lODMW

- .' \. '-"1 .... '", ... , .'.'

,! /-' / ._' .... '.,., .... , ",

_-- "

. - .. , ....•

TO DRAW

, .. ,_,..~, .. I 'e

Compiling Application and Plactice

Thle Aim 01 Volum,. 3 i,ill .1", ... i.1 i!llil' •• '" •• ii_I IJliIt!!I_. iiiil,.I·I'I!. ~, ..... iIlllI!! !'! •• iiL.1! ~", ••• iii.i·1111 !!'.!! .,.i .1Ii1 I!'I ••• i ililil I!~ ••• I~ iI.lIl" 6

'Ch,ta'pter t - How to D,frBW Interiors and Exter)or_'., .. ,."' , , 25

Orawin,QI Simplle 'ObJects.iI'.'!!I!! •• ,.iliil .• "'I'II •• , •• i~I.I'!!!'.liiirill.ii.II!.I.' •• ,iili •• !t;I!'I!~'iilil,.IiI'!· •• ,!'.i,liilil.'!!!'!!'.i,ijljll!!II!! ••• i·.·111!-'!I'."iioll.:25

Putting Characters int,C) Scenes and Dr;Bwhlg Bs.'okgrr-oun,ds, , , 28

A Word on Actual Uvin:g Spaces " , ' ' ,,. .. , '"'' 31

D'rawing Buiildi'ngs !!!'!!!!'!t •• 1 I!I!II.' •••• lti 11!!!!!!I!!iI.,.ili'."! •• ,ilii liihl I'!! ••• ili.,I. !"., •• i iilil !!'!'! •• i'ili.·.""!' ••• iIi.·.!I!! I' •• ~oil .lil·!!!!! •• iil!.;IlI!!l3~

Back'groun,d 'Checkpoin'ts",~ ... '.'illl"' ••• ,ii iii-ii .1'1'Il! .,.i iiii lEI,,,,. ii i i.tlll, •• 1 irt!1 .!'I! •• i ii.,Ii,t! !'!!!!! i",1 .fllil 11"'. ~ ..... ~II'I!! !iiliili34

Drawling Backgrounds fmm prl'nlto;graphs ' ' 38,

IEffective Man.agement. oi Street Scenes ' ..........•....•. " 4C,

Spec,i,ali Edi,tion: USlingl Blaelk '," " , " ' , , , .. 4~'

Chapter ,I - Ho,w to tJ'r,taw Ms:chilnes , ' ' ' " ~

IDrrawirng Machi,I!1Gs liliilliF.! l!.'~ •• i iiI 1 .. ",,, ... Li .. iLii.'.'I!!!'~.io i Iii Ii' Ii""! !!!. a- •• iioi.'!'iI!~ I" •• .,i""," ~.,~, ••• "'§ I ... !I •• i~!i !"'~' •• irlil illt!! !!' ••• oi.'.II.I, ••• -4!

D'r,8wingl Carsiol,l",!!'!,!, ..• 1 liil'l'II'! •••••• II! 1 ... , •• , ... 11,1111' ••••• ,i 1.'illl!!! •• itiilllll'!·II!I ..... i~ I'!!! •• ,. iil!l' •• I~' •• Ji iii .·Il!!!~. ~iliil iI"~ ,-i. iliI,.it4 Drrlwirn;g MOlorc,ycl:es, !II_ •• ,i iil,IIIII!" •• "'ilil'll!!'!".'.oiiilll!!! I!!!' ••• ,i 1i.·I'II! !"' .... i 1!P!'!!'iitiil'iLl!!~ ., ..... i i!ljill~·.t •• 'ii'li 1'111' ••• i .. ii'.1 ~! •• ~f

[Drawin.g Oo\ossal, Complex Machines ., ...•.... ' , •.....•.... , ......••..•......•.......... , .. , ,5'

Drawing' Your O'wn Origlna!1 Ms,chines ,', ,."" , " " 151

Mo,re on Drawing Imagina~y Machines s ••• '." , ••••••• " •••••• ,,, ' ~

Spatter'ing i!., •• i illi •.• ",!! • .,.,I;;'i,II'I'IIII' ••• iill I II' I! II_ .... iioli·.!'. 11 ....... ",!rl~! •• i ii,!!'!."' •• ioii ilil~! ••• ii5'I"~ •••• jljll!l!~ ... i iii Iii! , ••• .,11111,,,6

Chapter 3 ,_ IHow 1,0 DlI'awNlatul'le and A_nimal " ," " , ~"J

Expres5'i'n,g N,atural O'bj'ects ,'''''." ....••.. " .. " .•..•........ ".' .•...... ,"" ," r

Expres.sl'n'g'1lirises and Grass iI!'!"'.' •• ',iilii'iil! •••••• ilil·.,!!~'!~.'iioiillill!!' ••• irti.! !!_.iihli·.I'!' i.!lII~ •• '.oi,i • .-I!I!lI."' a 16

Express'ingr FlockS and Boulders ' , " .. , " '.' ," , .1

4

.70

5

Express.i fig Oceans 11,111,1" li.tlll"!!! !!II lid! III'!'!!I;IIII!III!I! !! !II 11' 1 .,!! ,!!101.,.~ .,1"., ••••• 1.1 •• ,.,1 •••• ,111111' .... 111111.1 •• , ••• ,i lii,il •• iliii Ii iii i.i iIIi liilliE 11 Expressing Water .. , ..•. ! •• ,i •• iitl,li ... iii.,itiili,.ili, •• ioiiii.iiii .. i,ii'i!&iii.,iiilliliil·illtiild;iilll·.I,.lIlflillllll!l·II!III'!!!!IIII!I!'!!I!!I'!!!!I!~!73

Exprees1ng Cil.Duds; Iii iliI"oIIlli1'ifill.!t!I"III'!liIIIliII!II'III''1!l''!lII;tlIIIl!!'I'''!!'I!t'!!~I'!!!I'!'!!'!!!!,I!!'!I.II]!'.~ !!' •• !' "'ji ~.,.' •• " liilii iilil lilii 751

ExprsRing, Fire' ,!aJu:t Smlo,ke '"","' , •. ,." .. " .. "., .. ,_ , ,., ' ,., ,76

Ex pr&~ n91 EJK.p.~'os~'on9, iI • Ii Ii <Ii iI'li,1I; iilt' iii ',11i II LIII • iii iii ill Ii Ii iI,Ii,"Ij iI' i rIi i Iiti Ii Iii iI • I; I ,I II. !tI I' I 'I 1'1 'I! I I !I! I!'!!II; I''I!I'! 'I! I"'" III !! '" III 'I!! III! .. '!!! III III '"'. III III ., ••• III.' ii III Ii 7,8

Drawing Animal's 1'.~l!!"'~I!!l!!'l!!I!! .. I!! •• '-I!! ."I!!!!!,.III !'!'!l."'I!!' •• '.' L ••••• ,., •••• iiiiloil imi .iIIiiili, •• ,liilii iilll ••• ' I •. III •• It!.,8IO

Ex~ress11n--n Animals1iiii.,iiiiliii.i.iiiiliiiiiii,ii,iiililliliiiiill;;'illi.,lliI.,11I1.liillll.I,'JL"'"I,t'I!I!"'!I!II!!!I'!II!!'!!!l!!'!!I!!!J •• ! •• , •• , ••• ,., •• , ... i80

r -r ti',... r

Dra,wing I'maglnmry Anima,ls ", .. ,_. , " , ._" "" ........•......•.•..•........•.... " ' ,"'. ",8:5

S'pecial EdRion: "Us:ing Wtl'ite .. Iii Iollii iiili"I;;,'liilllli"'II~ .1Ii •• iIl •• 1I •••• 1I!11.'I •• 'l'II"."o!I~!"!!lI!'I!I'!.!I!!.!II'!! l!!"!! l!!".'l!!l!! " ' • ., 8B,

Arranging Natural O.b;]ec1s and Enects ,.,', '''' , , , p ••••• 90

Chapter ,4 - How to Creat:::, a ShOin StDry Manga ".,.,., , , 911

Creatin'gl iii Sho'l\ Sto!)' M'an'ga , , .. , , , .•. , .•.•........ ' .. ' .•.... ' , , , ,.9'1

Limiting the Number of Characters ..•.• , ...•........... ,., , _ " "." , •..•..• 94

,Short S,tory Themes ~ K:eepingl li~ Simpl'eJ •....•• , i •• , •••••• ' •• , •• ' ' "" .-'99

Drlllwll::1g an Odglnal WC'I'IK , •. '''' "',.,' .• ",., ' ,," •• , ,., •• ,' , "', •.•••.•.••.•• " .. , ", .. , 1 00

A1iottlng IPa.g~fil, imm the S'c'.ript 1Q the ManQlaI " , .•..•.••. , .. , •.••. , .. , 1'02

Getting the Right Number of Pages." "." .. ,'_ , .. , " "" .. " ".,."" , 1 m~

'Fundamental F,mme Ru~e.s I '.'.lI1i,.1i Ii, •• i ••• lIli •• ,. i. iii. i •• , •• ,i iililiii'iilii~·iloiii· 1 iiJi'iil'iiii'liill illii'iil'.'II'I;!I1i !!IJ!!~! I!! 1 :04·

11;ying' Cha'fi'ac1,ers t_,ifis II I "·~!I!'·'.I" ''1' .Ii. !iI' .1i1,.1.1I.·.iI!.·.~.I •• ·.II!·.iI!!'.iI!!'.If!'I!I'.!I! !'!I!'!!!I!'!!'I!'!!'!"! ~'!.'~".' ••••• ,i •••• ii •• ii,lii 1 as

Mcvlng Charac.t.ar,s on the Page •. ,.,_."" , , .. ,,, " .. " , , .. ,.," .•. , .........•..•... ,., .. 1 08

Bwancing th,s Composition iII'lil,i'liil t,ll llii .iIIlli iiii •• ill"l jl,1 ,Ii i ~'Ii 'ilillll!l'I!I;I'IIII'IIIII!'11!1! liil'l.I"I'I!ILII!".l!!IIIl!! I!!.I!!' ••• !'~ ••• , •• ,112

Ffame StrUGtm.fl' [n a Spread Layout " .••. _ •.. , .. , .. " ....... " ... ,.,,, ..... ,.,,,,.,, .•... ,, .•..•.•..•..•..• 114

H,lghllght SC;,enes, .iI~ •• i' •• i •••• '.' ••• lii •••••••• a •• i •• ii. iiiil,ii,.liiii i.i iiii e e ee e iiiiii iillii,.lli.iIJiilili illIi.· .... 1I1 .11., ••• 1III!III'!'!It !'I!!! 11.116

Getting thel Story Floillngl ,., .. , ••• , ••• , " .. , " ••• _" " , 17

65

66 Methods, to B'ecomlng a Manga Artiist , , "' .....•. '.".' .. ," .. ', .. ' ,,1.20

EH3 Advice oi'llDrawing f'ag,es fOIr' Sutlm~ss'ion t-o FI'ub!liishers, , '''''' , 11' a

Th

lum

im of

Everyone knows that the best way to improve your drawing abllrity is to copy your 'favorite manga; however, without intentionally studyIng

- -

and understanding the ins-and-outs of manga and jrust franticaJiy

draw'ing pages on end. as your mlsthod of study~ you, will make slow progiress. This book is a teohnique book 'like no other, systematically designed 10 power-uc your rmanga at an incmdi'b1le speed by thorou,ghly introducingr the secrets, winnlngl tricks o,f the trade and ess6ntia~s of drawing manga.

Just. because you have studlred the fundamentals in "How to Draw MANGA: Volumes 1 and 2"1 it ooes not mean you have reached the ,end of the road in the, 'way of mange',. This book teaches how to apply e,nd: practice these fund,ams'll,tals wh'en creating your own manga.

Regardless of y,our ss:)( or ag'9, from beginners who've just said to themselvss, "Maybe I should trY' drawing manga,lf! to tnose of you who, have been studying manga for a long wn,He now but have not made much prog,ress, and eros alike,. for aJi of you l' t1his bOO,K comes h.ighly recommended,

Nl1te: Work! ~rBnced 10 tn!a ~k n!l!re' bBl!III Mar~ to 1000000likiil ~118 wigll'lfl/ ~. bssl ,1L.'l ,~Ible: tJJjw~'(I;lr, ~, to '/he look of ~OOI nn ~B W€!i" \,~ heNS bilen IlrBa.U~ re~uMd In Hlm. f;[jj' 'fUJ'iIJ'lar Ilium' eI i'fIfiWe OCl1I1pletl1 d~I$, '«iI r oomm.eiitl furefiill1g 10 !he \~'CIi<Jl, as, pilbllehed In ~Ir crl~11'2l IOITlii3,

Written ana Drawn by Takehlko Matsumoto,

All the mange charaetera that ElPpear in til'lis t:JOCl~

are fiction s, No ide_fJ~ ificath:m wi~h BctusllDer,90ns ~s Intended 'Or- should bel ~nfBrred.

I expected as much to get a pretty hard-,cofe opinion of my work buL.Jes, what a shock! J didn't think [was that bad ..

tt's hard to pu Imy ili rlI.g&'r on [

All righ,t!, I'U show them next time!!

Gl.!iKS this ijs what t·o-expect ~ha first 'lime show your work to a rpubIJIshQr:. 11'11 just hElve to try harde r,

.No! No!! NI)!~!

I can't dll'a.w!!

I wanna read a cool story.

Ah, '~orget it!!

9

About a funny guy! Y'ou know with gags. YS8h, gags ... that's :the ticket.!

With a sf:orytine., that'/{ . krlockyou( sC.'If:;ks off!!!

Wh-who's there?

YOU' gotta hall9 jokes' Keep 'ern laughing!!

Finalfy listening are you?

10

THATis the 'Voice of the READ~RS ... they aft LOVE reading mangaf

lit's net that easy. II can't Just ...

Well I came all liIe way Ihere so GET drawing!f

Didn't. I justtelll you what the readers want?l:?'

12

m've racked my brain on Ihowro makeilt interesting.

But wh~n II

put it dowli1 And

on the page. it's, just. .•

It's hard to put my fing,e', on it. ~

Hey ... can you show me your rough draft?

The mason you can't draw is ...

In a word ...

IBoring. You're not having fun.

Nooo!

That's, not it!:

Yeah Illight!

, Okay ~'m a barling guy. Ofoourse ...

The problem is ...

you are not

_ ••• 1 ... fun drawing, how doyou YOLI can

in other's?

Il,i d you Ihave toada ,oi fun

d rawi ng that? Was it a g ood time?'

You'ro right. .AIII was Ithinking about wal;i ,really showing the publisher and be<:oming a pro at ,all costs.

,Buttne pros face tneserne hardships.

Wen, that's really the ,hard part it?

Or how abc;.l.!t something lJIl1Iexpected li~i] this. If you '~hink lik$ that, )'Qul"11 !lawtut'l.

Think about th i09S like, '11 if the ct13f'actt Gould do t1lis I that here" IiJlCtI it be groat Gil had a charnel I'lke ttlis woof~ it be coot"

And! tl'rleon take Ulat f,eeling of oI;If'Djoyrrl!lIn~ and! pOLir it on ta tihe pagQas yoU'draw.

The tension in my shouldell'S seems to be 'gone. I feel Ilike 1"11 be able, to enjoy myself when III draw.

Thanks little lady!

So how abom a little' celeb ratiiun as my wa.y of say,ing fhanks!!'

So hang' tough!

I' hear thai!

Guess '1;11 be go~ng.

You;re not gQnna stay while I draw?

WllaaaU

I thoug ht you guys sh,owed up 'in pilnc" situati ens, Yau know, deadlines and sllumps.

D() it for YOlllrsel~m

Oh fhat's a life. Everybody works at itl If you're gQnna be a pro, 91&t used to it.

18

1'111 be waiting.

_ .\Wl1a!

'l_\ ""-?

Guess 11'11 wash my face ...

There's ,;3 htt;e mark from lipstick. and some beer inside!?

20

I knew it.

All right then Ht#e lady!!

First things first. rJJ start having fun with it.

IFlw,1frni that time. about a ye.a1r later, he suceessfu lIy joined the ranks of mile, pros, but ...

Just because he was a pro doesn't mean he' was making a living.

He had othel'! vaJ',i ous diffku Iitles,. IBut that"!, HrlQtlilerstory •••

21

How did you enjoy theshow?

And ~ am his assistant, Suika.

Allow me to introduce myse'lf. I'm

Toda.y's episode was a reel1actment of something that happened to me ten y.earsag,o. What do you think? P'retty good huh?

We interrupt this broadcast to' bri h1g you the news ...

Ha-ha, SSt"'i/eS yro rlehL.

'Nh~n o:d ' {NSf (iSS ~~ll{ Huhfl YOL'lyirq Q.@'/;&!iu

BANG!

ZING!

and me. See you at the arid.

Moving ii'iight al'ong .•. "How to Draw MAJ\lGA Vo~ume 3"' is brOllght to you by :l:tn is little lady, that ol!d man

Wen" looks like this could 'go, on forever, so ~e1"s get back to the main event.

Sensei; do you ,have anything to add?

23

24

Try drawing a centerline for bis,ymmetri'cal objects. As an exam ple~ try drawilno a gl'ass.

• First simply give it shape.

• Look at the centenine arid while pa.ying attention 1tO the onsymmetricall balance, tidiy up the shape.

H'!

\

,I ,,,-- »:»

\ -. __ - - .I'

• tf you cent dlraw ellipses well,alld if it ilS an elliiDS-e viiewedl from the front, one m,e1hod is to dlraw a cross lna trapezoid and then cOflnect tile IPoints formil1lg adiaJmond shape and

u~tha:~:,;f~~::'~p

eillipse,

26

Note that the metll10d of thinkimg, ehanaes wilen ~;:__~=--_::;;¥;_"';:::::=----""':"IA' viewed from a

diagonal angle

--=-. 3€'!Hlotred I im:l.

• Next, filld and set ~he eenternne,

~·.·.1· 1

'~

"- r

'\\, ' /

cp

'. u things aren't going so weill, try d'rawinga bO,l( of

perspective lines and rethink the work from ther€

I '.'

• IFor I"eflect&(lli'l$, ,extend the Itlo)1 of perspective limes and think from there,

I I

"

I

,

• Once the ol,Jtlilil~ is OOmpl&M, do lit in pen, Gives!hape ID areas fhat do not need to, be inked wi1ih a b~ue pencit'and later use that as a yardstick. for attaching tones.

AtlBchillg a 1~1Jt, pale KIM! ~!Dre a'il else rums the arrea ble,;:;k 'Il'h~n a dark, deep tone is layeroo and makes it difficult to see 'i'lf1ere to use a cutter,

ere,

II

• CUI and remoee the etchOO, Irans~ent eraa, Adding e;<pressio!1ls of £ght using white or etching can CClt11Ip!g:t€ 1hework.

G'The key point in this drawing Is probably the tone management in the reflectiolll, The first pOi'l'd of caution is to attach a dark, deep" in coloI' tone before all else.

.' Next enos a light, pal~e tone lis added 00 top of the dlfuk, deep tome, e~Gh at a poillt sllightly off tJUl hornier .and Ilin.e it up with the border of the fi,tst tone,

Fundamentally, dra\,1JfI to show the

bisvrn metrical belenoe. Thei r use can be extended to cases using human figures and showinglihe blsymmetrical area of objects. and spaces.

27

When putltngl chaJr'Mters into scene'S, and if:! rawinQ backgllroumf.s, put the principle of placing the character ililside a p.erspecthre i:~to practice.

, mt, draw a lina at !he ShOl!ldfJI.s and use , tt as a o9/liler r'tit dril'liin,g the 00)[,

N'e.xt, crea1 the box space of your clJlamcter. Dmwthe box in a freehand style whrle looking at ":"!!!!IO""","" t~e overall

balance .

• While IODking m th~ balliflcB ali tt'1() 00w: lineS-, decide ,()1Ihe 1J~<a-talrel.

Usin g the 'M~ , the !eye-I',avel' (horizontal' line:: and vani!Shing points.

stJrt off dOll'l;)llt freeMr'id, and 1I1en I;;mr L _ ___::::::::::~.,y~q~I;!;~~_:::::::::""~~":':'':::''':..J use a rulGr to put

~1Ing:s in ord~.

Afterp~l'lgl 1Me perspll1:tive J:..~:f:;;;::;;;:;;=r'~ ~'-""""..

I I.ines that will make vp !tie llasiGs., i:lraw as if yau are Illacll1g olijrn into

. ~e SGeroo . usin,g those lints a5 a yar-dstick wihi~ ~t--':':::~~~~bI;,§@

thiDlldhl~1 about "-'==~~!Jl the sl~e of the

ITl=~----""""C"'2i'"'"""'"l'I3mii1P~ Dra,w IiIlles. Ifl tile usseen areas too

·~IJih;efll thlnkillg

a bout the tbree-Glm!!lJSiional, hlnm m o'tljects.

Usi~ a pen ty~

a place m paper and go ()!Ier too area with ani e;raser.

Lines ~ed lor thinking

about "'9 positional ralationship of the rnl€rllision and

..__ ............. ....,;i._-_.....,;, __ ~ the dlar.;:;ct·er.

When you wal1~to k8QPlllte

, ne(}essary

~==t=::c=l~m~~~m-~Tw lines In tact

aml erase unneeded

l' lines, ollVer the !i!ecessary lines.wilih

•• ~_..: ••• I __ • --......__.__-

see necessary Illnes. tld~ up

by e~ilIiling lunnBlBd!!lld lines,

~lJnvE!nierrt lOr small. i:lillk:sle

A1lbM fi'eehancli:flg the baakgrnund, Ud;y ull·the

vaJilisti ingl points wiUl a ruler and finish ouIJlininll.

*1flt-JCing a!

_I ~1::.-o:·'r=:::.I. tbumbtzck ~,

the VClninl'Q points helps.

Nex~ do the inking. The naslcs of pen! iJnk~ng the lines that make up the shBille .are to draw 1tIe older outlines, on tile thick side Bllild tile i'lnner Ilines an the thin side.

Be careful not to draw the same kind of monotonic lines.

good example

bad examp!e

Compl:ete tM wol1<t a.dding' peninkllng.

The kay poi nt here is tl1e areas c.lra.wn in black, 1n aildition, use blad!; for shadows and me like. Keep In mind tl1art ~'Ou aie aC'tllall~' r:lril',,,ing the space and not mere", fllllrtg in the st1~d'crw,

Deal with the ooGks aad other things in the bookshelf using a fine-pcint pen giving the objects sn actual ilikening,. It is I}IJOO idea to shaw the ri!::hlless of it18 li008 by handling the details likE: ill '1'18 aoo1f€ illustration, ViiB'w a varie~j of drawirl{l8 and Iry rt:sE:llfchin{j on ~uur O'Ivn,

30

Adding tones

fi Ilishes off the work. Tille key point here Is the shadows added by t~e tones. Sim:;e· ShadO-W5 have light and dark colors in them, pay attention to tl1eir Ilsage.

As a basic nile,. thillk of

I perspective from the character's point of vliew and then

~..trd consider bac~Ql'ounds ll5!i ng tile same rule for exterler .scenes .

. A Word on A·ctual living Spaces

up till now we: have advaitloed up through the basics of using one. or two VaniSQiing pO'i nts; however, in actual living spaces there are numerous IIwnishing poiints and takingl these from 811 eye-level would take a long, I!ong time. Inadditi{ln,1I1e' chQlr·acter itself is not airways just standing still. When there is a lot of action, you can't line up tile bac!kglwund pers~eG'ti'llB' wHl1th;e same direction of the characters,

So what do you do? Iftealily 1he on Iy thing to say is tc set ihimgs, Ulp so they don't look strnnge. We'll start WUiil Lesson 1,. firs,~ in the middle of a piece of white pape:r1 considle,r the space o11h e walls,! the' ground and the fl.oor.

for Lesson 2, C{llils~der WriIIlUS: angles of the obj,ects ann enaracter when viewed from a

tel evisi'on so reen or the four .. sided lmaaesas seen th rn ug h a camera viewfinder.

32

f{e®ping those images in mind, fill in the vvhite space by imag,ing the space and cOf)ying the images. into it.

At first, you migl~lt not be able to limQ!gin8 objects that 'j'OJ sse every dlay, but hang in there and Ikeep drawing,

While perspective is an important concept, it's not like 'YOI.! are

drawl ng bh,leprililis 011"' anythingl so' set ill hiQlher value on what looks goods as opposed to wh~ is

you

I Add in me , outlines

~ geHiing tile

~ T ~ pers.PElctiive

r" tmm the

'I, ( I main

\

'\ ' ?" lbuiWding.

'r J(_

Once t,he <OI.lU'inililg is

33

An (jas~', etfectM.~ meued to bring out the three-dlmensi0i13i1 term and give stabtlity to the drawing IS tQ appl~' a tma gi'o'ing the side a shadow eff!:lGt..

Background Checkpoints

lDe;pendililg 'Oil tne imgle" that ,

e Ilj ects are viewed fr-om, in SI) rhe' cases th ey can look urnlstaJb le,

As a si mpl e exam ple, take a look at th'9 jllustration of the build,ing on the right. You can see that even i~ the perspective is correct) the [buildinlQI ends up looking fll[at, wilthout any ~h ree-di mensl unaJl form" I[n order ~o bringl about a

se nsa ,of stab!1 ity! y,o u ne'ed to creme cubiic .wngles like in tile drawings bellow.

34

A set-up, with a f:eeling of staJllilUy is, not only for buildings but can be app·lietl[ to living spaces as well.

Optical[ lillusions exist in human eyesi g ht. For exampl e! iln some I cases J evenfhou glhl the perspective' Oil th a items. drawn onth:e' 'floor is c:onect,they loo~ sl ,aJll ted. [In cases ~[ike thilS'I thin~ of ttJe ang[le and try searchillgt a set-up wil~h a feeling of stafir

that 'looks good toyoUir leye'.

DO

/'

In this case, the boundary between the

'~r:xJnd and the house looks strange,

, Even if' you mak!e use and draw stable angl as, when a full-siz:ed building lis viewed, the unstable areas tend tos1ltick nut,

Draw shrub's, ranees and the, like,to skillru,I'ly ctJeat tl1e ~alNinQ.

Cheating difficlIlt· to draw or

unstable areas

~ also part of

your tech niq Ure"

Adding thickness with a pen relates to thinking about shadows. By applying th~8, even in thin outlined drawings, a stable drawing can be done with the assistance of the shadow.

Coosid~r lie '~hlckness 01 objects.

For G);amp~e, ttl e frame oUhe windows and the Hk8 can be drawn oormally if it is, a large' sizsd draw~ng; however;

with smool drawings, L...~ __ ~~"--...II1..."i"-_"""

Ihe majority of people will not be conscious of 1M ttl ickn ess and th e drawingl will leek flat If ij is not too extreme 11' smail, tIllllk o·f; addil1lg ~ck ill the sides whfW yo u want to give hmme thickness and llree-tJimensionality~

Add thickness to b ricks I block walls, tiles and the like,

35

Wallis ar-e ,easywtJen de p,icted om bUli IcUngs: howB'ver, when me

, backig reu n dl of a see ne ilil most homes amld rooms ends up bei no just a wall!~, Slt'tlIPS need to be taken to make it ,Ioo,k dli I1y if ~he wall is. old.

I h~ ligr'l ;£\oj dar~nea!;; i3 rt~r.t in rooms too, d!3pGnllf\l [:n tha i'l1'El~.

INhen using effe:...i lines 10 c~e~M ~;"""""~~------I shadows, if 1he

lines are too

thick, their &ubsisteoce tends to sliok 001, cmming obtrusive :'Jiaurn.ys that end up rnaHng'th\3 drawing look di rty.

While &iadows are LJSedl for wpressillg a feel'in'll of oobS'isteooe, th.e\j are not [nffindecl to be OD·truSirve, With this in mirnd, dmw sharp lines as Ihin~.s poosible,

I ....

bad E%'l.mph~

If lhe '1~a' ne->'!I, dC{J malk€' I~ ~ too airl'j. this case, take act~ b~ usi~ tonee to add __ = ~<ldo\\~,

The feslillUI of ,suMstenoa changes \'lflen sh~ID.% are not present and when !he\" are.

~1<!~8 with ~ Qrf!.dation eltocL ..

SinD:! this rnemud i~ a high 1B\'81 (!fie Invol~1ng a skilled oon, ~t Is a I ~ fifiiGl.1lt to f~Oml;llend ttl beglnner~,

Shad!ll,w

Appl icatiol1ls in snrna G5iS8S, ~ shadO'ii/s arE I g r.adab}ij NOlIifi light to dwk..

A1:IrI manapement li["t!;S in 1hc :>.lladow ama~ ~\'Mn dl<lwill~ ;]nd tiI.~ liloie and gradat~· to'o'."rd tl"lslignr.

It is effective to show the sky reflected on glass at mrddlay. Conversely, at

nighit, the insfde of the rooms can be easily SSEin. .

Depending' on the lraJIsparenc.y and the relatiollship of the angle arid the Ilight, ~ass can end up IookillQllike a mirror. Just try to take actj:on to make it: look lUte ~BSs without thinking 000 much about ilt.

I I

I I

II II II II

,t S [00 effoctive to show the character refiected Ci1·~IaSS and addingllight with whit·e.

lIffEl are nrrercus methods tr managing ttlese Itl'!i'$· ~

s ~_ati[)rs and the I ~

'ast%t way to illpro~'e is to try ·'lloatl'lg skillfully l'"Il'"4jed ta::kgrounds.

Adding a shaLlow makes what is inside the gllass visible.

CI~.iIlfing your note 0001<$ ,into vol umes I ike' Mrure sH~ngs, buil~r.ngs and varrolJulJ; eWtEds 1$ also a good idea.

~ ..

Whe.n ~'(HU fi na skirM~ managed backgrouruds in manga magarines and 111e likE!, it Is a '900(1 iuga to collect them in a scrapbook for 'fDu r own reterence when you draw.

....

-

Taking action by adding ,effect

lines for light also works.

37

Ornwi n 91 Backgrounds from PihotOQlraphs

An easy way to draw baclkgmum:lsfrom p,ho1og'raphs is t.o use a lliglh~ box; however! for those o,f VOIU who waJnt: to ileally i mprov€l, W~ recom mend not taJ;(i n glthle easy way out ,and .

. really improving YOllir visuam IPower by drawing from photoglraph s,

First, give some shape to the main buildings"

38

Draw tile surroun diings paying attentiOUl to the perspective lines usingl th,e main buildings as a yardstick.

Once you'vs fin ish@d the basic d.9sign, tidy up with perspectlve lines and outl~rie$ w,H!t.

Insh the work by attaching tones, TtY not to th~nk too much about al! tile details. and handle ~e 'mrk giving the ttJ,ings just enough resemblance to make thsrn look real enolJQ 11,

39

When characters appear enlarged in the foreground; the need 110 draw d@tail!'ed backqrounds is diminished. Compositionally by adding something to the foreground, the depth of the drawing is brought out, Gradate the bumding in the back to 'look like' buildillgs,

f EffecUvEl' Manag,em elnl of stre,et Sceliles At first, it is im po rtentto try ane copy the see ne as, you see ill; however, wben you reach a. point wh'ar€! YOll ,canl draw wlerll el1llluQlhi! II is time to consider effective mamagement methods, and draw baclkgrounds where 1hey belong in the background. Ev·en when a photograph is used for reterenee, there is no need to com plate Iy draw every little detall, What is foro'most is to give the' drawing the atmosphere of a. street scene.

Dral\!ing lsners and lhe like in street scenes in complete ootai Is is fine but not nOOBSSarj, These can be Ilrnnd etI by gradating them for resemblance.

40

If drawing manga was S'xempt any kind of tiFT!) factor. then drawing extremely detaWed piu..' would be good; hovife',I< thB ~eaJity .. 5 that, a OOJ level of Q llaJIity must 00 ach laved in a short pEID of time. SOo wbat do }'C~ need in order to draw'! Take your pen 800 draw Of course, g' etl:ing·. UfB) \·jj,th wh ~~ ,

drawing 1ast is imporT

A trse Ga.Pl <1100 be added to [l~lJid drawing detailed areas.

AI'lJd d'El, .... ing oetaJ!ed Ibuildings by making use of crowd scenes. !Draw several characters well in the 1p~<)Jl1d 1h®n ~illlouErtt~ and gradate the area behind them.

CmBder xmposihorlS

~,tlefe, without

~o ng too muc:h crawing, the lrou::;lesome areas :llilb"'COVElFSd ~,i1J10Jt m£1kirrg

~e draiNing look i€ )'1J.1 Gut too rrrq' corners as S11'1'.n in the

aocve drawing_

When all the humans in a crowd sceooare- done <IS si!houett&s, it shows efifeGtlve mana.:gemem Just b~ InakJrJg a few o.f 1hem lock 'ike a Ij["[&e human:;). The trea1rm;llnt gNus an impre:::sion that IOu did not GU~ iIDY camers.

II/rib it i5 SIfIDIe, aoply rrmagament Ehniqu6S

t a ~ don't look ilCCf~'B ~a\19 boon cill if:: in the &lY..letted

as ~ime

I )ictUP9S

NeVer, Gertair t be

period J you aw fast~ used to lQrtallt.

C'YNC &:::eIl€ da'/ling in the rrtldle.

~~r.ght .S'J)811.88 "an Of! handled cry skillfully u$lnQl biD .af d siltIiiJU€tt8S. TllEl ronll-uncH3hort of visual dirElc~on of flight scenes is to add white f-or light making the Fl'","t tf'}!iemble night.

41

The black is done at 100%, darkness in o,p,position to the numbers 61 and 6,2 amltoons ~net tones) contel "Ii n gl a respective darlkness of 11 0% and 20%. By skil"ulll~ using the black, sometimes the drawing can Ibe 'sped up' or a sense of power or· weightiness can be achlieved. Thils is a strongl ally in

creati n~ manga.,

Sometimes try I'o(lking at a black-and'· Wihrte ph'otograph cOiloring In ths black areas Of try studying how black is used in various works.

Basbirlly; the logic hera is to use b~aak for strong, contrasting shadows.

Try using black in human figure shadows too.

e:J Eni:.u'O Fantas~/ "UJCKY RAKUUN"

Sometimes try using b~ack: for visual directioll. © 6f1i>../Q Fsnlfl8'P' "LlJJCKY AAKUUI\I"

Handling the backqround with black is one metrlod of drectlon too.

4,2'

Chap····ter 2

I -

Hew to D'ral~ Machin'es,

Drawing 'Gars

No maHte r what the modell of: the: car!, the fundamental shape can be formed from a box.

First roughly giiV,e shape to the overalll balance with a box.

Comlbin@ the perspective taking illto consderanon the unseen ereas,

r=.

--...._____ (.. i ... .. ;,' ..

,._ ••• t '

.. ------ "-.. .

I-··t .

, I~- -.:.... I ,

Once you!ve' got a yardstick, tidy up tile wo rk giving it propelr form:

Lines that arrange the posltion of the side vi€rliv

mirrors. I'.

=r

44

Since the fron~ part is lik,e a human' tacs, go for something cheraCileristi:c.

When ~rawingll~rSj th.e most diffiGultt thi ng is lifOOably 1M tires.

The most oornmon mistake ~ wilen viiewoo diagillnally from ~he top to the bottom as illustrated on the left.

The peak of the ellnpse iis lined up along w~h

1t1e perspective.

'bweVdi, in di"awing .A, 1~8 p@fsp!5{!trve ends up c8ng strange snd J"~ecl. So IfJhat do )I)U do? ())nsider the

fae: tl1m there i~.

a see thal rests. on the 1Ji).;rr.] and a side that ern De ~16\Nedfrom 00.'(;;-

"at the

Drawing A

lMe side vi8wBdfrom alJ(we

the side resting on tilE!! gmlUrnd

Arnother w.ay of looking at this is iU ustrated iln the drawing on the I€ft.

When the elmpse is viewed from the tront even if you changed the eng.le from the top ito the bottom, tillis method works fine.

hll€ top of the ~Iipse

This means that thetep of "the ell~pse occurring ata dagQ!l81 eng Ie is correct

~aJllishill!l pGint

This same ma1ihod for tres can be applied to all ellupoos wtten viewing diagonally from an angle.

front sida cJlagonal

exampl~: kiitche(l dishes, etc.

Ink wilth a pen. Pay attention to applying blaok to the drawingl•

Draw tires usilng a template.

Add tones and Ught to complete the w'o:rk.

Adding just a slight reflection makes it look real.

double laysrtld grraclatiofl

46

Gradation on the th in side is used t hraugh 0 lit,

ahEm on to the froot windshield and reef.

Consider the overall structure of thle' position of tundamental i~lems -like tne tires, doors, ete., ~n addnlon to' just th e car itselrf.

l"F. Icof is. quite a thin area.

\

on

(

Pay attention to the stze of the calf in oomparison with the person.

47

I Drawing Mot,on:yc.es

Filrst; consider the cte:sign and roughly Olive it shape. Then think a'bout the rough outline of ~he parts andi add in the areas. 'thatcaJrn act as yardsUck first

~ini shedl wo rk

Consider roughty putting together ind,epsndent parts.

48

o [If the perspective is d ifficu It to determ ine, one meihod is to add perspective lines in the beginning. '

s a. good! idea to get illl the Mbit ~ ockng at the compar,ioon of

f 9 JffiS to motorcycles and lrr""""",;,,,II,,,~ in motion.

Then, draw the more. detailed He ms wh.ile Iooki ng at: the parts wed as a yardstick,

all the rnechaalcal

of m::)_orcyc!es and the Ilike tt~ lIldertaking. Handl€ them Jsi~g black inths shadowed

TI1ink of the motorcycle tires as car tires,

G As for tones, the tires were layered with both sand-eye and gradation tones, Overall, ihe main parts of ttl e m otorcycle are done with thin gradatin"11 tones,

49

Someti mss it may be difficult to 'gather reference material for things you want to draw. At times Illke this, make the best olf what you have' making the drawling look enough Uk,e the origmnal object.

The work is complete when tomes are added

... - .....

i· f r

/

.'

• For exarr{lJ~e, take this military helicc-p1e~,e-frlethod here is to roughly g~e 't """'shape, use black for the detailed ~-&, e» handle the shadows and skiillfLlllly 'd1M the drawing.

+

i

,-

50

Drawitlg Colossal, Oomp,lex Machines -I

For example, take tilis. aironft carrier. As with drawing " mofurcycl'es~ the

methOd is the same. CotlSider t~u~ sections as rough blocks and mraw the parts that can act as a.

yardstick first. When uSing photographs for referencaJ you

will notice that the mlfferent parts are pretty prom iseuous and a real

underta~liIg to draw. " ~YOUl hatr"e to' draw more thall olle

aircraft Gafrier then it

~--~~~--------~--~--~~--~------~~

i1hat much ,harder. 0

'I

!;

51

- -------_

-~-:;~ ~:::;....~---

... _--

52

The metho(J here ~s to abbrevi,ate "the' parts wifholut destrtlying the ove r,alll atmosphere, or silhouette the de'tailed areas with black aJnd make it: look as real as IKIssible wittlol!lit going' ov,elrboard.

~

I

!

53

One method to imprOrv"f! drawiing machines ls to try drawing machines from 'your

i magination. ~n order to draw obmects from your imag inaition fNI m varilDus ang~e:s! you need a comp~ete understanding 01 tne strucnre .of the machines. llJe diff'Blr,ences of when you considered unseen areas and perspecti~e !Iines and whlen you didn't the diff'elr,ences willi show up in the sense of stability and overalm merit of YOlllr dra.wing, .

54

. At tnat point, you wil1 nnt,ice again it is important to put in th,e unseen areas and perspective lines,

In addi,tionl if yOI!J understand th.e mechanisms behind your',own dr,awingls then yOI!J will be ,ablla'to draw them freely. With tltJat said, it could also be said that if you Ulnderstand,the' mechanisms behind someone else's drawings then you can draw them freely too,

I" is often said that dlrawingan imaginary

I object wiith a sense of

~ Irea.Hty Ir,eq1uires a great

~ deal of des.ign

I -

»:" I strength; however; as

Iiong as the space on the page' looks Uke it slhoulld! ,alii you need to do then ls consider the ceaterllnes Ipers,p'octlive lines and lunseen areas .. lin

,

/'

J I

, addimionl' if Y(I'U th ink. abotd the manaqement effects; you wiill be able to draw all sorts of

. : d,efinite objects. i

__ J

1

I

I

I

J

/ I

/

,

55

A roun1Idi pam is adll ed here. TIle long-an d-short i ~his is. to draw ~he :ldreaJlllines ~IHlehanded .

VVhile people accustomed to cirawillgl rocks and boulders tend to do the ourl:lin8 iln pen, for 'those of you nevv to thils and 1for general practioe, do the inkillg .9Jfter properly outl~ning in pencili.

liha atching in the drawing on the right li~e me dr.l!.'JirJQ

abD\f13 !,oras etche<l in a stFi:W;ing manner '!~thOUl applying rnw' i 0% amltcon {net tone} f0iOilI to the cutter .

Fi nally attach the tones finishi ng off

~iIi.OIIo.._

the work.

Wi~h your €llibow ina fixed p08iticn powe<tfully draw tne center axis.

••••• ,~j".~,i~.,ttl~.I.III.I •• '."~., •• ,~'~.~.I.I.tll •• '~ •••• '~ •• '~~~~II."'~

,~~ ~lFlir~s~t;ioo3.i~I1S~jd8e~;r~th~e~o~I!./e~' rail

/' r' ,rough shsoe. You can th~'

" 1/ change the .angl@ at will r

./ -ir- your head. Next, with ttl:;

i.. 1 rough shape, if you aUaG1 detailed acceseorleeem view severaJI rg.f8r~nC€ photographs, you can \!\'hat you want at will.,

, • II!!III

Den .5 ~re. The I,-short of I dra:w lm'~Ii1t!S d,ed •

.....

More on IOrawing I magi naJry Machi n es

Try drawing a more advanced machi n e. Flirst, give shape to ttJe forms deciidi ng on Y'OUf composlnen.

As for angles try a low angle.,wlhic'h makes lI'isuail d irecti on of colossal;, 11Owerlful" and diO m i neerilng sensanens easiie'r. By arrang~ing the composition a III it on the slanted sidel, a sli'Qhtty larger drawing can be. produced.

I Ely sla.llting the drawing', a larger erea of space can be' occupied,

When viewing large frames up CI:OS9, it is a little diifficult to tell if the design is off or not. By looking at the lPage many times from a distance, it is easier to understand the overall layout and you can check your work. Finally, turn the page over, hold it to the light and view it

58

Hmmmm.

Hwe've said it nnce, we've sa[d it one

Iundred times" when doing au~1ine!s, sOIllFldiry think out the unseen areas. WJfl1 compl ex objects, ~f there are too, many lines in the outlined drawing maki ' everythi,ng b lac~, first, place~ a pi ace o,f thiin iraclng paper ovef the' , !WIoe'. The n, draw th e ullseen areas separate~ on the tracing p8rper:

Next, place the traciing paper under the page aOO usi flgi a light box: 1race messen areas. Iff ~Ur dJon't have a light bQ,x,you can drraw with ab~ue pe neil.

, ,

Lay me tra.cing paper over the picture and :taw the unseen areas.

r

Then. place 'the tracing paper under the picture -and draw only ~he areas that are visible as seen through the I'igrht OO-x.

59

For Ilit1i:le items like in the drawinglon the right

• Next, consider the Ii nes that will I

. give shape

to the three- , dirnanslonal figure,

Then, pen in the inking and add black. The pens used hem are: a G-pen for the maoblne and a round pen for the buildings.,

The key point here is the destroyed sectors of me building.

In order to draw realisUc destruction scenes, i'~ is necessary 10 MOW someUling about the structure of the destroyed objects and consider what IkJnd of reaction will occur when a O€i1ain force reS, applied,

600

/

.' While aligni rig the perspoc'~iv,e" set centerline and tile unseen arM .

J l

No matter how easy th~ iilem may seem, 00 sura and sOlUnd~y think. it throuqh. The 'flow of ns kind of drawing can be applli€cI to most materials,

• Set up the area that wil'l act as a yardstick_

Tidy up t'h@, shape' and finish oft with ouUir"lling"

• Using a Letraset 61 tone and the like, Sf.ttacned ens page of a 10% deep tone by thinking of each cloud as independent from the cihers. Outline them witn a blue pencil and etch in detail wlth the flat part of a curtler,

With the second tone page, attach it in, each 01f the independerilt parts,

Do a ~ay€riing eft,set with the th'ird tone

page. '611

Handling Transparent Areas

o After attac hi ng the tones, draw tJhe in ner outli ni ng with whits.

.' Next. attach a white tone to oomple1s· the wonk.

62

Spatteriing

• A~er a.ttaching the 'tone, put the finishing touches 011 the w·OrK. ".,riith some spattering.

• First, use masking tape to cover unwalillted areas. Whlile th ere is special paper available on the market for

th is type of work. in ttl is C8JOO the back of a tone sheet is used .and spray glu:e is applied.

Apply as little glue as possible .. If you don't, the tone pee's off and the page wi II gJet wet. If you apply too rliUrchg lue, wipe it off with a tissue paper ..

Checkpoint

Th is drawing uses the same gradation tone in a layering effect. -

63

• Cut out th~i area that you ~\'8nl to 00 spattered with ·I'l"iite.

'. Go for a 9 radatoneffect when slJaft€lr~ng the· whJte.

Expressingl Small Props

Use perspective here.

The most difficult part about drawing small props is p,robably the cornpsnson and contrast with human figures, Apply the same design rnsthcds that you have boon Ulsing up until now, One thingl to.be careful of is the size of the props .. Whilli3; it (foes dl®pend on 'tthe build of the character, try to draw small props a bit on

. the large slide, You may notice that you have'

drawn the prop on ttl€!l.small side making it look cheap and flimsy ruining the drawing you have worked so hard to create, This is a cornrnon m istaJk@ so be car@fiul.

64

Chapter 3

Ho~ to D'raV\l N,atur,e and Anlim,alls

65

Drawing mature is ,extremely' difficult so you can1t go and dlraw every I,aa~ on eve ry tree an d eve ry blade of grass. V;ou

need to 'consid elr methods tOo mak,e the draw:ing look enouQh Ilike nature.

Since trees often appea1r in street scenes Qliving Y'o U plenty of chances to draw them, try to remember a f,ew of ttJese manage m e nt techniques. As a basi c ru Ie, at first you need to consider ttJe structure of trees.,

66

Take for example a: withered tree.

The first simple and easy method to handle this is to use pen tOUC~lSS.

Drawing B

The thinking behind Drawing B. is that pen touches are added to the shaded areas of the, tree.

It is also a good idea to think about the contrast of the colors in the shadows.

I

Addi ng . k to the

shadow areas is 8:150 a grQOd idea.

Sometimes the enUre tree can 00 treated with black.

The key to handling the black is to be aware of the how the black is appmoo to the tip oi the leaves tlnd the open in qs betweeil the leaves 'that can be seen in the offshoots from the

b ranch. Try drawi I1IgJ while thillkillg about the fundamentall mechanisms involv-ed.

67

Simply speaking, consider gradation effects and how to . apply them.

Using effects like double pass, horizontal lines. skil ~ulily used in thic.kets of trees and grass can increase your variations end render effects Ilike an oi~ painting.

Co:nsideriing the Trunk Since the trunk 011 a tlree is cylindrical in nature, be sum and draw it so it doesn't look flat when applying managemenlt teehn iqllJ8S. An exam pie is given on th€ right on how to menace the

techn ique of brl ngling out the sense of three-dim€nsionality in the tree.

When apply~ng pen tochn iques to trIG! ove:rall form. keep the gradation effect ln mind.

FinaNy. consider addiflg branches that look like real tr-ee branches

I and dwaw.

Adding vertical Ii nss ~8 also effective,

68

'Nhen dra.vingl woods and tMts" the easy part ils. 'illlS- is up iliront and the :'iffk::ult part is lNhat is in

ih9 back. IDra;..'idng' all the ~ would be quite an lfldef-aki ng and d iffilCu It to Ctynpre!iend.

E\'€I1l W YOIJ ciraw ,everything :c a T" the drawing could

Efld up beirng coruueed and Jrtmiscuous; thus, it is

~wt to hand I@ back ,~i'OOS. Jsh~ dooble pass I,ines

lcroo g,oing for a

reoomblatlC:e than actual rEality.

_ffi'leS; aJ"ld grass have two sides ;,rd depending an the angle, you "lghtwant to show the

l.t:lerSlds,. As a basic rule,

(l)"Gider and draw leaves and g'ElSS like the Illustration on the lin

I re grass is a !large s,zed Ita/ling, the prlinoip~es for Itailing leaves 'Gall be a,ppli,ect

2. Thal, draw an Intars.€cdng curved line.

Put some thought into the unseen BJ,eas too,

rI" Draw 1Il€ rlght and left sides k)", tin:ng op the baselines.

.. r. '1',

, '

, \ ... \ Drawing A

As for ttre case of 'Needs, h@ basic school of thinki ng is represented in Draw,ing , A. Them ;;).1 you have to do is just make Drawing A somewhat more complex.

69

1, First usillg a baselir.e drEW;' 1ile fbw of m0 laaf 9S, the right and Iflft sidEls of leaves afId gr<>ss am s'lrnmetMc.

3. Firrnlv draw the shape.

11. CrtaW the 2. Draw tne 3. Tidy up

flow of peak. the

the grass. shape.

Exp'ftISsing Rocks and Boullders

FO.r rocks arid bou lders, 1he envir-onment in

wh ic:h they ara set is, important. For examlple, fhe fllow of water jn l1iiven and the 'like wears down the' rocks m~king iltheiir surface smooth whiil e bo u Iders 0 n a

hi I~si d e tend to ibe rugged. There are various kiirnds of: reeks and bou lders, whichl are diiffer,ent, based on the environment ,in which they elUiS-t. lin order to

bri no out th'f! place, envln.mment and atmosphere, it is, nece'ssaJfY to remem be r severall mamagemelit metnods,

70

Rocks in rivers and oceans are worn dovm by the fl!o¥J of the water and the 8ul1ace of them becomes smcoth.

When dra.wing wave'S, filrst consider the foUowing mechanisms.

frnt:e_ ..... · .....

Fi rst 01f all, the, water rtass up in th€!; direction ot the force.

As, the wav§ blfeaks, the foam

, "'f" ". .. .. d. tl-.. hi~

qUICruv rises an me W _~€

water increases,

The water rises and as it reaches a peak, the foam rises,

As the wave breaks, the foamed up area splits and widens to the 18ft: and right.

71

A large amount of foam, wtlieh emerges from the waves, floats on top near the shore resemblung the mesh of a 'l'is hi ng net.

Expressing waves also changes with ttie situation.

Technlqua Point nle character in the drawing on the right is the (hnly place where pen work was added; the background was handled como letsly with tones. To make the dlrawing sound using only tones, the accent in the contrast needs to be fim11y dmw!i.

72

Layer the tones to create till sflacl:)'v., .

DependirtQ' on the situation, the expression of water changes making it difficult to draw. In mangs, wafer is expressed as moving' at a fixed moment .... -~- ..

in time.

-'-"--"_-...:..~ ~ ....

:'1e IT.oM r:ari, 'ltv" exoresson 01 water in IS ttard,'Qd by using /,:nes,

(~~Jles on the ground makes It loOk fike rain .. Also, g:Ou'lld is Ilfet, it reflects tt1ings liKe Etie ,"eo." lights ~l c.\Jl.(ts In the day time,

't.ttat you wam to k)eep foremost in YOl_ir mind Whgn dra'.vlng rat." Is that W~l8.t,e>,'{l[ gffi.s mined on gets WGl. Be carefrJ noi to forg6't to add lhis effect whsn drav~ing min.

VVhen rain falls on water, tipples form and ref.lect light In water, objects reflect [ike a rn irro["

73

On the other hand, water is transparent and when forC€ is 3fJplded, waves swimmingily form.

Fundamentalty, water flows from high placss to I!ow places: however; depending on the situation, con,sider the different phenomena that occur in different situabions'llVhen expressing water;

For example, pour some water illto a cu p to the POihl~ that it al most (}v-el'ffows, The water seems to float on top of the cup and doesn't sp:ill. The

phsno rneno 11 here is Mown as surface tension.

7'4

r~:":'~9

I.it , &.~ ·X· ,. ~ I

h' ~. 4' !:-' »:! '

il<~~:': I

" ~ ~. -*.: .«. r" ~. ,

I'<W ~ ",ok ~.

I;: : x ~ I

I~ i<I«" I~ . .,. '" ,. ~'" ~ »

I • Ii

I ~ J II

U

Add a Htle I ight to the \'\'ffiff making it three-dirnensicru

Surface tenson also occurs in water spillied on the floor.

TI1e pl"l9'10rnenarl 0' SU1::D tcnslo occurs not cnty i1 water but also in othEf I q, t

()rawiing A

Usirnlg DnlwirnQ A as a foundation, deve'lop it making it: more' complex.

CnlCer til is drawing on too basis of DravJlng A

W'hefl using a p€n to I"fandlB 1ih~ effeets. consider the flcrw of the clouds and make sure' the pen touches do rot beeoms too rnonoiorous. Also, tlrlilll<; about the contrast of too shadows and handle trlis by' adding detailed lines,

75

Expressingl fire and Smoki3

Cons lder the phsnamenen wlhen a ~~re breaks out Imagilne what happens, ~o ~he surroundings ,and ~h ink aboul how ~(J eXIP:ress th is.

Keep in miind thi ngs like heat, I~glht anti smoke when you draw,

The illu£tratiLH'I on the tight represents the basic composition of a. large fire, Using this as a base, u®e your favorite management methods to 8'XPresS the fim.

76

Smoke can eng ur~ arn:l swirl dep6f1ding on the ftmv of the air.

Use the illustratioll on the right as bhe basic oormcsltlon of \!\/hen thillking of ex~ressing smoke,

_))

)

8reaking down the drawing on the left ill to outlines, renders the drawing' above.

77

ExplosiOf1lS can be easiily diviided into two types. T~ey are; .Exp ressimg Explosions I

I 1) wilnd expleslons lin) m glutn pDwdler and the I ike' and

'---liiIiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiii __ .t ~n flame explosions rnqm gases .and gasoline.

Flame explosions convey a sense of buming as the fiame€: move to the surroundings and develop into larger TIt\ES,

Wind expl'osi;ons convey a sense of bursting open. Since they have the ability to put out rims" tr~y don't generally tend to cause tiroo and tend to destroy 'the surroundings.

78

Explor"or';S have tl'!e ~O\ ... sr tu widen fraTI It-Ie . side \0 the outside.

E:qII',e!lS frngmeRtB Iilre by 1111lgililll a Iltll!e

I •

.)

Learn the 1undamentals for the· qUaJlities of movement and form trorn the drawings on the left. Then, develop your ideas and make your drawings more complex.

Explosions thar take place in the ar 'lelld to be clrcular In shape.

V\fI1~n shOViiing the scale ot the explosion, lit you have something' to LIse as a

I corroarlson, the sze is easy to lIiiderotand; however, the main point here is not to show tile size but to show thE! compleXiity of the explosion.

I ~

I

Expressing Animals

Sometimes 'you may ha:veto draw an imals in yOL!lr manga. Wt1li Ie it is fine to roug!h,ly ou~lline mem and add 90:me de'format,ion when drawiing mem, you'call 'e~paJnd th e power of yo ur e.xpress ion by ,r,eSiearchin Qlthe s~e'I!etal slructurs of animabl .

When doilig your df5sign, draw centerlirl£os for viewing the flow of tne body and the baJiance of thEl right snd left sides,

80

Sometimes you can't see certain depending

the €!ngle.

Since gaih,ering ref,emnce materiall for animal skeletons, is

. somef me's diiffiicu It,

consider ~l1e manner in wh ichthe' body is organized by Iloo!ldng carefully at it fro m a varilety of ,an.gles ..

, ~n is

-,

--the face of a fe'line

sk,eleton is made up of triangles-

an

etai

Cats ooze piiabi'lity pu::;:,hing out: allover the entire drawing like, some kind offennale imagerl,

I,rndivid u al chlOJracttliriSiiCS e:xisli: eve!n i n anJ~ma~ behavi,(ir, Obse;rv,e them Garefu~lly tlringi ngvou r d1rawingls to life.

Large animals are appealing because of thei r proto urrmess and strength, !Picture leisurely movement in your mind,

I Seta. high value on quick 'bustling i movement for srnal birds and t~ny animals.

82

of Allimais that Appear in Stories

Eru:Jot tor anima) oriented manga, for the most part, animals usually play mino' characters. Try imagining what kind of animal would be cast in a certain role,

Tlr.!jlflPj '10 00 S ta I Ilma~ all~ ba~1 IIima~ II<r.l mice,

IiU rcls, snail hl!ds !!lind' li<e tim Gan be R!lglly l"ij 0' ,~uddl€d_1n SOOile 1il:1li: 1hIYI alsD plll~' a jW!r6r rtle IikID in the

I)l~ e)~IO~le,

Animals aimed at ..

Animas cast as ~1I81ns:' pets express the villmn as

somoone who, wants to OWllIlhlngs.

Villain!> USLlaJiy h~ 3J.ettder tlInimals liKe kJtlQ~ired CiJitS, dG!(j8

like Doberm1'lll

plfllSoChers and bOil:ers, beasts, like alligarors and iiger.s In W'iV, In the case of women, Ihei sometimes harve neptlles as pets,

For Ipal1inlllf ~-ola anImals.

IIlteJJligsli1t ani ma'ls Irk'e oogs aad ,birds 8m often lJStl!1. In some! cases, tOOy csn rommunlt.al:e ,tilth hunens.

Bags

Triang:le-s are the basic

shape. ~

th rowing out .

its chest

83

WIlen drawl~n 9 imaginar~ animal's! liit you make. reterenea tv things, nke

11113 skeletal strucrure of actual living

an i mals! it ,can h~lp your imagili1atiol1li a great deaJ resulting in a well-fonned drawing.

In ttl is drawing, Ih~ head I face, and jaw where laken from referencing the feline skeleton and then

\

\

I \

I

, ,

.Y

I .,

./

,.

.- I"
J /
.- -:
/
/'
\, _...
'\
'"
./
~-~/ ~.

-:

[Ilrawing A.

The ;skeleton in IDrawing A is feline., The mechanism of the movement of the mouth in the ang!e of the mouth wnen the mouth opens, as well as, the relationship of the position of the eyes. and gills when the mouth is open; makes far g'ood reference,

m-niers of ilia mouth

85

Of course you can use reptiles or horseaetc., for reference 100. It jus1 so happens that the Sililimal' the, artist is most 1famiilim with is cats.

The best advice is to pracncs drawing a vari'9'ty of arlimals and species.

-t.:.~ ..

"

,.',111'

'1 I. ;J':~

•• _1 •• •••• •• • _

Th9 method appl ioo in drawing the frOI1~ I,egl was patterned after a human hand,

Just I ike a Gait" tile head of a dragon Carl be consfructed from tr'iangles.

86

rou nd pen use

imaginary, there is no tOo make reference' a:::tual animals; _"'-""O""', problems could changi ng the _c,b"",,,, product by just _''''101 i r ..... o.n a lNhim. As a ~(1",,,;,1 rule, it is a good to consider in

the mechanisms 8.'1imal movement, .:elelal structure and tile

, Consider 1he

bui Iding and light and apply gradation , tones.

The building uses a .30% tone wnh the windows gradated,

l I

87

· . • t
II 'l~ ,~ 1': ~I: 'i 1 II If ~ J ~ II .~ n ,;
_... Use pen tip to draw IiInes wiith white

Whiile it is easy to think of the usa'ge of whiite, black and tones, as for erasing, painting and attachling reslllectively, please consl de!r thai r usage as drawing items, instead of as ilildependerntfunctioningl items. With this frame of mind, you can apply !the use' of these tools and ,ex;pood your rang,6 of ,eXlpression. S'everal' methods for using 'wlhite Brie i nbroduce,d here.

Here are verlous exarroles \Il/here white is drav,'r to. handle effects I ike tatarrn mat flooring, a building, ligllit and margins in pmted text,

I~

o Dip the pen in water and wtlip off any ink previously in the pen, Then dip the pen in the water agah

., Without wiping off the water, add white to the pen tip with a brush,

B8

-

- - '\ -

~ " - - -

,z

~,...

"

:;-t>~-,; <: 'n, ',.

At trnss, you may needto adjust the amount of water by wiping it a Ib it. If there is too much water, water balls. form and do things like drip from the pen an d 9,91 under the if'uler and if the inlk is not w.a1erproof, it wililbiot the page,

k other ti €S, rf there is too littJe water, it is d'ficult for the \!vtlite to flow out of the pen. In this. care, addl a little bit of 'water to tile pen tip and c"lec;k the condition of the fbw. Befo.re d"~wing Qf1 your original paqes, try drawing on anoi1er pi&eEl of paper:.

C@f"J alB:) ho used for adding ,light atld outlinitlg te:ct for '~IJ.J want to make the letters stend oill.

• Another method is to use vo,Ihite ink which avoids g€!tl:ing water all the pa'9€t Adding' w'hite d~rectly on ttl€ page is okay too and easy to do. In addition, this IS recommended for waterproofing ordi nary black ink.

Depending on the sR;uation, a touch-up pen can also be used"

An easy method for drawing stars and fragments from explosions is to fling whiite from the edge of the bottle onto the page, Be careful of adjUlStilf1g 'ttle amount of water.

Another method is to do

things like blow on the pen for a spatterlnq eff·eat. As ~ basic rule, befors .adlding ttle etfect to the original page, test 'It,€! effect on another piece of page OiIOO tIlen go back to the original page.

f I ~

89

'.

CcUlnt~!'rmeasures

lin a word ,. what needs to be done is to make people think that it is a c1oud.

Fo:r'lhe most part, humans tend to see thingiS with a preconception. 11 is the arNst's Job to make use of these fix,ed ~d:eas and preconcsptons.

Thl e (jo.%tl'C look lil<:.:'o <iI cloud,

IFor real (Jbjoc~ and photographs, OJ doud is a doud no matter ho!/i,f strange too shape arid is FElcogniza::l 900:;m:Lr.gty_ Howe"v\6(. thls ooes not necas8arily hDkj true ·for clouds drawn in plcturoo.

V\lhen drawirtg, , €IITocts far

n<ltt)J"~1 d'oj~cts

II'ke ~~rass,

trees,

bouldrrffi, llamaS, fl 'e, water and clouds c;\e:3pite Icd<;lng at a PIctograph, !I:lare are times when yOLl can't draw thmn well.

Nanny~nanny;'. boo-17oo,

The drawing has distinctive features, but most ~mpot1antly, it causes the' majo,,.,ity oi people to recollect SCHlie ki M of fjr..:;ed idea in tl1eir rninds.

A drawi rl9 donsby a chi'ld_ These tigures are no laughing matter.

(JJmcU ~w@EC

Speil king of

dettctiite(:>,. , .. 100\, here is the;: st.yleo,

Chapter 4

iHlo", to' 'Create -, a Short ,Story Malnga

A stn ry is someth i no that lis composed of a character and actions ~hatthe character

bri nQis abolJilt.

At first, w€'I~ ereats a short story. Read ing the weekly manga magazines,

you will notice that the majority of the stories ars series where

Darn, end I 01 the road., ,

Momotarool Looks like you're at a great disadvantage!

a lot of Fascinating characters appear

A.nd with these characters. the story glets

bigger and I more interesting

but."

. f am grateful to ill/of you!

01 no, I'm melting! 11

With short stories, if you tr-I to create a complex story,

that won't J; work for short stories,

a lot of unresolved episodes. makirrg fur .<:'1 Ilaif-linished. difficult to ur.derstanO story, So why does it end up lik~ this?

y(j~'lj end up increa."liJlg th~ llull'lbea of characters reslJltiflgl in .•.

dl'f;lrac:t@f - 'kyarakutaa' {X 'kYara' in JapaJile-se from the Eng lish word 'cheracter' - a

i noun mooning personality or

i ndivid uality,

i And in

It's one year later. Now, what kind of gUry is B-kun?

Oh? He's a good dude, Built he's got a loud ·vor,ce and his teet stink And he loves chicjkfL

.v.or eome1Jhiing to that effect"

94

manga terminology a person thet enters the story is called a character, EssentiaJllv, it

moons the various ' ld iosyncrasf:§8 that

. humans POSS€M,

As a tarnllar exampr,e., ret's say that you in your school un iform are in the same class with 8-ku n,

Since you have just met, you don't know much I about €tach otrer,

Pop quiz trne. What kind of guy is 8-kun?

~""hD mid? I don't

The, reason is because you havs gon,e through some fun and difficult times together as friends over the past year and you have gotten to know and understand B-kun,

Thee same goes for mMga chasacters. A:ftertthe reac sr sees a few scenes, they understand the character and have feelings for him,

~ gaes without sayJng that pag€is will to be expended to show scenes.

But. short story - as th€! name suggests - has a Ii rrlted number of pages.

In addrtiQn, throughout . tina story,

the setting has to be explained, too characters have to be introduced arid the

neoosto be

And since tile development of tile setting <lL,d storylne cannot be omitted ...

1 hen~~ iE? no w-"Iy

I C...>3n dev!!lap £III -th~$ ~h;Ei r.SJcter~.

If $om@1;hing has to I go, the only tnrng to omit is the number of characters,

OucHI My back. "

\o"aking many characters Is m:' suitable for short stories.

In a ','>'Ora, a few crack characters are desirable for creating a short story.

, ~Id, ~C;c1' Dutt-a

--I e~ell\..,.. (

Le.slvi ng 60' 6001'11

95

Whi la the rule - the less charaetsrs the better-

You?

\.

if the characters don't have something that wi~1 fascinate the

SomeOM<= llke me?

Js to make

. people tllink the character is a sligl1tly quirky person"

Take a look at the following example using a f€w crack characters luk€ MomotaroQ.

It lis best to ttl ink off these as props to visually explain Mornotaroos world,

A nice 00 uple I found MomotsJ'OO: lin side a peach - I 'rnorno'jn Japanese - by the river and raised him as their own,

nley (:..,"3n 9p~.5!k butco LJIOin't r~!2> Wt; '~h$l ..

a PV et it.<=s>/

\\

,

i Th,e little

I Sidekicks I that are

lured by dumplir'lgs and follow hrn to battle,

/

98

All in all, Momotaroo and the o-gre should be the onss that stand out prominently; Th~S is what ls meant b"i a few cracK c:.ha.ffiGters.

These characters 1hen appear as part of the Momotar()Q episode.

Short 510 ry lt~emes Keepi nl)' Wit Si mpl e

Ttle' Nlerne is the 'char,aGler as he ought to be' wh~ch runs 'through the Genter of th.e storyline.

If thethsrTJe i.s becoming the' stronpest man in the world then the character must defeat several other characters, wh ioh doesn't make for a short . story,

for exElmp':e, contoo.-sing one's 101.'9 to someone or defeating one's tane and only orre) rival aN

tales with (lnty a few characters, Wlleln tre number ot ctlara.cters is limited frorn fne

begll"ol"ing, tble themes are'r.atutelty ~d for short ~toTieil, l,J

Avoid big themes if possible with short stories,

A b~g theme would be something like becomingl the strongest man in the world or

defeating a powerful villain and the like,

B1P'IB'2:t:.FI

, ,

So what kinel,O'f themes are

All '1119 utller oriented towarrd charfictl;lrs • . . wai~ in line short stories?

to 'f.Qt.j the . Lir.)' J:\

m.a.' . I( .".,nl

.. ~-~

~ . \

/ T~e topic of genroo \

, ~ WI II, have to be \

, abridged for now! Like don't blame

me ,okay.,.

/

. j

~ ... /f ~/

99

ID r,awi no an Ollrig,inal Wmll"k I Then ...

With the folbwi ngl io:rrnula in , mind:

Simply write down the SCE3<J1ies arid

e!P lsodes you want (an oLrtlIne is also

perm issiole],

I sumrnarlze the overall contents into a syno psis. thus creati !l!gl me foundation of the, story. This document is known as your ptot outli ne,

Withlthle previn usly i!I1I~~odlUced fu nd1ame ntd guideliil1les in min<l, tr) creating your own origlinall wo:rk. First, 'think abo ut tt1e IP lot

I Past (reason) +

1

. Present (event) ~

! Future (outcome)

'I ,I

At this time, a vague image 'Of lhe mrun character and theme should become 8v,iderrt.

Remember to only inol ude characters. that support the storyfne.

Next consider your characters,

How to Organilze ~he Elemten~

Organize the elem ents whille oonsidering the h.iglhlights of the story and most shinilnlg examples of visual diirecttionaJrid for€shadOl.Ming.

Then! intel'Vfeave your characters with the scenario 31nd recorrcoss ms storyline.

For example,

GI N DEIRELLA is a story about a girl wilth twlJ\!VIcked stepsis-ters who Cau.lS€- her a lot of

8

L .

In too ~nd. Cind€f81ISl·fflds up ooc{)ming imONOO w~h (foot fetish?') Pl1rrce.

The .Pffil't (rea5(m) is Cinderell1a. being abused daily by the steil~im~rsand d.r~aml ng 01 OflEl d~¥ goung to tl'Ie 001111. Th~· ptesent (EMirut) lSthle af~i~al 111~~ f~ry g(ldllll!Jther making going 10 <'I bi3J1I II reality. The tuune (outcome) is hif'l beooorni'FlS i fw·clrolE)(! wi!~ ~hEO! prinoe-.

Thts cathiars~ style story is a so-called clssslo oontaining a cilimactic last scene ·I'jhich is seen in many works.

M ini·lessQ:Ii

in Ul1d®rBt@lFldlrig Visu\9J Di rscnon

Th€l word 'foreshadovving' was 1J.500 earl ier, Th is ilS when sornethl ngl that will occur in the laa€r-haJ~ of the story is irlimotoo upon the character earlier im the story. For€ghadow~ng is used ill the follovvi 11191 way ilil Cinderema.

Now: A ~~hal'$l$ $tyle tala Is one· where !r.a.gEld~ orInlllll!!J8s with the (lulcol'l1ecolllCluding into a happy ending,

A c~i max lis d efi ned as the hll'g h pol nt of the story where allmha previ1o'U8, scenes and foreshadowing lb uiliid towards and 1ho' th e me' tri ~he story ls explr1essed in its mosllt clear form. llh,er-efor·e! when

consldsrl n 91 soenes,they must not be detached flmm thEl' th e me. A short story can not afklR1 detours in th e Slto:rylli ne,

1R8'N'fitEl a.nytfling

and ev€ryU"l~n£l until yOU! tih ink the story is objectively iriteresting at tile . outline le,vel..

If you don't II eave, by then,

Wf1.art-f' 1611 i:

Hrl6 .• MII'rt 16 I

~?

Please came . home by midnig.hrt all righit?

I'\,II@) only ,got Vhire€! heursll

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