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BOOK 3
NAME:
CHAPTER 7 : Structure of Atoms
CHAPTER 8 : Periodic Table CLASS:
Q.1(a) The diagram below shows part of the periodic
table of elements.
The shaded area contains only metal elements.
Two other areas also contain only metal
elements.
Which areas contain only metal elements?
Tick the two correct boxes.
(b)
Ans
(c)
Ans
(d)

Copper is a metal. At room temperature copper is a strong solid. Give two other properties of
copper that show it is a metal.

When copper metal is heated it reacts with a gas in air. What is the chemical name of the
product formed when copper reacts with a gas in air?

Which statement below describes what happens in a chemical change but not in a physical
change? Tick the correct box.

Q.2(a) Here are the formulae of three compounds containing sodium. Give the name of each
compound.
(i)
NaCl
(ii)

Na2SO4

(iii)

NaHCO3

(b)(i)

Which compound is made up of the most atoms?

(ii)

How many atoms does it contain?

(c)(i)

Which compound has the most different types of atoms?

(ii)

List the types of atom in this compound.

Q.3(a)
(i)
Ans
(ii)
Ans
(iii)
Ans
(b)(i)
Ans
(ii)
Ans
(c)
(i)
Ans
(ii)
Ans

The diagram below shows an atom of magnesium.


What is the name of part A?

What two types of particle does part A contain?

What is the charge on part A?

How many electrons are in one atom of magnesium?

Write the electron arrangement for an atom of magnesium.

Use the diagram and your answer to part (b) to answer the following questions.
In what group of the Periodic Table is magnesium? Explain your answer.

In what period of the Periodic Table is magnesium? Explain your answer.

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Q.4

The diagrams below show the structures of ethanol, mica and diamond.

(a)
(i)
(ii)
(b)
(c)(i)
(ii)
(d)(i)

How many bonds does each carbon have in:


ethanol?
diamond?
How many bonds does each hydrogen have in ethanol?
How many bonds does each silicon have in mica?
How many bonds does each oxygen have in mica?
Which of the elements, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and silicon would you expect to find in the
same group of the Period Table?
Explain your answer.

(ii)

Q.5(a) Oxygen and sulphur are in the same group of the periodic table.
Complete the table below to show the arrangement of electrons in oxygen and sulphur atoms.

(b) (i) Draw a diagram of an oxygen atom.

(ii)
Ans

Use your diagram to describe two ways in which oxygen can achieve a full outside shell of
electrons.

(c)
(i)

Some of the oxygen in the atmosphere is in the form of ozone, O3. Scientists believe that
chlorine radicals are destroying ozone.
What is the difference between a chlorine radical and a chlorine molecule?

Ans

(ii)

What substances are thought to be main sources of chlorine radicals in the atmosphere?

Ans

Q.6

(a) There are eleven electrons in a sodium atom. The amounts of energy required to remove
each one have been measured and the results shown on a sketch graph.

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(i)
Ans

Why is the first electron in sodium the easiest to remove?

(ii) Why do the energies for electrons 2 to 9 go up by relatively small amounts?


Ans

(iii)
Ans

Why are the last two energies very high?

(b)

Draw a sketch graph to show the energies needed to remove the first four electrons in
aluminium. Explain your answer.

Ans

20

Q.7(a)(i)
Explain what is meant by the numbers in the symbol 40Ca .
Ans

Ans
(b)

Use the numbers to state the number of protons, neutrons and electrons found in 4020
Ca
protons neutrons electrons.

Complete the table below to show the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons found in the
ions shown.
ion
protons
neutrons
electrons

Q.8
(a)

Neon has two main isotopes,


Draw diagrams of the atoms of each of the neon isotopes.

(b)

Neon gas is made up of 90% of neon-20 and 10% of neon-22. Calculate the exact relative
atomic mass of neon.

(ii)

Ans

(c)
Ans

How do the chemical properties of each isotope of neon compare with each other? Explain
your answer.

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Q.8

The diagram below shows the electronic arrangement of an unknown substance.

(ii)
(d)(i)
(ii)

(a) (i) How many protons would there be if the unknown substance was a
neutral atom?
(ii) What would the diagram represent if it was a neutral atom?.............
(b)(i) How many protons would there be if the substance was a 2+ ion?.......
(ii) What would the diagram represent if it was a 2+ ion? ..
(c)(i) In what group of the periodic table would the unknown substance be if
the represented a 1+ ion? ..
How many neutrons would the 1+ ion have if its relative atomic mass was 39? ..
In what group of periodic table would the unknown substance be if it represented a 1- ion?......
What would the relative atomic mass of the 1- ion be if it had 20 neutrons? ..

Q.9
(a)

An unknown element is found to exist as the following two isotopes:


Complete the following table:

(b)
Ans

Describe what is meant by the term isotopes.

(c)
Ans

In experiments, both isotopes were found to show the same chemical behaviour. Use the
information in the table to explain why the chemical behaviour of both isotopes is the same.

(d)
Ans

A naturally occurring sample was found to contain 25% of X-24 and 75% of X-28.
Calculate the relative atomic mass of the element X.

(e)

Use your periodic table to identify X.

Q.10

The diagrams below represent the electronic arrangement of different atoms and ions.
(a) Which letter represents an atom of a
Group I metal?
(b) Which letter represents an atom of a
Group VII non-metal?
(c) Which letter represents an atom of a
noble or inert gas?
(d) Which letter represents an atom which
is not in the second period of the
Periodic Table?
(e) Which letter represents an ion of a
Group I metal?
(f) Which two letters represent atoms
which form an ionic compound
with a formula similar to Na2S?
(g) Which two letters represent atoms which form a molecule with a formula similar to SiCl4?
Q.11(a) Use the Periodic Table to write down the electronic arrangement of:
(i)

calcium : .

(ii)

chlorine : .

(b)

If calcium is heated and put into a gas jar of chlorine a violent reaction takes place and solid
calcium chloride is formed. The reaction proceeds due to the transfer of electrons.

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(i)
Ans

Use the electron arrangements and the idea of electron transfer to explain how the reaction
between atoms of calcium and chlorine takes place. (You may include a diagram in your
answer)

(ii)

Write down the formulae of the ions that calcium and chlorine form during the reaction.

Ans

(iii)
Write down the formula of calcium chloride. .
(c) Calcium chloride is a solid at room temperature and has a high melting point. Explain why calcium
chloride has a high melting point.
Ans

Q.12

Carbon is known to exist as two different allotropes. The allotropes are known as diamond and
graphite. Both diamond and graphite consist of carbon atoms bonded together in threedimensional structures.

(a)(i)

Diamond is one of the hardest substances known to man and is used on the edges of glass
cutting tools. Explain why the structure of diamond makes it so hard.

Ans

(ii)
Ans

Graphite is soft and slippery and is used to lubricate surfaces. Explain why the structure of
graphite makes it soft and slippery.

(b)
Ans

Diamond is an electrical insulator, but graphite conducts electricity. Explain why graphite
conducts electricity.

Q.13
(a)

(b)
(i)

Various parts of the helicopter below are made out of metal, because metals are strong and
malleable.
Describe, with the aid of a diagram, the metallic bonding
present in metals.

Use your knowledge of the structure of metals to explain why:


they are strong

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(ii)

they are malleable

(c)
Ans

As the blades of the helicopter rotate, heat produced in the joints is conducted away along the
blades. Explain how metals conduct heat.

(d)
Ans

The properties of some of the metals used in the helicopter have been altered by mixing them
with other metals. What name is given to this type of mixture?

Q.14

Sodium chloride is often called common salt. It can be made by reacting a small piece of hot
sodium with chlorine gas.
(a)
Write the electronic arrangement for an atom of:
(i)
sodium
(ii)
chlorine
(b)
Write down the formulae of the ions formed by:
(i)
sodium
(ii)
chlorine
(c)
Write down the formula of sodium chloride.
(d)
Solid sodium chloride will not conduct electricity, but when dissolved in water it will.
(i)
Explain why an aqueous solution of sodium chloride conducts electricity.
Ans

(ii) In what other way could you alter the state of sodium chloride so that it will conduct electricity?
Ans

(e)
A hot piece of sodium was placed in a jar of helium. No reaction took place.
(i)
Write the name of the group of the periodic table to which helium belongs.
(ii)
Explain why helium is unreactive.
Q.19
(a)

(b)(i)
(ii)
(c)(i)
(ii)

Here are the formulae of three compounds containing sodium.


(i) NaCl
(ii) Na2SO4
(iii) NaHCO3
Give the name of each compound.
(i)NaCl.
(ii)Na2SO4.
(iii)NaHCO3.
Which compound is made up of the most atoms? .
How many atoms does it contain? .
Which compound has the most different types of atoms? .
List the types of atom in this compound. .

Q.19

Complete the following paragraphs about atoms.


Atoms are the . particles of matter that can exist on their own. They are made
up of particles called protons, . and electrons. Protons have a
. charge and electrons have a . charge. The protons are
found in the . of the atom. In a neutral atom, the number of protons must
. the number of electrons. If they do not, the particle will be called an
. The number of protons in an atom is called its . The total
number of particles in the nucleus gives the . of the element. The
atoms of different elements are . They must contain different numbers of
. And . , although they may have the same number of
.

Q.20

The boxes represent particles of different gases. One box shows the particles of elements in
group 0 (group 8).

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(a) (i) What name is given to group 0 (8) elements?..............................................................................


(ii) Name two elements from group 0. ..............................................................................
(b)(i) Which box best represents particles from group 0 elements? ..
(ii) Explain the reason for your answer.
Ans

(c)
Ans
(d)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(e)

Q.21

(iii)
(c)

A lighted splint is put into a gas jar of helium. What would happen?

Some properties of elements change as you go down their group in the periodic table. For each
property listed below, comment on if and how it changes as you go down group 0.
reactivity
density
metal or non-metal
Which would be the best method to distinguish between different samples of group 0 gases?
Choose from the list below:
(i) shake the sample with water and add an indicator
(ii) do a flame test
(iii) put a lighted splint into a sample of each gas
(iv) measure the density of each
Lithium (Li) can be burnt in chlorine (C12) to give lithium chloride.
(a)(i) Write a word equation for the reaction.
Ans
.
(ii) Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction.
Ans
.
(b)(i) Which group in the periodic table does lithium belong to? .
(ii) How many electrons are there in its outside shell? ......
How many electrons are there in the outside shell of the chlorine?
Use a dot and cross diagram to explain how lithium and chlorine react together. Show only
the electrons in the outer shell.

(d)
(i)
(ii)

Sodium also reacts with chlorine.


Will the reaction be more reactive or less reactive than with lithium? ...
What is the common name of the product?

Q.22
(a)(i)
Ans
(ii)

Sarah is diving into a swimming pool. She can smell chlorine.


Explain why there is chlorine in the swimming pool.
..
Iodine is the same group of the periodic table as chlorine. Give a use
of iodine.
..
Chlorine and iodine are in group 7 of the periodic table. What name
is given to group 7 elements? ..
Is chlorine a metal or non-metal? .
Is iodine a metal or non-metal? .
The atomic number of chlorine is 17. What does this tell you?

The electron arrangement of chlorine is 2.8.7. How many electron shells does it have? .
Iodine has five electron shells. How many electrons are in the outer shell of iodine?

Ans
(b)(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(c)(i)
Ans
(ii)
(iii)

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(iv)

The symbol for chlorine is C1, iodine is I and sodium Na. Chlorine combines with sodium to
make sodium chloride, NaC1. Iodine also reacts with sodium. What will be the name and
formula of the compound formed?

Q.22

Emma takes a photograph of a friend. Her friend tells her that the film is coated
with silver bromide which is sensitive to light. Silver bromide can be made by
reacting silver nitrate with sodium bromide. The chemical reaction can be
represented as:

(a)(i)
(ii)
(b)(i)
(ii)
(c)(i)
(ii)

What happens to silver bromide in the light? .


Give another reaction which is affected by light energy.
What type of particle is Br- ? .
Is silver bromide soluble in water?
Suggest what would happen if a sample of silver iodide were left in the light
Silver iodide can be made in a similar way to silver bromide. Write an ionic equation to show
this reaction. Include the state symbols.

Ans
Q.23

The table below shows the elements on the third period. Sample of each of the elements were
burnt in oxygen and the oxides formed were tested to see whether they were acids or bases.

(a)(i)
(ii)

How many electron shells does the third period have? .


The element with atomic number 10 is neon. Explain in terms of electron arrangement why a
new period starts after neon.

Which three elements in the third period are metals? .


What trend do you notice about metallic properties as you go across the period?

Oxygen is in group 6. What does this tell you about number of electrons in the outside shell?...
Write down formulae for the oxides of sodium, magnesium and aluminium.

Ans
(b)(i)
(ii)
Ans
(c)(i)
(ii)
Ans

Q.24

Farah has balloons filled with three different gases. The symbols for the gases are written on
each balloon. She lets go of the balloons. The diagram shows what happens.
(a) To which group of the periodic table do the gases
belong? ...

(b)(i) Predict what would happen to a balloon filled with


krypton. ......

........
(ii) Explain the reasons for your answer.
........
........
........
...
...
(c)(i) Draw the electron structure of helium.

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(ii)
Ans

Explain how the electron structure is related to the chemical properties of helium.

(d)(i) Helium is often used to fill balloons. Give two reasons why this is a good choice.
Ans

(ii)
Neon, argon and krypton are used to fill light bulbs. Give a reason for this.
Ans