computer aided design of structures

© All Rights Reserved

977 views

computer aided design of structures

© All Rights Reserved

- Analysis and Design of Inclined Columns
- Shear Walls
- Concrete Shear Wall Frame Interactions
- Shear Wall.doc
- Seismic Analysis of Structures - I
- Tata Steel Designers Manual
- Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, P.C.varghese, 2nd Ed., 2005, Prentice-Hall of India
- IS-13920 2016 Amendments
- Working Example - Rc Shear Walls Design Spreadsheet to Bs8110 - Version 1.0
- HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE
- Shear Wall Design Example
- Shear Wall Design.pdf
- Design & Construction of Shear Wall
- Shear wall design per ACI-318 05
- Shear wall design.pdf
- Pedestal Design
- Timoshenko S P & Gere J M - Theory of Elastic Stability - (Mcgraw-Hill 2Ed 1961; 280 P)
- Design Examples-shear Walls
- composite beam.xls
- Design of Steel Structures - N Subramaniam

You are on page 1of 24

1. Introduction

The accommodation of human force for the necessary use and adaptability is done by

buildings. Henceforth buildings are the driving force for the people. Hence it is essential to

analyse and design buildings such that they are safe, serviceable and economical. There are many

types of buildings to accommodate the needs and purpose of people.

For a structural engineer a tall building can be defined as one whose structural system

must be modified to make it sufficiently economical to resist lateral forces due to wind or

earthquakes within the prescribed criteria for strength, drift and comfort of the occupants. High

land prices, limitations of its availability, transport problems and in-creasing availability of

energy, advance in technology and communications among other between them, are moving the

society to grow vertical. As reinforced concrete penetrated the construction field at the turn of

the century, its use in high-rise concrete structures also became more widespread. Although prior

to World War I, high-rise structures were mostly in the domain of structural steel, the foundations

and, at times, floor slabs were concrete. After World War I, reinforced concrete multistory

structures appeared sporadically mostly for loft buildings using flat slabs with column capitals

and in a very few instances for apartment buildings up to 12 - 14 stories in height. Between 1940

and 1950 shear walls were introduced as an economical efficient bracing system for multistoried

buildings. Both of these elements-the flat plate and shear walls- became the major structural

system in all residential building of any height. The shear wall or diagonally braced structures

seems to have good technical and economical potentials to reach heights in excess of 100 stories.

Page 1

Traditionally, the primary concern of the structural engineer designing a building has

been the provision of a structurally safe and adequate system to support vertical loads. Recently

there has been a considerable increase in the number of tall buildings, both residential and

commercial and the modern trend is towards taller and more slender structures. Thus the effect of

lateral loads like wind loads, earthquake force and blast force etc., are attaining increasing

importance and almost every designer is faced with the problem of providing adequate strength

and stability against lateral loads. This is a new development, as the earlier building designers

usually designed for the vertical loads; and as an afterthought, checked, the final design for

lateral loads as well. Generally those buildings had sufficient strength against lateral loads due to

numerous partitions and short span beams and cross beams; and no modification in the design

was needed. Now, the situation is quite different, and a clear understanding of the effect of lateral

loads on building and the behavior of various components under loads, is essential. With the

increasing use of curtain walls dry walls partitions, and high strength concrete and steel

reinforcement in tall buildings, the effect of wall loads have become more significant.

Page 2

2. Types Of Load On Tall Buildings:

The buildings are subjected to both vertical and horizontal loads. At the preliminary

design stage all the components of a building are designed for vertical loads only. Ideally an

efficient system should not require an increase in the sizes of members when the effect of lateral

loads is also incorporated. Such designs are known as 'Premium free ' designs and may be

difficult to achieve.

Horizontal loads can be divided into the following three categories: (i) Wind loads, (ii) Earthquake loads, and (iii) Blast loads.

3. Lateral Load Resisting Units: In general a shear wall building, and for that matter any other structure, is designed to

satisfy certain basic structural and functional requirements. The structural requirements are: (a) Strength

(b) Stiffness

(c) Stability

Thus, the designed structure should be strong enough to withstand all the lateral loads without

excessive deformation or deflection and should be stable under the largest stipulated loads.

Three types of units are commonly used for resisting the lateral loads. These are:

(a) Frames

(b) Shear walls

(c) Tubes

Rigid frames have been used in the past for tall buildings and are still used up to certain heights.

However, they are not so efficient for lateral loads and are being replaced by shear walls and

cores/tubes for taller buildings. In the present seminar, the study is concentrated on shear wall

(lateral load resisting element) analysis and design.

4. SHEAR WALLS:

Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings often have vertical plate-like RC walls called Shear

Walls. Shear walls are vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system. Or Shear walls

are vertical walls that are designed to receive lateral forces from diaphragms and transmit them

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 3

to the ground. The forces in these walls are predominantly shear forces in which the fibers within

the wall try to slide past one another (Fig .1).

Fig.1

Further, most RC buildings with shear walls also have columns; these columns primarily

carry gravity loads (i.e., those due to self-weight and contents of building). Shear walls provide

large strength and stiffness to buildings in the direction of their orientation, which significantly

reduces lateral sway of the building and thereby reduces damage to structure and its contents.

Since shear walls carry large horizontal earthquake forces, the overturning effects on them are

large. Thus, design of their foundations requires special attention. Shear walls should be

provided along preferably both length and width. However, if they are provided along only one

direction, a proper grid of beams and columns in the vertical plane (called a moment-resistant

frame) must be provided along the other direction to resist strong earthquake effects.

Door or window openings can be provided in shear walls, but their size must be small to

ensure least interruption to force flow through walls. Moreover, openings should be

symmetrically located. Special design checks are required to ensure that the net cross-sectional

area of a wall at an opening is sufficient to carry the horizontal earthquake force. Shear walls in

buildings must be symmetrically located in plan to reduce ill-effects of twist in buildings (Fig.

2). They could be placed symmetrically along one or both directions in plan. Shear walls are

more effective when located along exterior perimeter of the building such a layout increases

resistance of the building to twisting.

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 4

Coupled shear walls

Rigid frame shear walls

Framed walls with in filled frames

Column supported shear walls

Core type shear walls

Shear walls resist two types of forces: shear forces and uplift forces. Connections to the

structure above transfer horizontal forces to the shear wall. This transfer creates shear forces

throughout the height of the wall between the top and bottom shear wall connections. The

strength of the concrete, steel and anchorage between them must resist these shear forces or the

wall will tear or shear apart. (Fig 3)

Page 5

Uplift forces exist on shear walls because the horizontal forces are applied to the top of the

wall. These uplift forces try to lift up one end of the wall and push the other end down. In some

cases, the uplift force is large enough to tip the wall over. Uplift forces are greater on tall short

walls and less on long walls. Bearing walls have less uplift than non-bearing walls because

gravity loads on shear walls help them resist uplift. Shear walls need hold own devices at each

end when the gravity loads cannot resist all of the uplift. The holds own device then provides the

necessary uplift resistance.

Earthquake

STIFFNESS

Force

STRENGTH

Connection for

Resistance

Sliding

Page 6

The philosophy of earthquake design for structures other than essential facilities has been

well established and proposed as follows:

To

moderate

ground

shaking

prevent

non-structural

damage

in

frequent

minor

ground

shaking

Shear walls function by working as a large vertical cantilever which has the ability to

resist large seismic forces. They can be very efficient in resisting horizontal loads and generally

provide strength much more economically than a frame structure. The reason for this extra

strength is because they can be designed to have some ductility. To have this ductility they are

designed with internal steel frames, this allows them to survive even after major damage has

been inflicted. Shear walls must provide the necessary lateral strength to resist horizontal

earthquake forces. When shear walls are strong enough, they will transfer these horizontal forces

to the next element in the load path below them. These other components in the load path may be

other shear walls, slabs or footings.

Shear walls also provide lateral stiffness to prevent the roof or floor above from excessive

side-sway. When shear walls are stiff enough, they will prevent floor and roof framing member

from moving off their supports. Also, buildings that are sufficiently stiff will usually suffer less

nonstructural damage.

4.4 Strength Of Shear Walls:

Shear walls, in particular, must be strong in themselves and also strongly connected to

each other and to the horizontal diaphragms. In a simple building with shear walls at each end,

ground motion enters the building and creates inertial forces that move the floor diaphragms.

This movement is resisted by the shear walls and the forces are transmitted back down to the

foundation.

As shear walls act primarily as cantilevers they have three basic failure modes, shown in

(Fig.4). While designing the walls a balance must be found in the ratio of vertical load and

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 7

ductility. The possibility of any of the modes of failure occurring can be minimized by increasing

the vertical load on the wall. This is generally done by increasing the dead load, however as the

dead load is increased the ductility is reduced. A compromise must be found where the increase

in strength, from the increase in dead load, is not offset by the reduction in ductility.

Under the large overturning effects caused by horizontal earthquake forces, edges of

shear walls experience high compressive and tensile stresses. To ensure that shear walls behave

in a ductile way, concrete in the wall end regions must be reinforced in a special manner to

sustain these load reversals without loosing strength. End regions of a wall with increased

confinement are called boundary elements. This special confining transverse reinforcement in

boundary elements is similar to that provided in columns of RC frames. Sometimes, the

thickness of the shear wall in these boundary elements is also increased. RC walls with boundary

elements have substantially higher bending strength and horizontal shear force carrying capacity,

and are therefore less susceptible to earthquake damage than walls without boundary elements.

4.5 Shear Wall As Stiffeners:

The stiffness of the shear wall, just like its strength, depends on the combined stiffness of

its components: concrete and steel. Shear walls provide stiffness in large part by the ratio of their

height to width. Long short walls are stiffer than tall narrow ones. For a wall of constant height,

the stiffness will grow exponentially as the wall length increases.

4.6 Advantages Of Shear Walls In Rc Buildings:

Page 8

Properly designed and detailed buildings with shear walls have shown very good

performance in past earthquakes. Shear walls in high seismic regions require special detailing.

However, in past earthquakes, even buildings with sufficient amount of walls that were not

specially detailed for seismic performance (but had enough well-distributed reinforcement) were

saved from collapse. Shear wall buildings are a popular choice in many earthquake prone

countries, like Japan, Chile, New Zealand and USA. Shear walls are easy to construct, because

reinforcement detailing of walls is relatively straight-forward and therefore easily implemented

at site. Shear walls are efficient, both in terms of construction cost and effectiveness in

minimizing earthquake damage in structural and nonstructural elements (like glass windows and

building contents).

Page 9

5. DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR AND FLANGED SHEAR WALLS

General Dimensions

The following factors determine the general dimensional requirement of the walls.

1. The thickness of the wall should not be less than 150 mm.

2. If it is flanged wall, the effective extension of the flange width beyond the face of the

web to be considered in design, is to be lesser of

a) distance to an adjacent shear wall web

b) 1/10th of the total wall height

c) Actual width.

3. Where the extreme fiber compressive stresses in the wall due to all loads (the gravity and

lateral loads) exceed 0.2fck boundary elements are to be provided along the vertical

boundaries of the walls. These elements can be discontinued when the compressive

stresses are less than 0.15fck.

Reinforcements

The following rules are to be observed for detailing of steel

1. Walls are to be provided with reinforcement in two orthogonal directions in the plane of

the wall. The minimum steel ratios for each of horizontal and vertical directions should

be 0.0025.

2. If the factored shear stress (v) exceeds 0.25

mm the bars should be provided as two mats in the plane of the wall one on each face.

3. The diameter of the bars should not exceed 1/10th of the thickness of the part of the wall.

4. The maximum spacing should not exceed L/5, 3t or 450 mm, where L and t are length

and thickness of the wall respectively.

5. Vertical steel provided in the wall for shear should not be less than horizontal steel

Reinforcements for Shear

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 10

The nominal shear is calculated by the formula

Vu=factored shear

The nominal shear should not exceed the maximum allowable shear max as given by IS

456-2000.

The shear taken by concrete is given by the same value as in beam shear. (assuming

0.25% steel) and if necessary its value can be increased by multiplying factor due to axial load

() as per IS 456 clause 40.2.2.

And the resultant shear stress is c then the shear capacity of concrete is given by

Vc=ctd

With Vs=Vu-Vc

The steel required for shear force resistance is determined using the relation

Page 11

The boundary elements should be able to carry all the vertical loads. The boundary

elements when provided will have greater thickness than web. The maximum axial load on the

boundary elements due to effects of vertical load and moments is

Muv=moment of resistance provided by the rectangular section with distributed vertical

reinforcement across this wall section only (excluding boundary elements)

C= c/c distance between the boundary elements.

If the gravity loads tend to add the strength of the wall the load factor for this is taken as only

0.8.

The boundary elements are designed as vertical columns with the vertical steel not les

than 0.8% and not greater than 4%.these elements should be provided with special confining

steel throughout their height.

Flexural Strength

The wall should be safe under the action of combined bending and axial load. This can be

determined by interaction curve or formal give in IS 13920:1993 (Annex A).

Required splice and anchorage

Horizontal steel which acts as web steel shall be anchored near edges of the wall or

confined to the core of the boundary elements.

Splicing of vertical flexural reinforcement should be avoided as far as possible in the

regions of flexural yielding which can be taken to extend of for a distance of the length of wall

(L) above the base of the wall or 1/6th the wall height. if spliced, not more than 1/3rd of steel

should be spliced at such a section and pitch of splicing should be staggered minimum of 600

mm. and splicing length should not be more than 150 mm.

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 12

Lateral ties are provided in lapped splices of diameter larger than 16 mm dia of ties =1/4

diameter of bar or 6 mm.

Formula for Moment of resistance of Rectangular Shear walls( IS 13920)

IS 13920 (1993) Appendix A gives the expression for moment of resistances of slender

rectangular walls with uniformly distributed reinforcement and subjected to moment and axial

load.

For particular case of x/L < 0.5 and neglecting small quantities we get

Page 13

Page 14

6. Design Example (Varghese 2001)

Design a shear wall of length 4.16m and thickness 250 mm is subjected to the following

forces assume Fck=20Mpa and fy=415Mpa and the wall is high wall with following loading

loading

1.DL+LL

2.Seismic load

Axial force(kN)

1950

250

Moment (kNm)

600

4800

Shear(kN)

20

700

Solution

Step1 Determination of design loads

P1= (0.8x1950) + (1.2x250) =1,860 kN

P2= 1.2 (1950+250) = 2,640 kN

Moment =1.2 (4800+600) = 6480 kNm

Shear=1.2 (700+20) = 864 kN

Step2 check for requirement of boundary elements

Assuming uniform thickness, L=4160 mm; t=250 mm

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 15

I=

^12

mm4

A=bd=4160x250=1.04x106 mm2

fc=

0.2fck=0.2x25=5N/mm2

As extreme stresses are high, boundary elements are needed. Also there is tension at one end of

the wall due to B.M .

Step3 Adopt the dimension of boundary elements

Adopt a bar bell type wall with a central 3400 mm portion and two ends 380 x 760 mm giving a

total length of 3400 + 380 =4160mm.

Step4 Check for requirement of two layers of steel

Two layers of steel required if

a) Shear stress is more than 0.25

b) The thickness of the section is more than 200 mm

depth of section = c/c boundary elements=3400+380 =3780 mm

0.25

= 0.25

=0.92 N/mm

=1.25 N/mm2

Page 16

Also thickness of wall is more than 200 mm so use two layers of steel with suitable cover.

Let us put minimum required steel of 0.0025 and check for safety of wall.

As =0.0025 x 250 x 1000 = 625 mm2 in two layers

Provide 10dia @ 250 mm < 450mm (max)

Astp=314mm2/m

Provide same steel in both vertical and horizontal

Step6 Calculation of Vs taken by steel.

V =0.92 N/mm2

c=0.36Mpa for 0.25% steel and fck 25.also max=3.1 Mpa.

Designed steel is required for Vs = (0.92 -0.36) bd =0.56 x 250 x 3780 = 529. 2kN

As the wall is high horizontal steel is more effective. Therefore,

d=3780 mm

required

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 17

horizontal shear steel area =628 mm2 =Asv

available

= 0.628

Vertical load on wall (with factor of 0.8)

P= 0.8 (1950) +1.2(250) = 1860 kN

Assuming it as UDL over the area the axial load for the central part beams=Pw

Pw = 1860

= 0.516 ( we know)

< 0.5

Page 18

= 0.041

Mu=0.041 x 25 x 250 x 34002 =2370 kNm < 6480 kNm (required)

M1=6480-2370 =4110 kNm

Step 11 Calculation of compression and tension in boundary elements due to M1

Distance between boundary elements =3480 +380 =3.86 m (=c)

Axial load =

kN

This load acts as tension at one end and compression at other end

Step 12 Calculate the compression due to axial loads at these ends

Factored compression at tension end (taking P1)

=0.2025 x 1860 = 377kN

Compression at compression end=1065+535=1600kN

Tension at tension end= -1065+377=-688kN

Step13 Design of boundary elements for compression

CADS, PESCE, Mandya

Page 19

Design one end as column, check laterals for confinement and check for anchorage and splice

length.

Step14 Design of tension side of shear wall

Provide the same steel as in compression side check also for tension (earthquake forces can act in

both directions).

Step15 Design of reinforcement around the openings.

Openings are provided in the main body of the wall. Assume opening size of 1200 x 1200

=750mm2

Provide 4 nos. 16 mm bar =804 mm2

Provide 2 nos. 16 mm , one on each face of the wall, on all the sides of the hole to compensate

for the steel cut off by the hole.

Page 20

Page 21

Page 22

Page 23

REFERENCES:

IS 1893(Part 1) : 2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, BIS, New

Delhi

IS 13920: 1993 code of practice for Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures

subjected to seismic forces.

P.C.Varghese, Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, Prentice-Hall of India Private

Limited, New Delhi, 2001 .

Page 24

- Analysis and Design of Inclined ColumnsUploaded byAnonymous ciKyr0t
- Shear WallsUploaded byHumberto Estevez
- Concrete Shear Wall Frame InteractionsUploaded byrobersasmita
- Shear Wall.docUploaded byDhandapany Arun
- Seismic Analysis of Structures - IUploaded byTusharDatta
- Tata Steel Designers ManualUploaded bychaos_atul
- Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, P.C.varghese, 2nd Ed., 2005, Prentice-Hall of IndiaUploaded byshahkaushal04
- IS-13920 2016 AmendmentsUploaded byShakil Akhter
- Working Example - Rc Shear Walls Design Spreadsheet to Bs8110 - Version 1.0Uploaded byalok
- HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETEUploaded bySujay Raghavendra N
- Shear Wall Design ExampleUploaded byMahmood Mufti
- Shear Wall Design.pdfUploaded byRashed
- Design & Construction of Shear WallUploaded bysuman33
- Shear wall design per ACI-318 05Uploaded bynsrivasan
- Shear wall design.pdfUploaded byjk.dasgupta
- Pedestal DesignUploaded byAnand.5
- Timoshenko S P & Gere J M - Theory of Elastic Stability - (Mcgraw-Hill 2Ed 1961; 280 P)Uploaded byCarolina Livi
- Design Examples-shear WallsUploaded byHafez Taheri
- composite beam.xlsUploaded byDian Setyowati
- Design of Steel Structures - N SubramaniamUploaded byjegan selvaraj
- Base Plate Design is 800-2007Uploaded bySuneesh P
- Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings - T.paulay,M.priestley (1992)_+Uploaded byFreddy Mauricio Lucay
- IS16700-2017Uploaded byAnonymous LLOyzq3Z4
- Retaining-Wall-Design.xlsUploaded byVictor Rudio
- IS 875 (Part 3) 2015.pdfUploaded bymaggidiravinder
- Introduction to Masonry StructuresUploaded byShuvanjan Dahal
- Insert Plate DesignUploaded byvrajan1988
- Advanced Reinforced Concrete Structures - VargeseUploaded byimaduddin91
- Design of Base Plate & Anchor BoltUploaded byrameshdorage12
- IS 1893 PART1 2002 VS 2016Uploaded byG V krishna

- Design-rcc Over Head TankUploaded byjay_p_shah
- Self Compacting Concrete Using Fly Ash and Glass FibreUploaded byRkkodi
- Lean Manufacturing MethdologyUploaded byRkkodi
- Sugarcane Bagasee Ash as a Cement ReplacementUploaded byRkkodi
- Study the Effects of Seismic and Wind Loads on Hyperbolic Cooling TowerUploaded byRkkodi
- self compacting concrete using flyash and glass fibreUploaded byRkkodi
- Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST)Uploaded byRkkodi
- Study of Substitute Frame Method of Analysis for Lateral Loading ConditionsUploaded byMohnish Kaushal
- Study of Masonary Infilled RC Frame With Without OpeningUploaded byRkkodi
- Seismic Design of RC BuildingsUploaded byRkkodi
- 09_Approximate exampleUploaded byThon Marvine Dionisio Urbano
- Portal MethodUploaded byAditi Bhardwaj
- Buckling Behaviour of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Under FEMUploaded byRkkodi
- Hollow Circular Steel Tube in filled with epoxy blended concerte.pdfUploaded byRkkodi
- Double Skinned Steel Tubular ColumnsUploaded byRkkodi
- incorporation of agrosilica in concerte.pdfUploaded byRkkodi

- Prospectus MastersUploaded byMuhammad Mohsin Raza
- Design Codes 2Uploaded byGregory Simmon
- ArasUploaded byJaymar Palomares Orillo
- me_seUploaded bygokul
- Pad FoundationsUploaded byMatjaž Žabkar
- 3370_2Uploaded bySolomon Abraham
- RccUploaded bySyed Sirajul Haq
- Design guidelines for ductility and drift limisUploaded bytpadhy
- RCC Slab BridgeUploaded bySanjay Garg
- BIS Standards & CodesUploaded bykalpanaadhi
- Behavior of Infill MasonryUploaded bys_murugan02
- Design Basis Report 3Uploaded bymohdalal86
- Amorphous FibersUploaded byHemant Yadav
- 17-299Uploaded byHuaman Chavez Jesus Angel
- ACI 216.1-07 Code Requirements for Determining Fire Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Construction Assemblies_MyCivil.ir.pdfUploaded byali
- 6300__L19_CanalLiningsUploaded byVenance Masanja
- b..pdfrUploaded byRaj Kumar
- ACC RMX VAS PresentationUploaded bytrajraj
- main.pdfUploaded byMuheeb Altaleb
- ThesisUploaded bySorin Gavrilescu
- Concrete Filled Steel TubesUploaded byJovanne Langga
- Reinforced concreteUploaded byJoey Cross
- Rock Anchor BehaviorUploaded bymrmeraj
- Glossary of Construction TerminologyUploaded byZaavanRoseMonteron
- Basalt Impact Test (1)Uploaded byMarisol Cortes Olano
- 14. eas_0807_54Uploaded bystefan_maslarski
- ACI 365.1R-00Uploaded byAhmed Magdy Mohamed
- Cast in Situ Pile Method StatementUploaded byManal Patel
- Structure 2Uploaded byreena
- Ferbox EnglUploaded byJoe