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Since the aim of the present investigation was to study the effects on the performance of diesel engine by using hydrogen as a fuel along with diesel, it was first necessary that a proper engine having required accession was chosen.
TECHNICAL DATA:Description :- Vertical, Cold Start, Four Stroke Cycle, Compression Ignition, Water Cooled. Diesel Engine. Type:UD1 No. of Cylinder:- One Bore(mm):80 Stroke(mm):- 110 Cubic Capacity(c.c.):- 553 Output KW HP :- 3.67/5 Rated R.P.M :- 1500 Compression Ratio :- 16.5:1 Bumping Clearance 0.91mm to 1.05 (0.036” to 0.042”) Fuel Injection release pressure:- 217 + 2% kg/cm2 Fuel Injection timing (by spill) :- 280 B.T.D.C Fuel Oil- High Speed Diesel Oil Fuel tank capacity :- 4.6 lit Lubricating oil:- SAE 30/40, HD 30/40 The pump has a rocker to prime the pump and cut-off the fuel to stop the engine. The fuel tank is not mounted on the engine but it was hanged at a certain height near by. From that the fuel is conveyed to the engine through a polyethylene pipe. The separation of the fuel tank from the engine is due to the reason that it was more convenient to measure the fuel consumption. The valve timings of the engine are ensued below :Particulars a) Inlet Valve Opens (IVO) b) Inlet Valve Closes (IVC) c) Exhaust Valve Opens (EVO) d) Exhaust Valve Closes (EVC) e) Fuel Injection Declared Values 03 to 10 Degree B.T.D.C. 30 to 40 Degree A.T.D.C. 30 to 40 Degree B.B.D.C. 03 to 10 Degree A.T.D.C
Function : To load the diesel engine. Type: Froude Hydraulic Dynamometer Working: When in action the rotor discharges water at high speed from its periphery into the pockets formed in the casing liners, by which it is then returned at diminished speed into the rotor pockets at a point near the shaft. The resistance offered by the water to the motion of the rotor reacts upon the casing, which tends to turn on its anti-friction roller supports. The tendency is counteracted by means of a lever arm terminating in a weighing device which measured the torque.
MEASUREMENT OF OUTPUT AND SPEED
The instrument indicates the output (bhp). The engine under test condition is coupled to a dynamometer through a mechanical coupling at the input of the dynamometer. The output shaft of the dynamometer is locked to a suitable capacity of load cell (here 20 kg). The engine torque is applied to dynamometer through the coupling. The output torque is applied through dynamometer to load cell and its instrument. The output of the engine is obtained by the formula WN 2000 Speed is one of the basic measurements. A wide variety of speed measuring equipments are available in the market. They range from mechanical tachometers to digital and triggered electrical tachometers. Here, we have measured the speed with the help of contact type digital tachometer. The tachometer is brought in contact with the rotating shaft and is kept in contact until a constant value is displayed on the screen. This constant value indicates the rotations per minute of the engine.
FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT
The fuel consumption of an engine is measured by determining the volume flow in a given time interval and multiplying it with the specific gravity of fuel, which should be measured occasionally to get an accurate reading. Another method is to measure the time read for consumption of a given mass of fuel. In our testing, we have used burette method. The burette method is placed between the engine and the main fuel tank through cocks where one is supplying the fuel to the burette and other to the engine. The time taken for 50c.c fuel is measured by closing down the burette supplying cock and opening the cock which supplies the fuel to the engine. Thus we allow the fuel to fall down upto the mark provided for 50c.c. The time for 50c.c. fuel consumption is noted and fuel consumption rate can be calculated by the following formula Fuel Consumption (Kg/hr) = 50 x 3600 x specific gravity Time in Seconds x 1000
AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT
For air measurement we have used an air tight drum fitted with orifice of known co-efficient of discharge. Due to suction of engine, there is a pressure difference in the drum which causes the flow through orifice for obtaining a steady flow. The volume of drum is sufficiently large as compared to the swept volume of the cylinder. The pressure difference causing the air flow through orifice is measured with the help of inclined tube manometer and then using the formula, air consumption rate is calculated.
INDICATED POWER AND FRICTION POWER
We have measured friction power by using the William’s line method. In this method, gross fuel consumption v/s B.P. at a constant speed is plotted and then the graph is extrapolated back to zero fuel consumption. The point where graph cuts the B.P. axis is an indication of the friction power at that speed. This negative work represents the combined loss due to mechanical friction, pumping and blow by. Indicated power cab be obtained by the formula – I.P. = B.P. + F.P.