820 views

Uploaded by KNOWLEDGE CREATORS

Advanced Business Mathematics and Statistics for Entrepreneurs - FOR PGPSE participants - FOR RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

- Introduction to Data Science
- ZICA T3 - Business Mathematics & Statistics
- Business Mathematics and Statistics
- Business Mathematics and Statistics.pdf
- Data Science Boot Camp Survival Manual
- Business Mathematics
- Business Mathematics and Statistics
- ZICA T4 - Economics
- Business Mathematics & Quantitative Methods
- DataScienceWeekly DataScientistInterviews Vol1 April2014
- ZICA T1 - Financial Accounting
- Business Mathematics and Statistics
- ZICA T7 - Information Technology & Business Communication
- ZICA Accountancy Programme Students Handbook
- Std11-BM-EM
- Applied Statistics For Business.pdf
- Correlation and Regression
- ZICA Student Handbook (New 2012 Syllabus)
- UltimateGuidetoDataScienceInterviews-2
- ZICA Technician recommended text books

You are on page 1of 262

by :

DR. T.K. JAIN

AFTERSCHO☺OL

centre for social entrepreneurship

sivakamu veterinary hospital road

bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india

FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS

afterschool@in.com

mobile : 91+9414430763

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 1

My words.....

fundamentals of statistics and business mathematics. I

welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me

in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for

which I need support of you people – not of any VIP.

With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we

stand....

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 2

What is permutation &

combination?

combination = it only denotes that some

objects are together

example : ABC can have only one combination

taking all of them together. But permutations

are many : - ABC,ACB,BCA,BAC,CBA,CAB

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 3

What is formula of permutation ?

Npr = n! / (n-r)!

p=permutation

n= total number of objects

r=how many objects you are taking at a time

! = multiply with reducing numbers till it reaches 1

example : 5p5 = 5! / (5-5)!

5!=5*4*3*2*1

0! = 1

thus answer = 120 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 4

How many different 4 digit letters

can you make out of A,B,C,D,E?

N = 5 (A,B,C,D,E)

R=4

formula = Npr = n! / (n-r)!

=5!/(5-4)!

= 120 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 5

How many different 4 digit numbers can you

make out of 1,2,3,4,0?

N = 5 (1,2,3,4,0)

R=4

but 0 cannot come in the first digit

for first digit we have 4 options (1,2,3,4), for next digits,

we can use 0. thus we have 4*4*3*2*1 = 96 options OR

formula = Npr = n! / (n-r)!

=5!/(5-4)! but this contains all those numbers which start

with 0. so let us keep 0 as fixed for 1st digit and solve it.

Now we have to pick up 3 digit out of 4

contd.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 6

contd.....

If it is not 0, permutation will be :

formula = Npr = n! / (n-r)!

=5!/(5-4)!

= 120

Zero fixed for 1st potion, we have these options :

Npr = n! / (n-r)!

n=4,r=3

4!/(4-3)! = 24

deduct this 24 from 120

120 -24 = 96 answer

you can use any formula (out of these 2), you get the same answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 7

How many different 4 digit numbers can you

make out of 1,2,3,4,0 which are divisible by 2?

now pick up all those which are ending with 1 :

3*3*2*1 = 18

similarly those which are ending with 3

3*3*2*1 = 18

thus 96 – (18+18) = 60 seems to be the answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 8

In how many ways can Raj invite

any 3 of his 7 friends?

This is a question of combination. Here order

(sequence) is not important, his friends can come in

any order. Thus this is a case of combination.

Formula : N! / ((n-r)!*r!)

you can calculate combination by dividing

permutation by r!

=7! / ((7-3)!*3!)

=(7*6*5)/(3*2*1) = 35 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 9

How many different words can

you frame from FUTURE ?

Here we have two U

total we have 6 digits.

Formula : N ! / L!

N= total number of digits

L = those digits which are repeated.

Answer = 6! / 2!

= 360 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 10

How many different words can

you frame from DALDA ?

Here we have two D & A

total we have 5 digits.

Formula : N ! / L!

N= total number of digits

L = those digits which are repeated.

Answer = 5! / (2!*2!)

= 30 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 11

In how many ways can 8 person

sit around a round table ?

to use the following formula :

(n-1)!

So here answer = (8-1)! = 7! =5040 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 12

How many 4 digit numbers can be

formed out of 1,2,3,5,7,8,9 if no

digit is repeated.

formula = Npr

n =7 r 4

7p4 = 7! / 3!

=7*6*5*4 = 840

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 13

How many numbers greater than

2000 can be formed from

1,2,3,4,5. No repeatition is

allowed.

5 digit numbers = 5! = 120

4 digit numbers,: we cant take 1 in the

beginning. We have 4 options for 1st digit 4 for

nd rd

2 digit 3 for 3 digit ...

4*4*3*2*1 = 96

total = 216 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 14

There are 6 books on english, 3 on maths, 2 on

GK. In how many ways can they be placed in

shelf, if books of 1 subject are together?

We have 3 subjects so 3!

books of same subjects can be interchanged.

So answer : 3!*6!*3!*2!

=6*720*6*2 = 51840 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 15

How many words can we make

out of DRAUGHT, the vowels are

never separated?

Number of vowels = 2

other digits = 5

we will treat vowels as 1 word

so we have 6!. Vowels can be interchanged so

2!

so answer = 6!*2! = 1440 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 16

In how many ways can 8 pearls be

used to form a necklace ?

formula : ½ (N-1)!

Here we can take reverse order of left to right

or right to left, so divide by ½

=1/2 (8-1)!

=2520

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 17

In how many number of ways can

7 boys form a ring ?

(7-1) !

= 6! = 720 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 18

50 different jewels can be set to

form necklace in how many

ways ?

½ ( n -1) !

= ½ (50 -1)!

=1/2 (49)!

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 19

How many number of different

digits can be formed from

0,2,3,4,8,9 between 10 to 1000?

Let us assume that repeatition is not allowed

Let us make 2 digit numbers :

for first digit we have 5 option, for 2nd digit also we have 5 options

(including 0) = 25

for 3 digit numbers : 5*5*4 = 100

total 125

if repeatition is allowed :

for 2 digit : 5 * 6 = 30 for 3 digit : 5*6*6 = 180

total = 210 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 20

What is the number of permutations of 10 different

things taking 4 at a time in which one thing never

comes ?

=9p4

= (9*8*7*6)

=3024

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 21

There are 5 speakers (A,B,C,D,E) , in how

many ways can we arrange their speach that A

always speaks before B

one.

4! = 24

place =3!

there are total 6 such possibilities so we have 6*6 = 36

total possibilities = 60 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 22

5 persons are sitting in a round table in such a

way that the tallest person always sits next to

the smallest person?

we have (4-1)! = 6

the tallest and the smallest person can be

interchanged = 2

=12

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 23

How many words can be formed

from MOBILE so that consonent

always occupies odd place ?

We have 3! *3!

=36 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 24

In how many ways can we

arrange 6 + and 4 – signs so that

no two – signs are together?

++++++

there are 5 places between 2 +. one on extreme

left and one on extreme right.

We have 7 positions for – sign

7c4

we have 6 places for 6 + sign, so we have 6c6

total = 35 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 25

There are 10 buses between Bikaner and Jaipur. In

how many ways can Gajendra go to Jaipur and come

back without using the same bus in return journey?

there are 9 options while returning (one bus

used earlier will not be used)

10*9 = 90 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 26

In how many ways can yamini distribute 8

sweets to 8 persons provided the largest sweet

is served to Jigyasha?

1 sweet is fixed

so we have 7!

= 5040 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 27

Yamini & Jigyasha go to a train and they find

6 vacant seats. In how many ways can they sit?

options left

= 6*5 = 30 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 28

How many words can you make

from DOGMATIC?

8!

40320 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 29

Gajendra has 12 friends out of whom 8 are

relatives. In how many ways can he invite 7

in such a way that 5 are relatives?

8c5 * 4c2

=56*6

=336 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 30

There are 8 points on a plane. No 3 points

are on a straight line. How many

traiangles can be made out of these ?

8c3

= 56 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 31

In how many ways can you form a

committee of 3 persons out of 12

persons ?

12c3

=220 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 32

How many different factors are

possible from 75600 ?

formula = (number of factors +1) (number of

factors +1) .... - 1

(4+1)(3+1)(2+1)(1+1) -1 =119 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 33

A box contains 7 red 5 white and 4 blue balls.

How many selections can be made that we pick

up 3 balls and all are red?

It is a question of combination.

Total possibilities = 7c3

chances of getting

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 34

A box contains 7 red 5 white and 4 blue balls.

What is the probability that in our selections

we pick up 3 balls and all are red?

7c3 = 7*6*5 / 3*2*1 = 35

total possibility of 3 balls : 16c3

=(16*15*14/3*2*1) =560

probability -

thus there are 35/560 chances of getting

red in all the three selections

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 35

What is the probability of getting

3 heads when I toss a coin 5

times?

This is a case of binomial probability (where

there are only 2 outcomes possible, we can use

this theory)

Here we can use this formula :

Ncr (p)^r * (q)^(n-r)

=n =5, p = ½ q = (1-p) = ½ , r = 3

5c3 (1/2)^3*(1/2)^2

=5/48 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 36

In how many ways can Gajendra invite some

or all of his 5 friends in party hosted by him?

(at least 1)

= 2^n – 1

= 2^5 - 1

= 32-1

=31 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 37

How many words can be formed by using all the

letters of the word DRAUGHT so that a. vowels

always come together & b. vowels are never together?

solution : 6!*2! = 1440 answer

b. total possibilities = 7! = 5040

number of cases when vowels are not together

= 5040-1440 = 3600 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 38

In how many ways can a cricket

eleven be chosen out of a batch

of 15 players.

15c11

=15! / ((15-11)!*11!)

=15!/(4!*11!)

=(15*14*13*12)/(4*3*2*1)

1365 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 39

In how many a committee of 5 members can be

selected from 6 men 5 ladies consisting of 3 men and

2 ladies

6c3 *5c2

=[(6*5*4)/(3*2*1)] [(5*4)/(2*1)]

=20*10

=200 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 40

How many 4-letter word with or without

meaning can be formed out of the letters of the

word 'LOGARITHMS' if repetition of letters is

not allowed

10p4

=(10*9*8*7)

=5040 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 41

how many ways can the letter of

word 'LEADER' be arranged

6!/2!

=720 / 2

=360 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 42

How many arrangements can be made out of the

letters of the word 'MATHEMATICS' be arranged

so that the vowels always come

together

total digits are 11

we we take 11 – 4+1 = 8 digits

vowels can be arranged among themselves =

4!/2!

=8!/ (2!*2!) * 4!/2! = 120960 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 43

In how many different ways can the letter of

the word 'DETAIL' be

arranged in such a way that the vowels occupy

only the odd positions

=3! *3!

=36 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 44

How many 3 digit numbers can be formed from the

digits 2,3,5,6,7 and 9 which are divisible by 5 and

none of the digits is repeated?

now we have 5 options for 1st and 4 options for

nd

2 digit

=5*4 = 20 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 45

In how many ways can 21 books on English and 19

books on Hindi be placed in a row on a self so that

two books on Hindi may not

be together?

22p19 *21!

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 46

Out of 7 constants and 4 vowels

how many words of 3 consonants

and 2 vowels can be formed?

Selection of 5 digits

=7c3 *4c2

=35*6 = 210

5 digits can be arranged in 5! ways

=120

total options : 210*120 = 25200 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 47

What is effective rate of interest ?

effective rate is generally higher than the rate.

For example: if rate is 20% compounded

quarterly, (4 times in a year) it will be equal to

: (1+20/400)^4

=1.2155

so effectiveinterest here is 21.55% answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 48

What is present value ?

money which is due after some time, it is called present

value. Due to factors like inflation, risk, uncertainity,

present value is always less. Suppose you have to get

1100 after 1 year, at a discount rate of 10% its present

value is 1000. (you can see here that there is a discount of

100)

Money due – discount for time factor = present value

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 49

What is future value ?

more than the sum invested.

If I invest 1000 today, with an interest rate of

10%, it will become 1100 after 1 year.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 50

Formula for present value ?

suppose 1221 is due after 3 years and rate of

interest is 10%, present value is :

1221 / (1+10/100)^3

=917.35 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 51

What is the formula for future

value ?

suppose 1000 is invested for 3 years and rate

of interest is 10% annually compounding,

future value is :

1000 * (1+10/100)^3

=1331 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 52

How to calculate EMI?

annuity. Here you need a factor

formula = ((1+rate)^n -1) / (rate(1+rate)^n)

here n= number of instalments

rate = rate % / number of instalments in a

year*100

EMI = amout to pay / factor of

annuity(calculated from above formula)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 53

What will be EMI for Rs. 5 lakh

rate of interest = 10%, payable in

20 annual instalments

((1+10/100)^20 - 1)/(10/100 (1+10/100)^20)

=5.73/.67 =8.55

EMI=500000/8.55 =58479 ANSWER

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 54

What will be EMI for Rs. 5 lakh

rate of interest = 10%, payable in

Monthly instalments in 20 years.

((1+10/1200)^240 - 1)/(10/1200*

(1+10/1200)^240)

6.328 / .061 =103.624

EMI = 500000 / 103.624 =4825 ANSWER

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 55

What is sinking fund ?

you are able to have a lot of money after some

time this is sinking fund

you create sinking fund to purchase a new

machinary / building etc

it is just reverse of the EMI (where you were

looking at present value of annuities), because

here you are taking future value of annuities.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 56

How to calculate sinking fund

contribution?

we have to use the following formula :

= ((1+rate)^n -1 )/(rate)

here n = number of instalment

rate = rate / number of instalments in a

year*100.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 57

Jigyasa has to collect 1 ml. After 5 years to start a new

factory. How should she save every month? Rate = 12%

= ((1+rate)^n -1 )/(rate)

=((1+12/1200)^60 -1) / (12/1200)

=.8167 / .01

dividing factor =81.669

monthly savings = 1000000/81.669

=12244.44 per month answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 58

What is a sample ?

contact only a few persons, this is called

sample.

Suppose we go to check the quality of wheat to

purchase. Instead of checking all the bags, we

pick up one bag randomly and pick out a few

grains, this is also a sample.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 59

What are the methods of sampling

?

1. random sampling = purely by chance – just like a lottery

2. judgement sampling – here we are using some basis for

judgement – the basis of judgement is related to our purpose of

research. 3. quota sampling – taking some number of persons

from each group

4. cluster sampling – here we divide populationin clusters

(based on their geography / demography / location / etc.) and

then pick up a few clusters (groups) of people and study them

all

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 60

contd...

population in different stratas (strata =

population divided on some logical criteria)

then we randomly take a few % of persons

from each strata.

Convenience sampling = taking sample on the

basis of your convenience

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 61

What is confidence level ?

interval estimate If we are using a confidence

level of 95%, it means that there are 95%

chances that our estimate will be close to

population parameter (mean).

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 62

What is the difference between

population parameters and sample

statistics ?

Population = actual population – but it is not

possible to collect all the information about

population due to our own resource constraints

we dont have time or resources to collect data

about population. Therefore we go for sample.

When we use sample, we are using sample

statistics. We try to estimate population

parameters from sample statistics.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 63

What is population parameter?

element in the population and take their data),

you can calculate population parameter. There

are different parameters which are of use like :

mean, mode, median, standard deviation, etc.

But we actually take sample so we estimate

population parameters from sample statistics.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 64

What is sample statistics?

median, standard deviation etc. Which are used

to estimate population parameter

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 65

What is sampling error?

sample and the population parameter is called

sampling error.

For example, population mean is 20 but sample

mean is 18, so sampling error = 2

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 66

What is quantitative data and

qualitative data ?

and how much

qualitative data=data which only contain

nominal scale – just name / labels etc.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 67

What are the various types of

scales of data ?

2. ordinal scale - they give order or ranks

3.interval scale: they have identifiable gaps, but they dont

have zero

4. ratio scale – they can be used to calculate ratio – they

have a zero and ratio can also be calculated, they are the

best in numerical analysis

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 68

What are the various methods to

present data ?

Scatter chart / diagrams

bar chart

Histogram

Ogive

Dot plot

etc.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 69

What is statistical inference ?

using sample data, it is called statistical

inference (here we use sample data, not the

population parameters).

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 70

What is a variable ?

some element. It can take different values.

Variables are denoted by X,Y,Z etc.

Examples of variables are :

for people = their education,

for car=their car, fuel efficiency etc.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 71

What is cross sectional data ?

different segments

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 72

What is cross tabulation?

presented in one table – one variable as X axis

and other variable as Y axis

for example : Age and Height

or Marks and Attendance

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 73

Can we take up same element

again in sampling ?

there are two types of sampling :

1. sampling with replacement

2. sampling without replacement

in sampling with replacement, it is possible

that by chance we may pick up same element

again (we should avoid).

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 74

What is normal distribution ?

distributions, normal distribution is used most

widely. It assumes that the data are bell shaped

and mean=mode=median. Normal distribution

assumes that most of the data are near mean

and extreme data are very few.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 75

How do you calculate mode ?

if there is continuous data,you may use the following

formula :

Mode = L1 + (D1 / (D1+D2) * class interval)

L1 = lower limit of the modal class

D1=higest frequency – frequency in preceding class

D2=higest frequency – frequency in succeeding class

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 76

Example of mode :

2,3,5,6,7,8,9,11,13,13,14,14,14,15,17,21,22,34,

43

out of these mode is 14 (because its frequency

is 3)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 77

Example of mode ?

Class frequency

10 to 20 4

20 to 30 8

30 to 40 12

40 to 50 4

apply the formula : modal class = 30 to 40

= 30 + ((12-8) / ((12-8)+(12-4)) * class interval

= 30 + 4/12 * 10 = 30+3.3 = 33.3 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 78

What is median ?

formula = n/2 or (n+1) / 2

example : 1,3,5,7,9

thre are 5 values, so n = 5

(5+1)/2 = 3

so 3rd value is median. Median = 5 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 79

Formula for median ?

L1 = lower limit

F = frequency

M=median = n/2

C = cumulative frequency of the previous class

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 80

Example of median ?

Class frequency C.F

10 to 20 4 4

20 to 30 8 12

30 to 40 12 24

40 to 50 4 28

L1 + ((M-C) / F)* class interval

M=28/2 = 14, so median class is 30 to 40

30 + (( 14-12)/12) * 10

=30+1.6 = 31.6 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 81

What is cumulative frequency ?

cumulative frequencies

in the previous example , 10to 20 is 4, but 20

to 30 is shown as 16 (4 of 10 to 20 is added in

it) cumulative frequency

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 82

What is relative frequency ?

Formula

= frequency of a class / number of items

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 83

Find mean, mode and median on

following data ?

10 to 20 5 5 75

20 to 30 12 17 300

30 to 40 12 29 420

40 to 50 5 34 225

total 34 1020

mean = 1020/34 =30,

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 84

solution...

Median = 20+(17-5)/12 * 10 = 30

mode cannot be calculated because there are

two equal modal values, so we use the

following formula

Mode = 3median – 2 mean

mode = 30 answer k

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 85

Calculate rank correlation

using the following data ?

X Y

2 11

4 8

6 3

8 1

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 86

Solution

Calculate their ranks

X Y Rx Ry D^2

2 11 4 1 9

4 8 3 2 1

6 3 2 3 1

8 1 1 4 9

d=rx-ry so D^2 = (Rx-ry)^2

D^2 = 20

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 87

What is formula of quartile

deviation ?

(q3 – q1)/ 2

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 88

What is formula of coefficient of

quartile deviation ?

(q3-q1) / (q3+q1)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 89

What is formula of coefficient of

mean deviation ?

or

mean deviation / mean

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 90

calculate combined standard deviation.

Means A=8 B = 3, std. Deviation A = 2 B

=1

n1 of a = 20 n2 =30

Formula = sqrt ((n1s1 +n2s2 +n1d1+n2d2)/(n1+n2))

d1 = mean of a – combined mean

d2 = mean of b -combined mean

combined mean = (160+90)/50 = 5

d1=3 d2 =-2

sqrt ((20*2 +30*1 +20*3+30*(-2))/(20+30))

=1.18 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 91

FORMULA OF RANK

CORRELATION

= 1 – (6*20)/(64 -4)

=1 - 120/60

=1-2 =-1

Thus two series have perfectly negative

correlation

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 92

What is sample space?

sample space

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 93

What is experiment ?

change some variables that is called

experiment,

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 94

What is experimental group?

There are generally two types of groups – one

on which you undertake experiment

(experimental group) and one on which you

dont do any experiment, just do observation.

(control group)

Example – if you have two plants, on one plant

you pour fertilisers and on the other you dont

put any fertilizer, then the former is

experimental group and 2nd is control group.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 95

What is standard deviation?

Deviation = difference

here we find the difference of each value with

mean and this will create standard deviation.

Formula = square root of (sum of squares of

difference of each element from mean)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 96

Example : of standard deviation..

X dx^2

2 4

3 1

5 1

6 4

average = 16/4 = 4, dx = x-average = 2-4 = -2

average of dx^2 = variance = 10 / 4 = 2.5

standard deviation = square root of variance

= sqrt(2.5) =1.58 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 97

Steps in calculation of standard

deviation ?

1. calculate average. For this total all the values of X and

then divide it by n (in our example, we have divided 16/4,

where 16 is total of all values and 4 is number of

elements.

2. find dx (difference of x from mean)

3. square the dx to get dx^2

4 . find average of dx^2 this is called variance.

5. find square root of variance. This is called standard

deviation.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 98

What is covariance ?

then we can find their relation, we need

covariance.

Co = together Variance = difference

formula of covariance

= total of dx*dy /number of elements

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 99

Example of covariance :

X Y dx dy dx*dy

2 6 -2 2 -4

3 5 -1 1 -1

5 3 1 -1 -1

6 2 2 -2 -4

average of X=16/4 =4 , average of Y = 16/4=4

dx = difference of each element from X

dy = difference of each element from Y

total of dxdy=-10

covariance = -10/4 = -2.5 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 100

What is correlation and regression

between two variable. It doesnt tell you which is the

dependent and which is independent variable. If you

want to predict / forecast, you have to use regression.

In regression, we have two variables – one dependent

and one independent. Regression tells you about

relation of these two variables. Based on regression,

you can predict / forecast.

How to calculate correlation?

There are many methods to calculate correlation, but the

carl pearson's method is the most popular method.

Formula of correlation = covariance / (product of standard

deviation of X * standard deviation of Y)

suppose covariance of X and Y is -4 and standard

deviation of X is 2 and standard deviation of Y is also 2,

then correlation

= -4 / (2*2) = -1

What is the maximum and

minimum value in correlation ?

relation)

minimum correlation = -1(perfectly negative

relation – one falls other declines)

no relation = 0

Example of correlation?

X Y dx dy dx*dy

2 6 -2 2 -4

3 5 -1 1 -1

5 3 1 -1 -1

6 2 2 -2 -4

average of X=16/4 =4 , average of Y = 16/4=4

total of dxdy=-10 total of dx^2 = 10, standard deviation of x =

sqrt(2.5) and standard deviation of Y = sqrt(2.5)

covariance = -10/4 = -2.5

correlation = -2.5 / (sqrt (2.5) * sqrt (2.5)) = -1 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 104

What is regression ?

one independent variable) is as under :

y = a+ bx+e

a = intercept

b=slope

e=error

since error is random and moves in either direction, so we

generally write as y=a+bx

What is regression?

assumes that there are at least two data sets,

one is dependent on another. Example :

if you say that demand is based on price, then

we can have regression between price and

demand. Price will be independent variable

(called X), and demand will be dependent

variable (called Y)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 106

What is slope and intercept ?

Simplest form of regression is linear regression (a

straight line between dependent and independent

variable).

Here we need two things : slope and intercept.

Slope is denoted by B and intercept is denoted by A.

Formula of regression is : Y = A +BX

1. A is the point (value) of Y when X = 0

2. B denotes the rate of change in Y in response to

change in X.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 107

How to calculate slope?

In the formula of y=a+bx, we use b to denote slope. It

denotes change in y with reference to change in x. Slope

can be calculated with the following formula =

= covariance / (variance of x)

once we calculate b, we can easily calculate a by putting

in the formula y=a+bx

thus we can get both a and b, then we can calculate yhat or

Ỷ = a+bx (because a and b are known and with the help of

x we can predict y)

Example of regression

X Y dx dy dx*dy

2 6 -2 2 -4

3 5 -1 1 -1

5 3 1 -1 -1

6 2 2 -2 -4

average of X=16/4 =4 , average of Y = 16/4=4

variance of x = 2.5 covariance = -10/4 = -2.5

b=covariance/variance of x, and covariance =-2.5, variance of x=2.5

b= -2.5 / 2.5 = -1 now put it in formula to get a y=a+bx

take y=4, x=4, b=-1 so 4 = a+(-1) 4 = or a = 8

thus a = 8, b = -1 so we can now predict y

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 109

What is coefficient of

determination ?

the percent of the variation that can be

explained by the regression equation.

the explained variation divided by the total

variation

the square of r (r denotes correlation)

it is also called r squared

we calculate it by taking difference of

estimated y and average of y

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 110

Example of coefficient of

determination

Suppose estimated Y = 4

actual Y = 3

average of Y = 7

now total variation is 3-7 = -4

explained variation (determination) = 4-7 = -3

unexplained variation (error) = 3 -4 =- 1

here coefficient = -3/-4*100 =75%

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 111

What is coefficient of variation ?

suppose standard deviation = 2

suppose mean = 4

=2/4 *100 = 50%

coefficient of variation = 50%

What is skewness ?

they are skewed. They are either towards left

or towards right side.

If the data are not skewed, it looks like a bell

shaped data. But if it is skewed, it looks like a

slope or like a see – saa.

Formula = (mean – mode ) / standard deviation

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 113

What is bar chart ?

to denote frequencies of X variables (on X

axis)

length of the bar should be equal to frequency

it is similar to histogram (but there we use

connected rectangles

What is ogive ?

basis. Here you first calculate cumulative

frequency and then find its %. Data may be

expressed using a single line. You can display

the total at any given time. The relative slopes

from point to point will indicate greater or

lesser increases. Ogive can be from left to right

or from right to left

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 115

Example of ogive

(here data are absolute in

cumulative frequency – not in %)

What is class interval ?

for example : 10 to 20

here class interval is 20-10 =10

class interval is calculated by following

formula : (highest – least)/ number of classes

desired

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 117

What is the difference between

continuous and discrete data?

10.00073 it is writtes like : 10 to 20 (so here

any value between 10 to 20 can come)

but discrete data can take only certain

numerical values like 3,4,5,6 etc.

Which of the following are linear

equations?

a) y = 4x − 5 b) 2x − 3y + 8 = 0 c)

y = x² − 2x + 1

d) 3x + 1 = 0 e) y = 6x + x^3

f) y = 2

answer : out of these all those equation which result in

straight line make a linear equation. C and E dont make

any straight line. Rest all are linear equations.

Which of these ordered pairs

solves the equation y = 5x − 6 ?

answer :

b&d

There are two lines : 2x+3y+5=0

and 4x-5y+2 = 0, find the point of

their intersection?

then subtract the second equation, you wil get :

11Y=-8 or Y = -8/11

putting this value, we get X = 1/11

Are these points are collinear ?

A = 2,3

B = 4,1

C= -2,7

the points are collinear, if they are on one line.

They are on one line if they satisfy the

following formula :

Xa(Yb-Yc) +Xb(Yc-Ya)+Xc(Ya-Yb) =0

=2(1-7)+4(7-3)-2(3-1) = -12+16-4 =0

5 DECEMBER 09

so these points are

www.afterschool.tk

collinear 122

Find the equation of the line

which is parallel to 4x+7y+5=0,

and passes through 5, -4.

In case of parallel lines, the slope remains

same thus only constant changes. Here

constant is 5.

4(5)+7(-4)+k=0

k=8

4x+7y+8=0 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 123

Are these points colinear? Make

an equation from them?

(3,1), (5,-5),(-1,13)

3(-5-13) +5(13-1)+-1(1--5)

=-54+60-6

=0

these points are colinear

Y-Y1/Y2-Y1 =X-X1/X2-X1

Y-1/-6 = X-3/2

2Y-2=-6x+18

Y+3X=10 answer

Find the equation of the line parallel to

the line joining (7,5) and (2,9) and

passing through (3,4) ?

Y-Y1/Y2-Y1 =X-X1/X2-X1

Y-5/9-5 = X-7/2-7

-5Y+25=4X-28

=4X+5Y -53 =0

for parallel, constant = k

4(3) +5(4)+k=0

k = -32

so equation = 4x+5y-32=0 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 125

What is a variable ?

Generally variable is denoted by X,Y,Z, and

constant is denoted by a,b,c

variable can be of two types :

1. discrete – it takes only integer values

example: number of houses

2.continuous – it can take any values example :

height of a person

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 126

What is a function?

It shows relation between two variable – one is

dependent and one independent

dependent variable is dependent on independent

variable

example : price = f(demand)

here we want to show that price is dependent on

demand, so price is a function of demand.

Dependent variable = price, independent variable =

demand

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 127

What are the various types of

functions ?

1. linear function

example : Y = A +bx

here there is a straight line on a graph paper – and there is a

direct linear relation between the two variables

2. polynomial function : there are multiple independent

variables

Y = a+bx1+cx2 ....

3. absolute value function - no impact of negative values

What are the measures of central

tendency ?

Mean = arithematic average (sum / number)

Mode = the Variable which has highest

frequency

Median = the exact mid point of data.

For example :

2,3,8,11,11

here Median = 8, mean = 7, Mode = 11

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 129

Formula of mean ?

in the previous example : add all the values of

2,3,8,11,11

= 35

there are 5 values so divide 35 by 5 = 7

mean is denoted by Xbar

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 130

What is relation between mean,

mode and median?

mode=3median-2 mean

in our example it should be :

= 3*8 – 2 * 7

=10.

but we have found 11.actually you will see,

that the mode here should be 10 – as we

discuss in later exercises

st

Calculate 1 quartile from the

following data ?

X Freq. C.F

10 TO 20 4 4

20 TO 30 6 10

30 TO 40 8 18

40 TO 50 7 25

50 TO 60 5 30

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 132

SOLUTION

Q1 = n/4 =first quartile= 30/4 = 7.5

7.5 falls in 20 to 30

= 20 + (7.5 – 4) / 6 * (10)

=20 + ((3.5/6) *10)

=20 + 5.8

= 25.8 ANSWER

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 133

st

Calculate 31 percentile from the

following data ?

X Freq. C.F

10 TO 20 4 4

20 TO 30 6 10

30 TO 40 8 18

40 TO 50 7 25

50 TO 60 5 30

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 134

Solution

FORMULA = L 1 (31p – c) / f * (class

interval)

31p= n/100 *31 = 30/100 *31 =9. 3

9.3 falls in 20 to 30

= 20 + (9.3 – 4) / 6 * (10)

=20 + ((5.3/6) *10)

=20 + 8.8

= 28.8 ANSWER

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 135

Can mean, mode and median be

equal?

Yes - in normal distribution, mean, mode and median

are all equal.

In normal distribution, we have 3 characteristics :

1. data are symmetrical

2. data are more in central values and less as we move

apart

3. mean=mode=median

most of statistical formula require normal distribution.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 136

How to calculate median in bigger

data :

Formula :( N+1 )/ 2

n=number of data

for example : 1,2,3,4,5,6,6,7

here we have 8 values , so (8+1)/2 = 4.5

so we should take mid value between 4 and 5,

which is 4.5 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 137

What types of data series are there

?

There are many types of data series :

individual data

discrete series

continuous series

in continuous data series, there is no value

which is not possible.

(for example : 0 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 30) ....

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 138

What are the measures of

dispersion?

Dispersion = how the data is looking in

comparison to mean.

If data is wide apart from mean, there is high

dispersion.

If the data is just close to mean, there is very

less dispersion.

If data has more dispersion, there is less

uniformity in the data. We have many tools to

measure dispersion like range, variance etc.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 139

Example of high and less

dispersion of data :

Low dispersion : 6,6,7,7,7,7,8,8,9,

high dispersion : 1,4, 8, 19,20,50,60,80,100

you can see, the first data set has far more consistency

and dispersion is less.

Tools to measure dispersion are : range, standard

deviation, variance, mean deviation etc.

Range = highest – least value.

In the first case range = 9-6 = 3, in 2nd case range =

100-1 = 99

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 140

What is standard deviation?

value and mean. Then we square the difference

and find the average. This is called variance.

Square root of variance is called standard

deviation. This gives us an estimate of

dispersion of data.

Example of standard deviation?

X has 5 values : 1,2,3,4,5

its total is 10. average = 15/5 = 3

now we take difference of each value :

(1-3) = -2, (2-3)=-1, (3-3) = 0...

so we get : -2,-1,0,1,2,

now square them = 4,1,0,1,4 total =10

now find the mean=10/5 = 2 (this is variance)

square root of 2 = 1.4 is the standard deviation.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 142

Example of intercept and slope ?

slope = 20/10 = 2

if it is written that X,Y points are : (0,2), (2,4),

(4,6),(6,8) ... here you can see that there is a

linear relation between X and Y. (first digit is

X and second digit is Y).

Intercept is 2, because when X is 0, Y is 2.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 143

Find slope in the following

example?

X Y

2 11

4 8

6 3

8 1

Solution

so first we shall calculate covariance

Solution

X Y dx dy dxdy dx^2

2 11 3 -5.25 -15.75 9

4 8 1 -2.25 - 2.25 1

6 3 -1 2.75 -2.25 1

8 1 -3 4.75 -14.25 9

covariance = (-34.5 / 4) = 8.62

variance of x = 20 / 4 = 5

slope (b) = 8.62/5 = 1.72 answer

What are the types of data ?

2. secondary (which is already collected for

some other purpose, but you can also use it).

What are the various types of

statistical analysis?

1. descriptive statistics : here you collect data

and present it (for example data on market

share)

2. inductive statistics : here you undertake

statistical inferences and estimate for future

3. statistical decision theory : here you have to

take decision about a situation based on

statistics

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 148

What are the basic tools for

statistical analysis ?

2. formulate hypothesis

3. set significance level (how much accuracy

do you want)

4. set sampling frame, research design &

collect data

5. analyse data and draw inferences

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 149

What is hypothesis ?

What do you want to test. We frame 2

hypothesis at least. One of them is null

hypothesis and one is alternate thesis. Based on

literature review & our own experiences, we

frame some understanding on the subject. We

have to frame null hypothesis which is

opposite of this idea. Then we have to frame

alternate hypothesis. We test out null

hypothesis.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 150

What is type I and type II error ?

true, we are having type I error

if we accept a null hypothesis which is actually

false – we are having type II error.

We have to set standards for both these errors.

If you become liberal for type I error, then type

II error will increase and vice versa.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 151

What is alpha ά ?

How do we test alpha ?

We calculate P value.

If P value is less than alpha, we reject null

hypothesis

if P value is more than alpha then we cant

reject null hypothesis

What is p value ?

possibilitity of error. It is calculated to be

compared with alpha. Alpha is determined in

advance, but P value is actual observation.

How does statistics &

econometrics help you in business

decisions?

You can test your decisions using data.

You can also build models.

There are various types of model :

1. physical, 2. geographic 3. schematic 4.

analog 5. mathematical / statistical /

econometrics based

statistics and econometrics can help you in

building the last types of models (5th type)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 155

What types of statistical analysis

are possible ?

2. bivariate (there are two sets of data) 3.

multivariate (there are many sets of data)

What are univariate tools?

moving average analysis etc.

What are bivariate tools ?

What are multivariate tools ?

multivariate regression etc.

Here we have many variables :

example : demand is dependent on

An biased die is tossed.Find the

probability of getting a

multiple of 3?

The possible options are : 1 to 6.

there are only 2 multiples of 3 : 3,6

so probability is (number of favourable

outcomes ) / (total number of possibilities)

= 2/6 = 1/3 answer

In a simultaneous throw of a pair

of dice,find the

probability of getting a total more

than 7?

We can have 36 possibilities (6*6) however, we need only

those cases where the total is 8 or more. These are : (6,2),(6,3),

(6,4),(6,5),(6,6),(5,3),(5,4),(5,5),(5,6),(4,4),(4,5),(4,6),(3,5),

(3,6),(2,6) =15

answer = 15/36 = 5/12 answer

A bag contains 6 white and 4

black balls .Two balls are

drawn at random .Find the

probability that they are of the

same colour?

Both are white : 6/10*5/9

both are black = 4/10*3/9

add them : =42/90 or 7/15

or : 6c2/10C2*1/2 + 4c2/10c2

=21/45 = 7/15 answer

Two dice are thrown

together.What is the probability

that the sum of the number on

the two faces is divisible by 4 or

6?

The possibilities are : (1,3)(1,5) (2,2) (2,4),(2,6),(3,1),(3,3),

(3,5),(4,2),(4,4),(5,1),(5,3),(6,2),(6,6)

thus we are able to get 14 out of 36. so answer = 7/18 answer

Two cards are drawn at random

from a pack of 52 cards What

is the probability that either both

are black or both are

queens?

Both are black = 26/52 * 25/51=25/102

both are queens : 4/52 * 3/51=3/663

both are black queens : 2/52*1/51 = 1/1326

now add them : (25/102 + 3/663 – 1/1326)

=(325+6-1)/1326

=330/1326 or .25 answer

Two dices are tossed the

probability that the total score

is a prime number?

totals are : (1,2),(1,1),(1,4),(1,6),(2,1),(2,3),

(2,5),(3,2),(3,4),(4,1),(4,3),(5,2),(5,6),6,1),(6,5)

=15/36 answer

Two dice are thrown simultaneously .what is

the probability

of getting two numbers whose product is even?

product will be even number. Thus we should pick up all

those cases when both the numbers are odd numbers :

(1,1),(1,3),(1,5),(3,1),(3,3),(3,5),(5,1),(5,3) (5,5)

thus there are only 9 such cases. Remove them from 36,

we get : 27 cases

answer : 27/36 answer

In a lottery ,there are 10 prizes and 25 blanks.A

lottery is

drawn at random. what is the probability of

getting a prize ?

10/(10+25)

=10/35 or 2/7 answer

In a class ,30 % of the students offered English,20 %

offered Hindi and 10 %offered Both.If a student is

offered at random, what is the probability that he has

offered English or Hindi?

Two cards are drawn from a pack of 52 cards .What is

the probability that either both are Red or both are

Kings?

both are king = 4/52 + 3/51

now add both these answers =55/221

one card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 cards.What

is the probability that the card drawn is a face card?

total = 12

12/52 answer

A man and his wife appear in an interview for two

vacancies in the same post.The probability of husband's

selection is 1/7 and the probabililty of wife's selection is

1/5.What is the probabililty that only one of them is

selected?

=1/7 * 4/5 = 4/35

wife + not husband

=1/5 * 6/7 = 6/35

add = 10/35 answer

From a pack of 52 cards,one card is drawn at

random.What is the probability that the card is

a 10 or a spade?

=16/52 answer

A bag contains 4 white balls ,5 red and 6 blue balls .Three

balls are drawn at random from the bag.What is the

probability that all of them are red ?

5/15*4/14*3/13

or 5c2/15c2 =

=2/91

A box contains 10 block and 10 white balls.What is

the probability of drawing two balls of the same

colour?

10/20 * 9/19 =9/38

+both are white :

10/20 * 9/19 =9/38

or

black : 10c2 / 20c2

+white : 10c2 / 20c 2

=90/190

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 174

A box contains 20 electricbulbs ,out of which 4 are

defective, two bulbs are chosen at random from this

box.What is the probability that at least one of these is

defective ?

to reverse the question, solve it and deduct the

answer from 1. So here we shall first calculate

the probability of getting no defective bulb.

Let us assume that no bulb is defective :

16/20 * 15/19 = 12/19

at least one is defective = 1 -12/19

= 7/19 answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 175

Two cards are drawn together

from apack of 52 cards.What is

the probability that

one is a spade and one is a heart ?

nd

First is spade and 2 heart :

13/52 * 13/51 = 13/204

nd

First is heart and 2 spade :

13/52 * 13/51 = 13/204

add them : 13/102 answer

The probability that a card drawn

from a pack of 52 cards will be a

diamond or a king?

=16/52

What is hypothesis ?

you want to study is called hypothesis.

We prepare two types of hypothesis :

1 null hypothesis (just opposite of what we think or what

we are testing out)

2. alternate hypothesis (what we want to check out).

We study and check null hypothesis only.

What is systematic sampling ?

If you pick up first unit by random sampling

thereafter you pick up each value

systematically it is called systematic sampling.

Suppose you pick up first unit randomly, this is

12, no you take up every 4th element, it is

systematic sampling, you take up 12, 16, 20,

24, 28 ... so on thus this type of sampling saves

time and creates the virtues of random

sampling also.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 179

What are continuous and discrete

distributions ?

Continuous distributions are :

1. normal

2. exponential

Discrete distributions are :

1. pascal

2.poisson

3. binomial

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 180

What is theoretical distribution ?

exactly the same value as population. If you

pick up a large number of samples out of

population, and plot the values of these

samples, you will get what we call as

theoretical distribution. If the sample size is

large, the theoretical distribution will

approximate the real population.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 181

What is normal distribution ?

two parameters mean ("average" m) and standard

deviation (σ). A theoretical frequency distribution for a set

of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped

curve symmetrical about the mean.

MEAN=MEDIAN=MODE

& data symmetrical bell shaped

What is Z, if mean=100 and standard

deviation (σ) 6 find P(X<106)

formula of Z = value – mean / standard deviation

Z = (106-100)/6 = 1

Step 2: Find the value of 1 in Z table

Z = 1 = 0.3413

Step 3: Here the X value is greater than mean (bell shaped curve is

half = .5 in both side equally, .3413 is in right side of this curve, but

left side is also included, so .5 of left side)

P(X) = 0.5 + 0.3413 = 0.8413

What is probability density

function?

PDF of a continuous random variable is a

function which can be integrated to obtain the

probability that the random variable takes a

value in a given interval. PDF is used to find

the point of Normal Distribution curve.

Continuous Probability Density Function of the

Normal Distribution is called the Gaussian

Function.

Formula of PDF ?

((1/(σsqrt(2π)))*e^(x-m)^2 / (2σ^2)

What is type I error ?

actually correct, it is called type I error

it is also called alpha

What is type II error ?

actually incorrect, it is called type II error

What is type III error ?

called type III error

it is rarely used.

What is binomial distribution ?

The Binomial Distribution is one of the

discrete probability distribution. It is used

when there are exactly two mutually exclusive

outcomes of a trial. These outcomes are

appropriately labeled Success and Failure. The

Binomial Distribution is used to obtain the

probability of observing r successes in n trials,

with the probability of success on a single trial

denoted by p.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 189

Example of binomial distribution

probability of getting 3 heads on 4 trials

(coin has only two outcomes = head, tail)

(what is probability of observing 3 successes

in 4 trials, with the probability of success on a

single trial denoted by p = .5)

formula : P(X = r) = nCr p^r (1-p)^(n-r).

C = combination

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 190

Solution ....

N = 4, r = 3 p = .5

formula of combination = N! / ((N-r)! * r!)

C = 4! / ((4-3)! * 3!) =24 / (1*6) = 4

4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24

Ncr = 4,

p^r = (.5)^3 = .125

(1-p)^(n-r). = (1-.5)^(4-3) = .5

solution = 4*.125*.5 =.25 answer

What is poisson distribution?

distribution. This distribution is used for

calculating the possibilities for an event with

the given average rate of value(λ). A poisson

random variable(x) refers to the number of

success in a poisson experiment.

Formula of poisson distribution

f(x) = ((e^-λ)(λ^x)) / x!

where,

λ is an average rate of value.

x is a poisson random variable.

e is the base of logarithm(e=2.718)

in an office 2 customers arrived today (take it as average).

Calculate the possibilities for exactly 3 customers to be

arrived on tomorrow.

Here λ (lembda) (mean arrival) = 2, & x (value to calculate) = 3

Step1: Find e^-λ.

where, λ=2 and e=2.71828

e-λ = (2.718)^-2 = 0.135.

Step2: Find λ^x.

where, λ=2 and x=3.

λx = 2^3 = 8.

Step3: Find f(x).

f(x) = e-λλx / x!

f(3) = (0.135)(8) / 3! = 0.18.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 194

How to carry out hypothesis

testing ?

First of all fix level of significance and alpha.

If you keep alpha of 5% it means that you will consider

level of significance of 95%. That means that there would

be 5% chance of error (which you are willing to tolerate).

When we calculate Z (in normal distribution), we try to

see whether it will fall in our level of significance or not

and what is the p value. If p value is less than our

acceptable error, we reject the null hypothesis.

What is alpha in statistics ?

Alpha is also denoted by type I error

What is the variance of binomial

distribution ?

N*p*q

n = number of units

p = probability

q = (1-p)

Calculate coefficient of

concurrent deviation ? (a type of

correlation)

X Y

4 8

5 4

6 2

8 1

Solution

c = number of positive signs as concurrent

deviations

m = totle number of pairs

Solution

X Y dx dy dxdy

4 8

5 4 + - -

6 2 + - -

8 1 + - -

here m = 3, c = 0 (C is number of + signs in dxdy)

= -sqrt (-(0-3) / 3) =- 1 so there is correlation of -1.

answer

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 200

What is finite population

multiplier ?

When we are taking samples from finite

population without replacement, then the

properties of normal distribution get distorted,

because the probability of 2nd item depends on

st

1 item and so on. Therefore we have to use

finite population multiplier with all our

formula : sqrt( (N-n) / N-1))

N=population size; n=size of sample

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 201

What is standard error mean ?

Error = fluctuations

standard deviation of mean is also called

standard error of mean

its formula = standard deviation / sqrt(n)

n = number of items in sample

Formula for standard error mean ?

n = size of sample

multiplier

Why do we do sampling ?

When we are collecting any data – there are two

options – 1. contact each unit and collect data from

this – called census

2. pick up only a few and on the basis of their

response try to infer the response of the entire

population – called sampling

sampling saves time, resources, but there is little bit

possibility of error – which can be minimised by

systematic research process.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 204

What are the main types of

sampling ?

Probability or non probability sampling

probability sampling = where each element has equal

probability of selection

non-probability sampling = where due to some or other

reason, there is inqual probability of selectio of item

example : in a fair contest, every one has equal chance /

lottery – these are examples of probability sampling

non-probability sampling - reservation / selection of your

own friends / nepotism

What are probability sampling

methods ?

1. simple random sampling (just like lottery)

2. systematic sampling (select first item randomly thereafter

pick up each item on fixed gap)

3. stratified sampling (divide population in different strata /

group / classification and then pick up randomly some

persons from each strata)

4. cluster sampling (here pick up one or a few cluster out of

a large number of clusters)

When should we use which types

of sampling ?

universe and the situation.

Suppose, you are able to get clusters, which

have elements representing the entire

population, you may go for cluster sampling.

If you want to really use a good method, have

random sampling in that method.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 207

What are the methods of

nonprobability sampling ?

Here we undertake sampling on the basis of

some criteria / convenience :

1. convenience sampling (example : you pick

up people from your friends / relations )

2. quota sampling (example our reservation

system)

3. judgemental sampling (example : select

sample on some criteria)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 208

What is multi-stage sampling ?

stages, it is called multistage sampling.

Example : suppose you want to study rural

development in the world - First you pick up

nation to study, then you pick up state, then

you pick up district, then you pick up village

and finally the sample

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 209

What is cluster sampling ?

are many clusters and each cluster is a mini

representation of the entire population, then we

can go for cluster sampling.

What is sampling distribution ?

Sampling distribution is the distribution of all the means

of the various samples that are possible from a population.

Example : suppose our population is 1,2,3,4,5,6 and we

are picking up samples of 3 units out of this. Population

mean = 3.5

sample means could be : (1,2,3) = 2, (2,3,4) = 3, (3,4,5) =

4 and so on. So we can have sample means like 2,3,4,5,

etc. If we plot these sample means, it will give us

distribution which is similar to the population itself.

Larger the sample, more accurate will be the estimation.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 211

What is sampling distribution of

mean?

means is called sampling distribution of mean

What is central limit theory and

Z?

mean=median=mode and all these are in the

centre of data (data is bell shaped)

Z = (sample mean - population mean ) /

(standard deviation * sqrt(n))

based on Z we can calculate probability of a

value taking some value on the graph.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 213

Example of central limit theory

Population mean = 100

variance = 36

sample size = 25

what is the Z that sample has mean of 90 ?

(90 – 100) / (6 * (5) )

= 10 / 30 = - .33

thus Z = - .33 from this we can make inference

here we should use t distribution instead of z

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 214

What is the difference between Z

and T ?

t is also for Z. But when the sample size is less

than 30, we have to use t instead of z

as the sample size increases, t approaches z if

the sample size is more than 30, we have to use

z instead of t

What is the z for proportion ?

proportion, we use the followng formula :

= (sqrt ((p * q ) / n )))

p = possibility / probability / porportion which

is desired

q = 1-p

n = sample size

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 216

What is one tailed or two tailed

test ?

(increase or decrease) it is two tailed test

when we are comparing only one side, it is one

tailed test.

What is the procedure in

hypothesis testing ?

2. fix level of significance

3. define critical region

4. compare actual values with desired values

5 conclude

Govt data say that 65% of Indian students rent

out their bikes. In a sample of 200 only 80

claimed to have rented out their bikes. Prepare

null hypothesis and test it.

so Ho (null hypothesis) = .65

H1 = < .65

testing = (.4 - .65) / sqrt(200)

What is chi square ?

Compare actual and expected values

x y

a 11 12 23

b 9 8 17

totl: 20 20 40

in order to calculate expected value we use folllowing

formula : (row total * column total) / grand total

=for first value of 11, we have :

(23*20 ) / 40 = 11.5

Table of expected values ....

x y

a 11.5 11.5 23

b 8.5 8.5 17

totl: 20 20 40

Calculate difference between

observed and expected values

2nd (12-11.5) = .5

rd

3 (9 – 8.5) = .5

th

4 (8-8.5) = -.5

Find square of the difference

1st = .25

2nd ..25

rd

3 .25

th

4 .25

Divide this value by expected

value

1st = .25 /11.5 =.02

2nd ..25 /11.5= .02

3rd .25/8.5=.029

4th .25 / 8.5 =.029

total these values = .1 this is chi=square value

at 5% significance level, the standard chi square value

is 3.84 which is more than our value, so we cant

reject null hypothesis and we conclude that both the

groups are similar.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 224

Question : 600 rich and 400 poor students take

a test. Use chi square test to find whether their

marks are significantly different or not ?

H L

R 460 140 600

P 240 160 400

TOT. 700 300 1000

Start = frame hypothesis and

significance level

alternate hypothesis = both groups are not

similar

significance level:-

ά=5% (there are 5% chances that an incorrect

hypothesis is rejected)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 226

CHI SQUARE – STEP 1.

find expected values for each of

these values

The formula is

=: (row total * column total)/grand total

expected values are as under :

H L

R 420 180 600

P 280 120 400

TOT. 700 300 1000

Step 2 : find difference between

observed and expected values and

square them up.

Formul a = (o – e)^2

H L

R 1600 1600

P 1600 1600

Step 3 : divide (o-e)^2 by

expected values

H L

R 1600/420 1600/180

P 1600/280 1600/120

Step 4 : add them all : this is chi

square value

total = 31.75

Step 5 : compare this value with

standard value.

Standard value can be calculated by a formula or you can also

see chi-square table to find the standard value.

Table has two dimensions : one dimension shows degree of

freedom and one dimension denotes level of significance

degree of freedom = (row -1) (column -1)

=(2-1*(2-1) = 1

at 1 degree of freedom and ά=5% we find the chi square table

value is 3.84. so compare the value with 3.84

Step 6 : derive conclusion

If the calculated value of chi square is more

than the table value, then reject the null

hypothesis. If the calculated value of chi square

is less than the table value, then accept the null

hypothesis.

In this case, our calculated value of chi square

is 31.75, which is higher than table value of chi

square (3.84) so we can reject the null

hypothesis

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 232

Conclusion

rejected and there seems to be significant

difference between the two groups.

Graphical presentation

3.84

ce zone

31.

75

10% of the tools produced turn out to be

defective. What is the probability that out of 10

tools chosen randomly, exactly 2 are

defective ?

Here we can use binomial distribution or

poisson distribution to solve this problem.

Let us solve using binomial distribution :

formula : Ncr * p ^r * q^ (n-r)

n = 10, r = 2, p = 10% or .1

q = (1-p) = (1-.1) = .9

c = combination formula

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 235

Solution beginning

Step 1 – solve combination

10 c 2 = 10! / (10-2)! * 2!

10! = 10*9*8*7*6*5*4*3*2*1

2!=2*1

= (10 * 9) /(2*1)

=45

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 237

Step 2 : solve remaining portion

=.01 * .43

=.0043

Step 3 : multiply both

45 * .0043

=.19

it means that there is 19% chance that exactly 2

tools are defective.

Solve this question using poisson

distribution ...

e =2.71828

m = probability = .1 or 10% or our sample =

10*.1 = 1

x = our question here X is 2 ( because we want

to know whether 2 are defective or not)

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 240

Step 1 apply formula : first part

e^ -lemda

= 2.71828 ^ (-1)

=.37

Step 2 : solve second part of

formula

m^x

= 1^2

=1

rd

Step 3 solve 3 part of formula

X! = 2! = 2

Step 4 : combine all these

calculations

(.37 * 1) / 2

=.19

here we can see that 19% probability is there

that there are 2 tools which are defective.

Answer

What is the probable error of

coefficient of correlation for r =.6

and N = 64 also set limits ?

= .054

limits :

.6+.054 and .6-.054 answer

Download these ...

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14629844/Statistics

http://www.scribd.com/doc/7131975/BUSINESS-ST

http://www.scribd.com/doc/7378714/13-August-Sta

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6584095/5-August-Stati

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393630/STATISTICS

http://www.scribd.com/doc/7378715/13-August-Sta

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393630/STATISTICS

Download these...

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6681092/4-August-Stati

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393621/STATISTICS

http://www.scribd.com/doc/26361286/Theoretical-D

http://www.scribd.com/doc/25295635/Basic-Statisti

http://www.scribd.com/doc/7131920/BUSINESS-ST

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14705384/21-June-Rese

Download more resources

http://www.esnips.com/web/onlinespeeches

http://www.esnips.com/doc/a4161e7a-6859-4583-b3

http://www.esnips.com/doc/292f3066-dfff-4507-9ef

http://www.esnips.com/doc/61098141-2b35-4dd2-8

http://www.esnips.com/doc/6335a093-fa8b-4829-91

http://www.esnips.com/doc/17998a15-f26a-4de7-b8

http://www.esnips.com/doc/816ec880-c1d5-436c-b5

http://www.esnips.com/doc/026362a7-efe4-42ef-afe

http://www.esnips.com/doc/ebceaf38-3af0-4b62-bd4

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 249

Download links ....

http://www.esnips.com/doc/1ca22536-6475-4fa4-bb

http://www.esnips.com/doc/3e7518ef-dc30-4309-af0

http://www.esnips.com/doc/f5f8334d-7642-4154-9b

http://www.esnips.com/doc/caf3db9b-7739-4f37-86

http://www.esnips.com/doc/ebceaf38-3af0-4b62-bd4

http://www.esnips.com/doc/3aab1a3a-43f3-49a8-b8

Download links...

http://www.esnips.com/doc/8f6897b7-0bab-4e53-85

http://www.esnips.com/doc/23aac52e-3ecf-4d89-8b

http://www.esnips.com/doc/48840095-2865-4eb1-88

http://www.esnips.com/doc/67a0ff61-c31f-43a0-994

http://www.esnips.com/doc/f6d85f1b-881b-4e93-83

Download links...

http://www.slideshare.net/tkjainbkn/reasoning

http://www.slideshare.net/tkjainbkn/reasoning-2814

http://www.scribd.com/doc/28677498/

Download links....

http://www.scribd.com/doc/28617263/Syllabus-of-M

http://www.scribd.com/doc/28617157/Vedic-Mathe

http://www.scribd.com/doc/28616660/English-Impr

http://www.scribd.com/doc/28531795/Mock-Paper-

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23610071/Reasoning

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14675645/10-July-Reas

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393680/REASONING

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583303/Reasoning-Aft

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 253

Download links for material in english

http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/tkjainbkn

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3921499/ENGLISH-%

http://www.slideshare.net/tkjainbkn/english-error-sp

http://www.scribd.com/doc/19641980/Error-Spottin

http://www.scribd.com/doc/11629005/English-Error

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14660441/English-After

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583519/English-Afters

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583520/English-Afters

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 254

Download links for material on

English

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583315/English-Impro

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583518/English-20-Ma

http://www.scribd.com/doc/28531795/Mock-Paper-

Links

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14647398/English-Impr

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14660508/General-Know

http://www.scribd.com/doc/19628963/Mathematics

http://www.scribd.com/doc/19492878/Direct-and-In

Be

Quicker

faster

more accurate

ADDITIONAL LINKS

http://www.scribd.com/doc/11692763/Advanced-M

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23407929/Advanced-M

http://www.scribd.com/doc/11625819/Basic-Mathem

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23407954/mathematics-

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23407934/Advanced-M

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583520/English-Afters

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23300964/Advanced-M

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23407945/MATHEMAT

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 258

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583303/Reasoning-Aft

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393680/REASONING

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393719/reasonning-44

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583347/DI-and-Reason

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23407636/10-July-reaso

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583273/Reasoning-Qu

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393476/10-July-reaso

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393716/REASONING

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14705025/17-Reasoning

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393478/10-July-reaso

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 260

Free download useful material ...

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393316/general-know

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23609752/Group-Discus

http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583547/General-Know

THANKS....

GIVE YOUR SUGGESTIONS AND JOIN

AFTERSCHOOOL NETWORK / START

AFTERSCHOOOL SOCIAL

ENTREPRENEURSHIP NETWORK IN

YOUR CITY / CONDUCT WORKSHOP ON

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN YOUR

COLLEGE / SCHOOL / CITY

AFTERSCHOOOL@IN.COM

JOIN OUR NETWORK TO PROMOTE

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 262

- Introduction to Data ScienceUploaded bysuhas_12345
- ZICA T3 - Business Mathematics & StatisticsUploaded byMongu Rice
- Business Mathematics and StatisticsUploaded byPrabakaranNat
- Business Mathematics and Statistics.pdfUploaded bySM Friend
- Data Science Boot Camp Survival ManualUploaded byJoanna Reed
- Business MathematicsUploaded byEbisa Deribie
- Business Mathematics and StatisticsUploaded byManoj Chaturvedi
- ZICA T4 - EconomicsUploaded byMongu Rice
- Business Mathematics & Quantitative MethodsUploaded byஆக்ஞா கிருஷ்ணா ஷர்மா
- DataScienceWeekly DataScientistInterviews Vol1 April2014Uploaded byclungaho7109
- ZICA T1 - Financial AccountingUploaded byMongu Rice
- Business Mathematics and StatisticsUploaded byFaisal Islam
- ZICA T7 - Information Technology & Business CommunicationUploaded byMongu Rice
- ZICA Accountancy Programme Students HandbookUploaded byVainess S Zulu
- Std11-BM-EMUploaded bychantivs
- Applied Statistics For Business.pdfUploaded byYogendra Maurya
- Correlation and RegressionUploaded bySANIUL ISLAM
- ZICA Student Handbook (New 2012 Syllabus)Uploaded byMongu Rice
- UltimateGuidetoDataScienceInterviews-2Uploaded byAnonymous wt1Miztt3F
- ZICA Technician recommended text booksUploaded byMcDonald Whites Jones
- accounting BBAUploaded byVinitha Vasudevan
- Cost Accounting MCQsUploaded byKashif Muhammad
- Engineering Drawing PracticeUploaded byjadestopa
- IGCSE Business Studies & Accounting HandbookUploaded byFathima Antony
- T1 CAT Mocks Arranged for Kaplan Book Hafiz Muhammad Adnan Rana SialkotUploaded byadnan79
- Engineering DrawingUploaded byElena Edna
- Structural Steel - Drafting and DesignUploaded byFrederick Saturnino
- Organizational BehaviorUploaded bySwarup Kumar B V
- Business Mathematics and StatisticsUploaded bykcmiyyappan2701

- Teerthankar Vardhman Mahaveer and Sustainable Development GoalsUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Election 2019 and Citizen MenifestoUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Subhash Chandra Bose Dreams and Current StatusUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Letter by Bikaner to Chief Minister of RajasthanUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Election 2018 Rajasthan Agenda and IssuesUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- National Education Day Abul Kalam Azad MemoryUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Organized and Unorganised Industries in Inida and Niti AyogUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Professor Vijay Shankar Vyas Iima Director Ids Imf Rbi World Bank & Advisor PmoUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Learn Leadership From Sri KrishnaUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Digital Divide Public Administration and GovernmentUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Career Guidance for Students of BikanerUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Inspiring Youth Through Guru Nanak and Stories From IndiaUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Dandi March and Gandhi Ji for IndiaUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Stephen Hawkings Universe and Indian MythologyUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Indian Education System and Ram Navmi and RamayanUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Thomas Alva Edison Mother Nensi as Great TeacherUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Thomas Alva Edison Mother Nensi as Great TeacherUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Delhi Smog and Gram Swarajya Policy of DecentralisationUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Philosophical Perspective on Organised and Unorganised Sectors and Economic Policies of Mahalanobis Gandhi and CapitalismUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Ramayan Ram Rawan Mythology and Cultural Practices of IndiaUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Minimum Government Good Governance Welfare State and Autocratic RuleUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Pawan Gupta Alok Sagar Revolutionary Pathbreaking Article Highlighting Gandhian Education Skill Training Gram SwarajyaUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Brics and Indian Response for World PeaceUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Kshamavani Kshamapana Festival of Forgiveness for Self Realization and SalvationUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Quality in Higher Education Institutions Through Accreditation in Indian ContextUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Rajasthan Tourism and Culture Article in Hindi LanguageUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Skills Employment Training Education and Educational Institutions of IndiaUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Gst Versus Kst and the Need of Common Masses for HappinessUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Professor Trilok Kumar Jain on Educational Motivation Innovation and Academic Events for Transformation of StudentsUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS
- Udasar Location Proposal for Bank AtmUploaded byKNOWLEDGE CREATORS

- The Factors of Influence towards Knowledge Sharing Among TVET Educators: A Study on TVET Educators within Hulu Langat DistrictUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMER ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PURCHASE OF ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS IN SIKKIM.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- DOE_injection molding.pdfUploaded byFranzMig
- 2007 A LevelsUploaded byKok Chee Kean
- RegressionUsingExcelUploaded bySaleem Rashid
- Family Business Review 2016 Evert 17 43Uploaded byHumaRiaz
- Hint03Uploaded byIre Reign Francisquite
- Analisa Paraquat dan Diquat dengan GCUploaded byJeffrey Acosta
- Emmanuel Thanassoulis Auth. Introduction to the Theory and Application of Data Envelopment Analysis a Foundation Text With Integrated SoftwareUploaded byLeonardo Borges Koslosky
- 1.Management-electronic Banking Usage in Albania-tedis RamajUploaded byImpact Journals
- Market Makers - Milestone 1 Description V2 1Uploaded byLam Sin Wing
- SPSS ManualUploaded bykararra
- Benefits.of.Volunteering.in.the.wisconsin.longitudinal.studyUploaded byIrina Moldoveanu
- (Astrophysics and Space Science Library 131) Fionn Murtagh, André Heck (auth.) - Multivariate Data Analysis-Springer Netherlands (1987).pdfUploaded bydacsil
- Athanasopoulos and Hyndman (2008)Uploaded byvoranoth
- bse97aUploaded bySam C M Hui
- ATSWA-QAUploaded byMelody Okunuga
- E49688-07.pdfUploaded byvirat
- Impact of CG on FP-Turkey-Panel DataUploaded bynsrivastav1
- Effects of Family Structure and Socialization on MaterialismUploaded byshahfaiz
- Data Driven Modeling AbstractUploaded byVishnuvardhan
- 10_7_2011_slides.pdfUploaded byHafizAhmad
- Analysis of Water Quality Index for Groundwater in Gudur Mandal, SPSR Nellore District - Integrated With RS And GISUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Rotor Design on Torque Ripple Reduction for a Synchronous Reluctance MotorUploaded byMertÖzer
- Chapter 3.pdfUploaded byCJ Lopez
- Introduction to QSAR MethodologyUploaded byajay3333
- 182-189Uploaded byYahya Mohammad
- shumway-cook et al-2003-developmental medicine & child neurologyUploaded byapi-263353704
- Determinants of hotel guests’ satisfaction and repeat patronage inUploaded byKolio Papazov
- 1 Customer Relationship Marketing and Customer (1)Uploaded byYasir Alam