh prptau>.
babhve
babhvie
babhve

adhokaja karmai of bh prptau


babhvte
babhvire
babhvthe
babhvidhve /
babhvihve
babhvivahe
babhvimahe

Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in kmapla kartari prayoga.


AmtaThis is a prohibition where i[] would otherwise be inserted before any rmadhtuka by stra 316. The substitution of bhv by stra 311 takes place regardless of
whether or not vndra is done by antasya vndro nsihe (314). Thus it is
nitya, and because that which is nitya is stronger, the subsitution of bhv by stra 311
is done first. Someone may argue, When the gama i[] is applied, how can the
substitution of bhv take place since there is no adhokaja pratyaya following? In
answer to that, Jva Gosvm, speaks the phrase id-gama para-sambandh to
establish that i[] is an adhokaja pratyaya.
331 / k(AmapaAlapar"padM" k(ipala: /
331. kmapla-parapada kapila
kmapla-parapadamthe kmapla parapada pratyayas; kapilakapila.
The kmapla parapada pratyayas are kapila.
bhyt bhystm bhysu. bhy bhystam bhysta. bhysam bhysva
bhysma. bhvebhavia. karmaibhavia bhaviystm bhaviran.
bhavih bhaviysthm bhavihvam bhavidhvam. bhaviya bhavivahi
bhavimahi. blakalkau kartaribhavit bhavitrau bhavitra. bhavitsi
bhavitstha bhavitstha. bhavitsmi bhavitsva bhavitsma. bhvebhavit.
karmaibhavit bhavitrau bhavitra. bhavitse bhavitsthe bhavitdhve.
bhavithe bhavitsvahe bhavitsmahe. kalkau kartaribhaviyati bhaviyata
bhaviyanti. bhaviyasi bhaviyatha bhaviyatha. bhaviymi bhaviyva
bhaviyma. bhvebhaviyate. karmaibhaviyate bhaviyete bhaviyante.
bhaviyase bhaviyethe bhaviyadhve. bhaviye bhaviyvahe bhaviymahe. ajite
kartariabhaviyat abhaviyatm abhaviyan. abhaviya abhaviyatam
abhaviyata. abhaviyam abhaviyva abhaviyma. bhveabhaviyata. karmai
abhaviyata abhaviyetm abhaviyanta. abhaviyath abhaviyethm
abhaviyadhvam. abhaviye abhaviyvahi abhaviymahi. cit sajne. sajna
caitanyam. tasmj jgaraaikrthd akarmako yam. kvacid viea-jne pi dyante,
tatra sa-karmakaciceta rmas ta kleam iti bhai.
Vtti bh + yt (330, 331, 276, 294) bhyt (may he be) <kmapla pa.
1.1>.
bh + ystm (330, 331, 276, 294) bhystm (may they two be)
<kmapla pa. 1.2>.

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bh + ysus (330, 331, 276, 294) bhysus (93) bhysu (may they
be) <kmapla pa. 1.3>.
bh + ys (330, 331, 276, 294) bhys (93) bhy (may you be)
<kmapla pa. 2.1>.
bh + ystam (330, 331, 276, 294) bhystam (may you two be)
<kmapla pa. 2.2>.
bh + ysta (330, 331, 276, 294) bhysta (may you all be) <kmapla
pa. 2.3>.
3.1>.

bh + ysam (330, 331, 276, 294) bhysam (may I be) <kmapla pa.

bh + ysva (330, 331, 276, 294) bhysva (may we two be)


<kmapla pa. 3.2>.
bh + ysma (330, 331, 276, 294) bhysma (may we be) <kmapla
pa. 3.3>.
kmapla parapada of bh sattym
bhyt
bhystm
bhysu
bhy
bhystam
bhysta
bhysam
bhysva
bhysma
In bhve prayoga we get bhavita <kmapla bhve 1.1>:
bh + sa (316) bh + i[] + sa (289) bho + i + sa (55)
bhavisa
(108) bhavia (may [the act of] being be [done]) <kmapla
bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + sa (316) bh + i[] + sa (289) bho + i + sa (55)
bhavisa
(108) bhavia (may he be obtained) <kmapla karmai 1.1 of
bh prptau>.
bh + systm (316) bh + i[] + systm (289) bho + i + systm
(55) bhavisystm (108) bhaviystm (may they two be obtained) <kmapla
karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + sran (316) bh + i[] + sran (289) bho + i + sran (55)
bhavisran (108) bhaviran (may they be obtained) <kmapla karmai 1.3 of
bh prptau>.
bh + shs (316) bh + i[] + shs (289) bho + i + shs
(55) bhavishs (108) bhavihs (93) bhavih (may you be
obtained) <kmapla karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + systhm (316) bh + i[] + systhm (289) bho + i +
systhm (55) bhavisysthm (108) bhaviysthm (may you two be
obtained) <kmapla karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.

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bh + sdhvam (316) bh + i[] + sdhvam (289) bho + i + sdhvam
(55) bhavisdhvam (108) bhavidhvam (320, 321) bhavihvam or
bhavidhvam (may you all be obtained) <kmapla karmai 2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + sya (316) bh + i[] + sya (289) bho + i + sya (55)
bhavisya (108) bhaviya (may I be obtained) <kmapla karmai 3.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + svahi (316) bh + i[] + svahi (289) bho + i + svahi (55)
bhavisvahi (108) bhavivahi (may we two be obtained) <kmapla
karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + smahi (316) bh + i[] + smahi (289) bho + i + smahi (55)
bhavismahi (108) bhavimahi (may we be obtained) <kmapla karmai 3.3 of
bh prptau>.
bhavia
bhavih

kmapla karmai of bh prptau


bhaviystm
bhaviysthm

bhaviran
bhavidhvam /
bhavihvam
bhaviya
bhavivahi
bhavimahi
Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in blakalki kartari prayoga.
bh + t (316) bh + i[] + t (289) bho + i + t (55) bhavit (he
will be)
<blakalki pa. 1.1>.
bh + trau (316) bh + i[] + trau (289) bho + i + trau (55)
bhavitrau (they
two will be) <blakalki pa. 1.2>.
bh + tras (316) bh + i[] + tras (289) bho + i + tras (55)
bhavitras (93)
bhavitra (they will be) <blakalki pa. 1.3>.
bh + tsi (316) bh + i[] + tsi (289) bho + i + tsi (55) bhavitsi
(you will be)
<blakalki pa. 2.1>.
bh + tsthas (316) bh + i[] + tsthas (289) bho + i + tsthas (55)
bhavitsthas (93) bhavitstha (you two will be) <blakalki pa. 2.2>.
bh + tstha (316) bh + i[] + tstha (289) bho + i + tstha (55)
bhavitstha (you
all will be) <blakalki pa. 2.3>.
bh + tsmi (316) bh + i[] + tsmi (289) bho + i + tsmi (55)
bhavitsmi (I will
be) <blakalki pa. 3.1>.
bh + tsvas (316) bh + i[] + tsvas (289) bho + i + tsvas (55)
bhavitsvas
(93) bhavitsva (we two will be) <blakalki pa. 3.2>.
bh + tsmas (316) bh + i[] + tsmas (289) bho + i + tsmas (55)
bhavitsmas (93) bhavitsma (we will be) <blakalki pa. 3.3>.
blakalki parapada of bh sattym
bhavit
bhavitrau
bhavitra
bhavitsi
bhavitstha
bhavitstha
bhavitsmi
bhavitsva
bhavitsma

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In bhve prayoga we get bhavit <blakalki bhve 1.1>:
bh + t (316) bh + i[] + t (289) bho + i + t (55) bhavit ([the
act of] being will be [done]) <blakalki bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + t (316) bh + i[] + t (289) bho + i + t (55) bhavit (he
will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 1.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + trau (316) bh + i[] + trau (289) bho + i + trau (55)
bhavitrau (they two will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + tras (316) bh + i[] + tras (289) bho + i + tras (55)
bhavitras (93) bhavitra (they will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 1.3 of bh
prptau>.
bh + tse (316) bh + i[] + tse (289) bho + i + tse (55)
bhavitse (you will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + tsthe (316) bh + i[] + tsthe (289) bho + i + tsthe (55)
bhavitsthe (you two will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + tdhve (316) bh + i[] + tdhve (289) bho + i + tdhve (55)
bhavitdhve (you all will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + the (316) bh + i[] + the (289) bho + i + the (55)
bhavithe (I will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + tsvahe (316) bh + i[] + tsvahe (289) bho + i + tsvahe
(55) bhavitsvahe (we two will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + tsmahe (316) bh + i[] + tsmahe (289) bho + i + tsmahe
(55) bhavitsmahe (we will be obtained) <blakalki karmai 3.3 of bh prptau>.
bhavit
bhavitse
bhavithe

blakalki karmai of bh prptau


bhavitrau
bhavitsthe
bhavitsvahe

bhavitra
bhavitdhve
bhavitsmahe

Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in kalki kartari prayoga.


bh + syati (316) bh + i[] + syati (289) bho + i + syati (55)
bhavisyati (108)
bhaviyati (he will be) <kalki pa. 1.1>.
bh + syatas (316) bh + i[] + syatas (289) bho + i + syatas (55)
bhavisyatas
(108) bhaviyatas (93) bhaviyata (they two will be) <kalki pa.
1.2>.
bh + syanti (316) bh + i[] + syanti (289) bho + i + syanti (55)
bhavisyanti
(108) bhaviyanti (they will be) <kalki pa. 1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
288
bh + syasi (316) bh + i[] + syasi (289) bho + i + syasi (55)
bhavisyasi (108)
bhaviyasi (you will be) <kalki pa. 2.1>.
bh + syathas (316) bh + i[] + syathas (289) bho + i + syathas
(55) bhavisyathas
(108) bhaviyathas (93) bhaviyatha (you two will be)
<kalki pa. 2.2>.
bh + syatha (316) bh + i[] + syatha (289) bho + i + syatha (55)
bhavisyatha
(108) bhaviyatha (you all will be) <kalki pa. 2.3>.
bh + symi (316) bh + i[] + symi (289) bho + i + symi (55)
bhavisymi
(108) bhaviymi (I will be) <kalki pa. 3.1>.
bh + syvas (316) bh + i[] + syvas (289) bho + i + syvas (55)
bhavisyvas (108) bhaviyvas (93) bhaviyva (we two will be) <kalki pa.
3.2>.
bh + symas (316) bh + i[] + symas (289) bho + i + symas
(55) bhavisymas
(108) bhaviymas (93) bhaviyma (we will be)
<kalki pa. 3.3>.
kalki parapada of bh sattym
bhaviyati
bhaviyata
bhaviyanti
bhaviyasi
bhaviyatha
bhaviyatha
bhaviymi
bhaviyva
bhaviyma
In bhve prayoga we get bhaviyate <kalki bhve 1.1>:
bh + syate (316) bh + i[] + syate (289) bho + i + syate (55)
bhavisyate (108) bhaviyate ([the act of] being will be [done]) <kalki bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + syate (316) bh + i[] + syate (289) bho + i + syate (55)
bhavisyate (108) bhaviyate (he will be obtained) <kalki karmai 1.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + syete (316) bh + i[] + syete (289) bho + i + syete (55)
bhavisyete (108) bhaviyete (they two will be obtained) <kalki karmai 1.2 of
bh prptau>.
bh + syante (316) bh + i[] + syante (289) bho + i + syante (55)
bhavisyante (108) bhaviyante (they will be obtained) <kalki karmai 1.3 of
bh prptau>.
bh + syase (316) bh + i[] + syase (289) bho + i + syase (55)
bhavisyase (108) bhaviyase (you will be obtained) <kalki karmai 2.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + syethe (316) bh + i[] + syethe (289) bho + i + syethe (55)
bhavisyethe (108) bhaviyethe (you two will be obtained) <kalki karmai
2.2 of bh prptau>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
289
bh + syadhve (316) bh + i[] + syadhve (289) bho + i + syadhve
(55) bhavisyadhve (108) bhaviyadhve (you all will be obtained) <kalki karmai
2.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + sye (316) bh + i[] + sye (289) bho + i + sye (55) bhavisye
(108) bhaviye (I will be obtained) <kalki karmai 3.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + syvahe (316) bh + i[] + syvahe (289) bho + i + syvahe
(55) bhavisyvahe (108) bhaviyvahe (we two will be obtained) <kalki karmai
3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + symahe (316) bh + i[] + symahe (289) bho + i + symahe
(55) bhavisymahe (108) bhaviymahe (we will be obtained) <kalki karmai 3.3
of bh prptau>.
bhaviyate
bhaviyase
bhaviye

kalki karmai of bh prptau


bhaviyete
bhaviyethe
bhaviyvahe

bhaviyante
bhaviyadhve
bhaviymahe

Now we begin the conjugation of bh sattym in ajita kartari prayoga.


bh + syat (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syat (289) a + bho + i + syat
(55) abhavisyat (108) abhaviyat ([if] he were.. he would have been / [if] he
could be.. he would be)1 <ajita pa. 1.1>.
bh + syatm (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syatm (289) a + bho + i +
syatm (55)
abhavisyatm (108) abhaviyatm <ajita pa. 1.2>.
bh + syan (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syan (289) a + bho + i +
syan (55)
abhavisyan (108) abhaviyan <ajita pa. 1.3>.
bh + syas (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syas (289) a + bho + i + syas
(55)
abhavisyas (108) abhaviyas (93) abhaviya <ajita pa. 2.1>.
bh + syatam (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syatam (289) a + bho + i
+ syatam (55) abhavisyatam (108) abhaviyatam <ajita pa. 2.2>.
bh + syata (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syata (289) a + bho + i +
syata (55)
abhavisyata (108) abhaviyata <ajita pa. 2.3>.
bh + syam (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syam (289) a + bho + i +
syam (55)
abhavisyam (108) abhaviyam <ajita pa. 3.1>.
bh + syva (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syva (289) a + bho + i +
syva (55)
abhavisyva (108) abhaviyva <ajita pa. 3.2>.

1 The first of these is for when ajita is used in the past and the second is for when ajita is used in the
future. Using this same pattern, one should infer the translations of the other ajita forms. An example of
when ajita is used in the past is yadi kvatro na abhaviyat tad daity mukt na abhaviyan (If
Ka hadnt descended the demons wouldnt have been liberated) and an example of when ajita is
used in the future is yadi ka-bhaktir abhaviyat tadha ktrtho bhaviyam (If there could be
devotion to Ka, then I would be successful). These examples are from vtti 633.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
290
bh + syma (306, 316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syma (289) a + bho + i +
syma (55)
abhavisyma (108) abhaviyma <ajita pa. 3.3>.
ajita parapada of bh sattym
abhaviyat
abhaviyatm
abhaviyan
abhaviya
abhaviyatam
abhaviyata
abhaviyam
abhaviyva
abhaviyma
In bhve prayoga we get abhaviyata <ajita bhve 1.1>:
bh + syata (306) a[t] + bh + syata (316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syata
(289) a + bho + i + syata (55) abhavisyata (108) abhaviyata <ajita bhve 1.1>.
In karmai prayoga, when the sense is prpti, we get the following forms:
bh + syata (306) a[t] + bh + syata (316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syata
(289) a + bho + i + syata (55) abhavisyata (108) abhaviyata <ajita karmai 1.1
of bh prptau>.
bh + syetm (306) a[t] + bh + syetm (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
syetm (289) a + bho + i + syetm (55) abhavisyetm (108) abhaviyetm
<ajita karmai 1.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + syanta (306) a[t] + bh + syanta (316) a[t] + bh + i[] + syanta
(289) a + bho + i + syanta (55) abhavisyanta (108) abhaviyanta <ajita
karmai 1.3 of bh prptau>.
bh + syaths (306) a[t] + bh + syaths (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
syaths (289) a + bho + i + syaths
(51) abhavisyaths (108)
abhaviyaths (93) abhaviyath <ajita karmai 2.1 of bh prptau>.
bh + syethm (306) a[t] + bh + syethm (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
syethm (289) a + bho + i + syethm (55) abhavisyethm (108)
abhaviyethm <ajita karmai 2.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + syadhvam (306) a[t] + bh + syadhvam (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
syadhvam (289) a + bho + i + syadhvam (55) abhavisyadhvam (108)
abhaviyadhvam <ajita karmai 2.3 of bh
prptau>.
bh + sye (306) a[t] + bh + sye (316) a[t] + bh + i[] + sye (289)
a + bho + i + sye (55) abhavisye (108) abhaviye <ajita karmai 3.1 of bh
prptau>.
bh + syvahi (306) a[t] + bh + syvahi (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
syvahi (289) a + bho + i + syvahi
(51) abhavisyvahi (108)
abhaviyvahi <ajita karmai 3.2 of bh prptau>.
bh + symahi (306) a[t] + bh + symahi (316) a[t] + bh + i[] +
symahi (289) a + bho + i + symahi (55) abhavisymahi (108)
abhaviymahi <ajita karmai 3.3 of bh prptau>.
abhaviyata
abhaviyath

ajita karmai of bh prptau


abhaviyetm
abhaviyethm

abhaviyanta
abhaviyadhvam

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
291
abhaviye

abhaviyvahi

abhaviymahi

Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne (1P, to be aware /
conscious; to understand). Sajna means caitanya (being conscious). Cit[]
sajne is akarmaka (intransitive) because its meaning is equivalent to jgaraa
(being awake). Cit[] sajne is also used when there is knowledge of a particular
thing, but then it is sa-karmaka (transitive). An example of this is Bhai-kvya
(14.62): ciceta rmas ta kleam (Rma understood that misery).
332 / "Yaar"DaAtaAer"nta: paUvaR s$avaeRr": s$aivaSNAucaApa: ,
jaAgA{k(TaAid"vajaRma, /
332. dvy-akara-dhtor anta prva ca sarvevara sa-viucpa, jg-kathdivarjam
dvi-akara-dhtoof a dhtu which has two syllables; antafinal; prvainitial;
caand; sarvevarasarvevara; sa-viucpawith a viucpa; jg-katha-divarjamexcept jg nidr-kaye (2P, to be awake) and the kathdis (the sub-group
of cur-di-dhtus beginning with katha vkya-prabandhe (10P, to narrate, describe)).
If a dhtu has two syllables, its initial or final sarvevara is sa-viucpa. But
jg and the kathdis are exceptions to this rule.
caks-prabhtnm anta, ovai-ovi-prabhtn prva. tata -rma it.
VttiThe final sarvevara of caks[] dptau and so on is sa-viucpa, and the
initial sarvevara of [o]vai oane, [o]vi1 gati-vddhyo, and so on is sa-viucpa.
Thus the in cit[] sajne is an indicatory letter.
AmtaBy this stra the of cit[] is a sa-viucpa-sarvevara, and thus, by the
maxim siddhopadee viricau ca sa-viucpa-sarvevara it (vtti 91), the of cit[] is
an indicatory letter. In this connection, the condition of a dhtus having two syllables
is taken only in relation to the form of the dhtu devoid of its anubandhas.
Furthermore, this rule doesnt necessarily mean that both the initial sarvevara and
final sarvevara are simultaneously sa-viucpa. Thus only the final sarvevara of
dhtus like a[a] gatau and so on is sa-viucpa. Both the initial sarvevara and final
sarvevara of dhtus like [o]vij[] bhaya-calanayo and so on are sa-viucpa. The
final sarvevara of dhtus like cit[] sajne and so on is sa-viucpa. The initial
sarvevara of dhtus like []uc[ir] and so on is sa-viucpa. Since the of jg is not
sa-viucpa, it is not an indicatory letter. The a of the kathdis is likewise not an
indicatory letter, but it will be described later how it is deleted by stra 393. Because
dhtus like caks[] dptau are not covered by this stra since they have more than
two syllables, Jva Gosvm mentions them separately in the vtti.
SaodhinThis stra is introduced here because we are now beginning the
conjugation of cit[] sajne, the first dhtu in the Dhtu-pha to have two syllables.
If this stra were not made then we wouldnt be able to ascertain that the of cit is
sa-viucpa and thus an indicatory letter. Thus it would be concluded that the
uddhava of cit is t, and there would be no chance of applying the next rule since it is
impossible for a viujana like t to take govinda. Amtas statement that the condition
of a dhtus having two syllables is taken only in relation to the form of the dhtu
devoid of its anubandhas must be understood to mean that the condition of a dhtus
having two syllables is taken only in relation to the form of the dhtu devoid of the
1 See explanation in Saodhin below.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
292
anubandhas i, u, and u, in accordance with the maxim dhtv-di-i-u-u (vtti 91).
The proof of this is that, in the vtti, Jva Gosvm refers to the dhtu [u][o]vi gativddhyo as [o]vi. Amtas statement by itself is too general as the sa-viucpasarvevaras are themselves anubandhas, and if they are not included here then where
is the possibility of a dhtu having two syllables? Furthermore, Amta 440 makes the
point that it was necessary to separately ordain, in vtti 338, that ir at the end of a
dhtu is indicatory since the current stra doesnt cover this as the i is not kevala since
it is accompanied by r. From this we can gather that dhtus like cak[i] vyakty
vci, d[ir] prekae, and so on which have two syllables but which end in a
viujana are not covered by the current stra because their final sarvevara is not
kevala. Thus a separate effort is made elsewhere to point out their respective
indicatory letters.
It seems from the example of [o]vij[] given in both commentaries that, by extension,
this rule also applies to dhtus that have three syllables, and that both the initial
sarvevara and final sarvevara are sa-viucpa in that case. Other examples of this
are [o]pyy[] vddhau, [o]vrac[] chedane, [u][o]sphrj[] vajra-nipee, and so
on.
333 / laGaU"vasya gAAeivand": /
333. laghddhavasya govinda
laghu-uddhavasyaof an uddhava which is laghu; govindagovinda.
A laghu uddhava takes govinda when a pratyaya follows.
vmano laghu. acyute kartaricetati. bhvecityate. vidhaucetet. bhvecityeta.
vidhtaricetatu; cityatm. bhtevareacetat; acityata. bhtee dipsi, i,
govinda
VttiA vmana is called laghu (see stra 31). Now we begin the conjugation of cit[]
sajne in acyuta kartari prayoga.
cit + ti[p] (288) cit + []a[p] + ti[p] (333) cetati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
acyuta parapada of cit[] sajne
cetati
cetata
cetanti
cetasi
cetatha
cetatha
cetmi
cetva
cetma
In bhve prayoga we get cityate <acyuta bhve 1.1>:
cit + te (293) cit + ya[k] + te (330, 294) cityate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in vidhi kartari prayoga.
cit + yt (288) cit + []a[p] + yt (333) cet + a + yt (296) cet + a +
it (43) cetet
<vidhi pa. 1.1>.
vidhi parapada of cit[] sajne
cetet
cetetm
ceteyu
cete
cetetam
ceteta
ceteyam
ceteva
cetema

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
293
In bhve prayoga we get cityeta <vidhi bhve 1.1>:
cit + ta (293) cit + ya[k] + ta (330, 294, 44) cityeta <vidhi bhve

1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in vidht kartari prayoga.
cit + tu[p] (288) cit + []a[p] + tu[p] (333) cetatu <vidht pa. 1.1>.
vidht parapada of cit[] sajne
cetatu / cetatt
cetatm
cetantu
ceta / cetatt
cetatam
cetata
cetni
cetva
cetma
In bhve prayoga we get cityatm <vidht bhve 1.1>:
1.1>.

cit + tm (293) cit + ya[k] + tm (330, 294) cityatm <vidht bhve

Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in bhtevara kartari
prayoga.
cit + d[ip] (288, 306) a[t] + cit + []a[p] + d[ip] (333) acetad (185)
acetat
<bhtevara pa. 1.1>.
bhtevara parapada of cit[] sajne
acetat
acetatm
acetan
aceta
acetatam
acetata
acetam
acetva
acetma
In bhve prayoga we get acityata <bhtevara bhve 1.1>:
cit + ta (293, 306) a[t] + cit + ya[k] + ta (330, 294) acityata
<bhtevara bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in bhtea kartari prayoga.
When the bhtea pratyaya d[ip] is applied, s[i] and i[] are applied and govinda is
done. At that time the following rules apply:
AmtaThe words when a pratyaya follows have to be supplied in this stra.
334 / @istais$aByaAmaIx". id"ips$apaAe: /
334. asti-sibhym dip-sipo
asti-sibhymafter the dhtu as[a] bhuvi (2P, to be, become, exist) and the
pratyaya s[i]; the gama []; dip-sipowhen the pratyayas d[ip] and s[ip]
follow.
[] is inserted after as[a] or s[i] when d[ip] or s[ip] follow.
SaodhinBy the mention of asti, the []ti[p] form of as[a] bhuvi, the dhtus as[a]
gatau dpty-dnayo ca (1U, to go, move; to shine; to take) and as[u] kepae (4P,
to throw) are excluded1. [] is only inserted after as[a] bhuvi when, in bhtevara
1 See Saodhin 308 for further details.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
294
kartari prayoga, d[ip] or s[ip] follow, since in bhtea kartari prayoga as[a] is replaced
by bh in accordance with aster bhr bruvo vac rma-dhtuke (499).
335 / wq%: is$alaAepa wRiq% /
335. ia si-lopa i
iaafter i[]; si-lopadeletion of s[i]; iwhen [] follows.
S[i] is deleted when it comes between i[] and [].
acett acetim.
Vtti cit + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (333) acet +
i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) acet + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) acet + i[] + [] +
d[ip] (42) acetd (185) acett <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
cit + tm (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + tm (333) acetistm
(108) acetitm
(205) acetim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
336 / is$anaAr"AyaNAvaeiaByaAe'na os$a, /
336. si-nryaa-vettibhyo na us
si-nryaa-vettibhyaafter s[i], nryaa, or the dhtu vid[a] jne (2P, to know);
anaof the pratyaya an; usthe replacement us.
After s[i], nryaa, or vid[a], an is replaced by us.
acetiu. acet acetiam acetia. acetiam acetiva acetima. bhveaceti.
adhokajeciceta.
Vtti cit + an (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + an (333) acet + i[] +
s[i] + an (336)
acet + i[] + s[i] + us (108) acetius (93) acetiu
<bhtea pa. 1.3>.
cit + s[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + s[ip] (333) acet + i[]
+ s[i] + s[ip]

(334) acet + i[] + s[i] + [] + s[ip] (335) acet + i[] +


[] + s[ip] (42) acets (93) acet <bhtea pa. 2.1>.
cit + tam (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + tam (333) acetistam
(108) acetitam
(205) acetiam <bhtea pa. 2.2>.
cit + ta (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + ta (333) acetista
(108) acetita (205) acetia <bhtea pa. 2.3>.
cit + [p]am (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + [p]am (333)
acetisam (108)
acetiam <bhtea pa. 3.1>.
cit + va (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + va (333) acetisva
(108) acetiva
<bhtea pa. 3.2>.
cit + ma (306, 307, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + s[i] + ma (333) acetisma
(108) acetima <bhtea pa. 3.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
295
bhtea parapada of cit[] sajne
acett
acetim
acetiu
acet
acetiam
acetia
acetiam
acetiva
acetima
In bhve prayoga we get aceti <bhtea bhve 1.1>:
cit + ta (306, 313) a[t] + cit + i[] + ta (333) acet + i[] + ta (315)
aceti <bhtea bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in adhokaja kartari
prayoga.
cit + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + []a[l] (333) ciceta <adhokaja
pa. 1.1>.
AmtaIt was described in stra 327 that, when there is reduplication, the second
part is called nryaa, and it will be described later, in stras 519 and 505
respectively, how the juhoty-dis and jak-dis are also nryaa. Thus all three of
them are taken here. In aceti <bhtea bhve 1.1>, only govinda is applied as it is
impossible to apply vndra by stra 314 since cit[] doesnt have a final
sarvevara.
337 / @s$aMyaAegAAd"ilad"DaAeaja: k(ipala: /
337. asayogd alid-adhokaja kapila
a-sayogtnot after a sayoga (sat-saga); a-l-it-adhokajathe adhokaja
pratyayas which dont have the indicatory letter l (all the adhokaja pratyayas except
[]a[l] and tha[l]); kapilakapila.
Adhokaja pratyayas which dont have the indicatory letter l are kapila if
they are applied after a dhtu which doesnt end in a sat-saga.
338 / svaaevaAR /
338. svajer v
svajeafter the dhtu vanj[a] parivage (1A, to embrace); voptionally
After vanj[a], adhokaja pratyayas which dont have the indicatory letter l
are optionally kapila.
cicitatu cicitu. cicetitha cicitathu cicita. ciceta cicitiva cicitima. bhvecicite.
kmaplecityt. bhvecetia. blakalkaucetit. bhvecetit. kalkau
cetiyati. bhvecetiyate. ajiteacetiyat. bhveacetiyata. eva karmai jeyam.
sphuir viarae. viaraa vidraam. visaraa iti phe vika. dhtor anta ir
it. kartarisphoati. karmaisphuyate.
AmtaWhere the adhokaja pratyayas which dont have the indicatory letter l
usually wouldnt be kapila when they are applied after vanj[a] since vanj[a] ends in
a sat-saga, this rule makes them optionally kapila.
SaodhinIn this stra, the dhtu vanj[a] parivage is indicated by the word
svaji, a word obtained by applying the kt pratyaya i[k] after vanj[a] parivage by

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
296
ik-tipau dhtu-nirdee (909). When i[k] is applied after vanj[a], dhtv-de a sa
(346) and ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga-yoge (175) are applied and we get svaji. In
this way i[k] is often used to show a dhtus well-known form, rather than its
elementary form as listed in the Dhtu-pha.
Vtti cit + atus (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + atus (337, 294, 93) cicitatu
<adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
cit + us (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + us (337, 294, 93) cicitu <adhokaja
pa. 1.3>.
cit + tha[l] (316) cit + i[] + tha[l] (322, 323) ci + cit + i[] + tha[l]
(333) cicetitha
<adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
cit + athus (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + athus (337, 294, 93) cicitathu
<adhokaja pa. 2.2>.
2.3>.

cit + a (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + a (337, 294) cicita <adhokaja pa.

cit + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + []a[l] (333) ciceta <adhokaja
pa. 3.1>.
cit + va (316) cit + i[] + va (322, 323) ci + cit + iva (337, 294)
cicitiva
<adhokaja pa. 3.2>.
cit + ma (316) cit + i[] + ma (322, 323) ci + cit + ima (337, 294)
cicitima <adhokaja
pa. 3.3>.
adhokaja parapada of cit[] sajne
ciceta
cicitatu
cicitu
cicetitha
cicitathu
cicita
ciceta
cicitiva
cicitima
In bhve prayoga we get cicite <adhokaja bhve 1.1>:
1.1>.

cit + e (330, 322, 323) ci + cit + e (337, 294) cicite <adhokaja bhve

Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in kmapla kartari
prayoga.
cit + yt (330, 331, 294) cityt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
kmapla parapada of cit[] sajne
cityt
citystm
citysu
city
citystam
citysta
citysam
citysva
citysma
In bhve prayoga we get cetia <kmapla bhve 1.1>:
cit + sa (316) cit + i[] + sa (333) cetisa (108) cetia
<kmapla
bhve
1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
297
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in blakalki kartari prayoga.
cit + t (316) cit + i[] + t (333) cetit <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
blakalki parapada of cit[] sajne
cetit
cetitrau
cetitra
cetitsi
cetitstha
cetitstha
cetitsmi
cetitsva
cetitsma
In bhve prayoga we get cetit <blakalki bhve 1.1>:
cit + t (316) cit + i[] + t (333) cetit <blakalki bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in kalki kartari prayoga.
cit + syati (316) cit + i[] + syati (333) cetisyati (108) cetiyati
<kalki pa. 1.1>.
kalki parapada of cit[] sajne
cetiyati
cetiyata
cetiyanti
cetiyasi
cetiyatha
cetiyatha
cetiymi
cetiyva
cetiyma
In bhve prayoga we get cetiyate <kalki bhve 1.1>:
cit + syate (316) cit + i[] + syate (333) cetisyate (108) cetiyate
<kalki bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cit[] sajne in ajita kartari prayoga.
cit + syat (306, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + syat (333) acetisyat (108)
acetiyat <ajita pa.
1.1>.
ajita parapada of cit[] sajne
acetiyat
acetiyatm
acetiyan
acetiya
acetiyatam
acetiyata
acetiyam
acetiyva
acetiyma
In bhve prayoga we get acetiyata <ajita bhve 1.1>:
cit + syata (306, 316) a[t] + cit + i[] + syata (333) acetisyata (108)
acetiyata <ajita bhve 1.1>.
One should know the conjugations to be the same in karmai prayoga as in bhve
prayoga:
acyuta karmai of cit[] sajne
cityate
cityete
cityante
cityase
cityethe
cityadhve
citye
cityvahe
citymahe
vidhi karmai of cit[] sajne
cityeta
cityeytm
cityeran
cityeth
cityeythm
cityedhvam

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
298
cityeya

cityevahi

cityemahi

vidht karmai of cit[] sajne


cityatm
cityetm
cityantm
cityasva
cityethm
cityadhvam
cityai
cityvahai
citymahai
bhtevara karmai of cit[] sajne
acityata
acityetm
acityanta
acityath
acityethm
acityadhvam
acitye
acityvahi
acitymahi
bhtea karmai of cit[] sajne
aceti
acetitm
acetiata
acetih
acetithm
acetidhvam
acetii
acetivahi
acetimahi
adhokaja karmai of cit[] sajne
cicite
cicitte
cicitire
cicitie
cicitthe
cicitidhve
cicite
cicitivahe
cicitimahe
kmapla karmai of cit[] sajne
cetia
cetiystm
cetiran
cetih
cetiysthm
cetidhvam
cetiya
cetivahi
cetimahi
blakalki karmai of cit[] sajne
cetit
cetitrau
cetitra
cetitse
cetitsthe
cetitdhve
cetithe
cetitsvahe
cetitsmahe
kalki karmai of cit[] sajne
cetiyate
cetiyete
cetiyante
cetiyase
cetiyethe
cetiyadhve
cetiye
cetiyvahe
cetiymahe
ajita karmai of cit[] sajne
acetiyata
acetiyetm
acetiyanta
acetiyath
acetiyethm
acetiyadhvam
acetiye
acetiyvahi
acetiymahi
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu sphu[ir] viarae / visarae1 (1P, to
pierce, break; to bloom, be manifest). Viaraam means vidraam (piercing,
breaking). In the alternate reading visaraa, visaraa means vika (blooming,
manifestation). Dhtor anta ir it (When at the end of a dhtu, ir is an indicatory
letter). In kartari prayoga we get sphoati <acyuta pa. 1.1> and in karmai prayoga
we get sphuyate <acyuta karmai 1.1>:
sphu + ti[p] (288) sphu + []a[p] + ti[p] (333) sphoati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
1 In the Dhtu-pha, sphu[ir] is listed as sphuir visarae, visaraam vika,
viaraa iti phe vidraam. Since the predominant reading and alternate reading are
reversed in this vtti, we will give both equal value and henceforth list the dhtu as
sphu[ir] viarae / visarae.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
299
acyuta parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoati
sphoata
sphoanti
sphoasi
sphoatha
sphoatha
sphomi
sphova
sphoma
sphu + te (293) sphu + ya[k] + te (330, 294) sphuyate <acyuta
karmai 1.1>.
AmtaWhen sphu[ir] is used in the sense of viaraa, it is sa-karmaka
(transitive). For example, sphoati atrn viikhena prtha (Arjuna pierces the
enemies with arrows). But when it is used in the sense of visaraa, it is akarmaka. For
example, sphoati sarasi rjva-rji (A row of blue lotuses blooms in the lake).
SaodhinThere is a need to separately ordain ir as it because if we were to say
that the i is an it by siddhopadee viricau ca sa-viucpa-sarvevara it (vtti 91) and
that the r is an it by antya-viujana ca (vtti 91), we would have to insert n[um] by irmed-dhtor num (344). Thus ir is treated as a single anubandha here.
339 / @r"Amah"r"sya inaimaamar"Ama: paUvaRvaa /
339. a-rma-harasya nimittam a-rma prva-vac ca
a-rma-harasyaof the deletion of a-rma; nimittamthe cause; a-rmaa-rma;
prva-vatlike the previous a-rma; caand.
A-rma causes the deletion of the previous a-rma (see stra 291), but then
it is treated as if it were that previous a-rma.
tato na nasya harasphuyante. vidhy-dausphoet, sphuyeta. sphoatu
sphuyatm. asphoat, asphuyata. bhtee
VttiTherefore n is not deleted by stra 317.
sphu + ante (293) sphu + ya[k] + ante (330, 294, 291) sphu + y +
ante (339)
sphuyante <acyuta karmai 1.3>.
acyuta karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphuyate
sphuyete
sphuyante
sphuyase
sphuyethe
sphuyadhve
sphuye
sphuyvahe
sphuymahe
In vidhi and so on, we get the following forms:
sphu + yt (288) sphu + []a[p] + yt (333) spho + a + yt (296)
spho + a + it (43) sphoet <vidhi pa. 1.1>.
vidhi parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoet
sphoetm
sphoeyu
sphoe
sphoetam
sphoeta
sphoeyam
sphoeva
sphoema
sphu + ta (293) sphu + ya[k] + ta (330, 294, 44) sphuyeta <vidhi
karmai 1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
300
vidhi karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphuyeta
sphuyeytm
sphuyeran
sphuyeth
sphuyeythm
sphuyedhvam
sphuyeya
sphuyevahi
sphuyemahi
sphu + tu[p] (288) sphu + []a[p] + tu[p] (333) sphoatu <vidht
pa. 1.1>.
vidht parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoatu /
sphoatm
sphoantu
sphoatt
sphoa /
sphoatam
sphoata
sphoatt
sphoni
sphova
sphoma
sphu + tm (293) sphu + ya[k] + tm (330, 294) sphuyatm
<vidht karmai 1.1>.
vidht karmai
sphuyatm
sphuyasva
sphuyai

of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae


sphuyetm
sphuyantm
sphuyethm
sphuyadhvam
sphuyvahai
sphuymahai

sphu + d[ip] (288, 306) a[t] + sphu + []a[p] + d[ip] (333) asphoad
(185)
asphoat <bhtevara pa. 1.1>.
bhtevara parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
asphoat
asphoatm
asphoan
asphoa
asphoatam
asphoata
asphoam
asphova
asphoma
sphu + ta (293, 306) a[t] + sphu + ya[k] + ta (330, 294) asphuyata
<bhtevara
karmai 1.1>.
bhtevara karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
asphuyata
asphuyetm
asphuyanta
asphuyath
asphuyethm
asphuyadhvam
asphuye
asphuyvahi
asphuymahi
In bhtea the following rule applies:
AmtaA-rma is the para-nimitta of the deletion of a-rma and it is treated like the
deleted a-rma. In the formation of sphuyante <acyuta karmai 1.3> and so on,
when there is deletion of the a-rma of ya[k] by a-rma-hara e-ayor aviupadnte
(291), the deletion of the n of ante and so on would normally be applicable since the
deletion of a-rma is a mahhara (see vtti 94). Therefore, so the deletion of n will not
take place, it is ordained here that a-rma is treated like the previous a-rma. This rule
was not given when making bhyante <acyuta karmai 1.3> in vtti 295, since it was
not needed back then since the rule a-rmnya-vard ante-antm-antnm (317) had
not been made at that time.
SaodhinThis rule is an atidea because it ordains similarity to another.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
301
340 / wr"naubanDaAnx~Ae vaA BaUtaezApar"pade" /
340. ir-anubandhn o v bhtea-parapade
ir-anubandhtafter a dhtu whose anubandha (indicatory letter) is ir; athe
pratyaya []a; voptionally; bhtea-parapadewhen a bhtea parapada pratyaya
follows.
When a bhtea parapada pratyaya follows, []a is optionally applied after a
dhtu that has the anubandha ir.
asphuat asphot, asphuatm asphoim. io vyavadhnatay nirden na
nimittatva, tato na hatvamasphoidhvam. evam acetidhvam. adhokaje
Vtti sphu[ir] + d[ip] (306) a[t] + sphu[ir] + d[ip] (two options by 340):
1) ([]a is applied by 340, 330) a[t] + sphu + []a + d[ip] (294, 185) asphuat
<bhtea pa.
1.1>.
2) (s[i] is applied as usual by 307, 316) a[t] + sphu + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (333)
aspho + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) aspho + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335)
aspho + i[] + [] + d[ip]
(42) asphod (185) asphot <bhtea pa.
1.1>.
sphu[ir] + tm (306) a[t] + sphu[ir] + tm (two options by 340):
1) ([]a is applied by 340, 330) a[t] + sphu + []a + tm (294) asphuatm
<bhtea pa.1.2>.
2) (s[i] is applied as usual by 307, 316) a[t] + sphu + i[] + s[i] + tm (333)
asphoistm (108) asphoitm (205) asphoim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
bhtea parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
asphot / asphuat
asphoim /
asphoiu /
asphuatm
asphuan
aspho / asphua
asphoiam /
asphoia /
asphuatam
asphuata
asphoiam /
asphoiva /
asphoima /
asphuam
asphuva
asphuma
I[] cannot be a nimitta since in stra 321 it was mentioned as intervening. Thus the
change to h by stra 320 cannot take place.
sphu + dhvam (306, 307, 316) a[t] + sphu + i[] + s[i] + dhvam (333)
aspho + i + s +
dhvam (319) asphoidhvam <bhtea karmai 2.3>.
bhtea karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
asphoi
asphoitm
asphoiata
asphoih
asphoithm
asphoidhvam
asphoii
asphoivahi
asphoimahi
Likewise we get acetidhvam <bhtea karmai 2.3 of cit[] sajne>. In adhokaja
the following rules apply:
AmtaSomeone may argue, Since i[] is an vara why doesnt the change to h
by stra 320 take place? In answer to that, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence
beginning io vyavadhnatay. The implied meaning is that if i[] were considered a
nimitta then the rule should have been ias tu v and not i-vyavadhne tu v.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
302
SaodhinThe full list of dhtus that have the anubandha ir is given below:
cyut[ir] secane
cyut[ir] karae
sphu[ir] viarae / visarae

1P
1P
1P

ghu[ir] abde 1
bh[ir] vddhau abde ca
skand[ir] gati-oaayo

1P
1P
1P

d[ir] prekae
chad[ir] rjane
budh[ir] bodhane
rud[ir] aru-vimocane
ij[ir] auce
vij[ir] pthag-bhve
[]uc[ir] pt-bhve
rudh[ir] varae
bhid[ir] vidrae
chid[ir] dvidh-karae
ric[ir] virecane
vic[ir] pthag-bhve
kud[ir] sampeae
yuj[ir] yoge

1P
1P
1U
2P
3U
3U
4U
7U
7U
7U
7U
7U
7U
7U

to pour on, wet


to ooze, flow
to pierce, break; to bloom, be
manifest
to sound
to increase, sound
to fall, discharge semen; to dry
up, perish
to see
to animate, strengthen
to understand
to cry
to wash, purify
to separate, discriminate
to bathe, become clean
to block, cover
to break, separate, discriminate
to cut, divide
to purge, empty
to separate, discriminate
to pound, crush
to join, use

341 / nar"ivaSNAujanaAnaAmaAid": izASyatae /


341. nara-viujannm di iyate
nara-viujannmof the viujanas of a nara; dithe first; iyateremains.
Only the first viujana of a nara remains.
342 / zAAEir"izAr"s$k(stau s$aAtvata: /
342. auri-iraskas tu stvata
auri-iraskabeginning with a auri; tubut; stvatastvata.
But if the first viujana of a nara is a auri and the second a stvata, only
the stvata remains.
anyo viujano na rakyate. pusphoa, pusphue. kmaplesphuyt, sphoia.
blakalkausphoit. kalkausphoiyati, sphoiyate. ajiteasphoiyat,
asphoiyata. mantha viloanemanthati.
Vtti sphu + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) sphu + sphu + []a[l] (342) phu +
sphu + []a[l] (329) pu + sphu + []a[l] (333) pusphoa <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.

1 There is also the dhtu ghu[ir] viabdane (10P, to proclaim aloud, to sound), but
when the cur-di-dhtus take []i by cur-der i (565), they are considered new
dhtus by stra 342 and thus a[] is applied instead by i-ri-dru-sru-kamibhyo
bhtee kartari (434).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
303
adhokaja parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
pusphoa
pusphuatu
pusphuu
pusphoitha
pusphuathu
pusphua
pusphoa
pusphuiva
pusphuima
sphu + e (330, 322, 323) sphu + sphu + e (342) phu + sphu + e
(329) pu + sphu +
e (337, 294) pusphue <adhokaja karmai 1.1>.
adhokaja karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
pusphue
pusphute
pusphuire
pusphuie
pusphuthe
pusphuidhve
pusphue
pusphuivahe
pusphuimahe
In kmapla the forms are as follows:
sphu + yt (330, 331, 294) sphuyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
kmapla parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphuyt
sphuystm
sphuysu
sphuy
sphuystam
sphuysta
sphuysam
sphuysva
sphuysma
sphu + sa (316) sphu + i[] + sa (333) sphoisa (108)
sphoia
<kmapla karmai 1.1>.
kmapla karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoia
sphoiystm
sphoiran
sphoih
sphoiysth
sphoidhvam
m
sphoiya
sphoivahi
sphoimahi
In blakalki the forms are as follows:
sphu + t (316) sphu + i[] + t (333) sphoit <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
blakalki parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoit
sphoitrau
sphoitra
sphoitsi
sphoitstha
sphoitstha
sphoitsmi
sphoitsva
sphoitsma
1.1>.

sphu + t (316) sphu + i[] + t (333) sphoit <blakalki karmai

blakalki karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae


sphoit
sphoitrau
sphoitra
sphoitse
sphoitsthe
sphoitdhve
sphoithe
sphoitsvahe
sphoitsmahe
In kalki the forms are as follows:
sphu + syati (316) sphu + i[] + syati (333) sphoisyati (108)
sphoiyati <kalki pa. 1.1>.
kalki parapada of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoiyati
sphoiyata
sphoiyanti
sphoiyasi
sphoiyatha
sphoiyatha
sphoiymi
sphoiyva
sphoiyma

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
304
sphu + syate (316) sphu + i[] + syate (333) sphoisyate (108)
sphoiyate <kalki
karmai 1.1>.
kalki karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
sphoiyate
sphoiyete
sphoiyante
sphoiyase
sphoiyethe
sphoiyadhve
sphoiye
sphoiyvahe
sphoiymahe
In ajita the forms are as follows:
sphu + syat (306, 316) a[t] + sphu + i[] + syat (333) asphoisyat
(108) asphoiyat
<ajita pa. 1.1>.
ajita parapada
asphoiyat
asphoiya
asphoiyam

of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae


asphoiyatm
asphoiyan
asphoiyatam
asphoiyata
asphoiyva
asphoiyma

sphu + syata (306, 316) a[t] + sphu + i[] + syata (333)


asphoisyata (108) asphoiyata <ajita karmai 1.1>.
ajita karmai of sphu[ir] viarae / visarae
asphoiyata
asphoiyetm
asphoiyanta
asphoiyath asphoiyethm asphoiyadhva
m
asphoiye
asphoiyvahi asphoiymahi
Now we begin the conjugation of manth[a] viloane (1P, to churn, agitate, destroy).
manth + ti[p] (288) manth + []a[p] + ti[p] manthati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
AmtaThe vigraha of the word auri-iraska is auri irasi yasya sa (one at
whose head is a auri).
343 / @inar"AmaetaAM ivaSNAujanaAntaAnaAmau"vanar"Amah"r": kM(s$aAr"AE /
343. ani-rmet viujanntnm uddhava-na-rma-hara kasrau
an-i-rma-itmwhich dont have i-rma as it (indicatory letter); viujana-antnm
of dhtus which end in a viujana; uddhava-na-rma-haradeletion of the
uddhava na-rma; kasrauwhen a kasri pratyaya follows.
Dhtus which end in a viujana and dont have the indicatory letter i lose
their uddhava n when a kasri pratyaya follows.
mathyate. bhteeamantht, amanthi. adhokajemamantha, mamanthe.
kmaplemathyt, manthia. kuthi his-sakleayo
Vtti manth + te (293) manth + ya[k] + te (330, 343) mathyate <acyuta
karmai 1.1>.
In bhtea we get the following forms:

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
305
manth + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + manth + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334)
amanth + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) amanth + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42)
amanthd (185) amantht <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
manth + ta (306, 313) a[t] + manth + i[] + ta (315) amanthi <bhtea
karmai 1.1>.
In adhokaja we get the following forms:
manth + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) mamantha <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
manth + e (330, 322, 323) ma + manth + e mamanthe <adhokaja
karmai 1.1>.
In kmapla we get the following forms:
manth + yt (330, 331, 343) mathyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
manth + sa (316) manth + i[] + sa (108) manthia
<kmapla karmai
1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of kuth[i] his-sakleayo (1P, to hurt; to suffer).
344 / wr"Amae"AtaAenauRma, /
344. i-rmed-dhtor num
i-rma-it-dhtoof a dhtu that has i-rma as it; numthe gama n[um].
A dhtu that has the indicatory letter i takes n[um].
upadea evya num. kunthati. i-rmettvn na nasya harakunthyate.
VttiThis n[um] is considered exactly as if it were original (upadea).
kuth[i] (344, 160) ku + n[um] + th (165) kuth (73) kunth kunth +
ti[p] (288)
kunth + []a[p] + ti[p] kunthati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
acyuta parapada of kuth[i] his-sakleayo
kunthati
kunthata
kunthanti
kunthasi
kunthatha
kunthatha
kunthmi
kunthva
kunthma
Because kuth[i] has the indicatory letter i, it doesnt lose its n by stra 343:
kuth[i] (344, 160) ku + n[um] + th (165) kuth (73) kunth kunth +
te (293) kunth + ya[k] + te (330) kunthyate <acyuta karmai 1.1>.
acyuta karmai of kuth[i] his-sakleayo
kunthyate
kunthyete
kunthyante
kunthyase
kunthyethe
kunthyadhve
kunthye
kunthyvahe
kunthymahe

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
306
SaodhinSince the insertion of n[um] is anaimittika (not brought about by a
pr-nimitta or para-nimitta), it is done before the pratyaya is applied. This is in
accordance with the following statement of Kik: anaimittika prg eva
pratyayotpatter bhavati (A grammatical operation which is without a nimitta is done
before the application of the pratyaya).
345 / k(vagARnar"sya cavagAR: /
345. ka-varga-narasya ca-varga
ka-varga-narasyaof the ka-varga of a nara; ca-vargathe change to ca-varga.
The ka-varga of a nara changes to ca-varga.
cukuntha. idhu gatym
Vtti kuth[i] (344, 160) ku + n[um] + th (165) kuth (73) kunth kunth
+ []a[l] (330, 322, 323) ku + kunth + a (345) cukuntha <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
adhokaja parapada of kuth[i] his-sakleayo
cukuntha
cukunthatu
cukunthu
cukunthitha
cukunthathu
cukuntha
cukuntha
cukunthiva
cukunthima
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu idh[u] gatym (1P, to go, move).
346 / DaAtvaAde": Sa: s$a: /
346. dhtv-de a sa
dhtu-dewhich is the initial vara of a dhtu; aof a-rma; sathe
replacement sa-rma.
The initial of a dhtu changes to s.
SaodhinSince the change to s is anaimittika (not brought about by a prnimitta or para-nimitta), it is done before the pratyaya is applied. This is in
accordance with the following statement of Kik: anaimittika prg eva
pratyayotpatter bhavati (A grammatical operation which is without a nimitta is done
before the application of the pratyaya).
347 / s$avaeRr"d"ntyapar"A DaAtaAer"Aid"s$aA: SaAepade"zAA: /
347. sarvevara-dantya-par dhtor di-s opade
sarvevara-dantya-parfollowed by a sarvevara or dental vara; dhtoof a
dhtu; di-sany initial sa-rma; a-upadeopadea (listed in the Dhtupha as a-rma).
Any initial s which belongs to a dhtu and is followed by a sarvevara or
dental vara is opadea.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
307
AmtaSome consider the dhtus that begin with a s which is followed by a
sarvevara or dental vara to be opadeas. For example, the Mah-bhya says ajdantya-par sdaya opade. But the result is the same.
SaodhinSince people in general are usually familiar only with the form of a
dhtu that has already undergone the change to s by dhtv-de a sa (346), this
stra and the next two stras are given so that one may recognize which of the dhtus
that begin with s originally begin with in the Dhtu-pha. By knowing this, one can
then apply stra 350. An example of an initial s followed by a sarvevara is sev (1A,
to serve, visit, dwell), which is listed in the Dhtu-pha as ev[] sevane, and an
example of an initial s followed by a dental vara is sth (1P, to stand, remain),
which is listed in the Dhtu-pha as h gati-nivttau1.
348 / svaSk(isvad"svad"svaasvapaismax~AM ca /
348. svaka-svida-svada-svaja-svapa-smi ca
svaka-svida-svada-svaja-svapa-smimof the dhtus listed below; caand.
The initial s of the following dhtus is also opadea:
svak[a] gatau
[i]svid[] snehane mocane ca

1A
1A

[i]svid[] gtra-prakarae
svad[a] svdane
svad[a] svdane
svanj[a] parivage
[i]svap[a] aye
smi[] ad-dhasane

4P
1A
10P
1A
2P
1A

to go, move
to be anointed, greasy; to
be loose, disturbed
to sweat
to taste, please
to taste, please
to embrace
to sleep, lie down
to smile, laugh

SaodhinThus, in the Dhtu-pha these dhtus are listed as vak[a] gatau,


[i]vid[] snehane mocane ca, [i]vid[] gtra-prakarae, vad[a] svdane,
vanj[a] parivage, [i]vap[a] aye, and mi[] ad-dhasane respectively. The
reason why these dhtus are separately mentioned here, even though all of them
except smi[] were already covered by the previous stra since their initial s is followed
by a dental vara (va-rma), will be explained in the next vtti. Smi[] is listed here
because it was not covered by the previous stra since its initial s is not followed by a
dental vara.
349 / s$a{pa}s$a{sta{s$a{jsta|
styaAs$aUcas$aUastanas$aAmas$aAr"s$aAmas$aBaAjas$aek{(staenastaAemavaja
Rma, /
349. sp-s-st-sj-st-sty-sca-stra-stana-sagrma-sra-sma-sabhja-sekstena-stoma-varjam
sp-s-st-sj-st-sty-sca-stra-stana-sagrma-sra-sma-sabhja-sek-stenastoma-varjamwith the exception of the dhtus listed below.

1 Here the dental vara t has become by t parasya a-varga-yuktasya ca tavargasya a-varga (205).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
308
As an exception to stra 347, the initial s of the following dhtus is not
opadea:
sp[] gatau
s gatau
s gatau
st[] cchdane
sj[a] visarge
sj[a] visarge
st[] cchdane
styai abda-saghtayo
sca paiunye
stra avamocane
stana deva-abde
sagrma yuddhe
sra daurbalye
sma sntvane
sabhja prti-sevanayo
sek[] gatau
stena caurye
stoma lghym

1P
1P
3P
5U
4A
6P
9U
1P
10P
10P
10P
10A
10P
10P
10P
1A
10P
10P

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

crawl, slither
go, move, run, flow
go, move, run, flow
cover
create, release
create, release
cover
sound; to accumulate
betray, reveal, ascertain
bind, tie together
thunder
fight
be weak
console
please; to serve, worship
go, move
steal
praise

satra-sthla-sukh ca dhtu-pradpe dyante. dantya-paratve pi svakdn


pho niyamrtha. tena sv-prabhtn na syd iti. sedhati.
VttiSatra santati-kriyym (10A, to accomplish, extend), sthla paribhane
(10A, to increase, grow fat), and sukha tat-kriyym (10P, to be happy) are also
shown (as exceptions) in Dhtu-pradpa. Even though they have an initial s followed
by a dental vara, the dhtus svak[a] and so on were listed separately in stra 348
for the sake of restriction. Thus the initial s of the dhtus sv and so on is not
opadea.
idh (346) sidh sidh+ ti[p] (288) sidh + []a[p] + ti[p] (333) sedhati
<acyuta pa.
1.1>.
AmtaIn his commentary on Mah-bhya, Kaiyaa says dantya-grahaena va-kro
ghyate ity ak syd iti svid-dayo bhedena nirdi (there may be uncertainty
about whether or not va-kra should be counted as a dental vara. Thus svid and so on
are mentioned separately).
SaodhinSince the dhtus svak[a] and so on were listed separately in stra 348
for the sake of restriction, any other initial s that is followed by v cannot be opadea.
Thus the initial s of the following dhtus is not opadea:
sv abdopatpayo
svan[a] abde
svara kepe
svd[a] svdane
svard[a] svdane

1P
1P
10P
1A
1A

to sound, sing, praise; to feel


pain
to sound
to criticize
to taste, please
to taste, please

350 / opaen"Ad"ipa SaAepade"zAsya SatvaM (icata, /


350. upendrd api opadeasya atva kvacit

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
309
upendrtafter an upendra; apieven; a-upadeasyaof a opadea; atvamthe
change to ; kvacitsometimes.
Sometimes, even after an upendra, a opadea s changes to .
niedhati. ad-vyavadhne pi atvamnyaedhat. idh stre mgalye ca. stram
anusana, mgalya ivam. sedhati iya guru. sedhati hari-bhakti.
Vtti ni + idh (346) ni + sidh ni + sidh + ti[p] (288) ni + sidh + []a[p] +
ti[p] (333)
nisedhati (347, 350) niedhati <acyuta pa. 1.1 of ni + idh[]
stre mgalye ca1>.
The change to takes place even if a[t] intervenes:
ni + idh (346) ni + sidh ni + sidh + d[ip] (288, 306) ni+ a[t] + sidh +
[]a[p] + d[ip] (333) ni + asedhad (46, 185) nyasedhat (347, 350)
nyaedhat <bhtevara pa. 1.1
of ni + idh[] stre mgalye ca>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu idh[] stre mgalye ca (1P, to
instruct; to be auspicious). stra means anusana (instruction), and mgalya
means iva (auspiciousness). For example, sedhati iya guru (the guru instructs
the disciple) and sedhati hari-bhakti (devotional service to Lord Hari is auspicious).
AmtaOne should understand that, due to the restriction prvokta-nimittatve saty
eva atva-atve (302), the upendra must end with a nimitta in the form of an vara
or harimitra for this rule to be applicable.2
SaodhinThis rule is an extension of stra 108. Usually when s is at the beginning
of a viupada it is prohibited from changing to by the phrase na tu viupaddyanta-stnm in stra 108, but the current rule allows the initial s of a dhtu to change
to when it comes after an upendra. Therefore the word api is used here, for the s
changes to even though it is at the beginning of a viupada. The s that replaces the
initial of the dhtu by dhtv-de a sa (432) is a virici comprised solely of sarma and thus it is eligible to change to a-rma by the phrase virici-sasya in stra
108. Actually, the current stra is only a general rule as is indicated by the word
kvacit. The specific cases where s is actually allowed to change to are described in a
special section of 12 stras (Bhat 898 to Bhat 908) which goes by the heading
upendra-vidhau kacid viea. For example, the s of sidh actually changes to by the
later rule upendrt suvate atva sunote so-stubha-stuvm sth-senaya-svanjasanj sedhates tv agatau smtam (Bhat 900).
351 / svar"itas$aUitas$aUyaitaDaUHaUid"ta w"A /
351. svarati-sti-syati-dh-d-ita i v
svarati-sti-syati-dh-t-itaafter the dhtus sv abdopatpayo (1P, to sound,
sing, praise; to feel pain), [] pr-garbha-vimocane (2A or 4A, to give birth,
produce), and dh[] kampane (5U, 9U, or 10U, to shake, agitate), and after dhtus
that have -rma as it; ithe gama i[]; voptionally.
1 According to Bhat-dhtu-kusumkara, niedhati (he prohibits) and pratiedhati
(he prohibits) are made from the dhtu idh[] stre mgalye ca.
2 Thus this rule is only applicable to the upendras anu, nir, dur, abhi, vi, adhi, su, ati,
ni, prati, pari, and api.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
310
After sv, [] (sti), [] (syati), dh[], and after dhtus that have the
indicatory letter , i[] is optional.
asedht asedhim ity-di.
Vtti idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + d[ip] (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i]
+ d[ip] (two options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted by 316) asidh + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (333) asedh + i[] + s[i]
+ d[ip] (334) asedh + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) asedh + i[] + [] + d[ip]
(42) asedhd (185)
asedht <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
2) see next vtti.
idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + tm (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i] +
tm (two
options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted by 316) asidh + i[] + s[i] + tm (333) asedhistm (108)
asedhitm
(205) asedhim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
2) see vtti 354.
SaodhinBy the mention of sti and syati, the []ti[p] forms of [] prgarbha-vimocane (2A, to give birth, produce) and [] pr-garbha-vimocane (4A,
to give birth, produce) respectively, the dhtu prerae (6P, to impel) is
excluded. Regarding the insertion of i[], dhtus in general are divided into three
categories based on whether or not they take i[]. For example, dhtus which dont
take i[] are called ani1, dhtus which optionally take i[] are called ve (v-i), and
dhtus which take i are called se (sa-i). Since idh[] has the indicatory letter , it
is a ve dhtu. In the case that a ve dhtu doesnt take i[], it follows the rules that
are applicable to ani dhtus, but in the case that a ve dhtu does take i[], it follows
the rules that are applicable to se dhtus. The full list of dhtus that have the
indicatory letter is given below.
idh[] stre mgalye ca
gup[] rakae
ak[] vyptau saghte ca
tak[] nirbhartsane
tvak[] tan-karae
gh[] viloane
syand[] prasravae
kp[] smarthye
kam[] sahane2
trap[] lajjym
guh[] savarae
mj[] uddhau
kam[] sahane
klid[] rdr-bhve
ak[] vyptau saghte ca
tak[] tan-karae
a[] vyptau
[o]vrac[] chedane

1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1U
2P
4P
4P
5P
5P
5A
6P

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

instruct; to be auspicious
protect, hide
pervade, accumulate
criticize
make thin, peel, create
dive into, penetrate
flow, run
be able, fit for
tolerate, forgive
be ashamed, shy
cover, hide
clean, purify
tolerate, forgive
become wet
pervade, accumulate
make thin, peel, create
pervade, obtain
cut

1 The list of ani dhtus is given in vtti 379.


2 Prayuktkhyta-majar says this dhtu is also used in the sense of smarthya (to be able).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
311
th[] hisym
vh[] udyame
aj[] vyakti-mrakaa-kntigatiu
kli[] vibdhane

6P
6P
7P
9P

to hurt, kill
to endeavor, lift up
to manifest, make clear; to
anoint; to be beautiful; to go,
move
to torment, distress

352 / ivaSNAujanaAntaAnaAmainaq%AM va{SNAIn": s$aAE par"pade" /


352. viujanntnm ani vndra sau parapade
viujana-antnmwhich end in a viujana; animof ani dhtus; vndra
vndra; sauwhen s[i] follows; parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows.
Ani dhtus1 which end in a viujana take vndra when s[i] which is
followed by a parapada pratyaya follows.
ydava-mtre harikamalamasaitst.
VttiYdava-mtre harikamalam (63) is applied, and we get asaitst <bhtea pa.
1.1>:
idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + d[ip] (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i] + d[ip]
(two
options by 351):
1) see previous vtti.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 352) asaidh + s[i] + d[ip] (334) asaidh + s[i] + [] +
d[ip] (63)
asaitsd (185) asaitst <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of laghddhavasya govinda (333).
353 / vaAmanavaESNAvaAByaAM s$aehR"r"Ae vaESNAvae , na itvaq%: /
353. vmana-vaiavbhy ser haro vaiave, na tv ia
vmana-vaiavbhymafter a vmana or vaiava; seof s[i]; haradeletion;
vaiavewhen a vaiava follows; nanot; tubut; iaafter i[].
S[i] is deleted when it comes after a vmana or vaiava and a vaiava
follows. But s[i] is not deleted when it comes after i[].
AmtaS[i] would normally be deleted when it comes after i[] since i[] is a
vmana, but the phrase na tv ia prohibits that. Thus s[i] is not deleted in
asedhim <bhtea pa. 1.2>. and so on.
354 / h"ir"GaAeSaAaTaAeDaAeR DaAvajaRma, /
354. harighot ta-thor dho dh-varjam
harighotafter a harighoa; ta-thoof ta-rma and tha-rma; dhathe
replacement dha-rma; dh-varjamexcept the dhtu [u]dh[] dhraa-poaayo
(3U, to hold, make; to support, bestow).
1 Ve dhtus are also called ani dhtus in the case that they dont take i[]. Thus,
even though idh[] stre mgalye ca (1P, to instruct; to be auspicious) isnt listed
in the ani-gaa (see vtti 379), this rule still applies to idh[] in the case that idh[]
doesnt take i[] by svarati-sti-syati-dh-d-ita i v (351).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
312
T and th change to dh after any harighoa except the dh of dh.
asaiddhm asaitsva asaitsma. karmai, asedhi asedhitm.
Vtti idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + tm (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i] +
tm (two
options by 351):
1) see vtti 351.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 352) asaidh + s[i] + tm (353) asaidh + tm (354)
asaidh + dhm (61) asaiddhm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + va (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i] + va
(two
options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted by 316) asidh + i[] + s[i] + va (333) asedhisva (108)
asedhiva <bhtea pa. 3.2>.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 352) asaidh + s[i] + va (63) asaitsva <bhtea pa.
3.2>.
idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + ma (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i] +
ma (two options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted by 316) asidh + i[] + s[i] + ma (333) asedhisma (108)
asedhima <bhtea pa. 3.3>.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 352) asaidh + s[i] + ma (63) asaitsma <bhtea pa.
3.3>.
bhtea parapada of idh[] stre mgalye ca
asedht / asaitst
asedhim /
asedhiu / asaitsu
asaiddhm
asedh / asaits
asedhiam /
asedhia / asaiddha
asaiddham
asedhiam /
asedhiva / asaitsva
asedhima / asaitsma
asaitsam
In karmai prayoga the forms are as follows:
idh (346) sidh sidh + ta (306, 313) a[t] + sidh + i[] + ta (333)
asedh + i[] + ta (315) asedhi <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
idh[] (346) sidh sidh[] + tm (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i] +
tm (two
options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted by 316) asidh + i[] + s[i] + tm (333) asedhistm
(108) asedhitm
<bhtea karmai 1.2>.
2) see next vtti.
AmtaAfter a harighoa, t and th change to dh, but t and th that come after the dh
of the dhtu dh dont change to dh. Thus in dhatta <acyuta pa. 1.2 of [u]dh[]
dhraa-poaayo>, the t of tas doesnt become dh. This stra is an apavda of
ydava-mtre harikamalam (63).
355 / [%"yaAi"SNAujanaAntaezAAe"vaAa vaESNAvaAid"is$ak(AmapaAlaAE
k(ipalaAvaAtmapade" , gAmaestau vaA /
355. -dvayd viujannteoddhavc ca vaiavdi-si-kmaplau kapilv tmapade,
games tu v

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
313
-dvaytafter -dvaya; viujana-anta-a-uddhavtafter a dhtu that ends in a
viujana and has an a as its uddhava; caand; vaiava-di-si-kmaplaus[i]
and kmapla which begin with a vaiava; kapilaukapila; tmapadewhen there is
an tmapada pratyaya; gameafter the dhtu gam[] gatau (1P, to go, move); tu
but; voptionally.
When an tmapada pratyaya comes after a dhtu ending in -dvaya or after
a dhtu that ends in a viujana and has an a as its uddhava, s[i] and
kmapla which begin with a vaiava are kapila. But when an tmapada
pratyaya comes after gam[], s[i] and kmapla which begin with a vaiava
are optionally kapila.
asitstm.
Vtti idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + tm (306, 307) a[t] + sidh[] + s[i]
+ tm (two
options by 351):
1) see previous vtti.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 355, 294, 63) asitstm <bhtea karmai 1.2>.
bhtea karmai of idh[] stre mgalye ca
asedhi
asedhitm /
asedhiata / asitsata
asitstm
asedhih /
asedhithm /
asedhidhvam /
asiddh
asitsthm
asiddhvam
asedhii / asitsi
asedhivahi /
asedhimahi /
asitsvahi
asitsmahi
AmtaWhy do we say which begin with a vaiava? Consider asedhitm
<bhtea karmai 1.2> and sedhia <kmapla karmai 1.1>. If we had not said
which begin with a vaiava, then govinda would also be prohibited when s[i] and
kmapla begin with i[], since gamas that have the indicatory letter are connected
to the pratyaya (see vtti 105)1.
356 / k{(s$a{Ba{va{stauu"auauBya WvaADaAeajamaAae naeq%. ,
@nyaeByastvaina"YaAe'paIq%." /
356. k-s-bh-v-stu-dru-sru-rubhya evdhokaja-mtre ne, anyebhyas tv
anibhyo p
k-s-bh-v-stu-dru-sru-rubhyaafter the dhtus listed below; evaonly;
adhokaja-mtrewhen any adhokaja pratyaya follows; nanot; ii[]; anyebhya
after other dhtus; tubut; anibhya pieven if they are ani; ii[].
When an adhokaja pratyaya follows, only the following dhtus dont take
i[]. All other dhtus take i[], even if they are ani.2
[u]k[] karae
k[] hisym
s gatau

8U
5U
1P

to do, make
to hurt, kill
to go, move, run, flow

1 In other words, if we had not said which begin with a vaiava, then s[i] and
kmapla would also be kapila when they begin with i[] and thus govinda would be
forbidden by asya na govinda-vndrau kasriu (294).
2 A literal translation of this stra is when an adhokaja pratyaya follows, i[] is not applied only after
the following dhtus. But i[] is applied after all other dhtus, even if they are ani.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
314
s gatau
bh[] bharae
[u]bh[] dhraa-poaayo
v[] sambhaktau
v[] varae
u[] stutau
dru gatau
sru gatau
ru ravae

3P
1U
3U
9A
5U
2U
1P
1P
1P

to go, move, run, flow


to hold, bear, support, nourish
to hold, bear; to support,
nourish
to serve, worship
to choose, ask for
to praise
to run, melt
to flow
to hear

iti niyamd adhokaje nityam isiedhitha. sitsa sedhia. gada vyakty


vci
VttiBecause of this restriction, i[] is always applied when an adhokaja pratyaya
follows.
idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + tha[l] (356, 316) sidh + i[] + tha[l] (322,
323) si + sidh + i[] + tha[l] (333) sisedhitha (108) siedhitha <adhokaja pa.
2.1>.
idh[] (346) sidh[] sidh[] + sa (two options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted by 316) sidh + i[] + sa (333) sedhisa (108)
sedhia <kmapla
karmai 1.1>.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 355, 294, 63) sitsa <kmapla karmai 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu gad[a] vyakty vci (1P, to speak, say,
tell).
AmtaThus, even in the case that the ve dhtus do not take i[], i[] is nonetheless
applied when an adhokaja pratyaya follows. Therefore i[] is always applied when an
adhokaja pratyaya follows. If this rule were not made, then, since idh[] is ve
because it has the indicatory letter , it would only optionally take i[] when an
adhokaja pratyaya follows.
357 / ivaSNAujanaAde"laRGaAer"r"Amasya va{SNAIn" wx"Ad"AE s$aAE vaA
par"pade" /
357. viujander laghor a-rmasya vndra i-dau sau v parapade
viujana-deof a dhtu that begins with a viujana; lagholaghu (see stra
79); a-rmasyaof a-rma; vndravndra; i-dauwhich begins with i[];
sauwhen s[i] follows; voptionally; parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows.
If a dhtu begins with a viujana, its laghu a-rma can optionally take
vndra when s[i] which begins with i[] follows, provided s[i] is itself
followed by a parapada pratyaya.1
agdt agadt.

1 In this regard, one should remember that i[] is para-sambandh because it has the
indicatory letter (see vtti 105). Thus i[] is considered part of s[i].

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
315
Vtti gad + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + gad + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (two options
by 357):
1) (the laghu a-rma takes vndra) agd + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) agd + i[] +
s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) agd + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) agdd (185) agdt
<bhtea pa. 1.1>.
2) (the laghu a-rma doesnt take vndra) (334) agad + i[] + s[i] + [] +
d[ip] (335) agad
+ i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) agadd (185) agadt <bhtea
pa. 1.1>.
bhtea parapada of gad[a] vyakty vci
agdt / agadt
agdim /
agdiu / agadiu
agadim
agd / agad
agdiam /
agdia / agadia
agadiam
agdiam /
agdiva / agadiva
agdima / agadima
agadiam
AmtaIt should be understood that the laghu a-rma takes vndra even if a
viujana is intervening between the laghu a-rma and the s[i] which begins with i[].
This is in accordance with the maxim yena nvyavadhna sambhavati tena
vyavadhne pi syt (vtti 306). But the laghu a-rma doesnt take vndra if
another sarvevara is intervening (this is confirmed in vtti 534). Thus, in acakst
<bhtea pa 1.1 of caks[] dptau (2P, to shine>, the a of the caks[] doesnt
take vndra.
358 / o"vaAr"Amasya va{SNAIn"Ae na{is$aMhe" /
358. uddhav-rmasya vndro nsihe
uddhava-a-rmasyaof an uddhava a-rma; vndravndra; nsihewhen
a nsiha pratyaya follows.
Uddhava a-rma takes vndra when a nsiha pratyaya follows.
bhveagdi. jagda.
VttiIn bhve prayoga, we get agdi <bhtea bhve 1.1.>:
gad + ta (306, 313) a[t] + gad + i[] + ta (358) agd + i[] + ta
(315) agdi <bhtea bhve 1.1>.
gad + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) ga + gad + []a[l] (345) ja + gad + []a[l]
(358) jagda <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
359 / oamaNAlna{is$aMh"k(AyaRk(r"Ae vaA /
359. uttama-al nsiha-krya-karo v
uttama-althe uttama-purua adhokaja pratyaya []a[l]; nsiha-krya-kara
causes the nsiha-kryas (grammatical operations pertaining to the nsiha
pratyayas); voptionally.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
316
The uttama-purua []a[l] only optionally causes the nsiha-kryas to take
place.
jagda jagada. aa gatau
Vtti gad + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) ga + gad + []a[l] (345) ja + gad +
[]a[l] (two
options by 359):
1) (it causes the nsiha-kryas, 358) jagda <adhokaja pa. 3.1>.
2) (it doesnt cause the nsiha-kryas) jagada <adhokaja pa. 3.1>.
adhokaja parapada of gad[a] vyakty vci
jagda
jagadatu
jagadu
jagaditha
jagadathu
jagada
jagda / jagada
jagadiva
jagadima
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu a[a] gatau (1P, to go, move).
360 / s$avaeRr"Ade"va{RSNAIn"Ae'tas$amaAae /
360. sarvevarder vndro t-prasaga-mtre
sarvevara-deof a dhtu that begins with a sarvevara; vndravndra;
at-prasaga-mtrein every case that a[t] is applicable.
A dhtu that begins with a sarvevara takes vndra whenever a[t] is
applicable.
at t. viujanditvbhvtm bhavn at. adhokaje dvir-vacane kte
loppavdam ha
Vtti a + d[ip] (360) + d[ip] (288, 306) a[t] + + []a[p] + d[ip]
(42) ad (185)
at <bhtevara pa. 1.1>.
at
a
am

bhtevara parapada of a[a] gatau


atm
atam
va

an
ata
ma

a + d[ip] (360) + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + + i[] + s[i] + d[ip]
(42) + i[] +
s[i] + d[ip] (334) + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) +
i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) d (185) t <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
t

iam

bhtea parapada of a[a] gatau


im
iam
iva

iu
ia
ima

Since the dhtu a[a] gatau doesnt begin with a viujana its laghu a-rma cannot
take vndra by stra 357. Thus we get m bhavn at (you must not go).1 Now
he2 will speak an apavda of the deletion of a-rma that would usually take place by
stra 291 when reduplication is done in adhokaja:
1 Since there is yoga with m here, a[t] is prohibited by at-pratiedho m-msmayoge (312). Thus stra 360 cannot be applied, and because the dhtu a[a] gatau
doesnt begin with a viujana, its laghu a-rma cannot take vndra by stra 357
either.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
317
AmtaThus the vndra is done before a[t] is inserted. It is not that a[t] is
inserted first, because there is no reason to insert it first.
361 / nar"Ade"r"r"Amasya iaiva(ma: /
361. narder a-rmasya trivikrama
nara-dewhich is the initial vara of a nara; a-rmasyaof a-rma; trivikrama
the change to trivikrama.
The initial a-rma of a nara becomes trivikrama.
362 / tasmaAaux". i"ivaSNAujanaDaAtaAE /
362. tasmn nu dvi-viujana-dhtau
tasmtafter that (after the trivikrama -rma made by the previous stra); nuthe
gama n[u]; dvi-viujana-dhtauwhen a dhtu that has two viujanas follows.
And n[u] is inserted after this trivikrama when a dhtu that has two
viujanas follows.
a atu. rada vilekhanerarda.
Vtti a + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) a + a + []a[l] (361) + a + []a[l]
(358) + a (42) a <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
a + atus (330, 322, 323) a + a + atus (361) + a + atus (42)
atus (93) atu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
a
itha
a

adhokaja parapada of a[a] gatau


atu
athu
iva

u
a
ima

Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu rad[a] vilekhane (1P, to scratch, split,
dig).
rad + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) ra + rad + []a[l] (358) rarda <adhokaja
pa. 1.1>.
AmtaThe word tasmt here means trivikrama-nar-rmt (after this trivikrama
of the nara). According to Bh-vtti, the word dvi-viujana additionally implies any
dhtu that has more than one viujana.1 Thus, after the reduplication and govinda
has been done, n[u] is inserted in narccha <adhokaja pa. 1.1 of cch[a]
gatndriya-pralaya-mrt-bhveu (6P, to go, move; to fail in faculties; to assume a
form)>.
2 Here Jva Gosvm, assuming the role of a commentator (vtti-kra), uses the third person verb form
ha (he speaks), although he himself is the author. The same thing was done previously in vtti 77.

1 This is confirmed by Jva Gosvm in vtti 546. When the dhtu cch[a] takes
govinda by stra 424, it becomes arcch. At that time it has three viujanas: r, c, and
ch.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
318
363 / @Ade"zAh"Inanar"Aar"sya
DaAtaAer"s$aMyau(ivaSNAujanamaDyasyaAr"Amasya WtvaM nar"Ad"zARnaM ca
k(ipalaADaAeajae s$aeq%.Taila ca /
363. dea-hna-nardy-akarasya dhtor asayukta-viujana-madhyasy-rmasya
etva nardarana ca kapildhokaje se-thali ca
dea-hnais free from replacement; nara-di-akarasyathe initial akara (vara)1
of whose nara; dhtoof a dhtu; a-sayukta-viujana-madhyasyawhich comes
between two viujanas, each of which is not conjoined with another viujana; armasyaof an a-rma; etvamthe change to e; nara-adaranamdisappearance of
the nara; caand; kapila-adhokajewhen a kapila adhokaja pratyaya follows; sa-ithaliwhen the tha[l] that is with i[] follows; caand.
If a dhtu has the following two characteristics, then its medial a changes to
e and its nara disappears when a kapila adhokaja pratyaya or tha[l] with
i[] follows: (i) the initial vara of its nara hasnt undergone any
replacements, and (ii) it has two viujanas that are not part of a sat-saga.
AmtaWhy do we say of an a-rma that comes between two unconjoined
viujanas? Consider rarakatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2 of rak[a] plane (1P, to
protect, hide)> and tatsaratu <adhokaja pa. 1.2 of tsar[a] chadma-gatau (1P, to
approach stealthily, sneak)>. Why do we say free from replacement? Consider
cakame <adhokaja t. 1.1 of kam[u] kntau (1A, to desire)>. Why do we say when
a kapila adhokaja pratyaya follows? Consider rarda <adhokaja pa. 1.1 of rad[a]
vilekhane (1P, to scratch, split, dig)>. Why do we say when tha[l] with i[] follows?
Consider tataptha <adhokaja pa. 2.1 of tap[a] santpe (1P, to heat, burn, perform
austerities)>.
SaodhinThe initial vara of its nara hasnt undergone any replacements
means the consonant at the beginning of the nara hasnt undergone any of the
replacements prescribed in the stras harikhagasya harikamala, harighoasya
harigad narasya (329), ka-varga-narasya ca-varga (345), and hasya jo narasya
(470).
364 / ta|P(laBajaapaAM ca /
364. t-phala-bhaja-trap ca
t-phala-bhaja-trapmof the dhtus listed below; caalso.
The medial a of the following dhtus also changes to e when a kapila
adhokaja pratyaya or tha[l] with i[] follows, and after that their nara
disappears:
t plavana-taraayo
phal[a] nipattau

1P
1P

[i]phal[] viarae
bhaj[a] sevym

1P
1U

trap[] lajjym

1A

to float, swim; to cross over


to bear fruit, accomplish; to
rebound, be reflected
to burst, open
to serve, worship, divide,
experience
to be ashamed, shy

1 One should remember that the word akara is also a synonym of the word vara (see
vtti 1).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
319
AmtaEven though these dhtus would be normally be disqualified for the following
reasons, this stra ordains that they should also undergo the change to e and lose
their nara: (i) when t takes govinda by stra 424, stra 377 prohibits the change to e
and so on, (ii) phal[a], [i]phal[], and bhaj[a] undergo replacement in their nara by
stra 329, and (iii) trap[] has viujanas that are part of a sat-saga.
365 / ja|amauas$aP(NAAd"InaAM ihM"s$aATaRr"ADa vaA /
365. j-bhramu-trasa-phadn hisrtha-rdha ca v
j-bhramu-trasa-pha-dnmof the dhtus j, bhram[u], tras[], and the pha-dis
(the seven dhtus beginning with pha[a]); his-artha-rdhaof the dhtu rdh[a]
when it has the meaning of his (violence); caand; voptionally.
The medial vowel of the following dhtus also optionally changes to e when a
kapila adhokaja pratyaya or tha[l] with i[] follows, and after that their
nara disappears:
j vayo-hnau
9P to grow old
j[] vayo-hnau
4P to grow old
bhram[u] calane
1P to roam about
bhram[u] anavasthne
4P to totter
tras[] udvege
1P to fear, be afraid of
tras[] udvege
4P to fear, be afraid of
pha[a] gatau
1P to go, move
syam[u] abde
1P to sound
svan[a] abde
1P to sound
rj[] dptau
1U to shine, rule over
[u]bhrj[] dptau
1A to shine
[u]bhr[] dptau
1A to shine
[u]bhl[] dptau
1A to shine
1
apa + rdh[a] sasiddhau
4P to offend
apa + rdh[a] sasiddhau
5P to offend
redatu redu. reditha. dea-yuktasya tujagadatu. sayukta-viujanamadhyasya tunananditha. ada avyakta-abde
Vtti rad + atus (330, 322, 323) ra + rad + atus (337, 363) ra + red + atus
redatus (93) redatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
rad + us (330, 322, 323) ra + rad + us (337, 363) ra + red + us redus
(93) redu
<adhokaja pa. 1.3>.
rad + tha[l] (316) rad + i[] + tha[l] (322, 323) ra + rad + i[] + tha[l]
(363) ra + red + i[] + tha[l] reditha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
adhokaja parapada of rad[a] vilekhane
rarda
redatu
redu
reditha
redathu
reda
1 As was explained in Amta 301, upasargas merely bring out the various meanings that are inherent
within the dhtus themselves. Here the upasarga apa brings out the inherent meaning of his within
the dhtu rdh[a] sasiddhau. Otherwise, when used by itself, the dhtu rdh[a] sasiddhau doesnt
have the meaning of his, but only that of sasiddhi.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
320
rarda / rarada

rediva

redima

But, when the nara has undergone a replacement, we get jagadatu <adhokaja pa.
1.2 of gad[a] vyakty vci (1P, to speak, say, tell)>, and when the a-rma comes
between any viujanas that are part of a sat-saga, we get nananditha <adhokaja
pa. 2.1 of [u]nad[i] samddhau (1P, to be pleased, glad)>. Now we begin the
conjugation of the dhtu ad[a] avyakta-abde (1P, to sound, roar).
AmtaWhen the dhtu rdh[a] has the meaning of sasiddhi (accomplishment) it
doesnt undergo the change to e and so on, but when, by accepting that dhtus have
various innate meanings (which are brought out by different upasargas), the dhtu
rdh[a] has the meaning of his, we get aparardhatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2 of apa +
rdh[a] sasiddhau> or aparedhatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2 of apa + rdh[a]
sasiddhau>.
366 / DaAtvaAde"NAAeR na: /
366. dhtv-der o na
dhtu-dewhich is the initial vara of a dhtu; aof a-rma; nathe
replacement na-rma.
The initial of a dhtu changes to n.
SaodhinSince the change to n is anaimittika (not brought about by a prnimitta or para-nimitta), it is done before the pratyaya is applied. This is in
accordance with the following statement of Kik: anaimittika prg eva
pratyayotpatter bhavati (A grammatical operation which is without a nimitta is done
before the application of the pratyaya).
367 / s$avaeR naAd"yaAe NAAepade"zAA na|
na{itanaidR"naind"naifk(naAiTanaAiDanaiq%vajaRma, /
367. sarve ndayo opade n-nti-nardi-nandi-nakki-nthi-ndhi-nai-varjam
sarveall; na-dayadhtus beginning with na-rma; a-upadeopadeas
(originally listed in the Dhtu-pha as beginning with a-rma); n-nti-nardi-nandinakki-nthi-ndhi-nai-varjamexcept the dhtus listed below.
All dhtus beginning with n are opadeas. However, the following dhtus
are exceptions to this rule:
n naye
nt[] gtra-vikepe
nard[a] abde
[u]nad[i] samddhau
nakk[a] nane
nth[]
ycopatpaivaryu
ndh[]
ycopatpaivaryu
na[a] ntau
na[a] avasyandane

9P
4P
1P
1P
10P
1A
1A
1P
10P

to lead
to dance
to sound, roar
to be pleased, glad
to destroy, kill
to beg; to cause pain; to be
master; to desire, wish for
to beg; to cause pain; to be
master; to desire, wish for
to dance, mime
to represent, act

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
321
nthes tu bhye opadeatvam, pryae tu na. nadati. upendrt opadeasya
atvampraadati. nanda nedatu. ardati rdat. narder iti tasmn nu itinarda.
idi paramaivaryei-rmed-dhtor numindati aindat.
Vtti ad (366) nad nad + ti[p] (288) nad + []a[p] + ti[p] nadati
<acyuta pa. 1.1>.
After an upendra, the original of a opadea dhtu is re-established by stra 303:
pra + ad (366) pra + nad pra + nad + ti[p] (288) pra + nad +
[]a[p] + ti[p] pranadati (367, 303) praadati <acyuta pa. 1.1 of pra + ad[a]
avyakta-abde>.
ad (366) nad nad + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) na + nad + []a[l]
(358) nanda
<adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
ad (366) nad nad + atus (330, 322, 323) na + nad + atus (337,
363) na + ned + atus nedatus (93) nedatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
Now we begin the conjugation of ard[a] gatau ycane ca (1P, to go, move; to beg).
ard + ti[p] (288) ard + []a[p] + ti[p] ardati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
ard + d[ip] (360) rd + d[ip] (288, 306) a[t] + rd + []a[p] + d[ip]
(42) rdad
(185) rdat <bhtevara pa. 1.1>.
In adhokaja, narder a-rmasya trivikrama (361) and tasmt nu dvi-viujanadhtau (362) are applied.
ard + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) a + ard + a (361) + ard + a (362)
narda <adhokaja
pa. 1.1>.
adhokaja parapada of ard[a] gatau ycane ca
narda
nardatu
nardu
narditha
nardathu
narda
narda
nardiva
nardima
Now we begin the conjugation of id[i] paramaivarye (1P, to be most powerful). Irmed-dhtor num (344) is applied, and we get the following forms:
id[i] (344, 160) i + n[um] + d (165) id (73) ind ind + ti[p] (288)
ind + []a[p]
+ ti[p] indati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + d[ip] (360) aind + d[ip] (288,
306) a[t] + aind +
[]a[p] + d[ip] (48) aindad (185) aindat <bhtevara pa.
1.1>.
bhtevara parapada of id[i] paramaivarye
aindat
aindatm
aindan
ainda
aindatam
aindata
aindam
aindva
aindma

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
322
SaodhinSince people in general are usually familiar only with the form of a
dhtu that has already undergone the change to n by dhtv-der o na (366), this
stra is given so that one may recognize which of the dhtus that begin with n
originally begin with in the Dhtu-pha. By knowing this, one can then apply stra
303. Siddhnta Kaumud, commenting on the dhtu na[a] ntau, explains that nti
can mean ntta or ntya, but never nya. Siddhnta Kaumud further explains that
the definition of ntta (dancing) is gtra-vikepa-mtram (mere rythmic movement
of the limbs according to rules), the definition of ntya (pantomime) is
padrthbhinaya (the representation of a thing by gesticulation, but not by words),
and the definition of nya (dramatic representation) is vkyrthbhinaya (the
representation of a scene by words). One who does ntta or ntya is called a nartaka
(dancer), while one who does nya is called a naa (actor).
Thus, in this edition, we will translate na[a] ntau as to dance, mime, nt[] gtravikepe as to dance, and, since Jva Gosvm glosses avasyandana as nya,
na[a] avasyandane as to represent, act.
368 / [%cC$vaijaRtagAuvaI=r"Ade"r"AmaDaAeajae /
368. ccha-varjita-gurv-varder m adhokaje
ccha-varjitaexcept cch[a] (1P, to go, move) and cch[a] gatndriya-pralayamrt-bhveu (6P, to go, move; to fail in faculties; to assume a form); guru-varadeafter any dhtu which begins with an vara that is guru (see stras 32 and 33);
mthe pratyaya m; adhokajewhen an adhokaja pratyaya follows.
m is applied after any dhtu, except cch[a], which begins with an vara
that is guru when an adhokaja pratyaya follows.
mo masyettva-niedha.
VttiThe m of m is not an indicatory letter.
AmtaSince m is a siddhopadea, its m would normally be an indicatory letter by
antya-viujana ca (vtti 91). But that is negated here.
SaodhinAs was explained in vtti 344, when dhtus that have the indicatory
letter i take n[um] by i-rmed-dhtor num (344), the n[um] is considered original
(upadea). And since when n[um] is applied a sat-saga is formed, the initial vara of
dhtus which have the indicatory letter i is also guru. Thus the following dhtus also
follow this rule:
ikh[i] gatau
ig[i] gatau
id[i] paramaivarye
iv[i] vyptau
ukh[i] gatau1
uch[i] uche
uch[i] uche
j[i] bharjane

1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
6P
1P

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

go, move
go, move
be most powerful
pervade
go, move
gather, glean
gather, glean
fry

369 / @Ama: k{(BvastayaAe'nauayaujyantae /


1 The dhtus ukh[i] gatau, uch[i] uche (6P), and j[i] bharjane are not listed in Jva
Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but are listed in the Pinian Dhtu-pha.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
323
369. ma k-bhv-astayo nuprayujyante
maafter m; k-bh-astayathe dhtus [u]k[] karae (8U, to do, make),
bh sattym (1P, to be, become, exist), and as[a] bhuvi (2P, to be, become,
exist); anuprayujyanteare added after.
The dhtus [u]k[], bh, or as[a] are added after m.
AmtaThe fact that the word anu (after) is used in anuprayujyante, even though it
was already clear that the dhtus [u]k[], bh, and as[a] are applied after m since
the word ma ends in a pacam viubhakti, indicates that the dhtus [u]k[],
bh, and as[a] are added even if a kriy-vieaa (adverb) or upendra is intervening.
Thus we see ta ptay prathamam sa papta pact (He first made him fall. Then
he fell) in Klidsas Raghu-vaa and uk pracakrur nagarasya mrgn (They
sprinkled the roads of the city) in Bhai-kvya.
SaodhinThe dhtu as[a] bhuvi is mentioned here in its []ti[p] form, asti. By
using the []ti[p] form asti, the dhtus as[a] gatau dpty-dnayo ca (1U, to go,
move; to shine; to take) and as[u] kepae (4P, to throw) are excluded. When the
dhtus [u]k[], bh, and as[a] are applied after m, they are merely auxiliary verbs,
and thus they do not alter the meaning of the dhtu to which m is applied. In the
example from Raghu-vaa the kriy-vieaa prathamam (first) is intervening
between m and the dhtu as[a], while in the example from Bhai-kvya the upendra
pra is intervening between m and the dhtu [u]k[].
370 / k{(Ha @AmantaDaAtauvatpar"pad"Aid" /
370. ka m-anta-dhtu-vat parapaddi
kaafter the dhtu [u]k[]; m-anta-dhtu-vatlike the dhtu ending in the
pratyaya m; parapaddiparapada endings and so on.
In kartari prayoga, the dhtu [u]k[] takes the parapada endings and so on
according to the dhtu ending in m.
AmtaThis rule is given to prevent [u]k[] from functioning as an ubhayapad
dhtu when it comes after a dhtu ending in m. Thus, when the dhtu ending in m is
tmapad, [u]k[] takes the tmapada endings, and when the dhtu ending in m is
parapad, [u]k[] takes the parapada endings1. Thus we get hcakre <adhokaja
t. 1.1 of h[a] ce-vchayo (1A, to endeavor; to desire)> but indcakra
<adhokaja pa. 1.1 of id[i] paramaivarye (1P, to be most powerful)>. However, in
kartari prayoga, the dhtus bh and as[a] only take the parapada endings (even when
the dhtu ending in m is tmapad), and never the tmapada endings. Thus
hmbabhva <adhokaja t. 1.1 of h[a] ce-vchayo (1A, to endeavor; to
desire)> and hmsa <adhokaja t. 1.1 of h[a] ce-vchayo (1A, to
endeavor; to desire)>.
371 / nar"[%r"AmasyaAr"Ama: /
371. nara--rmasy-rma
1 And when the dhtu ending in m is ubhayapad, [u]k[] can take the parapada
endings or the tmapada endings.

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nara--rmasyaof the -rma of a nara; a-rmathe replacement a-rma.
The -rma of a nara changes to a-rma.
indcakra.
Vtti id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + []a[l] (368) ind + m + []a[l]
(330, 369) indm + k + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) indm + k + k + []a[l] (345)
indm + c + k + []a[l] (371) indm + ca + k + []a[l] (314) indm + cakra
(165) ind + cakra (73) indcakra <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
372 / @AmaAe masya h"ir"vaeNAuivaiDavaAR /
372. mo masya hariveu-vidhir v
maof m; masyaof the ma-rma; hariveu-vidhithe rule of hariveu (stra
73); voptionally.
The m of m only optionally follows the rule of hariveu.
indcakra.
Vtti id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + []a[l] (368) ind + m + []a[l]
(330, 369) indm + k + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) indm + k + k + []a[l] (345)
indm + c + k + []a[l] (371) indm + ca + k + []a[l] (314) indm + cakra
(165) ind + cakra (372) indcakra <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
AmtaThe word masya here really refers to the viucakra attained by the
application of stra 165. Where the viucakra would normally always become the
corresponding hariveu since it is not at the end of a viupada, this rule makes it
optional.
SaodhinModern English books on Sanskrit grammar call this special adhokaja
form made with m and the dhtus [u]k[], bh, and as[a] the periphrastic perfect.
However their explanation of this form is defective in two ways: First of all, they treat
the form as if it were two separate words and thus they insert a space between the
dhtu ending in m and the dhtu [u]k[], bh, or as[a]. Thus they list indcakra,
indbabhva, and indmsa as ind cakra, ind babhva, and indm sa
respectively. This is faulty because, as Amta points out above, the dhtu ending in
m is not a separate viupada and thus it should not be separated by a space.
Furthermore, when the dhtu as[a] is used by itself in adhokaja, it is replaced by the
dhtu bh in accordance with aster bhr bruvo vac rma-dhtuke (499). Therefore
the forms sa and so on can never stand independently as separate viupadas. The
second fault is that they never show the case where the forms undergo the change to
hariveu by stra 73. For example, they never list indcakra and indbabhva as
indcakra and indmbabhva. Such negligence is faulty because the change to
hariveu is actually the normal thing to do since the viucakra is not at the end of a
viupada. The optionality ordained in the current stra is only secondary to that. This
is indicated by the fact that Jva Gosvm first forms indcakra in the previous vtti
and only then forms indcakra in the current vtti. Besides this, it is usually only the
form that has undergone the change to hariveu that is seen in classical Sanskrit
works unedited by modern scholars. Thus, in this edition, we shall not bow down to this

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
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faulty system of theirs, even though it has now become standard in the roman
transliteration of Sanskrit texts.
373 / i"vaRcanainaimaas$avaeRr"e par"maAae s$aita ya: s$avaeRr"syaAde"zA:
s$a sTaAinava," i"vaRcanae Wva k(taRvyae /
373. dvir-vacana-nimitta-sarvevare para-mtre sati ya sarvevarasydea sa
sthni-vad dvir-vacane eva kartavye
dvir-vacana-nimitta-sarvevare1a sarvevara that is a nimitta (cause) of
reduplication; para-mtremerely following; satiwhen it is; yawhich;
sarvevarasyaof a sarvevara; deathe replacement; sathat; sthni-vatlike
the sthni (original); dvir-vacanewhen reduplication; evaonly; kartavyeis being
done.
When a sarvevara which causes reduplication follows, the replacement of a
sarvevara is treated like the original. But this is only the case when
reduplication is being done.
atra lopo py dea-vat. tato govinda-vndrau ydaya ay-daya cde rmoddhava-i-lopa ca sthni-vat. tato ra-rmdeasya sthni-vattve kte krmasya dvir-vacanam. indcakratu indcakru. k-s-bh-v iti neindcakartha
indcakrathu indcakra. indcakra indcakara indcakva indcakma.
indmbabhvety-di. indmsety-di. mtra-grahad uvokha iti setsyati, iat iti ca.
ukha gatauokhati.
VttiIn this situation, a deletion is also considered like a replacement. Therefore
govinda, vndra, the replacements y and so on made by stra 383 and stras 50 to
53, the replacements ay and so on made by stras 54 to 55, and the deletion of rma by stra 415, the deletion of uddhava by stra 437, and the deletion of []i by
stra 449 are all sthni-vat (treated like the original). Thus, when the replacement r
is treated like the original, it is k that is reduplicated.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + atus (368) ind + m + atus (330, 369)
indm + k + atus (330, 337, 294, 52) indm + kr + atus (322, 323, the
replacement r is treated like the original by 373) indm + k + kr + atus (345)
indm + c + kr + atus (371) indm + ca + kr + atus (165) ind + cakratus
(73) indcakratus (93) indcakratu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + us (368) ind + m + us (330,
369) indm + k + us (330, 337, 294, 52) indm + kr + us (322, 323, the
replacement r is treated like the original by 373) indm + k + kr + us (345)
indm + c + kr + us (371) indm + ca + kr + us (165) ind + cakrus (73)
indcakrus (93) indcakru <adhokaja pa. 1.3>.
In accordance with k-s-bh-v-stu-dru-sru-rubhya evdhokaja-mtre ne,
anyebhyas tv anibhyo p (356), i[] is not applied:

1 All the printed editions of Hari-nmmta have dvir-vacana-nimitta-sarvevara-paramtre sati instead of dvir-vacana-nimitta-sarvevare para-mtre sati, but this is
incorrect because it breaks the sati-saptam construction of when A is B. The correct
reading dvir-vacana-nimitta-sarvevare para-mtre sati can be found in manuscript
554D (Serial No: 3024, Accession No: 554D) in the Vrindavan Research Institute.

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id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + tha[l] (368) ind + m + tha[l]
(330, 369) indm + k + tha[l] (356, 289) indm + kar + tha (322, 323) indm +
ka + kar + tha (345) indm + ca + kar + tha (165) ind + cakartha (73)
indcakartha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + athus (368) ind + m + athus
(330, 369) indm + k + athus (330, 337, 294, 52) indm + kr + athus (322, 323,
the replacement r is treated like the original by 373) indm + k + kr + athus
(345) indm + c + kr + athus (371) indm + ca + kr + athus (165) ind +
cakrathus (73) indcakrathus (93) indcakrathu <adhokaja pa. 2.2>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + a (368) ind + m + a (330, 369)
indm + k + a (330, 337, 294, 52) indm + kr + a (322, 323, the replacement r
is treated like the original by 373) indm + k + kr + a (345) indm + c + kr + a
(371) indm + ca + kr + a (165) ind + cakra (73) indcakra <adhokaja pa.
2.3>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + []a[l] (368) ind + m + []a[l]
(330, 369) indm + k + []a[l] (330, two options by 359):
1) (it causes the nsiha-kryas, 314) indm + kr + a (322, 323, the
vndra r is treated like the original by 373) indm + k + kr + a (345)
indm + c + kr + a (371) indm + ca + kr + a (165) ind + cakra (73)
indcakra <adhokaja pa. 3.1>.
2) (it doesnt cause the nsiha-kryas, 289) indm + kar + a (322, 323, the
govinda ar is treated like the original by 373) indm + k + kar + a (345) indm +
c + kar + a (371) indm + ca + kar + a (165) ind + cakara (73)
indcakara <adhokaja pa. 3.1>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + va (368) ind + m + va (330,
369) indm + k + va (356, 337, 294, 322, 323) indm + k + k + va (345)
indm + c + k + va (371) indm + ca + k + va (165) ind + cakva (73)
indcakva <adhokaja pa. 3.2>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + ma (368) ind + m + ma (330,
369) indm + k + ma (356, 337, 294, 322, 323) indm + k + k + ma (345)
indm + c + k + ma (371) indm + ca + k + ma (165) ind + cakma
(73) indcakma <adhokaja pa. 3.3>.
Alternatively, we get indmbabhva and so on and indmsa and so on:
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 73) ind ind + []a[l] (368) ind + m + []a[l]
(330, 369) indm + bh + []a[l] (330, 311) indm + bhv + a (322, 323) indm
+ bh + bhv + a (328) indm + bha + bhv + a (329) indm + babhva
(165) ind + babhva (73) indmbabhva <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
id[i] (344, 160, 165, 74) ind ind + []a[l] (368) ind + m + []a[l]
(330, 369)
indm + as + []a[l] (330, 358) indm + s + a (322, 323, the vndra is
treated like the original a by 373) indm + a + s + a (361) indm + + s + a
(42) indmsa <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.

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adhokaja parapada of id[i] paramaivarye
indcakra
indcakratu
indcakru
indmbabhva
indmbabhvatu
indmbabhvu
indmsa
indmsatu
indmsu
indcakartha
indcakrathu
indcakra
indmbabhvitha
indmbabhvathu
indmbabhva
indmsitha
indmsathu
indmsa
indcakra / indcakara
indcakva
indcakma
indmbabhva
indmbabhviva
indmbabhvima
indmsa
indmsiva
indmsima
(Alternatively, by applying mo masya hariveu-vidhir v (372), we may get
indcakra instead of indcakra, indbabhva instead of indmbabhva, and so
on.)
Due to the use of the word mtra here uvokha will be achieved in vtti 374. Now we
begin the conjugation of the dhtu ukh[a] gatau (1P, to go, move).
ukh + ti[p] (288) ukh + []a[p] + ti[p] (333) okhati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
AmtaDue to the use of the word mtra here the replacement is considered like the
original even if something intervenes between the replacement and the sarvevara
causing the reduplication. Thus, in uvokha in vtti 374, the govinda o is treated like the
original u, even though kh intervenes between o and the adhokaja pratyaya []a[l].
Examples of when govinda is sthni-vat are iyea <adhokaja pa. 1.1 of i[a] gatau or
i[u] icchym> and uvokha in vtti 374. An example of when vndra is sthni-vat
is iyya <adhokaja pa. 1.1 of i[] gatau>. Examples of when the replacements y and
so on are sthni-vat are vivyatu in vtti 384, cakratu in the current vtti, and so on.
Examples of when the replacements ay and so on are sthni-vat are ninaya
<adhokaja pa. 3.1 of [] prpae>, ninya <adhokaja pa. 3.1 of [] prpae>,
lulava <adhokaja pa. 3.1 of l[] chedane>, and lulva <adhokaja pa. 3.1 of l[]
chedane>. Examples of when the deletion of -rma is sthni-vat are papatu
<adhokaja pa. 1.2 of p pne or p rakae> and papu <adhokaja pa. 1.3 of p
pne or p rakae>. Examples of when the deletion of uddhava is sthni-vat are
jaghnatu in vtti 487 and jagmatu in vtti 437.
Why do we say when a sarvevara follows? Consider dedyate in vtti 591. Here it is
not the -rma of the dhtu [u]d[] dne (3U, to give) that is reduplicated by
treating the replacement (which is attained by stra 417) like the original, but it is
the replacement itself that is reduplicated. This is because ya[] follows. If the
replacement were treated like the original we would get the unwanted form
dadyate. In accordance with the phrase dvir-vacane eva kartavye, the replacements
are not treated like the original after the reduplication has taken place. Regarding
indmsa, on the strength of ordaining the dhtu as[a] in stra 369, the substitution of
bh doesnt take place by aster bhr bruvo vci rma-dhtuke (499).
SaodhinThe sarvevaras which cause reduplication are the pratyayas
mentioned in stra 322 that begin with a sarvevara. Thus this rule applies when any
of the adhokaja pratyayas that begin with a sarvevara follows, when a[] follows, and
when sa[n] that takes i[] follows. In this regard, one should remember that, since i[]
is para-sambandh, when the adhokaja pratyayas and sa[n] take i[] they are also
considered as beginning with a sarvevara. There is no possibility of ya[] taking i[],
for that is forbidden by ne ya-sarvevarayo (330). This rule does not apply when
ya[] follows, when sa[n] that doesnt take i[] follows, or when the adhokaja

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pratyayas tha[l], va, ma, se, dhve, vahe, and mahe which do not take i[] follow, since
all these pratyayas do not begin with a sarvevara.
This rule makes it clear that the various replacements like govinda, vndra, and so
on actually take place before the reduplication, and that they are treated like the
original only when reduplication is being done, and not after that. Technically, this
stra should have been given earlier because, without this stra, govinda, vndra,
and so on have to be done after the reduplication to achieve the correct form. For
example, if, in the formation of ciceta in vtti 336, we did the govinda first and then
the reduplication, the govinda ce wouldnt be considered sthni-vat because the
current stra had not been given at that time. Thus, when reduplication takes place,
we would get the nara ce. And because the rule narasya vmana is only given later
as stra 375, there would be no way to make the nara ci. Thus we would be stuck with
ceceta, an incorrect form. Therefore, now that this stra has been given, only should
reformulate ciceta, pusphoa, and so on so that the govinda is done first and is treated
like the original at the time of reduplication. Similarly, one should reformulate
indcakra <adhokaja pa. 1.1> in vtti 371 so that it follows the same pattern as
indcakra <adhokaja pa. 3.1> in this vtti.
374 / nare"u"taAeir"yauvaAvaek(Atmake(tar"s$avaeRre" /
374. nared-utor iy-uvv ektmaketara-sarvevare
nara-it-utoof the i and u of a nara; iy-uvauthe replacements iy and uv; ektmakaitara-sarvevarewhen a sarvevara other than an ektmaka follows.
The i and u of a nara change to iy and uv respectively when a sarvevara
other than their ektmaka follows.
dvir-vacane kte parasya na sthni-vattvam, tata uv. m tu na syt, gurv-varder iti
sahajasyaiva grahat. uvokha khatu. katham ider m? parnapekatvena numa
sahajatvt, govindas tu kasri-varjam apekate. chi ymechati.
VttiOnce reduplication has been done, the para (nryaa) is no longer treated like
the original. Therefore the change to uv takes place. But m should not be applied
because only dhtus that originally begin with an vara that is guru are taken by the
mention of gurv-varde in stra 368.
ukh + []a[l] (330, 333) okh + a (322, 323, the govinda o is treated like
the original u by 373) u + okh + a (374) uvokha <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
ukh + atus (330, 337, 294, 322, 323) u + ukh + atus (42) khatus
(93) khatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
uvokha
uvokhitha
uvokha

adhokaja parapada of ukh[a] gatau


khatu
khathu
khiva

khu
kha
khima

Someone may ask, Why then did the dhtu id[i] take m? The answer is that n[um]
is considered original (see vtti 344) because it doesnt require a para-nimitta for its
application. Govinda, on the other hand, requires that a pratyaya other than a kasri
must be following. Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu ch[i] yme (1P, to
stretch).

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ch[i] (344, 160) + n[um] + ch (175) ch ch + ti[p] (288) ch
+ []a[p] + ti[p] chati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
AmtaIf the nryaa were still treated like the original once the reduplication had
been done, then the nara would not be able to change to uv because there wouldnt be
a sarvevara other than its ektmaka following. Thus the method of achieving uvokha
is that govinda is done first, then the govinda o is treated like the original u by stra
373, then u is reduplicated, and then the nara u changes to uv because a sarvevara
other than its ektmaka follows.
Since when govinda is done m might be applied by stra 368 because the okh begins
with an vara that is guru, Jva Gosvm removes that possibility by saying that only
dhtus that originally begin with an vara that is guru are taken by the mention of
gurv-varde in stra 368. Thus m is not applied here because the o of okh is
lkaika (secondary) since it is produced by govinda.
Govinda is not considered original because it is clear from the rule asya na govindavndrau kasriu (294) that govinda requires that a pratyaya other than a kasri
follows.
375 / nar"sya vaAmana: /
375. narasya vmana
narasyaof a nara; vmanathe change to vmana.
The nara becomes vmana.
narder iti kte tato nuncha. asja gatau.
VttiWhen the nara becomes trivikrama by stra 361 and n[u] is added by stra
362, we get ncha:
ch[i] (344, 160, 175) ch ch + []a[l] (330, 322, 323) + ch + a
(375) a + ch + a (361) + ch + a (362) ncha <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of asj[a] gatau (1P, to go, move).
AmtaWhen -rma changes to the vmana a-rma by the current stra, that arma again becomes trivikrama by stra 361, and thus n[u] is also added.
376 / s$asya jaAe jae , na tau vaESNAvae /
376. sasya jo je, na tu vaiave
sasyaof sa-rma; jathe replacement ja-rma; jewhen ja-rma follows; nanot;
tubut; vaiavewhen a vaiava follows.
S changes to j when j follows, but not when a j that is followed by a vaiava
follows.
sajjati. vaiava-grahaa-phalam amkt ity-dau setsyati. vaja gatau

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Vtti asj (346) sasj sasj + ti[p] (288) sasj + []a[p] + ti[p] (376) sajjati
<acyuta pa. 1.1>.
sajjati
sajjasi
sajjmi

acyuta parapada of asj[a] gatau


sajjata
sajjatha
sajjva

sajjanti
sajjatha
sajjma

The result of mentioning a vaiava here will be accomplished in forms like amkt
in vtti 547. Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu vaj[a] gatau (1P, to go,
move).
SaodhinCommenting on the dhtu asj[a] gatau (1P, to go, move), Siddhntakaumud says ayam tmanepady api, sajjate (This dhtu can also take tmapada
endings. Thus we get also sajjate and so on). Despite its being listed with the simple
meaning of gati in the Dhtu-pha, the dhtu asj[a] gatau (1P, to go, move) is
usually used in the same meaning as the dhtu anj[a] sage (1P, to adhere, be
attached). Thus sajjate means he is attached and so on.
377 / zAs$aud"d"var"AmaAd"InaAM gAAeivand"Ar"Amasya ca naEtvaAid" /
377. asu-dada-va-rmdn govind-rmasya ca naitvdi
asu-dada-va-rma-dnmof as[u] hisym (1P, to kill), dad[a] dne (1P, to
give), and dhtus beginning with va-rma; govinda-a-rmasyaof dhtus whose arma is produced by govinda; caand; nanot; etva-dithe change to e and so on.
as[u], dad[a], dhtus beginning with v, and dhtus whose medial a is a
product of govinda dont undergo the change to e and loss of nara
prescribed in stra 363.
vavajatu. vraja gatau
Vtti vaj + atus (330, 337, 322, 323) va + vaj + atus (377) vavajatus (93)
vavajatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu vraj[a] gatau (1P, to go, move).
378 / vad"ajayaAeva{RSNAIn": s$aAE par"pade" /
378. vada-vrajayor vndra sau parapade
vada-vrajayoof the dhtus vad[a] vyakty vci (1P, to speak, say, tell) and
vraj[a] gatau (1P, to go, move); vndravndra; sauwhen s[i] follows;
parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows.
avrjt. aja gatau kepae caajati.
Vad[a] and vraj[a] take vndra when s[i] which is followed by a parapada
pratyaya follows.
Vtti vraj + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + vraj + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) avraj
+ i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (378) avrj + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) avrj +
i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) avrjd (185) avrjt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
331
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu aj[a] gatau kepae ca (1P, to go, move;
to drive).
aj + ti[p] (288) aj + []a[p] + ti[p] ajati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
AmtaWhere the vndra would usually only optionally take place by
viujander laghor a-rmasya vndra i-dau sau v parapade (357), this rule
makes it mandatory.
379 / @jaevaI= GaNAM ivanaA r"AmaDaAtauke( /
379. ajer v ghaa vin rma-dhtuke
aje1of the dhtu aj[a] gatau kepae ca (1P, to go, move; to drive); vthe
replacement v; ghaamthe kt pratyaya [gh]a[]; vinexcept; rma-dhtuke
when a rma-dhtuka follows.
Aj[a] is replaced by v when any rma-dhtuka except the kt pratyaya
[gh]a[] follows.
vyate. vr ayam ani. athnia
Vtti aj + te (293) aj + ya[k] + te (330, 379) vyate <acyuta karmai 1.1>.
This v is ani. Now a list of the ani dhtus will be given.

List of the ani-dhtus2


(ani-gaa)
1
--rmnta-ru-snu-ku-yu-nu-ku-vi--ribhi
v-vbhy ca vinaikca
svarnt dhtavo nia
a) Any dhtu that ends in a sarvevara (svara) and has only one sarvevara (ac) is
ani. But dhtus that end in and are exceptions to this rule.
b) The following dhtus are also exceptions to this rule:
ru abde
2P to cry, sound
u prasravae
2P to drip, flow
ku tejane
2P to sharpen
[] svapne
2A to sleep, lie down
yu miranmiranayo
2P to mix; to separate
u stutau
2P to praise
[u]ku abde
2P to sneeze, cough
[u][o]vi gati-vddhyo
1P to go, move; to grow
[] vihyas gatau
1A to fly
[] vihyas gatau
4A to fly
1 Aje is the sixth case singular form of aji, a word formed by applying the kt
pratyaya i[k] after the dhtu aj[u] gatau kepae ca by ik-tipau dhtu-nirdee ().
2 The ani dhtus are dhtus that do not take i[] by i rma-dhtuke (316). This
group of dhtus are sahajni (originally ani) as opposed to other dhtus which
become ani under certain conditions only. In verses 2 to 8 of this list, the dhtus are
referred by using the forms made with i[k] and []ti[p] (see Saodhin 338 and 308)

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
332
ri[] sevym
v[] sambhaktau
v[] varae

1U
9A
5U

to serve, worship, dwell,


depend on
to serve, worship
to choose, ask for

2
ani eka ak knte
cnte paci-vac vici
sicir muci-ric caika
chnte pracchir udhta
a) Among the dhtus ending in k, only one is said to be ani:
ak[] aktau
5P to be able
b) Among the dhtus ending in c, the following dhtus are said to be ani:
[u]pac[a] pke
1U to cook, ripen
vac[a] paribhae
2P to speak, say, tell
vic[ir] pthak-bhve
7U to separate, discriminate
1
ic[a] karae
6U to sprinkle, discharge
muc[] mokae
6U to release, abandon
ric[ir] virecane
7U to purge, empty
c) Among the dhtus ending in ch, only one is said to be ani:
pracch[a] jpsym
6P to ask, question
3
bhaji-bhaji-yaji-tyaji-raji-rujo
bhuji-saji-sjo py atha majjir api
yuji-bhjji-nijir-vijira ca tath
svajir uddhava-no ja-gae py ania
a) Among the group of dhtus ending in j, the following dhtus are ani:
bhaj[a] sevym
1U to serve, worship, divide,
experience
bhanj[o] mardane
7P to break, interrupt, disappoint
yaj[a] deva-pj-sagati-karaa1U to worship, sacrifice; to meet;
dneu
to give
tyaj[a] hnau
1P to abandon
ranj[a] rge
1U to be colored, delighted, to
love, be attached
ranj[a] rge
4U to be colored, delighted, to
love, be attached
ruj[o] bhage
6P to break, afflict
2
bhuj[a] planbhyavahrayo
7P to protect, rule; to eat, enjoy
bhuj[o] kauilye
6P to bend, curve, be crooked
anj[a] sage
1P to adhere, be attached
sj[a] visarge
4A to create, release
sj[a] visarge
6P to create, release
[u]masj[o] uddhau
6P to bathe, dive, sink
1 Sometimes the dhtu ic[a] is listed as ic[ir], but Jva Gosvm explains, in vtti
546, that many people dont agree that this dhtu has the anubandha ir. Moreover, in
his own Dhtu-pha, Jva Gosvm lists the dhtu as ic[a] karae and not as ic[ir]
karae.
2 Jva Gosvm lists this dhtu as a parapad, but it also takes tmapada endings in
accordance with anavane bhunakte (). Thus it is parapad when it is used in the
sense of plana (protecting, ruling), but when it is used in any other sense, it is
tmapad.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
333
yuj[a] samdhau
yuj[ir] yoge
bhrasj[a] pke1
ij[ir] auce
vij[ir] pthak-bhve
vanj[a] parivage

4A
7U
6U
3U
3U
1A

to
to
to
to
to
to

meditate
join, use
roast, fry
wash, purify
separate, discriminate
embrace

4
adi hadi skandi-bhidi-cchidi-kudn
adi sadi svidyati-padyat khidim
tudi nudi vidyatika vinattika
prathi dntn daa-paca cnia
a) Know the following fifteen dhtus ending in
ad[a] bhakae
2P
had[a] purotsarge
1A
skand[ir] gati-oaayo
1P
bhid[ir] vidrae
chid[ir] dvidh-karae
kud[ir] sampeae
ad[] tane
ad[] tane
ad[] viaraa-gatyavasdaneu
ad[] viaraa-gatyavasdaneu
[i]vid[] gtra-prakarae
pad[a] gatau
khid[a] dainye
khid[a] parighte
khid[a] dainye
tud[a] vyathane
ud[a] prerae
vid[a] sattym
vid[a] vicrae

7U
7U
7U
1P
6P
1P
6P
4P
4A
4A
6P
7A
6U
6U
4A
7A

d to be ani:
to eat
to evacuate
to fall, discharge semen; to dry
up, perish
to break, separate, discriminate
to cut, divide
to pound, crush
to fall, perish, decay
to fall, perish, decay
to burst, open; to go, move; to
sit down, be dejected, perish
to burst, open; to go, move; to
sit down, be dejected, perish
to sweat
to go, move
to be depressed, suffer pain
to strike, afflict
to be depressed, suffer pain
to strike, wound
to push, impel
to be, exist
to consider as

5
krudhi-rdhi-rudhi-kudhi-budhyatayo
vyadhi-udhyati-sidhyati-bandhi-yudha
saha-sdhaya ity anio dha-gae
hani-manyati cety api nnta-gae
a) Among the group of dhtus ending in dh, the following dhtus are ani:
krudh[a] kope
4P to be angry
rdh[a] sasiddhau
4P to succeed, accomplish
rdh[a] sasiddhau
5P to succeed, accomplish
rudh[ir] varae
7U to block, cover
anurudh[a] kme
4A to love, adhere to
kudh[a] bubhukym
4P to be hungry
1 The dhtu bhrasj[a] appears here as bhjji because when the kt pratyaya i[k] is
applied after bhrasj[a] by ik-tipau dhtu-nirdee (909) the ra of bhrasj[a] undergoes
sakaraa by grahi-jy-vayi-vyadhi-vai-vyaci-vraci-pracchi-bhrasjn sakaraa
kasrau (473) and the s becomes j by sasya jo je, na tu vaiave (376).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
334
budh[a] avagamane
4A
vyadh[a] tane
4P
udh[a] auce
4P
idh[u] sarddhau
4P
bandh[a] bandhane
9P
yudh[a] samprahre
4A
sdh[a] sasiddhau
4P
sdh[a] sasiddhau
5P
b) Among the group of dhtus ending in n, the
han[a] his-gatyo
2P
man[a] jne
4A

to understand
to pierce, wound
to be purified, free from doubts
to succeed, accomplish
to bind
to fight
to succeed, accomplish
to succeed, accomplish
following dhtus are ani:
to strike, kill; to go, move
to think, consider as

6
svapi-vapi-tipi-tapi-tpy-pi-apo pi
kipi-spi-lipi-lumpa-cchupi-dpaya
pnta-gaev atha bhnte labhi-rabhi-yabhayo
ma-gae yami-rami-ami-gamaya ca
a) Among the group of dhtus ending in p, the
[i]vap[a] aye
2P
[u]vap[a] bja-tantu-santne
1U
tip[] karae
1A
tap[a] santpe
1P

following dhtus are ani:


to sleep, lie down
to sow
to sprinkle
to heat, burn, perform
austerities
tap[a] tpe aivarye v
4A to heat, burn, perform
austerities; to rule
tp[a] prane
4P to satisfy, be satisfied
p[] vyptau
5P to pervade, obtain
ap[a] kroe
1U to chastise, curse
ap[a] kroe
4U to chastise, curse
kip[a] prerae
4P to throw
kip[a] prerae
6U to throw
sp[] gatau
1P to crawl, slither
lip[a] upadehe
6U to anoint, cover, stain, pollute
lup[] chedane
6U to cut, break, take away, delete
chup[a] saspare
6P to touch
dp[a] garve
4P to be proud
b) Among the dhtus ending in bh, the following dhtus are ani:
[u]labh[a] prptau
1A to obtain, possess
rabh[a] rbhasye
1A to act rashly
yabh[a] maithune
1P to have sexual intercourse
c) Among the group of dhtus ending in m, the following dhtus are ani:
yam[u] uparame
1P to restrain
ram[u] krym
1A to play, delight in
am[a] prahatve abde ca
1P to offer obeisances, be
submissive; to sound
gam[] gatau
1P to go, move
7
ii-li duya-vii-tvii-dvin
pii ki puyati-uya-tuyatn
dii di dai-m rii rui
lii-spi-kroa-vio nio jagu

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
335
a) (Learned persons) say that (among the dhtus ending in ) the following dhtus are
ani:
i[a] hisym1
1P to hurt, kill
i[] vieae
7P to remain
li[a] ligane
4P to adhere, embrace
du[a] vaiktye
4P to be impure, bad, wrong
vi[u] secane2
1P to sprinkle
vi[] vyptau
3U to pervade
tvi[a] dptau
1U to shine, glitter
dvi[a] aprtau
2U to hate
pi[] sacrane
7P to grind, crush
k[a] vilekhane karae ca
1P to plough; to pull, attract
k[a] vilekhane
6U to plough
pu[a] puau
4P to nourish
u[a] oae
4P to become dry, withered
tu[a] tuau
4P to satisfy, be satisfied
b) (Learned persons) say that (among the dhtus ending in ) the following dhtus are
ani:
di[a] atisarjane
6U to give; to order; to tell
d[ir] prekae
1P to see
dan[a] daane
1P to bite
m[a] marane
6P to touch; to discuss, reason; to
consider
ri[a] hisym
6P to hurt, kill
ru[a] hisym
6P to hurt, kill
li[a] alp-bhve
4A to become small
3
li[a] gatau
6P to go, move
sp[a] saspare
6P to touch
kru[a] hvne
1P to cry out, wail, shout
vi[a] praveane
6P to enter
8
ghasi ca vasati snte
hnte dahati-mehat
dihir duhi-lih rohir
vahir nahir ime nia
a) Among the dhtus ending in s, the following dhtus are ani:
ghas[] adane
1P to eat
vas[a] nivse
1P to dwell, live, stay
b) Among the dhtus ending in h, the following dhtus are ani:
dah[a] bhasm-karae
1P to burn

1 This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but is listed in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha.
2 This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but is listed in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha.
3 This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but is listed in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
336
mih[a] secane
dih[a] pralepe
duh[a] praprae
lih[a] svdane
ruh[a] janmani prdur-bhve ca
vah[a] prpae
ah[a] bandhane

1P
2U
2U
2U
1P
1U
4U

to
to
to
to
to
to
to

pass urine or semen


smear
milk, extract
lick, taste
grow, rise; to appear
bear, lead, carry
bind, tie

yu iti yu mirae, nu-shacaryt. yul miramiraayo iti vopadeva. ak iti


ka-paitasya prakriy-kym atra d-id eva ak ghyate. kavi-kalpadrume tu
sv-di-akr vikalpite, divdi-aks tu se. bhujti bhujo-bhujau ghyete. yujti yujayujirau. svajir uddhava-na iti svajir ity artha. klp vindatim api ghanti.
lumpdayo lumpaty-dnm ekadea-nirde. ata eka-sarvevara sarvevarnta
ceti vr ani.
Because it is listed alongside nu (an ad-di-dhtu), the yu mentioned in verse 1 refers
only to yu mirae1. Vopadeva accepts the same by saying yu[l] miramiraayo.
In Ka-paitas commentary on Prakriy-kaumud only ak that has the indicatory
letter is accepted by the mention of ak in verse 2. According to Kavi-kalpadruma,
however, the sv-di-dhtu ak[] aktau is ve, while the div-di-dhtu ak[a]
kamym is se. Bhuji in verse 3 includes both bhuj[o] kauilye and bhuj[a]
planbhyavahrayo, and yuji in verse 3 includes both yuj[a] samdhau and yuj[ir]
yoge. The phrase svajir uddhava-na (svaj which has n as uddhava) in verse 3 refers
to the dhtu svaj. The Kalpa grammarians also list vindati (vid[] lbhe) in their list of
ani-dhtus. Lumpa and so on are abbreviations of lumpati and so on2. Thus, since v
ends in a sarvevara and has only one sarvevara, it is ani by verse 1.
AmtaIn verse 2, the words paci-vac and muci-ric have the first case dual
endings. The word prathi in verse 4 means jnhi (you should know). By the
mention of svidyati, padyati, vidyati, and vinatti, which are the []ti[p] forms of
[i]vid[] gtra-prakarae, pad[a] gatau, vid[a] sattym, and vid[a] vicrae with
the vikaraa []ya added ([]na[m] in the case of vinatti), [i]vid[] snehane mocane
ca (1A, to be anointed, greasy; to be loose, disturbed), pad[a] sthairye3 (1P, to
stand fast), vid[a] jne (2P, to know), and vid[] lbhe (6U, to find, obtain) are
excluded. Similarly, by the mention of budhyati, sidhyati, and manyati, which are the
[]ti[p] forms of budh[a] avagamane, idh[u] sarddhau, and man[a] jne with the
vikaraa []ya added, budh[a] avagamane (1P, to understand), budh[ir] bodhane
(1U, to understand), idhu gatym (1P, to go, move), idh stre mgalye ca
(1P, to instruct; to be auspicious), and man[u] bodhane (8A, to understand) are
exluded.
Although from the viewpoint of the verses of the earlier grammarians tp[a] prane
and dp[a] garve are listed here as ani, they are actually ve because they are listed
among the radh-dis (a sub-group of div-di-dhtus which are ve by radh-der i v
(539)). According to Padmanbha Datta, author of the Supadma-vykaraa, the
reversal of the normal order of tlavya then mrdhanya in verse 7 is to fit the
meter. Vopadeva, the author of Mugdha-bodha-vykaraa, says that only li[a]
ligane (4P, to adhere, embrace) is accepted here, and not li[u] dahe4 (1P, to
1 This dhtu is listed in the Dhtu-pha as yu miramiraayo.
2 Thus lumpa in verse 6 stands for lumpati, and duya and uya in verse 7 stand for
duyati and uyati.
3 This dhtu is only found in the Dhtu-pha composed by Vopadeva, the author of
Mugdha-bodha-vykaraa.
4 This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but is listed in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
337
burn). The mention of duya, uya, and tuyati with the vikaraa []ya is to fulfill the
requirements of the meter and not to exlude other dhtus (since there are none to
exclude anyway). The mention of puyati, however, is to exlude pu[a] puau (1P, to
nourish) and pu[a] puau (9P, to nourish). The word pait (learned persons)
has to be inserted in verse 7. By the mention of vasati, which is the []ti[p] form of
vas[a] nivse, vas[a] cchdane (2A, to cover, dress) is excluded. In the vtti, Jva
Gosvm makes it clear that the yu mentioned in verse 1 refers only to the ad-didhtu yu miranmiranayo and not to yu[] bandhane (9U, to bind). Like the
Kalpa grammarians, Mah-bhya and other works also list vindati (vid[] lbhe) as
an ani-dhtu.
380 / wRzAAntasya va{SNAIn": s$aAE par"pade" /
380. ntasya vndra sau parapade
a-antasyaof a dhtu that ends in an a; vndravndra; sauwhen s[i]
follows; parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows.
Dhtus which end in an a take vndra when s[i] which is followed by a
parapada pratyaya follows.
viuta sarva-viricir ity ata cea prvam eva pake v-bhvaavait. narasya
vmanavivya.
VttiWhen the dhtu aj[a] is replaced by v, the replacement takes place before the
application of i[] in accordance with the maxim viuta sarva-virici (vtti 188).
aj + d[ip] (307) aj + s[i] + d[ip] (379) v + s[i] + d[ip] (306, v is ani by
verse 1) a[t] + v + s[i] + d[ip] (380) avai + s[i] + d[ip] (334) avai + s[i] + [] +
d[ip] (108) avaid (185) avait <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
In adhokaja, narasya vmana (375) is applied:
aj + []a[l] (379) v + []a[l] (330, 314) vai + a (54) vy + a (322,
323, the vndra ai and the replacement y are sthni-vat by 373) v + vy + a
(375) vivya <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
SaodhinHere v is a sarva-virici because it replaces the whole dhtu aj[a]. Thus
by the maxim viuta sarva-virici (vtti 188) it is stronger than i[], which is a mere
viu.
381 / DaAtaAetau:s$anasyaeyauvaAE s$avaeRre" /
381. dhto catusanasyey-uvau sarvevare
dhtoof a dhtu; catusanasyaof the catusana; iy-uvauthe replacements iy
and uv (i and are replaced by iy, and u and are replaced by uv); sarvevarewhen
a sarvevara follows.
The final catusana of a dhtu changes to iy or uv when a sarvevara
follows.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
338
AmtaEven though the adhikra-stra dhto (261) is in effect, the word dhto is
included again here for claritys sake.
382 / s$aMyau(aAe /
382. sayukta-no ca
sayuktaconjoined (in sat-saga with the final viujana of a dhtu); noof []nu
(the vikaraa used in the conjugation of the sv-di-dhtus); caand.
The u of []nu also changes to uv when a sarvevara follows, provided the n
of []nu is in sat-saga.
383 / @s$aMyaAegApaUvaRsyaAnaek(s$avaeRr"syae"yasya tau ya: /
383. asayoga-prvasyneka-sarvevarasye-dvayasya tu ya
asayoga-prvasyawhich doesnt have a sayoga (sat-saga) previous to it; anekasarvevarasyaof a dhtu that has more than one sarvevara; i-dvayasyaof the idvaya; tubut; yathe replacement ya-rma.
But the final i or of a dhtu that has more than one sarvevara changes to
y when a sarvevara follows, provided the i or doesnt come after a satsaga.
AmtaIn this regard, a dhtu is considered as having more than one sarvevara by
taking into account its future reduplication (see bhvini bhta-vad upacra in vtti
394). This is in accordance with the following statement of Padmanbha Datta, the
author of Supadma-vykaraa: bhaviyad-dvir-ukty naikatvam (due to the future
reduplication, it is not considered monosyllabic). If this were not the case, then we
could not achieve vivyatu in the next vtti because v only has one sarvevara.
384 / Wita"vaAeyaRvaAE k{(SNADaAtauk( Wva /
384. eti-huvor ya-vau ka-dhtuka eva
eti-huvoof the dhtus i[] gatau (2P, to go, move) and hu vahnau dne (3P, to
offer into the sacrificial fire, to sacrifice); ya-vauthe replacements ya-rma and varma; ka-dhtukewhen it is ka-dhtuka; evaonly.
The i of i[] changes to y and the u of hu changes to v when a sarvevara
follows, but only if that sarvevara is part of a ka-dhtuka.
govinda-vndrbhym anyatraite. vivyatu. v gati-vypti-prajana-knty-asanakhdanev iti v-dhtur apy asti. tatra ca sati dhtu-pratirpdeas tad-dhtu-vatprayogo vaktavya iti nyyena v-vad evsya prayoga. tata ca
VttiThe changes to iy, uv, y, and v prescribed in stras 381 to 384 only take place
where govinda and vndra are not applicable.
aj + atus (379) v + atus (330, 337, 294, 383) vy + atus (322, 323,
the replacement y is treated like the original by 373) v + vy + atus (375) vi + vy
+ atus (93) vivyatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
339
There is also the dhtu v gati-vypti-prajana-knty-asana-khdaneu1 (2P, to go,
move; to pervade, obtain; to become pregnant; to shine, be beautiful, desire; to throw;
to eat). And, that being the case, this v (the replacement of aj) is treated like the
dhtu v in accordance with the maxim dhtu-pratirpdeas tad-dhtu-vat-prayogo
vaktavya (a replacement that is similar in form to a particular dhtu is treated like
that dhtu). Therefore the following rule also applies to v.2
AmtaSince the word eva here exludes a sarvevara that is part of a rma-dhtuka,
it is implied that when a sarvevara that is part of a rma-dhtuka follows the i of i[]
and u of hu change to iy and uv respectively by stra 381.
385 / s$avaeRr"AntaAts$ah"jaAinaq% w"A Taila /
385. sarvevarntt sahajnia i v thali
sarvevara-anttthat ends in a sarvevara; sahaja-aniaafter a dhtu that is
originally ani; ii[]; voptionally; thaliwhen the adhokaja pratyaya tha[l]
follows.
When tha[l] follows, i[] is optionally inserted after a sahajni dhtu that
ends in a sarvevara.
SaodhinUsually when an adhokaja pratyaya follows, all sahajni dhtus that
end in a sarvevara, except those mentioned in the phrase k-s-bh-v-stu-dru-srurubhya (356), take i[] by anyebhyas tv anibhyo p (356), but this rule says that
they only optionally take i[] when tha[l] follows. In the same way, the next four stras
are also apavdas of stra 356.
386 / s$ah"jaAr"Amavata taA{"zAAta, /
386. sahaj-rmavata ca tdt
sahaja-a-rmavatathat has an original a-rma; caand; tdtafter that (after a
dhtu that is originally ani).
When tha[l] follows, i[] is also optionally inserted after a sahajni dhtu
that has an original a-rma.
AmtaThe word tdt here means sahajnia. Since dhtus that end in a
sarvevara are already covered by the previous stra, one should understand that the
word a-rmavata here doesnt refer to dhtus that have a-rma as their final vara.
Indeed, the kathdis are the only dhtus that have a-rma as their final vara, and
since they take m by stra 395 because they have more than one sarvevara, there
is no possibility of this stra applying to them. Why do we say that has an original arma? Because sahajni dhtus that have an a-rma which is produced by govinda
do not follow this rule. Thus the dhtu k[a], for example, does not follow this rule,
but rather always takes i[] by stra 356. Thus we only get cakaritha.
1 This dhtu is listed in the Dhtu-pha as v gatau prajana-knty-asana-khdaneu
ca (2P, to go; to become pregnant; to shine, be beautiful, desire; to throw; to eat).
2 Usually v by itself would not be considered sahajni since it just the replacement
of the dhtu aj[a], but because it is treated like the dhtu v, which is sahajni, it also
follows stra 385.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
340
387 / s$a{ija{"izAByaAM ca /
387. sji-dibhy ca
sji-dibhymafter the dhtus sj[a] visarge (4A or 6P, to create, release) and
d[ir] prekae (1P, to see); caand.
When tha[l] follows, i[] is also optionally inserted after the dhtus sj[a]
and d[ir].
388 / @yaitaRva{vyaeHByaAe inatyama, /
388. atty-arti-v-vyebhyo nityam
atti-arti-v-vyebhyaafter the dhtus listed below; nityamalways.
I[] is always inserted after the following dhtus when tha[l] follows:
ad[a] bhakae
gatau prpae ca
gatau
v[] varae1
vye[] savarae

2P
1P
3P
5U
1U

to
to
to
to
to

eat
go, move; to obtain
go, move
choose, ask for
cover, close

AmtaAd[a] has an original a-rma and vye[] ends in a sarvevara. Thus they
would usually optionally take i[] in accordance with stras 386 and 385 respectively.
Similarly, and v[] would normally be prohibited from taking i[] in accordance with
-rmt tu nitya ne (389) and k-s-bh-v (356). The current stra, however, is an
apavda of all these stras.
389 / [%r"AmaAau inatyaM naeq%. /
389. -rmt tu nitya ne
-rmtafter -rma; tubut; nityamalways; nanot; ii[].
But i[] is never applied after a sahajni dhtu ending in -rma when
tha[l] follows.
sahajnia akdi-pahit. sahaja-grahaa san-dv anitve pi babhvithety-dau
nityam i-bhvrtham. vivetha vivayitha. ki kayekayati kayanti.
VttiThe sahajni dhtus are the dhtus listed among the ak-dis (in other words,
the dhtus listed in the 8 verses of the ani-gaa in vtti 379). The inclusion of the
word sahaja in stra 385 is so that i[] will always be applied in babhvitha and so on,
even though the dhtus bh and so on are ani when sa[n] and so on follow, in
accordance with stras 579 and so on.
1 V[] sambhaktau (9A, to serve, worship) is not included by the mention of v in
this stra because, since v[] is an tmapad dhtu, there is no possibility of the
parapada pratyaya tha[l] following.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
341
aj + tha[l] (379) v + tha[l] (two options by 385):
i) (i[] is applied) v + i[] + tha[l] (289) ve + i[] + tha[l] (54) vay + i[] +
tha[l] (322, 323, the govinda e and the replacement ay are sthni-vat by 373) v +
vay + i[] + tha[l] (375) vivayitha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
ii) (i[] is not applied) v + tha[l] (289) ve + tha[l] (322, 323) ve + ve +
tha[l] (375, 173) vivetha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu ki kaye (1P, to perish, be diminished).
ki + ti[p] (288) ki + []a[p] + ti[p] (289) ke + a + ti (54) kayati
<acyuta pa.
1.1>.
ki + anti (288) ki + []a[p] + anti (289) ke + a + anti (54) kaya
+ anti (291) kayanti <acyuta pa. 1.3>.
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of stra 385. Why do we say after a sahajni
dhtu ending in -rma? Consider jajgaritha1 <adhokaja pa. 2.1 of jg nidr-kaye
(2P, to be awake)>. Even though the dhtu bh is ani when sa[n] and so on follow,
it is not sahajni because it is not listed in the ani-gaa. Thus it always takes i[]
when tha[l] follows.
390 / vaAmanasya iaiva(ma: k{(tk{(SNADaAtauke(tar"yaatyayae /
390. vmanasya trivikrama kt-ka-dhtuketara-ya-pratyaye
vmanasyaof vmana; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; kt-ka-dhtukaa
kt pratyaya or ka-dhtuka pratyaya; itaraother than; ya-pratyayewhen a
pratyaya beginning with ya-rma follows.
The final vmana of a dhtu changes to trivikrama when any pratyaya
beginning with y, except a kt or ka-dhtuka, follows.
kyate. akait. cikya cikiyatu cikiyu, cikayitha ciketha. kti tukeyam.
ka-dhtukeiyt. lage sage
Vtti ki + te (293) ki + ya[k] + te (ki is ani by verse 1, 294, 390)
kyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
ki + d[ip] (306, 307, ki is ani by verse 1) a[t] + ki + s[i] + d[ip] (380)
akai + s[i] + d[ip] (334) akai + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (108) akaid (185)
akait <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
akait
akai
akaiam

bhtea parapada of ki kaye


akaim
akaiam
akaiva

akaiu
akaia
akaima

1 The dhtu jg is not sahajni because, since it has two sarvevaras, it is not ekc
(having only one sarvevara) and thus it is not counted as an ani-dhtu by verse 1
of the ani-gaa. Thus jg doesnt follow stra 389, but rather always takes i[] by
stra 356.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
342
ki + []a[l] (330, 314) kai + a (54) ky + a (322, 323, the
vndra ai and the replacement y are sthni-vat by 373) ki + ky + a (341) ki
+ ky + a (345) cikya <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
ki + atus (330, 337, 294, 381) kiy + atus (322, 323, the replacement
iy is treated like the original i by 373) ki + kiy + atus (341) ki + kiy + atus
(345) ci + kiy + atus (93) cikiyatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
ki + us (330, 337, 294, 381) kiy + us (322, 323, the replacement iy is
treated like the original i by 373) ki + kiy + us (341) ki + kiy + us (345) ci +
kiy + us (93) cikiyu <adhokaja pa. 1.3>.
ki + tha[l] (two options by 385):
1) (i[] is applied) ki + i[] + tha[l] (289) ke + itha (54) kay + itha
(322, 323, the govinda e and the replacement ay are sthni-vat by 373) ki + kay +
itha (341) ki + kay + itha (345) cikayitha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
2) (i[] is not applied) ki + tha[l] (289) ke + tha (322, 323) ke + ke +
tha (341) ke + ke + tha (345) ce + ke + tha (375, 173) ciketha
<adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
adhokaja parapada of ki kaye
cikya
cikiyatu
cikayitha / ciketha
cikiyathu
cikya / cikaya
cikiyiva

cikiyu
cikiya
cikiyima

But when a kt pratyaya follows, we get keyam1. Similarly, when a ka-dhtuka


follows, we get iyt <vidhi pa. 1.1 of i[] gatau (2P, to go, move)>. Now we begin
the conjugation of the dhtu lag[e] sage (1P, to adhere, contact).
391 / h"mayaAntaaNAs$aInaAmaer"Amaeta na va{SNAIn": s$aeiq% s$aAE
par"pade" /
391. ha-ma-ynta-kaa-vasa-vnm e-rmeta ca na vndra sei sau
parapade
ha-ma-yntaof dhtus that end in ha-rma, ma-rma, or ya-rma; kaa-vasavnmof the dhtus ka[u] (8U, to hurt, kill), vas[a] (2P, to breathe), and [u]
[o]vi gati-vddhyo (1P, to go, move; to grow); e-rma-itaof dhtus that have erma as it; caand; nanot; vndra-vndra; sa-iiwith i[]; sauwhen s[i]
follows; parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows.
Ka[u], vas[a], [u][o]vi, dhtus that end in h, m, or y, and dhtus that
have the indicatory letter e All of these dont take vndra when s[i]
with i[] follows, provided there is a parapada pratyaya after s[i].
alagt. gup rakae

1 Keyam is the neuter first case singular form of the word keya, a kdanta formed
by applying the kt pratyaya ya[t] after the dhtu ki by sarvevarnta-dhtor yat
(801). Due to the phrase kt-ka-dhtuketara there is no trivikrama here, but rather
govinda takes place by dhtor antasya govinda pratyaye (289).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
343
Vtti lag + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + lag + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (391) alag +
i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) alag + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) alag + i[] + [] +
d[ip] (42) alagd (185) alagt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu gup[] rakae (1P, to protect, hide).
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of viujander laghor a-rmasya vndra idau sau v parapade (357), and in the case of [u][o]vi it is an apavda of
ntasya vndra sau parapade (380).
SaodhinThe full list of dhtus that have the indicatory letter e is given below:
ka[e] varvaraayo
1P to rain; cover
has[e] hasane
1P to laugh
lag[e] sage
1P to adhere, contact
ag[e] savarane
1P to cover, hide
path[e] gatau
1P to go, move
kvath[e] nipke
1P to boil, decoct
math[e] viloane
1P to churn, agitate, destroy

392 / gAupaUDaUpaivaicC$paiNApainaBya @Aya: /


392. gup-dhpa-vicchi-pai-panibhya ya
gup-dhpa-vicchi-pai-panibhyaafter the dhtus gup[] rakae (1P, to protect,
hide), dhp[a] santpe (1P, to heat, burn, fumigate), vicch[a] gatau (6P, to go,
move); pa[a] vyavahre stutau ca (1A, to barter, bet; to praise), and pan[a]
vyavahre stutau ca (1A, to barter, bet; to praise); yathe pratyaya ya.
The pratyaya ya is applied after the dhtus gup[], dhp[a], vicch[a],
pa[a], and pan[a].
gopya. san-dy-ant ca dhtava
san-kyan-kyaa ca kmya ca / kya-artha-kvip ca is tath
kav-di-yak tathaivya / ya ya syu san-daya
tip apgopyati.
VttiThus we get gopya. Those that end in the pratyayas sa[n] and so on are called
dhtus.
san-kyan-kyaa ca kmya ca
kya-artha-kvip ca is tath
kav-di-yak tathaivya
ya ya syu san-daya
The san-dis are the pratyayas sa[n], [k]ya[n], [k]ya[], kmya, [k]vi[p] which has the
sense of [k]ya[], []i, ya[k] that is applied after the words ka and so on, ya,
ya[], and ya[].
Thus, since gopya is a dhtu, ti[p] and []a[p] are applied after it:
gup (392) gup + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by 260)
gopya + ti[p] (288) gopya + []a[p] + ti[p] (291) gopyati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
344
gopyati
gopyasi
gopymi

acyuta parapada of gup[] rakae


gopyata
gopyanti
gopyatha
gopyatha
gopyva
gopyma

SaodhinWhen the san-dis are applied after a dhtu, the product is treated as a
new dhtu by bh-sanantdy dhtava (260) Thus, since ya is one of the san-dis,
gopya, the product of gup + ya, is treated as a new dhtu. Unlike most of the other
san-dis, ya is a svrtha-pratyaya (a pratyaya that merely conveys the dhtus own
meaning). Thus gopyati means he protects / hides.
393 / @r"Amah"r"Ae r"AmaDaAtauke( /
393. a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke
a-rma-haradeletion of a-rma; rma-dhtukewhen a rma-dhtuka follows.
A-rma is deleted when a rma-dhtuka follows.
atra likhand vmanasya trivikramam api bdhategopyyate.
VttiDue to the special effort taken to write this rule here, the deletion of a-rma
supersedes the change of vmana to trivikrama by stra 390.
gup (392) gup + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by 260)
gopya + te (293) gopya + ya[k] + te (393) gopyyate <acyuta karmai 1.1>.
394 / @Aya wRyamaeiNARx.~ ca r"AmaDaAtauke( tau vaA /
394. ya ya kamer i ca rma-dhtuke tu v
yathe pratyaya ya; yathe pratyaya ya[]; kame ithe pratyaya []i[]
which is applied after the dhtu kam[u] kntau (1A, to desire) by stra 448; caand;
rma-dhtukewhen a rma-dhtuka follows; tubut; voptionally.
But ya, ya[], and the []i[] that is applied after kam[u] are optional when
a rma-dhtuka follows.
bhvini bhta-vad upacragupyate. agopyt. d-ittvd i v. agopt,
agaupst. agauptm. agopyi, agopi.
VttiThus, in accordance with the maxim bhvini bhta-vad upacra
(something that is just about to happen is treated as if it has already happened), we
also get gupyate:
(ya is not applied by 394) gup + te (293) gup + ya[k] + te (330, 294)
gupyate <acyuta karmai 1.1>.
acyuta karmai of gup[] rakae
gopyyate / gupyate
gopyyete / gupyete
gopyyante /
gupyante
gopyyase / gupyase
gopyyethe /
gopyyadhve /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
345
gopyye / gupye

gupyethe
gopyyvahe /
gupyvahe

gupyadhve
gopyymahe /
gupymahe

Because the dhtu gup[] has the indicatory letter , i[] is only optionally applied:
gup[] (two options by 394):
1) (ya is applied) gup[] + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by
260) gopya + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + gopya + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (393)
agopy + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) agopy + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) agopy
+ i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) agopyd (185) agopyt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
2) (ya is not applied) gup[] + d[ip] (306, 307) a[t] + gup[] + s[i] + d[ip]
(two options by 351):
i) (i[] is applied) agup + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (333) agop + i[] + s[i] + d[ip]
(334) agop + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) agop + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42)
agopd (185) agopt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
ii) (i[] is not applied) agup + s[i] + d[ip] (352) agaup + s[i] + d[ip] (334)
agaup + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (185) agaupst <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
gup[] (two options by 394):
1) (ya is applied) gup[] + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by
260) gopya + tm (306, 307, 316) a[t] + gopya + i[] + s[i] + tm (393)
agopyistm (108) agopyitm (205) agopyim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
2) (ya is not applied) gup[] + tm (306, 307) a[t] + gup[] + s[i] + tm
(two options by 351):
i) (i[] is applied) agup + i[] + s[i] + tm (333) agopistm (108)
agopitm (205) agopim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
ii) (i[] is not applied) agup + s[i] + tm (352) agaup + s[i] + tm (353)
agauptm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
bhtea parapada of gup[] rakae
agopyt /
agopyim /
agopyiu /
agopt / agaupst
agopim /
agopiu / agaupsu
agauptm
agopy /
agopyiam /
agopyia /
agop / agaups
agopiam /
agopia / agaupta
agauptam
agopyiam /
agopyiva /
agopyima /
agopiam /
agopiva / agaupsva
agopima / agaupsma
agaupsam
gup (two options by 394):
1) (ya is applied) gup + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by 260)
gopya + ta (306, 313) a[t] + gopya + i[] + ta (393) agopy + i[] + ta
(315) agopyi <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
2) (ya is not applied) gup + ta (306, 313) a[t] + gup + i[] + ta (333) agop
+ i[] + ta (315) agopi <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
AmtaSomeone may argue, ya is applied first since there is no para-nimitta in the
stra gup-dhpa-vicchi-pai-panibhya ya (392). Therefore to say that ya is
optional when a rma-dhtuka later follows is against all reason because ya has
already been applied by stra 392 In answer to this, Jva Gosvm speaks the maxim
beginning bhvini. The rma-dhtuka which is just about to be applied is treated as if it
had already been applied, and thus even at the time of applying ya there is a rma-

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
346
dhtuka following. Alternatively, if we take the word rma-dhtuke here as a viayasaptam, there is no room for such a doubt.
SaodhinIf the word rma-dhtuke were taken as a viaya-saptam, there would
be no fear of contradiction because the pratyaya would not actually have been applied
but would only have been mentally conceived. This is because the viaya here refers
to the vivak. In other words, when there is a desire to use a rma-dhtuka, ya and
so on can only optionally be applied. This is the advantage of the viaya-saptam over
the para-nimitta. With a para-nimitta the thing mentioned in the seventh case has to
have already been applied, otherwise there is no question of it following. But with a
viaya-saptam the thing mentioned in the seventh case doesnt have to have already
been applied because the viaya only refers to the domain of something that could
actually be applied later on. When there is a viaya-saptam the krya is done in
anticipation of the application of the pratyaya.
395 / @naek(s$avaeRr"k(Ais$aByaAmaAmaDaAeajae /
395. aneka-sarvevara-ksibhym m adhokaje
aneka-sarvevara-ksibhymafter a dhtu that has more than one sarvevara and
after the dhtus ks[] dptau (see vtti 455) and ks[] ksa-roga-abde (1A, to
cough); mthe pratayaya m; adhokajewhen an adhokaja pratyaya follows.
When an adhokaja pratyaya follows, m is applied after ks[] and after a
dhtu that has more than one sarvevara.
k-der anuprayoga. gopycakra, jugopa. a-rma-harasya nityatvd antaragc
ca gopyyd ity-dau nto y . dhpa santpedhpyati. adhpyt. adhpt.
tapa santpetapati atpst atptm tatpa. sahaj-rmavata ca tdd iti ve
tepitha tataptha. camu adane
VttiThe dhtus [u]k[] and so on are then added after m by stra 369.
gup (two options by 394):
1) (ya is applied) gup + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by 260)
gopya + []a[l] (395) gopya + m + []a[l] (393) gopy + m + []a[l] (330,
369) gopym + k + []a[l] (330, 314) gopym + kr + a (322, 323, the
vndra r is treated like the original by 373) gopym + k + kr + a (345)
gopym + c + kr + a (371) gopym + ca + kr + a (165) gopy + cakra
(73) gopycakra <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
2) (ya is not applied) gup + []a[l] (330, 333) gop + a (322, 323, the
govinda o is treated like the original u by 373) gu + gop + a (345) jugopa
<adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
adhokaja parapada of gup[] rakae
gopycakra
gopycakratu
gopycakru
gopymbabhva
gopymbabhvatu
gopymbabhvu
gopymsa
gopymsatu
gopymsu
jugopa
jugupatu
jugupu
gopycakartha
gopycakrathu
gopycakra
gopymbabhvitha
gopymbabhvathu
gopymbabhva
gopymsitha
gopymsathu
gopymsa
jugopitha
jugupathu
jugupa
gopycakra /
gopycakva
gopycakma
gopycakara
gopymbabhviva
gopymbabhvima

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
347
gopymbabhva
gopymsa
jugopa

gopymsiva
jugupiva

gopymsima
jugupima

The stra ato y i (296) is not applied in gopyyt <kmapla pa. 1.1> and so on
because the deletion of a-rma by stra 393 is nitya and antaraga.
gup (392) gup + ya (333) gopya (gopya is a new dhtu by 260)
gopya + yt (330, 393) gopyyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu dhp[a] santpe (1P, to heat, burn,
fumigate).
dhp (392) dhp + ya dhpya (dhpya is a new dhtu by 260)
dhpya + ti[p] (288) dhpya + []a[p] + ti[p] (291) dhpyati <acyuta pa.
1.1>.
dhp (two options by 394):
1) (ya is applied) dhp + ya dhpya (dhpya is a new dhtu by 260)
dhpya + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + dhpya + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (393)
adhpy + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) adhpy + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335)
adhpy + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) adhpyd (185) adhpyt <bhtea pa.
1.1>.
2) (ya is not applied) dhp + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + dhp + i[] + s[i]
+ d[ip] (334) adhp + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) adhp + i[] + [] + d[ip]
(42) adhpd (185) adhpt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu tap[a] santpe (1P, to heat, burn, perform
austerities).
tap + ti[p] (288) tap + []a[p] + ti[p] tapati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
tap + d[ip] (306, 307, tap is ani by verse 6) a[t] + tap + s[i] + d[ip]
(352) atp + s[i] + d[ip] (334) atp + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (185) atpst <bhtea
pa. 1.1>.
tap + tm (306, 307, tap is ani by verse 6) a[t] + tap + s[i] + tm
(352) atp + s[i] + tm (353) atptm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
atpst
atps
atpsam

bhtea parapada of tap[a] santpe


atptm
atpsu
atptam
atpta
atpsva
atpsma

tap + []a[l] (330, 358) tp + a (322, 323, the vndra is treated


like the original a by 373) ta + tp + a tatpa <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
When tha[l] follows, i[] is optionally applied by sahaj-rmavata ca tdt (386):
tap + tha[l] (two options by 386):
1) (i[] is applied) tap + i[] + tha[l] (322, 323) ta + tap + itha (363) ta +
tep + itha tepitha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
2) (i[] is not applied) tap + tha[l] (322, 323) ta + tap + tha tataptha
<adhokaja pa. 2.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
348
adhokaja parapada of tap[a] santpe
tatpa
tepatu
tepu
tepitha / tataptha
tepathu
tepa
tatpa / tatapa
tepiva
tepima
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu cam[u] adane (1P, to eat).
AmtaThe deletion of a-rma by stra 393 is nitya because it takes place regardless
of whether or not ato y i (296) is applied, and it is antaraga because it is praktyrita. Furthermore, when the deletion of a-rma takes place, there is no chance to
apply ato y i (296) because the deletion of a-rma is a mah-hara.
396 / i"vvaAcamauflamaAM iaiva(ma: izAvae /
396. hivv-camu-klam trivikrama ive
hivu-camu-klammof the dhtus hiv[u] (1P or 4P, to spit), [] + cam[u]
adane (1P, to sip, drink), and klam[u] glnau (1P or 4P, to be fatigued, tired);
trivikramathe change to trivikrama; ivewhen a iva pratyaya follows.
The vmana of the dhtus hiv[u], [] + cam[u], and klam[u] becomes
trivikrama when a iva pratyaya follows.
cmati. sv-dv api piny pahanticmnoti. camyate. iicmi. klamu
glnauklmati.
Vtti + cam + ti[p] (288) + cam + []a[p] + ti[p] (396) cmati <acyuta
pa. 1.1>.
The Pinians also list cam[u] among the sv-di-dhtus, and thus they also make
cmnoti.
+ cam + te (293) + cam + ya[k] + te (330) camyate <acyuta
karmai 1.1>.
When i[] is applied by stra 313, we get the following form:
+ cam + ta (306, 313) + a[t] + cam + i[] + ta (358) + acm +
i[] + ta (315) + acmi (42) cmi <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu klam[u] glnau (1P, to be fatigued, tired).
klam + ti[p] (288) klam + []a[p] + ti[p] (396) klmati <acyuta pa.
1.1>.
397 / jainavaDyaAemaARntaAnaAM
caAnaAcamyaimak(imavaimayaimar"imanaimagAmaAM na va{SNAIn" wiNA k{(ita
ca /
397. jani-vadhyor mntn cncamy-ami-kami-vami-yami-rami-nami-gam na
vndra ii kti ca

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
349
jani-vadhyoof the dhtus jan[] prdur-bhve (4A, to be born, produced, to occur,
happen) and vadh[a] hisym (1P, to kill); ma-antnmof dhtus which end in
ma-rma; caand; an-cami-ami-kami-vami-yami-rami-nami-gammwith the
exception of the dhtus listed below; nanot; vndravndra; iiwhen i[]
follows; ktiwhen a kt pratyaya follows; caand.
Jan[], vadh[a], and dhtus ending in m dont take vndra when i[] or a
kt pratyaya follows. But the following dhtus are exceptions to this:
[] + cam[u] adane
am[a] roge
kam[u] kntau
[u]vam[a] udgirae
yam[u] uparame
ram[u] krym
am[a] prahvatve abde ca
gam[] gatau

1P
10P
1A
1P
1P
1A
1P
1P

to sip, drink
to be sick
to desire
to vomit
to restrain
to play, delight in
to offer obeisances, be
submissive; to sound
to go, move

aklami. kramu pda-vikepe


Vtti klam + ta (306, 313) a[t] + klam + i[] + ta (397) aklam + i[] + ta
(315) aklami <bhtea bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu kram[u] pda-vikepe (1P, to step, walk).
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of uddhav-rmasya vndro nsihe (358). The
word kti here should be considered to mean nsiha-kti (when a kt pratyaya which
is nsiha follows) because there is no possibility of applying vndra elsewhere.
SaodhinIt is the separate and distinct dhtu vadh[a] hisym (1P, to kill) that
is referred to in the phrase jani-vadhyo here and not the vadha that replaces the
dhtu han[a] by stra 484. The proof of this is that Kik, commenting on
Adhyy 7.3.35, says vadhi prakty-antara vyajannto sti, tasyyam
pratiedho vidhyate, bhakaka cen na vidyeta vadhako pi na vidyate iti hi prayogo
dyate. vadhdeasyd-antatvd eva vddhir abhva (There is another prakti,
vadh, which ends in a vyajana (viujana). This prohibition is ordained in relation to
that vadh because we see the example bhakaka cen na vidyeta vadhako pi na
vidyate. Since the replacement vadha ends in at (a-rma) it anyway cannot take
vddhi (vndra)).
In the above example vadhaka is formed by applying the kt pratyaya []aka after
the dhtu vadh[a] hisym and vndra is prohibited by the current stra.
However, when we apply the kt pratyaya []aka after the dhtu han[a] his-gatyo
we get ghtaka. Moreover, even when han[a] is replaced by vadha by stra 484 there
is no need to prohibit vndra when i[] follows because vndra is already
prohibited by anta-hare na govinda-vndrau (420) since the a of vadha is deleted
by a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (393). Thus it is definitely not the replacement vadha
that is being referred to in this stra. The dhtu vadh[a] hisym is a defective verb
and it is not always found in the existing Dhtu-phas, but Pada-majar, commenting
on the above passage of Kik, confirms its existence by saying vadhi praktyantaram iti vadha hisym iti bhvdau pht (The vadh mentioned here is a
separate prakti (dhtu) because vadh[a] hisym is listed among the bhv-didhtus).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
350
398 / (maiiva(ma: par"pade" izAvae /
398. kramas trivikrama parapade ive
kramaof kram[u] pda-vikepe (1P or 4P, to step, walk); trivikramathe change
to trivikrama; parapadewhen a parapada pratyaya follows; ivewhen a iva
pratyaya follows.
The a of kram[u] becomes trivikrama when a iva pratyaya which is followed
by a parapada pratyaya follows.
krmati akramt akrami. yamu uparame
Vtti kram + ti[p] (288) kram + []a[p] + ti[p] (398) krmati <acyuta pa.
1.1>.
kram + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + kram + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (391)
akram + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) akram + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) akram +
i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) akramd (185) akramt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
kram + ta (306, 313) a[t] + kram + i[] + ta (397) akram + i[] + ta
(315) akrami <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of yam[u] uparame (1P, to restrain).
AmtaWhy do we say when a parapada pratyaya follows? Consider kramate
srya (the sun rises). In bhve prayoga we get kramyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>. If
akrami is the correct form, then why, in r-haras poem Naiadha, do we see harer
yad akrmi padaikakena kham? The answer is that the trivikrama in akrmi is
needed there to fulfill the requirements of the meter, but actually, according to the
knowers of alakra-stra it is a fault called cyuta-saskra (offending against
grammar).
399 / wSaugAimayamaAM C$: izAvae /
399. iu-gami-yam cha ive
iu-gami-yammof the dhtus i[u] icchym (6P, to desire, want), gam[] gatau
(1P, to go, move), and yam[u] uparame (1P, to restrain); chathe change to charma; ivewhen a iva pratyaya follows.
The final vara of i[u], gam[], and yam[u] changes to ch when a iva
pratyaya follows.
yacchati.
Vtti yam + ti[p] (288) yam + []a[p] + ti[p] (399) yachati (74) yachchati
(63) yacchati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
yacchati
yacchasi
yacchmi

acyuta parapada of yam[u] uparame


yacchata
yacchanti
yacchatha
yacchatha
yacchvah
yacchma

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
351
400 / yamar"manamaAr"AmaAntaeBya: s$auigAq%AE s$aAE par"pade" /
400. yama-rama-nam-rmntebhya sug-iau sau parapade
yama-rama-nama--rma-antebhyaafter the dhtus yam[u] uparame (1P, to
restrain), ram[u] krym (1A, to play, delight in), and am[a] prahvatve abde ca
(1P, to bend, bow down; to sound), and after dhtus that end in -rma; suk-iau
the gamas s[uk] and i[]; sauwhen s[i] follows; parapadewhen a parapada
pratyaya follows.
S[uk] and i[] are inserted after yam[u], ram[u], am[a] and dhtus ending
in -rma when s[i] which is followed by a parapada pratyaya follows.
ayast ayasim aymi. hivu nirasanenirasana tht-kra
Vtti yam + d[ip] (306, 307, yam is ani by verse 6) a[t] + yam + s[i] + d[ip]
(400) ayam + s[uk] + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) ayams + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip]
(335) ayams + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) ayamsd (165) ayasd (185) ayast
<bhtea pa. 1.1>.
yam + tm (306, 307, yam is ani by verse 6) a[t] + yam + s[i] + tm
(400) ayam + s[uk] + i[] + s[i] + tm (165) ayasistm (108) ayasitm
(205) ayasim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
bhtea parapada of yam[u] uparame
ayast
ayasim
ayasiu
ayas
ayasiam
ayasia
ayasiam
ayasiva
ayasima
yam + ta (306, 313) a[t] + yam + i[] + ta (358) aym + i[] + ta
(315) aymi <bhtea bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of hiv[u] nirasane (1P, to spit). Nirasana means
tht-kra (spitting).
SaodhinUsually yam[u], ram[u], and am[a] are ani by verse 6 of the anigaa, and dhtus ending in -rma are ani by verse 1 of the ani-gaa. But this stra
allows them to take i[] when s[i] which is followed by a parapada pratyaya follows.
When i[] is thus applied, the vndra that would usually take place by
viujanntnm ani vndra sau parapade (352) is blocked. The vndra
that takes place by uddhav-rmasya vndro nsihe (358) is not blocked in aymi
because yam[u] is excluded in stra 397. In accordance with the maxim id-gama
para-sambandh, kid-gama prva-sambandh (vtti 105), s[uk] is connected to the
prakti, while i[] is connected to the pratyaya.
401 / naAmaDaAtau"YaESvaSk(i"vaAM s$atvanatvainaSaeDa: /
401. nmadhtu-yai-vaka-hiv satva-natva-niedha
nma-dhtu-yai-vaka-hivmof a nma-dhtu and of the dhtus yai abdasaghtayo (1P, to sound; to accumulate), vak[a] (1A, to go, move), and
hiv[u] (1P, to spit); satva-natva-niedhaprohibition of the change to s by stra
346 and the change to n by stra 366.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
352
Nma-dhtus and the dhtus yai, vak[a], and hiv[u] do not follow
dhtv-de a sa (346) and dhtv-der o na (366).
hvati. dhto ra-va-prg id-utor itihvyate. ji jayejayati. bhvejyate.
vidhtari
Vtti hiv + ti[p] (401) hiv + ti[p] (288) hiv + []a[p] + ti[p] (396)
hvati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
Dhto ra-va-prg-id-utos trivikramo ra-vato viujane (192) is applied and we get
hvyate:
hiv + te (401) hiv + te (293) hiv + ya[k] + te (330, 294, 192)
hvyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu ji jaye (1P, to conquer, be glorious).
ji + ti[p] (288) ji + []a[p] + ti[p] (289) je + a + ti (54) jayati <acyuta
pa. 1.1>.
In bhve prayoga we get the following form:
ji + te (293) ji + ya[k] + te (330, 294, 390) jyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
In vidht the following rule applies:
402 / jaestvantvaAestyantaI /
402. jes tv-antvos ty-ant
jeafter the dhtu ji jaye (1P, to conquer, be glorious); tu-antvoof the vidht
pratyayas tu[p] and antu; ti-antthe replacements ti[p] and anti.
After ji, tu[p] and antu are replaced by ti[p] and anti.
jayati jayanti. sarvatra-grahat tta-pakejayatt.
Vtti ji + tu[p] (402) ji + ti (288) ji + []a[p] + ti (289) je + a + ti (54)
jayati <vidht pa. 1.1>.
ji + antu (402) ji + anti (288) ji + []a[p] + anti (289) je + a + anti
(54) jaya + anti (291) jayanti <vidht pa. 1.3>.
In the case that tt[a] replaces tu[p] on the strength of the word sarvatra (in all
cases) in stra 299, we get jayatt:
ji + tu[p] (299) ji + tt[a] (288) ji + []a[p] + tt[a] (289) je + a +
tt (54) jayatt <vidht pa. 1.1>.
jayati / jayatt
jaya / jayatt
jayni

vidht parapada of ji jaye


jayatm
jayatam
jayva

jayanti
jayata
jayma

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
353
SaodhinPeople may wonder about the source and validity of this rule when they
find that the Adhyy, Mah-bhya, and Kik dont recognize it and the Bhaddhtu-kusumkara lists the forms as jayatu and jayantu, rather than jayati and jayanti.
One source of this rule is Durg-dsas commentary on jer gi san-hyo (Mugdhabodha-vykaraa 562) where he says jes tub-antvos tib-ant iti vaktavyam (It should
be stated that after ji, tu[p] and antu are replaced by ti[p] and anti). Durg-dsa also
gives the examples jayati raghu-vaa-tilaka (All glories to Lord Rma, the tilaka of
the Raghu dynasty) and jayanti yamun-kle raha-kelaya (All glories to the
confidential pastimes on the bank of the Yamun). Indeed one should take careful
note of the fact that jayatu and jayantu are nowhere to be found in the Bhgavatam,
whereas jayati occurs on a number of different occasions where the sense is
undoubtedly that of i. For example, jayati jana-nivso devak-janma-janma-vdo
(Bhgavatam 10.90.48). Other examples are also found in the works of the Gosvms.
For example, jayati is repeatedly used in verses 1 and 3-9 of Sanatna Gosvms
Bhad-bhgavatmta, and jayanti is used in verse 2. Similarly, jayati is used eight
times in the verse beginning jayati jayati devo devak-nandano sau (Caitanyacaritmta 13.78). However, jayatu and jayantu are also seen in various places. For
example, stht te jayatu jetvni (g-veda 6.47.26, quoted in Sat-kriy-sra-dpik),
jayatu jayadeva-kavi-bhrat-bhita (Gta-govinda 10.9)
jayatu jayatu mah-rja (Caitanya-candrodaya 8.103), and asmka y iavas t
jayantu (g-veda 10.103.11). Therefore the current rule may be understood as a
preferred option, since it is not all-pervading.
403 / jaeigAR: s$aaDaAeajayaAe: , cae: ik(vaAR /
403. jer gi sann-adhokajayo, ce kir v
jeof the dhtu ji jaye (1P, to conquer, be glorious); githe replacement gi; sanadhokajayowhen the pratyaya sa[n] or an adhokaja pratyaya follows; ceof the
dhtu ci[] cayane (5U, to collect); kithe replacement ki; voptionally.
When sa[n] or an adhokaja pratyaya follows, ji is replaced by gi, and ci[] is
optionally replaced by ki.
jigya. ka vilekhane karae cakarati.
Vtti ji + []a[l] (403) gi + []a[l] (330, 314) gai + a (54) gy + a (322,
323, the vndra ai and the replacement y are sthni-vat by 373) gi + gy + a
(345) jigya <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
jigya
jigayitha / jigetha
jigya / jigaya

adhokaja parapada of ji jaye


jigyatu
jigyathu
jigyiva

jigyu
jigya
jigyima

Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu k[a] vilekhane karae ca (1P, to
plough; to pull, attract).
k + ti[p] (288) k + []a[p] + ti[p] (333) karati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
404 / k{(Ss$pa{zma{zta{p{"ps$a{pa: is$avaAR /

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
354
404. k-sp-m-tp-dp-spa sir v
k-sp-m-tp-dp-spaafter the dhtus listed below; sis[i]; voptionally.
S[i] is optionally applied after the following dhtus:
k[a] vilekhane karae ca
k[a] vilekhane
sp[a] saspare
m[a] marane

1P
6U
6P
6P

tp[a] prane
dp[a] garve
sp[] gatau

4P
4P
1P

to plough; to pull, attract


to plough
to touch
to touch; to discuss, reason; to
consider
to satisfy, be satisfied
to be proud
to crawl, slither

BlaWhere k[a], sp[a], and m[a] would usually always take sa[k] instead of
s[i] by oddhavd anio harigotrntt sak bhtee di vin (407), and where
tp[a], dp[a], and sp[] would usually always take []a instead of s[i] when a
parapada pratyaya follows by pudi-dyutdi-d-ito o bhtee parapade (435), this
rule is given so that they may optionally take s[i].
405 / SaX#Ae: k(: s$ae /
405. a-ho ka se
a-hoof a-rma and ha-rma; kathe replacement ka-rma; sewhen sarma follows.
and h change to k when s follows.
atvamakrkt akrm. akari. -dvayd ity-din kapilatvamakktm
akkata, akh. ka-vidhau sa-mtrasya nimittatvenpratyaya-rpa-nimittatvn
mahharatvamakhvam.
VttiThe change to then takes place by stra 108, and we get the following forms:
k + d[ip] (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + d[ip]
(352) akr + s[i] + d[ip] (334) akr + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (405) akrksd
(108) akrkd (185) akrkt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
k + tm (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + tm
(352) akr + s[i] + tm (353) akrtm (205) akrm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
k + ta (306, 313) a[t] + k + i[] + ta (333) akar + i[] + ta
(315) akari <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
When s[i] is kapila by -dvayd viujannteoddhavc ca vaiavdi-si-kmaplau
kapilv tmapade, games tu v (355), we get the following forms:
k + tm (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + tm
(355, 294, 405) akkstm (108) akktm <bhtea karmai 1.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
355
k + anta (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + anta
(355, 294, 317) ak + s[i] + ata (405) akksata (108) akkata <bhtea
karmai 1.3>.
k + ths (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + ths
(355, 294, 353) akths (205) akhs (93) akh <bhtea karmai 2.1>.
The deletion of s by sasya haro dhe (319) is a mahhara because it is the deletion of
something other than a nimitta in the form of a pratyaya since in the rule of k (the
current stra) the nimitta is merely s.1
k + dhvam (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + dhvam
(355, 294, 319) akdhvam (184) akdhvam (205) akhvam <bhtea
karmai 2.3>.
AmtaSomeone may argue, When s is deleted by sasya haro dhe (319), the
deleted s should be considered sthni-vat and thus a-ho ka se (405) should be
applied. But the truth of the matter is that, due to the general mention of a paranimitta-rpa-sa-rma in a-ho ka se (405), the sa-rma there is not a pratyaya-sarma. Thus, since the deletion of s by sasya haro dhe (319) is a mahhara, the deleted
s is not considered sthni-vat and thus there is no chance to apply a-ho ka se
(405).
406 / [%r"AmaAe"vas$ah"jaAinaq%Ae"M'vaA vaESNAvaAd"Avak(ipalae /
406. -rmoddhava-sahajnio v vaiavdv akapile
-rma-uddhava-sahaja-aniaof a sahajni dhtu whose uddhava is -rma; am
the gama a[m]; voptionally; vaiava-dauwhich begins with a vaiava;
akapilewhen a pratyaya which is not kapila follows.
Sahajni dhtus that have -rma as their uddhava optionally take a[m]
when a non-kapila pratyaya beginning with a vaiava follows.
ma it, -dvaya ra, vndraakrkt akrm. sahajeti kim? vh udyame
tud-di; varh iti kik-bh-vttyo. tato mrkt iti tu prakriy cinty.
am-gamo py asya na dyate iti hy ani-gae kik. ser abhva-pake
VttiThe m is an indicatory letter. After applying this stra, -dvaya ra (52) and
viujanntnm ani vndra sau parapade (352) are applied and we get the
following forms:
k + d[ip] (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + d[ip]
(406, 160) a[t] + k + a[m] + + s[i] + d[ip] (52) a[t] + kra + s[i] + d[ip] (352)
akr + s[i] + d[ip] (334) akr + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (405) akrksd (108)
akrkd (185) akrkt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
k + tm (306, 404, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + s[i] + tm
(406, 160) a[t] + k + a[m] + + s[i] + tm (52) a[t] + kra + s[i] + tm (352)
akr + s[i] + tm (353) akrtm (205) akrm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
Why do we say sahaja? Consider the tud-di-dhtu vh[] udyame2 (6P, to endeavor,
lift up), from which we get varh <1.1 of varh (vh[] + the kt pratyaya t[l])>
1 In this regard, one shoud remember the maxim stre pratyaya-rpa-nimittd
anyasya haro pi mahhara (vtti 98).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
356
according to Kik and Bha-vtti. Prakriy-kaumud says tato mrkt (therefore
we get amrkt), but this is questionable because Kik, commenting on the anigaa says am-gamo py asya na dyate (it is observed that the dhtu mj[] also
doesnt take the gama a[m]). In the case that s[i] is not applied by stra 404, the
following rule applies:
AmtaThis stra is an apavda of laghddhavasya govinda (333). The dhtu
vh[] udyame is ve by stra 351 because it has the indicatory letter . It is not
sahajni because it is not listed in the ani-gaa and thus it does not take a[m] even
in the case when it is ani. Prakriy-kaumud says that the dhtu mj[] uddhau
(2P, to clean, purify) should take a[m], but this is incorrect because mj[] is not
sahajni. The statement of Kik quoted by Jva Gosvm is sufficient proof of this.
Even though mj[] is listed in the Pinian ani-gaa in the phrase sji-mj viddhy
ani svarn, Kik does not agree that mj[] is sahajni. For example, Kik says
mjir ayam d-it pahyate. tato sya vikalpene bhavitavya mr mrjit iti. amgamo py asya na dyate. yad asya phasya prayojana cintyam. kecid asya
sthne viji pahanti (mj[] is listed with the indicatory letter . It, therefore,
should take i[] optionally. For example, mr or mrjit. It is observed that mj[]
also doesnt take the gama a[m]. The inclusion of this dhtu in the ani-gaa is
therefore questionable. Some list viji instead of mji in the phrase sji-mj).
SaodhinThe following is a list of the dhtus that follow this rule:
tp[a] prane
sp[] gatau
dp[a] garve
k[a] vilekhane karae ca
k[a] vilekhane
m[a] marane

4P
1P
4P
1P
6U
6P

sp[a] saspare

6P

to satisfy, be satisfied
to crawl, slither
to be proud
to plough; to pull, attract
to plough
to touch; to discuss, reason; to
consider
to touch

The dhtus sj[a] visarge (4A or 6P, to create, release) and d[ir] prekae (1P, to
see) are also sahajni dhtus which have -rma as uddhava, but they are not listed
here because they always take a[m] by sji-dor am akapila-vaiave (441).
407 / wRzAAe"vaAd"inaq%Ae h"ir"gAAeaAntaAts$afBaUtaezAe {"izAM ivanaA /
407. oddhavd anio harigotrntt sak bhtee di vin
a-uddhavtwhose uddhava is an a; aniaafter an ani dhtu; harigotra-antt
which ends in a harigotra; sakthe pratyaya sa[k]; bhteewhen a bhtea
pratyaya follows; dimthe dhtu d[ir] prekae (1P, to see); vinexcept.
Sa[k] is applied after any ani dhtu, except d[ir], which ends in a
harigotra and has an a as its uddhava when a bhtea pratyaya follows.
katva-atvdi, kapilatvn nmakkat, akari.
VttiThe change to k by stra 405, the change to by stra 108, and so on are then
done, and because sa[k] is kapila, a[m] is not applied. Thus we get the following form:
2 Commenting on this dhtu, Siddhnta-kaumud says dantyohydi, pa-vargydir
ity anye (the dhtu begins with the dento-labial vara v. Others say it begins with the
labial vara b).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
357
k + d[ip] (306, 407, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + sa[k] + d[ip] (294,
405) akksad (108) akkad (185) akkat <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
bhtea parapada of k[a] vilekhane karae ca
akrkt / akrkt / akrm / akrm akrku / akrku /
akkat
/ akkatm
akkan
akrk /
akram
akra / akra /
akrk / akka
/akram /
akkata
akkatam
akrkam /
akrkva / akrkva /
akrkma /
akrkam / akkam
akkva
akrkma / akkma
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of sir bhtee (307). The previous stra
applied only to sahajni dhtus, but because the word ania is used here instead of
the word sahajnia, the current stra applies to all kinds of ani dhtus. Thus dhtus
which are ve also follow this rule in the case that they do not take i[]. The proof of
this is aghukat in vtti 468.
The following is a list of the dhtus that follow this rule:
i[a] hisym
i[] vieae
li[a] ligane1
vi[u] secane
vi[] vyptau
tvi[a] dptau
dvi[a] aprtau
pi[] sacrane
k[a] vilekhane karae ca
k[a] vilekhane
di[a] atisarjane
m[a] marane

1P
7P
4P
1P
3U
1U
2U
7P
1P
6U
6U
6P

ru[a] hisym
ri[a] hisym
li[a] alp-bhve
li[a] gatau
sp[a] saspare
kru[a] hvne
vi[a] praveane
mih[a] secane
dih[a] pralepe
duh[a] praprae
lih[a] svdane
ruh[a] janmani prdur-bhve ca

6P
6P
4A
6P
6P
1P
6P
1P
2U
2U
2U
1P

to hurt, kill
to remain
to adhere, embrace
to sprinkle
to pervade
to shine, glitter
to hate
to grind, crush
to plough; to pull, attract
to plough
to give; to order; to tell
to touch; to discuss, reason; to
consider
to hurt, kill
to hurt, kill
to become small
to go, move
to touch
to cry out, wail, shout
to enter
to pass urine or semen
to smear
to milk, extract
to lick, taste
to grow, rise; to appear

Although the ani dhtus pu[a], u[a], du[a] and tu[a] also end in a harigotra and
have an a as their uddhava, they are unable to follow this rule in the parapada

1 Although the dhtu li[a] is a pu-di, it still takes sa[k] in the parapada by lia
liganrtht sak bhtee (Bhat 713).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
358
because, since they are pu-dis, they take []a instead by pudi-dyutdi-d-ito o
bhtee parapade (435). Similarly, even in the case when the dhtus muh[a], druh[a],
uh[a], and ih[a] dont take i[] by radh-der i v (539), they are still unable to
follow this rule in the parapada because, since they are pu-dis, they take []a instead
by pudi-dyutdi-d-ito o bhtee parapade (435). Even though all these dhtus do
not take sa[k] when a parapada pratyaya follows, they can still take sa[k] when an
tmapada pratyaya follows in karmai prayoga or when an tmapada pratyaya follows
in kartari prayoga as a result of the addition of certain upasargas, but such application
is rare.
The following dhtus also follow this rule in the case when they dont take i[] by
svarati-sti-syati-dh-d-ita i v (351):
guh[] savarae
vh[] udyame
kli[] vibdhane

1U
6P
9P

to cover, hide
to endeavor, lift up
to torment, distress

408 / s$ak(Ae'ntah"r": s$avaeRre" /


408. sako nta-hara sarvevare
sakaof sa[k]; anta-haradeletion of the final vara; sarvevarewhen a
sarvevara follows.
The a of sa[k] is deleted when a sarvevara follows.
akktm akkata. akkath. akki. cakara. cake. kyt kka. rua
ria hisym1
Vtti k + tm (306, 407, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + sa[k] + tm
(294, 405) akk + sa + tm (108) akk + a + tm (408) akktm
<bhtea karmai 1.2>.
k + anta (306, 407, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + sa[k] + anta (294,
405) akk + sa + anta (108) akk + a + anta (408) akk + + anta (317)
akkata <bhtea karmai 1.3>.
k + ths (306, 407, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + sa[k] + ths
(294, 405) akksaths (108) akkaths (93) akkath <bhtea karmai
2.1>.
k + i (306, 407, k is ani by verse 7) a[t] + k + sa[k] + i (294,
405) akk + sa + i (108) akk + a + i (408) akki <bhtea karmai 3.1>.
bhtea karmai of k[a] vilekhane karae ca
akari
akktm
akkata
akh /
akkthm
akhvam /
akkath
akkadhvam
akki
akkvahi /
akkmahi /
1 The dhtu ri[a] hisym is also mentioned here because if two dhtus that come
one after another in the Dhtu-pha have the same meaning, the meaning is only
mentioned after the second dhtu. Thus to determine the meaning of the first dhtu
you have to see what is written after the second dhtu. In this case the meaning of
ru[a] is determined by seeing the meaning written after ri[a].

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
359
akkvahi

akkmahi

k + []a[l] (330, 333) kar + a (322, 323, the govinda ar is treated


like the original by 373) k + kar + a (345) c + kar + a (371) cakara
<adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
k + e (330, 337, 294, 322, 323) k + k + e (345) c + k + e
(371) cake <adhokaja karmai 1.1>.
k + yt (k is ani by verse 7, 331, 294) kyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
k + sa (k is ani by verse 7, 355, 294, 405) kksa (108)
kka <kmapla karmai 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu ru[a] hisym (1P, to hurt, kill).
AmtaSomeone may argue, Regarding akkata <bhtea karmai 1.3>, how can
the n of anta be deleted by a-rmnya-vard ante-antm-antn nasya hara (317)
since when the a of sa[k] is deleted by stra 408, the a of anta is considered like the
deleted a by a-rma-harasya nimittam a-rma prva-vac ca (339)? The answer is
that an a-rma is accepted as sthni-vat or prva-vat only when a-rma is deleted by
a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (393) or a-rma-hara e-ayor aviupadnte (291), and not
when a-rma is deleted by any other rule. Thus, when the final a of the dhtu katha is
deleted by a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (393), vndra cannot be applied by
uddhav-rmasya vndro nsihe (358) because the deleted a is sthni-vat.
Similarly, when ya[k] is applied after the dhtu cit[] and the a of ya[k] is deleted by arma-hara e-ayor aviupadnte (291), the a of ante is prva-vat and thus in cityante
<acyuta karmai 1.3> the n of ante is not deleted by a-rmnya-vard ante-antmantn nasya hara (317). In the current situation, however, the a-rma is deleted
not by a-rma-haro rma-dhtuke (393) or a-rma-hara e-ayor aviupadnte (291)
but by sako nta-hara sarvevare (408). Therefore the a of anta is not prva-vat, and
thus the n of anta is deleted by a-rmnya-vard ante-antm-antn nasya hara
(317).
409 / wSaus$ah"lauBa&Sair"Sa w"A tae /
409. iu-saha-lubha-rua-ria i v te
iu-saha-lubha-rua-riaafter the dhtus listed below; ii[]; voptionally; te
when a rma-dhtuka beginning with ta-rma follows.
I[] is only optionally inserted after the following dhtus when a rmadhtuka beginning with ta-rma follows:
i[u] icchym
ah[a] marae
lubh[a] grddhye
lubh[a] vimohane
ru[a] hisym
ru[a] hisym1

6P
1A
4P
6P
1P
4P

to
to
to
to
to
to

desire, want
tolerate, conquer
covet, be greedy for
bewilder
hurt, kill
hurt, kill

1 The dhtus ru[a] hisym (4P) and ri[a] hisym (4P) are not listed in Jva
Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but are listed in the Pinian Dhtu-pha. Among them
ri[a] hisym (4P) is frequently used in the Bhgavatam. In this regard, the

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
360
ri[a] hisym
ri[a] hisym

1P
4P

to hurt, kill
to hurt, kill

roit ro. ua dhe


Vtti ru + t (two options by 409):
1) (i[] is inserted) ru + i[] + t (333) roit <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 333) rot (205) ro <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu u[a] dhe (1P, to burn).
AmtaUsually these dhtus would always take i[] by i rma-dhtuke (316), but
this rule says that they should optionally take i[] when a rma-dhtuka beginning
with ta-rma follows. Due to the mention of iu here, only i[u] icchym is to be
taken, and not i[a] gatau (4P, to go, move) or i[a] bhkye1 (9P, to repeat).
Thus i[] is always applied in preit <1.1 of preit (pra + i[a] gatau + the kt
pratyaya t[l])>, preitavyam <1.1 of preitavya (pra + i[a] gatau + the kt
pratyaya tavya)> and so on.
410 / oSavaeiajaAgA{Bya @AmaDaAeajae vaA /
410. ua-vetti-jgbhya m adhokaje v
ua-vetti-jgbhyaafter the dhtus u[a] dhe (1P, to burn), vid[a] jne (2P, to
know), and jg nidr-kaye (2P, to be awake); mthe pratyaya m; adhokaje
when an adhokaja pratyaya follows; voptionally.
When an adhokaja pratyaya follows, m is optionally applied after u[a],
vid[a], and jg.
ombabhva uvoa. miha secanesak, hasya ha, katva-atveamikat.
blakalkaugovinda, hasya ha, harighod iti dhatva, t-parasyeti hatvam
Vtti u + []a[l] (two options by 410):
1) (m is applied) u + m + []a[l] (333) om + []a[l] (330, 369) om + bh
+ []a[l] (330, 311) om + bhv + a (322, 323) om + bh + bhv + a
(328) om + bha + bhv + a (329) om + babhva (165) o + babhva
(73) ombabhva <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
2) (m is not applied) (330, 333) o + a (322, 323, the govinda o is treated
like the original u by 373) u + o + a (374) uvoa <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu mih[a] secane (1P, to pass urine or
semen). In bhtea, sa[k] is applied by stra 407, hasya ha (211) is applied, h
changes to k by stra 405, s changes to by stra 108, and thus we get the following
form:
mih + d[ip] (306, 407, mih is ani by verse 8) a[t] + mih + sa[k] + d[ip]
(294, 211) amihsad (405) amiksad (108) amikad (185) amikat <bhtea
pa. 1.1>.
commentators often gloss riyati <acyuta 1.1 of ri[a] hisym (4P)> as nayati.
1 This dhtu is not listed in Jva Gosvms Dhtu-pha, but is listed in the Pinian
Dhtu-pha.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
361
In blakalki, govinda is applied by stra 333, hasya ha (211) is applied, the t
changes to dh by harighot ta-thor dho dh-varjam (354), and the dh changes to h
by parasya (205). At that time the following rule applies:
SaodhinUsually jg would always take m by aneka-sarvevara-ksibhym m
adhokaje (395), but this rule makes it optional.
411 / X#sya h"r"Ae Xe# , paUvaRsya iaiva(ma /
411. hasya haro he, prvasya trivikrama ca
hasyaof ha-rma; haradeletion; hewhen ha-rma follows; prvasyaof the
previous vara; trivikramathe change to trivikrama; caand.
h is deleted when another h follows, and the previous vara becomes
trivikrama.
meh. atra tu govindena trivikrama siddha eva. katha kasa-ji haukate?
tatrkarat. daha bhasm-karaedder iti ghatva, ja-varja-harigadder ity-din
harighoatvamadhkt. harighoa-vidhau sa-mtrasya nimittatvt prva-van
mahharatvamadgdhm. dhva-abde tuadhagdhvam. raha tygearaht. rahi
gatauparatv atva bdhitv viucakrarahati. viucakrasya sarvevaradharmatvt tad-vyavadhne pi atvamrahi. bhi vddhaubhati. bhe
svare nii v na-lopa iti klp. barhati. kti ca, bhaka barhaka. ye
prakty-antaram asti te mate viujandv api rpa-dvaye siddhe doa syt iti
chu. kvi hisym; harimitrnto yamkvati. a-ku-pv--num-vyvye pi iti
stre numnusvra-mtra-vyavadhna atva-vidhau ghyate iti piny ca.
teneha na atvamkvni. th hisym ity asya kti thaam ity-dau tu syt.
glai hara-kayeglyati.
Vtti mih + t (mih is ani by verse 8, 333) meh + t (211) meh + t
(354) meh + dh (205) meh + h (411) meh <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
Here the trivikrama is already achieved by the govinda. Someone may argue, Well,
why is there kasa-ji haukate in vtti 67? The answer is due to the very fact that
this rule (stra 411) was not made back then. Now we begin the conjugation of the
dhtu dah[a] bhasm-karae (1P, to burn). In bhtea, the h of dah[a] changes to gh
by ddes tu dhtor gha (211), the d of dah[a] changes to the harighoa dh by javarja-harigadder (189), and we get the following form:
dah + d[ip] (306, 307, dah is ani by verse 8) a[t] + dah + s[i] + d[ip]
(352) adh + s[i] + d[ip] (334) adh + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (211) adgh + s[i] +
[] + d[ip] (189) adhgh + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (63) adhksd (108) adhkd
(185) adhkt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
Since, in the rule of harighoa (stra 189), a plain s is the nimitta, the deletion of s[i]
by stra 353 is a mahhara just like before in vtti 405.
dah + tm (306, 307, dah is ani by verse 8) a[t] + dah + s[i] + tm
(352) adh + s[i] + tm (353) adh + tm (211) adgh + tm (354) adgh +
dhm (61) adgdhm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
bhtea parapada of dah[a] bhasm-karae
adhkt
adgdhm
adhku

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
362
adhk
adhkam

adgdham
adhkva

adgdha
adhkma

But when the sound dhv follows, we get the following form:
dah + dhvam (306, 307, dah is ani by verse 8) a[t] + dah + s[i] + dhvam
(353) adah + dhvam (211) adagh + dhvam (189) adhagh + dhvam (61)
adhagdhvam <bhtea karmai 2.3>.
bhtea karmai of dah[a] bhasm-karae
adhi
adhaktm
adhakata
adagdh
adhakthm
adhagdhvam
adhaki
adhakvahi
adhakmahi
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu rah[a] tyge (1P, to abandon).
rah + d[ip] (306, 307, 316) a[t] + rah + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (391, 334)
arah + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) arah + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) arahd
(185) araht <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu rah[i] gatau (1P, to hasten, go). The
change to viucakra by stra 165 should be done instead of the change to by stra
111, because stra 165 is a later rule1.
rah[i] (344, 160) ra + n[um] + h (165) rah rah + ti[p] (288) rah +
[]a[p] + ti[p] rahati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
Since viucakra has the quality of a sarvevara (see vtti 267), the change to by
stra 111 takes place even when a viucakra intervenes:
rah[i] (344, 160, 165) rah rah + ni[p] (288) rah + []a[p] + ni[p]
(42) rahni (111) rahi <vidht pa. 3.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu bh[i] vddhau2 (1P, to increase).
bh[i] (344, 160) b + n[um] + h (165) bh bh + ti[p] (288) bh +
[]a[p] + ti[p] bhati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
The Kalpa grammarians say bhe svare nii v na-lopa (there is optionally
deletion of the n of bh[i] when any svara (sarvevara) other than i[] follows). Thus
we also get barhati <acyuta pa. 1.1>. By the same rule we get bhaka <1.1> or
barhaka <1.1> when the kt pratyaya []aka follows. The Kalpa grammarians also
say that there is fault when those who list another dhtu (bh[a] vddhau) achieve two
forms even when a pratyaya beginning with a viujana follows. Now we begin the
conjugation of the dhtu kv[i] hisym (1P, to hurt, kill). This dhtu ends in a
harimitra.
kv[i] (344, 160) k + n[um] + v (111) kv kv + ti[p] (288)
kv + []a[p] + ti[p] kvati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
According to the Pinians, only the intervention of anusvra (viucakra) is accepted
by the mention of num in the stra a-ku-pv--num-vyvye pi (Adhyy 8.4.2).
1 In this regard, one should remember the maxim prva-parayo para-vidhir balavn
(vtti 50).
2 Sometimes this dhtu is listed as beginning with v.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
363
Thus the change to by stra 111 doesnt take place in kvni <vidht pa. 3.1>,
but it takes place in thaam <1.1 of thaa (th[] hisym + the kt pratyaya
ana)> and so on:
kv[i] (344, 160) k + n[um] + v (111) kv kv + ni[p] (288)
kv + []a[p] + ni[p] (42) kvni <vidht pa. 3.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu glai hara-kaye (1P, to be dejected,
tired).
glai + ti[p] (288) glai + []a[p] + ti[p] (54) glyati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
AmtaThe result of the phrase prvasya trivikrama ca will be seen in examples like
lhe in vtti 515. Someone may argue Regarding adgdhm <bhtea pa. 1.2>,
when vndra is done and s[i] is deleted by stra 353, shouldnt the change to
harighoa by ja-varja-harigadder (189) take place by considering the deleted s[i] a
nimitta since it is sthni-vat? In answer to this, Jva Gosvm explains that the
deletion of s[i] is considered a mahhara because the s mentioned in ja-varjaharigadder (189) is not a pratyaya-nimitta. The implied meaning of the phrase but
when the sound dhv follows is that it doesnt matter that the deletion of s[i] by stra
353 is a mahhara, because the change to harighoa by ja-varja-harigadder (189) is
not blocked since the sound dhv is directly mentioned as a para-nimitta in ja-varjaharigadder (189).
The Kalpa grammarians consider that the n of bh[i] is also deleted when []a[p]
follows, since []a[p] is a svara other than i[]. Thus they achieve two forms, bmhati
<acyuta pa. 1.1> and barhati <acyuta pa. 1.1>. The Pinians list two dhtus (bh[a]
vddhau and bh[i] vddhau abde ca1). In their opinion, when ya[k] follows, the form
of bh[a] vddhau is bhyate and the form of bh[i] vddhau abde ca is bhyate.
But this opinion is rejected by the Kalpa grammarians, who consider that bhyate is
an incorrect form. In accordance with their stra bhe svare nii v na-lopa, the
followers of Ktantra-vykaraa also achieve the following forms from the dhtu bh[i]
vddhau: abht <bhtea pa. 1.1> and babha <adhokaja pa. 1.1> or babarha
<adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
412 / catauvyaURh"AntaAnaAmaAr"AmaAntapaAQ&Ae'izAvae /
412. caturvyhntnm -rmnta-pho ive
caturvyha-antnmof dhtus that end in a caturvyha; -rma-anta-pha
recitation as dhtus ending in -rma; a-ivewhen the viaya is a pratyaya which is
not iva.2
When the viaya is a non-iva pratyaya, dhtus ending in a caturvyha
become dhtus that end in an original -rma.
yakglyate. pha-grahat sug-iau sauaglst aglsim.
VttiThen ya[k] is applied and we get glyate:

1 Sometimes these dhtus are listed as beginning with v.


2 See Saodhin 394 for discussion on why a viaya-saptam was used here instead
of a para-nimitta.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
364
glai (412) gl gl + te (293) gl + ya[k] + te (gl is ani by verse 1)
glyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
Due to the inclusion of the word pha, s[uk] and i[] are applied by stra 400 when
s[i] follows:
glai (412) gl gl + d[ip] (306, 307, gl is ani by verse 1) a[t] + gl
+ s[i] + d[ip] (400) agl + s[uk] + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (334) agls + i[] + s[i] +
[] + d[ip] (335) agls + i[] + [] + d[ip] (42) aglsd (185) aglst
<bhtea pa. 1.1>.
glai (412) gl gl + tm (306, 307, gl is ani by verse 1) a[t] + gl +
s[i] + tm (400) agl + s[uk] + i[] + s[i] + tm (108) aglsitm (205)
aglsim <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
bhtea parapada of glai hara-kaye
aglst
aglsim
aglsiu
agls
aglsiam
aglsia
aglsiam
aglsiva
aglsima
AmtaThe word aiva here means aive pratyaye viaye (when the viaya is a
non-iva pratyaya). Commenting on the word aiti (same as aive) in Adhyy
6.1.45 (the Pinian equivalent to the current stra), Kik says prasajya-pratiedho
yam. tenaitad tvam anaimittika prg eva pratyayotpatter bhavati (the word aiti is
a prasajya-pratiedha (prohibition of the possible application of a rule).1 Therefore,
since this change to is without a nimitta, it is done before the application of the
pratyaya). Thus in vtti 828 the form bhakta-tra will be made from the dhtu trai[]
plane (1A, to protect, save) by karmay anupendrd -rmt ka (828). Due to the
inclusion of the word pha in the phrase -rmnta-pha, all the rules that apply to
dhtus originally ending in -rma also apply here. Thus s[uk] and i[] are applied by
yama-rama-nam-rmntebhya sug-iau sau parapade (400).
413 / @AtaAe yauigAiNA na{is$aMh"k{(ita ca /
413. to yug ii nsiha-kti ca
taafter -rma; yukthe gama y[uk]; iiwhen i[] follows; nsiha-ktiwhen
a kt pratyaya which is nsiha follows; caand.
Y[uk] is inserted after -rma when i[] or a nsimha kt pratyaya follows.
aglyi.
Vtti glai (412) gl gl + ta (306, 313) a[t] + gl + i[] + ta (413) agl
+ y[uk] + i[] + ta (315) aglyi <bhtea bhve 1.1>.
414 / @Ar"AmaANNAla @AE: /
414. -rm ala au
1 The point being made here is that aiti (aive) is not a para-nimitta but a prasajyapratiedha. Usually the negative particle na[] is mentioned separately when making a
prasajya-pratiedha, but here it is mentioned inside the compound. Thus aiti is
equivalent to saying na tu iti (but not when a it (iva) follows).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
365
-rmtafter -rma; alaof the adhoksaja pratyaya []a[l]; authe
replacement au.
After -rma, []a[l] is replaced by au.
jaglau.
Vtti glai (412) gl gl + []a[l] (414) gl + au (330, 322, 323) gl +
gl + au (341) g + gl + au (345) j + gl + au (375) ja + gl + au (49)
jaglau <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
415 / @Ar"Amah"r": kM(s$aAir"s$avaeRr"r"AmaDaAtauke( wiq% ois$a ca /
415. -rma-hara kasri-sarvevara-rma-dhtuke ii usi ca
-rma-haradeletion of -rma; kasri-sarvevara-rma-dhtukewhen a kasri
rma-dhtuka beginning with a sarvevara follows; iiwhen i[] follows; usiwhen
us follows; caand.
-rma is deleted when i[], us, or a kasri rma-dhtuka beginning with a
sarvevara follows.
-rma-harasya sthni-vattvd dvir-vacanamjaglatu.
VttiReduplication is done because the deletion of -rma is sthni-vat by stra 373:
glai (412) gl gl + atus (330, 337, 415) gl + atus (322, 323, the deleted
is sthni-vat by 373) gl + gl + atus (341) g + gl + atus (345) j + gl + atus
(375) ja + gl + atus (93) jaglatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
adhokaja parapada of glai hara-kaye
jaglau
jaglatu
jaglu
jaglitha / jagltha
jaglathu
jagla
jaglau
jagliva
jaglima
AmtaEven though the deletion of in jagliva, jaglima, and so on is already
achieved by kasri-sarvevara-rma-dhtuke since i[] is a rma-dhtuka because it
is connected to the pratyaya (see vtti 105) and since i[] is kapila because it [is part
of an adhokaja pratyaya which] doesnt have the indicatory letter l (see stra 337),
the separate mention of i[] here in the stra is so that the deletion of will take place
in jaglitha (since when i[] is connected to tha[l], i[] is not kapila because tha[l] has
the indicatory letter l). Similarly, even though the adhokaja pratyaya us is already a
kasri-sarvevara-rma-dhtuka, the separate mention of us here is necessary to
include the us which results from -rmd ana us, bhtevarasya tu v (529).
416 / s$ats$aAde"r"Ata Wr"Ama: k(ipalak(AmapaAlae vaA /
416. sat-sagder ta e-rma kapila-kmaple v
sat-saga-deof a dhtu that begins with a sat-saga; taof the -rma; e-rma
the replacement e-rma; kapila-kmaplewhen a kmapla pratyaya which is
kapila follows (see stra 331); voptionally.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
366
The final of a dhtu that begins with a sat-saga optionally changes to e
when a kapila kmapla pratyaya follows.
gleyt glyt. glsa glyia. gai abdegyati.
Vtti glai (412) gl gl + yt (gl is ani by verse 1, 331, two options by
416):
1) ( changes to e) gleyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
1) ( doesnt change to e) glyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
kmapla parapada of glai hara-kaye
glyt / gleyt
glystm /
glysu / gleysu
gleystm
gly / gley
glystam /
glysta / gleysta
gleystam
glysam / gleysam
glysva / gleysva
glysma / gleysma
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu gai abde (1P, to sing, speak).
gai + ti[p] (288) gai + []a[p] + ti[p] (54) gyati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
gyati
gyasi
gymi

acyuta parapada of gai abde


gyata
gyatha
gyva

gyanti
gyatha
gyma

417 / d"AmaAed"r"maAsTaAgAAipabaitajah"AitasyataInaAmaIr"AmaAe
ivaSNAujanar"AmaDaAtauk(kM(s$aAr"AE /
417. dmodara-m-sth-g-pibati-jahti-syatnm -rmo viujana-rma-dhtukakasrau
dmodara-m-sth-g-pibati-jahti-syatnmof the dhtus listed below; -rma
the change to -rma; viujana-rma-dhtuka-kasrauwhen a kasri rmadhtuka beginning with a viujana follows.
When a kasri rma-dhtuka beginning with a viujana follows, the final
vara of the following dhtus changes to -rma:
the dmodaras described in
stra 309
m mne
m[] mne
m[] mne
me[] pratidne
h gati-nivttau
gai abde
g[] gatau
p pne
[o]h[k] tyge
o anta-karmai

2P
3A
4A
1A
1P
1P
1A
1P
3P
4P

meti m-mau, geti gai-gau ghyete. gyate.

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

measure
measure
measure
exchange, barter
stand, remain
sing, speak
go, move
drink
abandon
destroy, finish

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
367
VttiBoth m mne and m[] mne are included by the mention of m here, and
both gai abde and g[] gatau are included by the mention of g.
gai (412) g g + te (293) g + ya[k] + te (g is ani by verse 1,
417,) gyate <acyuta karmai 1.1>.
gyate
gyase
gye

acyuta karmai of gai abde


gyete
gyethe
gyvahe

gyante
gyadhve
gymahe

AmtaBy the mention of pibati (the []ti[p] form of p pne), p rakae (2P, to
protect) is exluded, and by the mention of jahti (the []ti[p] form of [o]h[k] tyge),
[o]h[] gatau (3A, to go, move) is excluded. Syati is the []ti[p] form of o antakarmai.
418 / d"AmaAed"r"Ad"InaAmaer"Ama: k(ipalak(AmapaAlae /
418. dmodardnm e-rma kapila-kmaple
dmodara-dnmof the dmodaras and so on mentioned in the previous stra; ermathe change to e-rma; kapila-kmaplewhen a kapila kmapla pratyaya
follows.
When a kapila kmapla pratyaya follows, the final vara of the dhtus
mentioned in the previous stra changes to e-rma.
geyt. p pne
Vtti gai (412) g g + yt (g is ani by verse 1, 331, 418) geyt
<kmapla pa. 1.1>.

geyt
gey
geysam

kmapla parapada of gai abde


geystm
geystam
geysva

geysu
geysta
geysma

Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu p pne (1P, to drink).


419 / pa: ipaba: , aAe ijaa: , DmaAe Dama: , sTaista": , aAe mana: , d"ANAae yacC$:
, {"zAe: pazya: , @taeR[R%cC$: , s$ataeRjaRvaATaRsya DaAva: , zAde": zAIya: ,
s$ade": s$aId": izAvae /
419. pa piba, ghro jighra, dhmo dhama, sthas tiha, mno mana, do
yaccha, de paya, arter ccha, sarter javrthasya dhva, ade ya, sade
sda ive
paof the dhtu p; pibathe replacement piba; ghraof ghr; jighrajighra;
dhmaof dhm; dhamadhama; sthaof sth (h after applying stra 346);
tihatiha; mnaof mn; manamana; daof d[]; yacchayaccha;
deof d[ir]; payapaya; arteof ; cchaccha; sarteof s; java-

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
368
arthasyawhich has the meaning of java (speed); dhvadhva; adeof
ad[]; yaya; sadeof sad[] (ad[] after applying stra 346); sdasda;
ivewhen a iva pratyaya follows.
The following changes take place when a iva pratyaya follows: p piba ;
ghr jighra ; dhm dhama ; sth tiha ; mn mana ; d[]
yaccha ; d[ir] paya ; ccha ; s (only in the sense of moving
quickly1) dhva ; ad[] ya ; and sad[] sda.
p pne
ghr gandhopdne
dhm abdgni-sayogayo
h gati-nivttau
mn abhyse
d[]
d[ir] prekae
gatau prpae ca
s gatau
ad[] tane
ad[] tane
ad[] viaraa-gatyavasdaneu
ad[] viaraa-gatyavasdaneu

1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
1P
6P
1P
6P

to drink
to smell
to blow; to melt
to stand, remain
to repeat, study, remember
to give
to see
to go, move; to obtain
to go, move, run, flow
to fall, perish, decay
to fall, perish, decay
to burst, open; to go, move; to
sit down, be dejected, perish
to burst, open; to go, move; to
sit down, be dejected, perish

420 / @ntah"re" na gAAeivand"va{SNAIn"AE /


420. anta-hare na govinda-vndrau
anta-harewhen there is deletion of the final vara; nanot; govinda-vndrau
govinda and vndra.
Govinda and vndra do not take place when the final vara of a dhtu is
deleted.
pibati, pyate. bhteei-stheti apt. ghr gandhopdnejighrati, ghryate. dhm
abdgni-sayogayodhamati. h gati-nivttau
na-rma-jv anusvra-pacamau jhali dhtuu
sa-rma-ja a-rma ce ra-bhy us ta-varga-ja
yathasa aca vrac ru h iti ha-madhyasya dhtor dau satve kte
nimittpye naimittikasypy apya, a-nimittasya hasya thatve, sthas tiha,
tihati. bhve, sthyate.
Vtti p + ti[p] (288) p + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) piba + []a[p] + ti[p] (291,
420) pibati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
pibati
pibasi
pibmi

acyuta parapada of p pne


pibata
pibatha
pibva

pibanti
pibatha
pibma

1 Thus the change to dhva is not done in sarati (he goes) and anusarati (he
follows), for example.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
369
p + te (293) p + ya[k] + te (330, 417, 294) pyate <acyuta karmai.
1.1>.
In bhtea, i-sth-pibati-dmodara-bhbhya ser mahhara parapade (308) is
applied, and we get the following form:
p + d[ip] (306, 307) a[t] + p + s[i] + d[ip] (308) a + p + d (185)
apt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu ghr gandhopdne (1P, to smell).
ghr + ti[p] (288) ghr + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) jighra + []a[p] + ti[p]
(291) jighrati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
ghr + te (293) ghr + ya[k] + te (330) ghryate <acyuta karmai.
1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu dhm abdgni-sayogayo (1P, to blow;
to melt).
dhm + ti[p] (288) dhm + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) dhama + []a[p] + ti[p]
(291) dhamati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu h gati-nivttau (1P, to stand, remain).
na-rma-jv anusvrapacamau jhali dhtuu
sa-rma-ja a-rma ce
ra-bhy us ta-varga-ja
One should understand that, in any dhtu, an anusvra (viucakra) or pacama
(hariveu) followed by a jhal (vaiava) is born of na-rma (by stras 165 and 73), a
a-rma followed by c is born of sa-rma (by stra 181), and u (a-varga) which
comes after r or is born of ta-varga (by stras 111 and 205).
For example, as[u] 1, ac[u], [o]vrac[], ru[], and h. Thus, when the initial
vara of a dhtu whose medial vara is h changes to s by stra 346, the maxim
nimittpye naimittikasypy apya (vtti 178) is applied whereby h, whose nimitta
was , reverts backs to th. Sthas tiha (419) is then applied and we get the following
form:
h (346) sth sth + ti[p] (288) sth + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) tiha +
[]a[p] + ti[p] (291) tihati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
acyuta parapada of h gati-nivttau
tihati
tihata
tihanti
tihasi
tihatha
tihatha
tihmi
tihva
tihma
In bhve prayoga, we get the following form:
h (346) sth sth + te (293) sth + ya[k] + te (330, 417, 294)
sthyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
1 This dhtu is listed in our Dhtu-pha as ans[u], but in the Pinian Dhtu-pha
as as[u].

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
370
AmtaThe anusvra and a-rma in as[u] and ac[u] are born of na-rma because
a vaiava follows, the a-rma in [o]vrac[] is born of sa-rma because ca-rma
follows, and the and h in ru[] and h are born of n and th since n and th come
after r and .
421 / od": sTaAstamBaAe: s$asya h"r": /
421. uda sth-stambho sasya hara
udaafter the upendra ud; sth-stambhoof sth (h after applying stra 346)
and stanbh[u] (a sautra-dhtu1 which has the meaning of rodhana (to stop,
obstruct)); sasyaof the sa-rma; haradeletion.
After ud, the s of sth and stanbh[u] is deleted.
utthyate. dvitveuttthyate. i-stheti ser mahharaastht. -rm ala au
tasthau. dmodarditvn nityam etvamstheyt. stht uttht. mn abhyse
manati. d dneyacchati, dyate. di-prabhtayo gre darayitavy. sm
cintymsmarati.
Vtti ud + h (346) ud + sth ud + sth + te (293) ud + sth + ya[k] +
te (sth is ani by verse 1, 417, 294) ud + sthyate (421) ud + thyate (63)
utthyate <acyuta bhve 1.1>.
In bhtea, s[i] is deleted by i-sth-pibati-dmodara-bhbhya ser mahhara
parapade (308) and we get the following form:
h (346) sth sth + d[ip] (306, 307) a[t] + sth + s[i] + d[ip] (308) a
+ sth + d (185) astht <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
bhtea parapada of h gati-nivttau
astht
asthtm
asthu2
asth
asthtam
asthta
asthm
asthva
asthma
In adhokaja, -rm ala au (414) is applied and we get the following form:
h (346) sth sth + []a[l] (414) sth + au (330, 322, 323) sth +
sth + au (342) th + sth + au (329) t + sth + au (375) ta + sth + au
(49) tasthau <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
adhokaja parapada of h gati-nivttau
tasthau
tasthatu
tasthu
tasththa / tasthitha
tasthathu
tastha
tasthau
tasthiva
tasthima
Because h is one of the dmodardis mentioned in stra 418, it always undergoes
the change to e:

1 A sautra-dhtu is a dhtu which is listed in a stra, but not listed in the Dhtu-pha.
One should be careful to distinguish the dhtu stanbh[u] from the well-known dhtu
abh[i] pratibandhe (1A, to support) from which words like stambha (a pillar) are
made.
2 An changes to us here by -rmd ana us, bhtevarasya tu v (529).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
371
h (346) sth sth + yt (sth is ani by verse 1, 331, 418) stheyt
<kmapla pa. 1.1>.
kmapla parapada of h gati-nivttau
stheyt
stheystm
stheysu
sthey
stheystam
stheysta
stheysam
stheysva
stheysma
h (346) sth sth + t (sth is ani by verse 1) stht <blakalki
pa. 1.1>.
ud + h (346) ud + sth ud + sth + t (sth is ani by verse 1,
421) ut + tht (63) uttht <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu mn abhyse (1P, to repeat, study,
remember).
mn + ti[p] (288) mn + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) mana + []a[p] + ti[p]
(291) manati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu d[] dne (1P, to give).
d + ti[p] (288) d + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) yaccha + []a[p] + ti[p]
(291) yacchati1 <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
d + te (293) d + ya[k] + te (d is ani by verse 1, 417, 294) dyate
<acyuta karmai 1.1>.
The conjugations of the dhtus d[ir] and so on will be shown later. Now we begin the
conjugation of the dhtu sm cintym (1P, to remember).
sm + ti[p] (288) sm + []a[p] + ti[p] (289) smarati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
smarati
smarasi
smarmi

acyuta parapada of sm cintym


smarata
smaranti
smaratha
smaratha
smarva
smarma

SaodhinThe current stra can only be applied after the final form of h has
been made. Since the combination of an upendra and a dhtu is a kind of samsa (see
footnote to stra 301) and since compounding can take place only with viupadas,
we must first make a viupada out of the dhtu h and then only can we apply the
current stra. For example, we must first make sthyate <acyuta pa. 1.3> and then
only apply the current stra. If one were to mistakenly apply the current stra before
completing the form of h we would run into problems in cases like uttasthu
<adhokaja pa. 1.3 of ud + h>. For example, when we have ud + sth + us, if we
tried to apply the current stra first, then we would get the wrong form uttathu. But
when we follow the proper process of finishing the viupada first, we end up with ud
+ tasthu and then the current stra is no longer applicable, since there is no s of sth
coming after ud.

1 One should be careful to distinguish the forms yacchati (he gives) and so on, which
are made from d[] dne, from the forms yacchati (he restrains) and so on, which
are made from yam[u] uparame by iu-gami-yam cha ive (399).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
372
422 / @itaRs$ats$aA{d"ntayaAegAAeRivand"Ae yafk(AmapaAlayayaAeyaRix~ ca /
422. arti-sat-sagdy-d-antayor govindo yak-kmapla-yayor yai ca
artiof gatau prpae ca (1P, to go, move; to obtain) and gatau (3P, to go,
move); sat-saga-di-t-antayoand of any dhtu which begins with a sat-saga and
ends in -rma; govindagovinda; yak-kmapla-yayowhen ya[k] or the ya-rma
of a kmapla pratyaya follows; yaiwhen the pratyaya ya[] follows; caand.
The dhtu and dhtus ending in that begin with a sat-saga take govinda
when ya[k], ya[], or the y of a kmapla pratyaya follows.
smaryate. asmrt asmrm. asmri.
Vtti sm + te (293) sm + ya[k] + te (sm is ani by verse 1, 422)
smaryate <acyuta karmai. 1.1>.
sm + d[ip] (306, 307, sm is ani by verse 1) a[t] + sm + s[i] + d[ip]
(334) a[t] + sm + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (380) asmrsd (108) asmrd (185)
asmrt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
sm + tm (306, 307, sm is ani by verse 1) a[t] + sm + s[i] + tm
(380) asmrstm (108) asmrtm (205) asmrm <bhtea pa. 1.2>.
asmrt
asmr
asmram

bhtea parapada of sm cintym


asmrm
asmru
asmram
asmra
asmrva
asmrma

sm + ta (306, 313) a[t] + sm + i[] + ta (314) asmr + i[] + ta


(315) asmri <bhtea karmai 1.1>.
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of asya na govinda-vndrau kasriu
(294) and it is also an apavda of -rmasya ri a-yak-kmapla-yeu, na ca
trivikrama (426).
423 / \#r"Amava{s$ats$aA{d"ntaeBya w"A is$ak(AmapaAlayaAer"Atmapade" /
423. -rma-v-sat-sagdy-d-antebhya i v si-kmaplayor tmapade
-rmaafter dhtus ending in -rma; vafter the dhtus v[] varae (5U, to
choose, ask for) and v[] sambhaktau (9A, to serve, worship); sat-saga-di-tantebhyaand after dhtus which begin with a sat-saga and end in -rma; ii[];
voptionally; si-kmaplayowhen s[i] or a kmapla pratyaya follows; tmapade
when the viaya is an tmapada pratyaya.
I[] is optionally inserted after dhtus ending in , after the dhtus v[] and
v[], and after dhtus ending in that begin with a sat-saga when s[i] or a
kmapla pratyaya follows, provided the viaya is an tmapada pratyaya.
asmaritm asmtm sasmra.
Vtti sm + tm (306, 307) a[t] + sm + s[i] + tm (two options by 423):
1) (i[] is inserted) a[t] + sm + i[] + s[i] + tm (289) asmaristm (108)
asmaritm <bhtea karmai 1.2>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
373
2) (i[] is not inserted, 355, 294, 108) asmtm <bhtea karmai 1.2>.
bhtea karmai of sm cintym
asmri
asmaritm /
asmariata / asmata
asmtm
asmarih /
asmarithm /
asmaridhvam /
asmh
asmthm
asmarihvam /
asmhvam
asmarii / asmi
asmarivahi /
asmarimahi /
asmvahi
asmmahi
sm + []a[l] (330, 314) smr + a (322, 323, the vndra r is treated
like the original by 373) sm + smr + a (341) s + smr + a (371) sasmra
<adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
SaodhinWhere dhtus ending in and the dhtus v[] and v[] would normally
always take i[], since they are mentioned as exceptions in verse 1 of the ani-gaa,
this rule says that they should only optionally take i[] when s[i] or kmapla follows in
the tmapada paradigm. And where sat-sagdi dhtus ending in would normally
never take i[], since they are ani by verse 1 of the ani-gaa, this rule says that they
may optionally take i[] when s[i] or kmapla follows in the tmapada paradigm.
424 / s$ats$aA{d"ntasya [%cCe$\R#r"AmaAntaAnaAM ca
gAAeivand"Ae'DaAeajamaAae , na tau va{SNAIne" /
424. sat-sagdy-d-antasya ccher -rmntn ca govindo dhokaja-mtre, na tu
vndre
sat-saga-di-t-antasyaof any dhtu which begins with a sat-saga and ends in rma; ccheof cch[a] (1P, to go, move) and cch[a] gatndriya-pralaya-mrtbhveu (6P, to go, move; to fail in faculties; to assume a form); -rma-antnm
of dhtus which end in -rma; caand; govindagovinda; adhokaja-mtrewhen
any adhokaja follows; nanot; tubut; vndrewhen the viaya is vndra.
cch[a], dhtus ending in , and dhtus ending in that begin with a satsaga take govinda when any adhokaja pratyaya follows, but not if
vndra is applicable.
sasmaratu sasmaru. thali-rmt tu nitya nesasmartha. k-s-bh-v ity-diniyamn nityam isasmariva sasmarima. sasmare. smaryt. ya-grahan neha
govindasma. smart.
Vtti sm + atus (330, 424) smar + atus (322, 323, the govinda ar is treated
like the original by 373) sm + smar + atus (341) s + smar + atus (371)
sasmaratus (93) sasmaratu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
sm + us (330, 424) smar + us (322, 323, the govinda ar is treated like
the original by 373) sm + smar + us (341) s + smar + us (371) sasmarus
(93) sasmaru <adhokaja pa. 1.3>.
When tha[l] follows, -rmt tu nitya ne (389) is applied and we get the following
form:
sm + tha[l] (389, 424) smar + tha[l] (322, 323, the govinda ar is
treated like the original by 373) sm + smar + tha[l] (341) s + smar + tha[l]
(371) sasmartha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
374
(But when other adhokaja pratyayas follows), i[] is always applied in accordance
with the restriction k-s-bh-v-stu-dru-sru-rubhya evdhokaja-mtre ne,
anyebhyas tv anibhyo p (356).
sm + va (356, 316) sm + i[] + va (424) smar + iva (322, 323, the
govinda ar is treated like the original by 373) sm + smar + iva (341) s + smar
+ iva (371) sasmariva <adhokaja pa. 3.2>.
sm + ma (356, 316) sm + i[] + ma (424) smar + ima (322, 323,
the govinda ar is treated like the original by 373) sm + smar + ima (341) s +
smar + ima (371) sasmarima <adhokaja pa. 3.3>.
adhokaja parapada of sm cintym
sasmra
sasmaratu
sasmaru
sasmartha
sasmarathu
sasmara
sasmra / sasmara
sasmariva
sasmarima
sm + e (330, 424) smar + e (322, 323, the govinda ar is treated like
the original by 373) sm + smar + e (341) s + smar + e (371) sasmare
<adhokaja karmai 1.1>.
sm + yt (sm is ani by verse 1, 422) smaryt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.
Due to the mention of y in stra 422, govinda doesnt take place in smta:
sm + sa (two options by 423):
1) (i[] is inserted) sm + i[] + sa (289) smarisa (108) smaria
<bhtea karmai 1.2>.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 355, 294, 108) sma <kmapla karmai. 1.1>.
sm + t (289) smart <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
AmtaThe word mtra is used so that govinda will be applied even when the kapila
adhokajas follow. Why do we say but not if vndra is applicable? Consider
sasmra <adhokaja pa. 1.1>. If we failed to mention y in stra 422, that is to say, if
we made the para-nimitta there only yak-kmaplayo, then govinda would also be
applied in sma and so on because stra 422 is stronger than -dvayd
viujannteoddhavc ca (355). Therefore, due to the mention of y in stra 422,
govinda is prevented from taking place in kmapla tmapada.
425 / [%r"Amah"inaByaAimaq%. syae svar"tae /
425. -rma-hanibhym i sye svarate ca
-rma-hanibhymafter dhtus ending in -rma and after han[a] his-gatyo (2P,
to strike, kill; to go, move); ii[]; syewhen the pratyaya sya follows; svarate

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
375
after the dhtu sv abdopatpayo (1P, to sound, sing, praise; to feel pain); ca
and.
I[] is inserted after han[a], sv and dhtus ending in when sya1 follows.
smariyati. sv abdopatpayosvarati-sti iti veasvrt asvrt. svariyatti tu
nityam. s gatausarter dhvadhvati. ajavrthesarati.
Vtti sm + syati (425) sm + i[] + syati (289) smarisyati (108)
smariyati <kalki pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu sv abdopatpayo (1P, to sound, sing,
praise; to feel pain). Sv is ve by svarati-sti-syati-dh-d-ita i v (351).
sv + d[ip] (306, 307) a[t] + sv + s[i] + d[ip] (two options by 351):
1) (i[] is inserted) a[t] + sv + i[] + s[i] + d[ip] (380) asvr + i[] + s[i] +
d[ip] (334) asvr + i[] + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (335) asvr + i[] + [] + d[ip]
(42) asvrd (185) asvrt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
2) (i[] is not inserted, 380) asvr + s[i] + d[ip] (334) asvr + s[i] + [] +
d[ip] (108) asvrd (185) asvrt <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
But sv always take i[] when sy follows:
sv + syati (425) sv + i[] + syati (289) svarisyati (108) svariyati
<kalki pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu s gatau (1P, to go, move, run, flow).
Sarter dhva (419) is applied and we get the following form:
s + ti[p] (288) s + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) dhva + []a[p] + ti[p] (291)
dhvati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
But when s is not used in the sense of java (speed), we get the following form:
s + ti[p] (288) s + []a[p] + ti[p] (289) sarati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
AmtaWhere dhtus ending in and the dhtu han[a] would normally never take
i[], since they are ani by verses 1 and 5 of the ani-gaa, this rule says that they
should take i[] when sya follows. And where the dhtu sv would normally only
optionally take i[] in accordance with svarati-sti-syati-dh-d-ita i v (351), this
rule says that it should always take i[] when sya follows.
426 / [%r"Amasya ir": zAyafk(AmapaAlayaeSau , na ca iaiva(ma: /
1 The pratyaya sya here really refers to the pratyayas beginning with sya, namely the
kalki and ajita pratyayas. The kalki pratyayas are formed by adding the pratyaya sya
before the acyuta pratyayas and the ajita pratyayas are formed by adding the
pratyaya sya before the bhtevara pratyayas. Stras 291, 292, 295, and the sandhi
rules are then applied if needed. Due to the complexity of this process and because
stras 291, 292, and 295 had not been made at the time, Jva Gosvm simply listed
the kalki and ajita pratyayas as niptas in vttis 270 and 271, and didnt mention sya,
but from this and other stras we learn of the existence of sya and its integral role in
the formation of the kalki and ajita pratyayas. In the Kdanta prakaraa also sya is
used when the kdanta pratyayas []at[] and []na are applied in the future tense
(see stra 737).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
376
426. -rmasya ri a-yak-kmapla-yeu, na ca trivikrama
-rmasyaof -rma; rithe replacement ri; a-yak-kmapla-yeuwhen []a (the
vikaraa []a which is applied by stra 545), ya[k], or the y of a kmapla pratyaya
follows; nanot; caand; trivikramatrivikrama.
-rma changes to ri when []a, ya[k], or the y of a kmapla pratyaya
follows, and the trivikrama which would usually take place by stra 390
doesnt take place.
sriyate.
Vtti s + te (293) s + ya[k] + te (s is ani by verse 1, 426) sriyate
<acyuta karmai 1.1>.
SaodhinThis stra is only applied when arti-sat-sagdy-d-antayor govindo yakkmapla-yayor yai ca (422) is not applicable.
427 / s$aitaRzAAstyaitaRByaAe x~Ae BaUtaezAe k(taRir" /
427. sarti-sty-artibhyo o bhtee kartari
sarti-sti-artibhyaafter the dhtus s gatau (1P or 3P, to go, move, run, flow),
s[u] anuiau (2P, to instruct, punish, rule), and gatau prpae ca (1P, to go,
move; to obtain) or gatau (3P to go, move); athe pratyaya []a; bhtee
when a bhtea pratyaya follows; kartariwhen the kart is to be expressed.
In kartari prayoga, []a is applied after the dhtus s, s[u], and when a
bhtea pratyaya follows.
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of sir bhtee (307).
428 / [%"yaAnta{"zyaAegAAeRivand"Ae xe~ /
428. -dvaynta-dyor govindo e
-dvaya-anta-dyoof dhtus ending in -dvaya and of the dhtu d[ir] prekae
(1P, to see); govindagovinda; ewhen []a follows.
D[ir] and dhtus ending in -dvaya take govinda when []a follows.
asarat, sriyt, sart, sariyati. gatau prpae cacchati. arti-sat-sagdy-dantayor govinda itiaryate. rcchat rat. antasyeti vndra, dea sthni-vat,
tata -rmasya dvir-vacanam, nara--rmasy-rma, narder a-rmasya trivikrama,
ra. -dvaya ra, sthni-vattvam, dvir-vacanam, trivikramaratu ru. atty-artiv-vyebhyo nityam iti i thaliritha. ru ravae.
Vtti s + d[ip] (306, 427, s is ani by verse 1) a[t] + s + []a + d[ip]
(428) asarad (185) asarat <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
s + yt (s is ani by verse 1, 426) sriyt <kmapla pa. 1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
377
s + t (289) sart <blakalki pa. 1.1>.
s + syati (425) s + i[] + syati (289) sarisyati (108) sariyati <kalki
pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu gatau prpae ca (1P, to go, move; to
obtain).
+ ti[p] (288) + []a[p] + ti[p] (419) ccha + []a[p] + ti[p] (291)
cchati <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
Arti-sat-sagdy-d-antayor govindo yak-kmapla-yayor yai ca (422) is applied and
we get the following form:
+ te (293) + ya[k] + te ( is ani by verse 1, 422) aryate <acyuta
karmai. 1.1>.
+ d[ip] + d[ip] (288) + []a[p] + d[ip] (419) ccha + []a[p] +
d[ip] (360) rccha + []a[p] + d[ip] (306) a[t] + rccha + []a[p] + d[ip] (42)
rccha + a + d (291) rcchad (185) rcchat <bhtevara pa. 1.1>.
+ d[ip] (360) r + d[ip] (306, 427, is ani by verse 1) a[t] + r + []a
+ d[ip] (42) r + a + d (185) rat <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
In adhokaja 1.1, antasya vndro nsihe (314) is applied, the replacement is
considered like the original by stra 373 and thus the -rma is reduplicated, nara-rmasy-rma (371) is applied, then narder a-rmasya trivikrama (361) is applied
and we get ra:
+ []a[l] (330, 314) r + a (322, 323, the vndra r is treated like
the original by 373) + r + a (371) a + r + a (361) + r + a (42) ra
<adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
In adhokaja 1.2 and 1.3, -dvaya ra (52) is applied, the replacement is considered
like the original by stra 373, reduplication is done, then trivikrama is done and we get
the following forms:
+ atus (330, 52) r + atus (322, 323, the replacement r is treated like
the original by 373) + r + atus (371) a + r + atus (361) + r + atus (93)
ratu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
+ us (330, 52) r + us (322, 323, the replacement r is treated like the
original by 373) + r + us (371) a + r + us (361) + r + us (93) ru
<adhokaja pa. 1.3>.
When tha[l] follows, i[] is applied by atty-arti-v-vyebhyo nityam (388):
+ tha[l] (388) + i[] + tha[l] (289) ar + itha (322, 323, the
govinda ar is treated like the original by 373) + ar + itha (371) a + ar + itha
(361) + ar + itha (42) ritha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu ru ravae (1P, to hear).

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
378
SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of asya na govinda-vndrau kasriu
(294).

429 / auva: zApa: austasya Za{ /


429. ruva apa nus tasya ca
ruvaafter the dhtu ru ravae (1P, to hear); apaof []a[p]; nuthe
replacement []nu; tasyaof it (the dhtu ru ravae); the replacement ; ca
and.
[]a[p] is replaced by []nu when it comes after ru, and ru is replaced by
.
ruva iti bhulyd uv-dea. a it.
VttiThe replacement uv has been made in the word ruva here because stra 134
is bahula. The of []nu is an indicatory letter.
AmtaJinendra-buddhi, the author of the Nysa commentary on Kik, says ru
ravae bhv-dau pahyate, tata api prpte nur vidhyate (the dhtu ru ravae
is listed among the bhv-di-dhtus, then []nu is ordained where []a[p] would usually
be applicable). Someone may argue Only the trivikramas and , and not the
vmanas i and u, are replaced by iy and uv in accordance with dhtor d-tor iy-uvau
(134). Therefore how did the u of ru change to uv in the word ruva here? In answer
to this, Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning bhulyt. Stras are not bound
by the rules of grammar. This is substantiated by the maxim stre veda-vad
vyavahra (the usages found in a stra are (irregular) like those found in the
Vedas). Furthermore, it was described right there in vtti 134 that one of the
meanings of the word bahula is kvacid anyad eva (sometimes something else is done
instead).
430 / oznvaAegAAeRivand": /
430. u-nvor govinda
u-nvoof the vikaraas u and []nu; govindagovinda.
The vikaraas u and []nu take govinda.
oti uta vanti. oi utha utha. omi.
Vtti ru + ti[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + ti[p] (429) + []nu + ti[p] (430)
noti (111) oti <acyuta pa. 1.1>.
ru + tas (288) ru + []a[p] + tas (429) + []nu + tas (290, 294)
nutas (111) utas (93) uta <acyuta pa. 1.2>.
ru + anti (288) ru + []a[p] + anti (429) + []nu + anti (290, 294,
51) nvanti (111) vanti <acyuta pa. 1.3>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
379
ru + si[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + si[p] (429) + []nu + si[p] (430)
nosi (111) osi (108) oi <acyuta pa. 2.1>.
ru + thas (288) ru + []a[p] + thas (429) + []nu + thas (290,
294) nuthas (111) uthas (93) utha <acyuta pa. 2.2>.
ru + tha (288) ru + []a[p] + tha (429) + []nu + tha (290, 294)
nutha (111) utha <acyuta pa. 2.3>.
ru + mi[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + mi[p] (429) + []nu + mi[p] (430)
nomi (111) omi <acyuta pa. 3.1>.
SaodhinThe govinda prescribed in this stra is limited by asya na govindavndrau kasriu (294) when ka-dhtukas which are not pthu follow,
because ka-dhtukas which are not pthu are nirgua by apthu-ka-dhtuko
nirgua (290).
431 / @s$aMyaAegApaUvaRsya atyayaAer"Amasya h"r"Ae vaA inagAuRNAvamaAe: /
431. asayoga-prvasya pratyayo-rmasya haro v nirgua-va-mo
a-sayoga-prvasyawhich is not preceded by a sayoga (sat-saga); pratyaya-urmasyaof the u-rma of a pratyaya; haradeletion; voptionally; nirgua-vamowhen the v or m of a nirgua pratyaya follows.
The u-rma of a pratyaya is optionally deleted when the v or m of a nirgua
pratyaya follows, provided the u-rma is not preceded by a sat-saga.
AmtaThe vikaraas []a[p] and so on are sometimes also called pratyayas. Why do
we say not preceded by a sat-saga? Consider prpnuva <acyuta 3.2 of pra + p[]
vyptau> and prpnuma <acyuta 3.3 of pra + p[] vyptau>.
432 / k(r"Aetaestau inatyaM yae ca /
432. karotes tu nitya ye ca
karoteafter the dhtu [u]k[] karae (8U, to do, make); tubut; nityam
always; yewhen ya-rma follows; caand.
But the u-rma of a pratyaya which comes after the dhtu [u]k[] is always
deleted when the v or m of a nirgua pratyaya follows and when y follows.
va uva ma uma. ryate, uyt, otu,
Vtti ru + vas (288) ru + []a[p] + vas (429) + []nu + vas (290, two
options by 431):
1) (u-rma is deleted) nvas (111) vas (93) va <acyuta pa. 3.2>.
2) (u-rma is not deleted, 294) nuvas (111) uvas (93) uva
<acyuta pa. 3.2>.
ru + mas (288) ru + []a[p] + mas (429) + []nu + mas (290,
two options by 431):

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
380
1) (u-rma is deleted) nmas (111) mas (93) ma <acyuta pa.
3.3>.
2) (u-rma is not deleted, 294) numas (111) umas (93) uma
<acyuta pa. 3.3>.
oti
oi
omi

acyuta parapada of ru ravae


uta
vanti
utha
utha
va / uva
ma / uma

ru + te (293) ru + ya[k] + te (ru is ani by verse 1, 294, 390) ryate


<acyuta karmai 1.1>.
ru + yt (288) ru + []a[p] + yt (429) + []nu + yt (290, 294)
nuyt (111) uyt <vidhi pa. 1.1>.
ru + tu[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + tu[p] (429) + []nu + tu[p] (430)
notu (111) otu <vidht pa. 1.1>.
433 / or"AmaAtatyayaAd"s$aMyaAegApaUvaARthe"hR"r": /
433. u-rmt pratyayd asayoga-prvt her hara
u-rmtafter u-rma; pratyaytwhich is part of a pratyaya; asayoga-prvt
which is not preceded by a sayoga (sat-saga); heof the vidht pratyaya hi; hara
deletion.
Hi is deleted when it comes after the u-rma of a pratyaya, provided the urma is not preceded by a sat-saga.
u avni avva avma. aot, araut; urva uruvatu. kr-diniyame mtra-grahat thaly api neurotha. ryt, rot, royati, aroyat. sru
gatau.
Vtti ru + hi (288) ru + []a[p] + hi (429) + []nu + hi (290, 294,
433) nu (111) u <vidht pa. 2.1>.
ru + ni[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + ni[p] (429) + []nu + ni[p]
(430) no + ni[p] (55) navni (111) avni <vidht pa. 3.1>.
ru + va[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + va[p] (429) + []nu + va[p]
(430) no + va[p] (55) navva (111) avva <vidht pa. 3.2>.
ru + ma[p] (288) ru + []a[p] + ma[p] (429) + []nu + ma[p]
(430) no + ma[p] (55) navma (111) avma <vidht pa. 3.3>.
vidht parapada of ru ravae
otu / utt
utm
u / utt
utam
avni
avva

vantu
uta
avma

ru + d[ip] (288, 306) a[t] + ru + []a[p] + d[ip] (429) a[t] + + []nu


+ d[ip] (430) anod (111) aod (185) aot <bhtevara pa. 1.1>.

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
381
ru + d[ip] (306, 307, ru is ani by verse 1) a[t] + ru + s[i] + d[ip]
(380) arau + s[i] + d[ip] (334) arau + s[i] + [] + d[ip] (108) araud
(185) araut <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
araut
arau
arauam

bhtea parapada of ru ravae


araum
arauam
arauva

arauu
araua
arauma

ru + []a[l] (330, 314) rau + a (55) rv + a (322, 323, the


vndra au and the replacement v are sthni-vat by 373) ru + rv + a (341)
urva <adhokaja pa. 1.1>.
ru + atus (330, 337, 294, 381) ruv + atus (322, 323, the replacement
uv is like the original u by 373) ru + ruv + atus (341) u + ruv + atus (93)
uruvatu <adhokaja pa. 1.2>.
Due to the inclusion of the word mtra in the niyama beginning with k (stra 356),
i[] is not applied even though tha[l] follows:
ru + tha[l] (356, 289) ro + tha (322, 323) ro + ro + tha (341) o
+ rotha (375, 173) urotha <adhokaja pa. 2.1>.
adhokaja parapada of ru ravae
urva
uruvatu
uruvu
urotha
uruvathu
uruva
urva / urava
uruva
uruma

1.1>.

ru + yt (ru is ani by verse 1, 331, 294, 390) ryt <kmapla pa.


ru + t (ru is ani by verse 1, 289) rot <blakalki pa. 1.1>.

ru + syati (ru is ani by verse 1, 289) rosyati (108) royati <kalki


pa. 1.1>.
ru + syat (306, ru is ani by verse 1) a[t] + ru + syat (289) arosyat
(108) aroyat <ajita pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu sru gatau (1P, to flow).
AmtaWhy do we say not preceded by a sat-saga? Consider prpnuhi <vidht
2.1 of pra + p[] vyptau>. Why do we say of a pratyaya? Consider stuhi <vidht
2.1 of u[] stutau>.
434 / iNAiau"auk(imaByaAe'x.~ BaUtaezAe k(taRir" /
434. i-ri-dru-sru-kamibhyo bhtee kartari
iafter dhtus ending in the pratyaya []i (causatives or y-anta-dhtus); ri-dru-srukamibhyaand after the dhtus ri[] sevym (1U, to serve, worship, dwell, depend
on), dru gatau (1P, to run, melt), sru gatau (1P, to flow), and kam[u] kntau (1A,

r Hari-nmmta-vykaraa
382
to desire); athe pratyaya a[]; bhteewhen a bhtea pratyaya follows; kartari
when the kart is to be expressed.
A[] is applied after the y-anta-dhtus and after ri[], dru, sru, and kam[u]
when a bhtea pratyaya follows in kartari prayoga.
dhto catusanasyey-uvauasusruvat. gam gatau. iu-gamti ccha, gacchati.
gamyate.
VttiThen dhto catusanasyey-uvau sarvevare (381) is applied and we get the
following form:
sru + d[ip] (306, 434, sru is ani by verse 1) a[t] + sru + a[] + d[ip]
(381) a[t] + sruv + a[] + d[ip] (322, 323, the replacement uv is treated like the
original u by 373) a + sru + sruv + a + d (341) a + su + sruv + a + d (185)
asusruvat <bhtea pa. 1.1>.
Now we begin the conjugation of the dhtu gam[] gatau (1P, to go, move). The
change to ch is done by iu-gami-yam c