s.c.malik-mathematical Analysis

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s.c.malik-mathematical Analysis

© All Rights Reserved

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ANALYSIS

S. C. Malik

Savita Arora

Department of Mathematics

S.G.T.B. Khalsa College

University of Delhi

Delhi, India

JOHN

NEW YORK

WILEY

CHICHESTER

&

SONS

BRISBANE TORONTO

SINGAPORE

Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Chapter 1

REAL NUMBERS

!.

2.

3.

Introduction 1

Field Structure and Order Structure 11

Bounded and Unbounded Sets:

Supremum, Infimum 16

4 Completeness in the Set of Real Numbers

5. Absolute Value of a Real Number 27

Chapter 2

19

COUNTABLE SETS

1. Introduction 33

2. Limit Points o f a Set 38

3. Closed Sets : Closure of a Set 42

4. Countable and Uncountable Sets 49

Chapter 3

REAL SEQUENCES

1. Sequences 53

2. Limit Points of a Sequence 56

3. Limits Inferior and Superior 59

4. Convergent Sequences 66

5. Non-Convergent Sequences (Definitions) 68

6. Cauchy's General Principle of Convergence 73

7. Algebra of Sequences 75

8. Some Important Theorems 85

9. Monotonie Sequences 96

Chapter 4

INFINITE SERIES

1.

Introduction

109

viii

Contents

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Chapter 5

Comparison Tests for Positive Term Series

Cauchy's Root Test 124

D'Alembert's Ratio Test 125

Raabe's Test 127

Logarithmic Test 131

Integral Test 132

Gauss's Test 135

Series with Arbitrary Terms 139

Rearrangement of Terms 148

1. Limits 154

2. Continuous Functions 165

3. Functions Continuous on Closed Intervals

4. Uniform Continuity 179

Chapter 6

1.

23.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Chapter 7

174

185

216

216

FUNCTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

154

Continuous Functions 188

Increasing and Decreasing Functions 191

Darboux's Theorem 194

Rolle's Theorem 195

Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem 196

Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem 198

Higher Order Derivatives 206

2. Indeterminate Forms 223

Chapter 8

118

Exponential Functions 238

Logarithmic Functions 240

Trigonometrie Functions 243

Functional Equations 249

Functions of Bounded Variation

Vector-Valued Functions 262

236

251

Contents

Chapter 9

ix

270

1. Definitions and Existence of the Integral 270

2. Refinement of Partitions 277

3. Darboux's Theorem 280

4. Conditions of Integrability 281

5. Integrability of the Sum and Difference of

Integrable Functions 284

6. The Integral as a Limit of Sums

(Riemann Sums) 293

7. Some Integrable Functions 300

8. Integration and Differentiation (The Primitive) 304

9. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 306

10. Mean Value Theorems of Integral Calculus 311

11. Integration by Parts 316

12. Change of Variable in an Integral 318

13. Second Mean Value Theorem 319

330

2. A Condition of Integrability 333

3. Some Theorems 334

4. A Definition (Integral as a limit of sum) 338

5. Some Important Theorems 346

Chapter 11 IMPROPER INTEGRALS

351

1. Introduction 351

2. Integration of Unbounded Functions with Finite

Limits of Integration 351

b

3.

4.

5.

Integrand as a Product of Functions

jfdx

355

389

1. Pointwise Convergence 404

2. Uniform Convergence on an Interval 406

3. Tests for Uniform Convergence 412

4. Properties of Uniformly Convergent Sequences

and Series 422

5. The Weierstrass Approximation Theorem 440

404

Contents

440

2. Definition 446

3. Properties of Functions Expressible as

Power Series 450

4. Abel's Theorem 453

Chapter 14 FOURIER SERIES

463

2. Some Preliminary Theorems 465

3. The Main Theorem 471

4. Intervals Other Than [-:r, TT] 479

Chapter 15 FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

492

Continuity 501

Partial Derivatives 505

Differentiability 509

Partial Derivatives of Higher Order 517

Differentials of Higher Order 524

Functions of Functions 526

Change of Variables 533

Taylor's Theorem 544

Extreme Values : Maxima and Minima 548

Functions of Several Variables 554

562

1. Definition 562

2. Jacobians 567

3. Stationary Values under Subsidiary

Conditions 575

Chapter 17 INTEGRATION ON R2

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Double Integrals 596

Double Integrals Over a Region

Green's Theorem 629

Change of Variables 637

588

618

Contents

Chapter 18 INTEGRATION ON R3

xi

652

2. Line Integrals 657

3. Surfaces 662

4. Surface Integrals 670

5. Stokes' Theorem (First generalization of

Greerfs Theorem) 687

6. The Volume of a Cylindrical Solid by

Double Integrals 692

7. Volume Integrals (Triple Integrals) 698

8. Gauss's Theorem (Divergence Theorem) 708

Chapter 19 METRIC SPACES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

726

Open and Closed Sets 737

Convergence and Completeness 758

Continuity and Uniform Continuity 768

Compactness 781

Connectedness 800

811

2. Sets of Measure Zero 820

3. Borel Sets 824

4. Non-Measurable Sets 824

5. Measurable Functions 828

6. Measurability of the Sum, Difference, Product and

Quotient Measurable Functions 831

7. Lebesgue Integral 836

8. Properties of Lebesgue Integral for Bounded

Measurable Functions 839

9. Lebesgue Integral of a Bounded Function Over

a Set of Finite Measure 845

10. Lebesgue Integral for Unbounded Functions 850

11. The General Integral 853

12. Some Fundamental Theorems 853

13. Lebesgue Theorem on Bounded Convergence 857

14. Integrability and Measurability 859

15. Lebesgue Integral on Unbounded Sets or

Intervals 869

16. Comparison with Riemann Integral for

Unbounded Sets 869

xii

Contents

Appendix II CANTOR'S THEORY OF REAL NUMBERS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Bibliography

Index

Real Numbers 881

Addition and Multiplication in R 882

Order in R 885

Real Rational and Irrational Numbers 888

Some Properties of Real Numbers 888

Completeness in R 890

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