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MATHEMATICAL

ANALYSIS

S. C. Malik
Savita Arora
Department of Mathematics
S.G.T.B. Khalsa College
University of Delhi
Delhi, India

JOHN
NEW YORK

WILEY

CHICHESTER

&

SONS

BRISBANE TORONTO

SINGAPORE

Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Chapter 1

REAL NUMBERS

!.
2.
3.

Introduction 1
Field Structure and Order Structure 11
Bounded and Unbounded Sets:
Supremum, Infimum 16
4 Completeness in the Set of Real Numbers
5. Absolute Value of a Real Number 27
Chapter 2

19

OPEN SETS. CLOSED SETS AND


COUNTABLE SETS
1. Introduction 33
2. Limit Points o f a Set 38
3. Closed Sets : Closure of a Set 42
4. Countable and Uncountable Sets 49

Chapter 3

REAL SEQUENCES
1. Sequences 53
2. Limit Points of a Sequence 56
3. Limits Inferior and Superior 59
4. Convergent Sequences 66
5. Non-Convergent Sequences (Definitions) 68
6. Cauchy's General Principle of Convergence 73
7. Algebra of Sequences 75
8. Some Important Theorems 85
9. Monotonie Sequences 96

Chapter 4

INFINITE SERIES
1.

Introduction

109

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Contents
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Chapter 5

Positive Term Series 114


Comparison Tests for Positive Term Series
Cauchy's Root Test 124
D'Alembert's Ratio Test 125
Raabe's Test 127
Logarithmic Test 131
Integral Test 132
Gauss's Test 135
Series with Arbitrary Terms 139
Rearrangement of Terms 148

FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE VARIABLE (I)


1. Limits 154
2. Continuous Functions 165
3. Functions Continuous on Closed Intervals
4. Uniform Continuity 179

Chapter 6

FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE VARIABLE (II)


1.
23.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Chapter 7

APPLICATIONS OF TAYLOR'S THEOREM

174

185

216

216

FUNCTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

154

The Derivative 185


Continuous Functions 188
Increasing and Decreasing Functions 191
Darboux's Theorem 194
Rolle's Theorem 195
Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem 196
Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem 198
Higher Order Derivatives 206

1. Extreme Values (Definitions)


2. Indeterminate Forms 223
Chapter 8

118

Power Series 236


Exponential Functions 238
Logarithmic Functions 240
Trigonometrie Functions 243
Functional Equations 249
Functions of Bounded Variation
Vector-Valued Functions 262

236

251

Contents
Chapter 9

ix
270

THE RIEMANN INTEGRAL


1. Definitions and Existence of the Integral 270
2. Refinement of Partitions 277
3. Darboux's Theorem 280
4. Conditions of Integrability 281
5. Integrability of the Sum and Difference of
Integrable Functions 284
6. The Integral as a Limit of Sums
(Riemann Sums) 293
7. Some Integrable Functions 300
8. Integration and Differentiation (The Primitive) 304
9. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 306
10. Mean Value Theorems of Integral Calculus 311
11. Integration by Parts 316
12. Change of Variable in an Integral 318
13. Second Mean Value Theorem 319

Chapter 10 THE RIEMANN-STIELTJES INTEGRAL

330

1. Definitions and Existence of the Integral 330


2. A Condition of Integrability 333
3. Some Theorems 334
4. A Definition (Integral as a limit of sum) 338
5. Some Important Theorems 346
Chapter 11 IMPROPER INTEGRALS

351

1. Introduction 351
2. Integration of Unbounded Functions with Finite
Limits of Integration 351
b

3.

Comparison Tests for Convergence at a of

4.
5.

Infinite Range of Integration 370


Integrand as a Product of Functions

jfdx

355

389

Chapter 12 UNIFORM CONVERGENCE


1. Pointwise Convergence 404
2. Uniform Convergence on an Interval 406
3. Tests for Uniform Convergence 412
4. Properties of Uniformly Convergent Sequences
and Series 422
5. The Weierstrass Approximation Theorem 440

404

Contents

Chapter 13 POWER SERIES

440

1. Generic Term 446


2. Definition 446
3. Properties of Functions Expressible as
Power Series 450
4. Abel's Theorem 453
Chapter 14 FOURIER SERIES

463

1. Trigonometrical Series 463


2. Some Preliminary Theorems 465
3. The Main Theorem 471
4. Intervals Other Than [-:r, TT] 479
Chapter 15 FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

492

Explicit and Implicit Functions 492


Continuity 501
Partial Derivatives 505
Differentiability 509
Partial Derivatives of Higher Order 517
Differentials of Higher Order 524
Functions of Functions 526
Change of Variables 533
Taylor's Theorem 544
Extreme Values : Maxima and Minima 548
Functions of Several Variables 554

Chapter 16 IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS

562

1. Definition 562
2. Jacobians 567
3. Stationary Values under Subsidiary
Conditions 575
Chapter 17 INTEGRATION ON R2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Line Integrals 588


Double Integrals 596
Double Integrals Over a Region
Green's Theorem 629
Change of Variables 637

588

618

Contents
Chapter 18 INTEGRATION ON R3

xi
652

1. Rectifiable Curves 652


2. Line Integrals 657
3. Surfaces 662
4. Surface Integrals 670
5. Stokes' Theorem (First generalization of
Greerfs Theorem) 687
6. The Volume of a Cylindrical Solid by
Double Integrals 692
7. Volume Integrals (Triple Integrals) 698
8. Gauss's Theorem (Divergence Theorem) 708
Chapter 19 METRIC SPACES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

726

Definitions and Examples 726


Open and Closed Sets 737
Convergence and Completeness 758
Continuity and Uniform Continuity 768
Compactness 781
Connectedness 800

Chapter 20 THE LEBESGUE INTEGRAL

811

1. Measurable Sets 811


2. Sets of Measure Zero 820
3. Borel Sets 824
4. Non-Measurable Sets 824
5. Measurable Functions 828
6. Measurability of the Sum, Difference, Product and
Quotient Measurable Functions 831
7. Lebesgue Integral 836
8. Properties of Lebesgue Integral for Bounded
Measurable Functions 839
9. Lebesgue Integral of a Bounded Function Over
a Set of Finite Measure 845
10. Lebesgue Integral for Unbounded Functions 850
11. The General Integral 853
12. Some Fundamental Theorems 853
13. Lebesgue Theorem on Bounded Convergence 857
14. Integrability and Measurability 859
15. Lebesgue Integral on Unbounded Sets or
Intervals 869
16. Comparison with Riemann Integral for
Unbounded Sets 869

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Contents

Appendix I BETA AND GAMMA FUNCTIONS


Appendix II CANTOR'S THEORY OF REAL NUMBERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Bibliography
Index

Sequences of Rational Numbers 879


Real Numbers 881
Addition and Multiplication in R 882
Order in R 885
Real Rational and Irrational Numbers 888
Some Properties of Real Numbers 888
Completeness in R 890