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MECHANICS OF FIBROUS COMPOSITES

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WITH 85 TABLES AND 241 ILLUSTRATIONS

© 1991 ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Datoo, Mahmood Husein


Mechanics of fibrous composites.
1. Composite Materials I.
Title
620.118

ISBN 1-85166-600-1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Datoo, Mahmood Husein.


Mechanics of fibrous composites/Mahmood Husein Datoo.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-85166-600-1
1. Fiber reinforced plastics. I. Title.
TA455.P55D27 1991
620.1'923-dc20 91-2204
CIP

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Printed in Northern Ireland by The Universities Press (Belfast) Ltd.
Preface
Contents

Preface ............................................................................................................ vii

1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Fibrous Composites ........................................................................................................ 1
1.2 FRP Constituents ............................................................................................................ 2
1.3 Reinforcement Types ...................................................................................................... 6
1.4 Types of Materials .......................................................................................................... 9
1.5 Terminology ................................................................................................................. 11

2 Ply Stiffness Analysis ................................................................................. 14


2.1 Isotropic Ply .................................................................................................................. 16
2.2 Specially Orthotropic Ply .............................................................................................. 24
2.3 Generally Orthotropic Ply ............................................................................................. 34
2.4 Transformation of Elastic Constants ............................................................................. 45
2.5 Typical Elastic Properties ............................................................................................. 66

3 Ply Strength Analysis ................................................................................... 68


3.1 Isotropic Ply .................................................................................................................. 68
3.2 Orthotropic Ply ............................................................................................................. 74
3.3 Failure Criteria .............................................................................................................. 75
3.4 Sign of Shear Stresses ................................................................................................... 92
3.5 Choice of Failure Criterion ........................................................................................... 96
3.6 Typical Strength Properties ........................................................................................... 97

4 Layered Laminate ...................................................................................... 99


4.1 Beam Constitutive Equation ......................................................................................... 99
4.2 Laminate Constitutive Equation .................................................................................. 113
4.3 Laminate Notation ...................................................................................................... 129
4.4 Equivalent Elastic Constants ....................................................................................... 136
xi
xii Contents

5 Laminate Stiffness Analysis ................................................................... 149


5.1 Stiffness Formulation Procedure .................................................... 149
5.2 Laminate Configuration Types ...................................................... 153
5.3 Symmetric SOPL: Isotropic Plies .................................................. 155
5.4 Symmetric SOPL: Specially Orthotropic Plies .............................. 163
5.5 Symmetric SOPL: Generally Orthotropic Plies ............................. 170
5.6 Symmetric MOPL: Isotropic Plies ................................................. 177
5.7 Symmetric MOPL: Generally Orthotropic Plies ........................... 185
5.8 Symmetric MOPL: Cross-ply ......................................................... 191
5.9 Symmetric MOPL: Angle-ply ........................................................ 201
5.10 Symmetric MOPL: Quasi-isotropic ............................................. 216
5.11 Antisymmetric MOPL: Cross-ply ................................................ 225
5.12 Antisymmetric MOPL: Angle-ply ............................................... 231
5.13 Estimated Membrane Elastic Constants ....................................... 236
5.14 Laminate Stiffness: Summary ...................................................... 245

6 Laminate Strength Analysis .................................................................. 248


6.1 First-Ply-Failure (FPF) Procedure ................................................. 248
6.2 FPF: Symmetric Laminate—Membrane Load ............................... 253
6.3 FPF: Symmetric Laminate—Bending Load .................................. 260
6.4 FPF: Unsymmetric Laminate—Membrane Load .......................... 265
6.5 Last-Ply-Failure (LPF) Procedure .................................................. 269
6.6 LPF: Complete Ply Failure—Membrane Load .............................. 273
6.7 LPF: Partial Ply Failure—Membrane Load ................................... 302
6.8 LPF: Complete Ply Failure—Bending Load .................................. 333
6.9 Estimated Laminate Strength ......................................................... 355
6.10 Laminate Strength: Summary ....................................................... 364

7 Residual Stresses ...................................................................................... 367


7.1 Compound Isotropic Beam ............................................................. 367
7.2 Laminate Thermal Stresses ............................................................ 374
7.3 Determining Thermal Residual Stresses ........................................ 389
7.4 Constant Temperature Distribution ................................................ 391
7.5 Hygroscopic Diffusion Mechanism ............................................... 422
7.6 Laminate Hygroscopic Stresses ..................................................... 426
7.7 Constant and Linear Moisture Distribution ................................... 431
7.8 Influence on Laminate Strength ..................................................... 471
7.9 Typical Physical Properties ............................................................ 482

8 Thin-Walled Composite Sections ........................................................... 483


8.1 Assumptions and Axes Systems ..................................................... 484
8.2 Axial Force ..................................................................................... 485
8.3 Symmetrical Bending ..................................................................... 497
8.4 Unsymmetrical Bending ................................................................. 508
8.5 Shear Forces ................................................................................... 517
Contents xiii

8.6 Torsion of Open Sections ........................................................................................... 533


8.7 Torsion of Closed Sections ........................................................................................ 547

9 Interlaminar Stresses ........................................................................557


9.1 Free Edge Effects ....................................................................................................... 557
9.2 Interlaminar Stress: fxz .............................................................................................................558
9.3 Interlaminar Stresses: fyz and fZ ............................................................................................562
9.4 Prediction Methods .................................................................................................... 567
9.5 Effect of Different Stacking Sequences ..................................................................... 572

10 Miscellaneous Topics ......................................................................581


10.1 Holes in Laminates .................................................................................................. 581
10.2 Buckling of Laminates ............................................................................................. 588
10.3 Computer Aided Laminate Analysis ........................................................................ 597
10.4 FE Method: Line Elements ...................................................................................... 602
10.5 FE Method: Shell Elements ...................................................................................... 610
10.6 Test Methods ............................................................................................................ 619

Index .......................................................................................................................... 631


1 Introduction
2 Ply Stiffness Analysis
3 Ply Strength Analysis
4 Layered Laminate
5 Laminate Stiffness Analysis
6 Laminate Strength Analysis
7 Residual Stresses
8 Thin-walled Composite Sections
9 Interlaminar Stresses
10 Miscellaneous Topics
Index

Angle-ply antisymmetric MOPL, Buckling, laminates, of, 588—97


231—6 bending orthotropy, with, 589—91
Angle-ply electric constants, 238—41 bending orthotropy, without, 591
Angle-ply laminate elastic constants, 7
238—41
Angle-ply symmetric laminates, 246—7
Angle-ply symmetric MOPL, 201—16 Carbon fibres, 3
Anisotropic bodies, 10—11 Chopped strand mat, 7
Antisymmetric laminate Chopped strands, 6—8
configuration, 154 Closed sections, torsion, and, 547—56
Antisymmetric MOPL, 225—36 Complete ply failure—bending load,
angle-ply, 231—6 333—55
cross-ply, 225—31 first ply, 334—9
Aramid. See Kevlar second ply, 339—51
Axes, 12—13 third ply, 351—5
material, 12—13 Complete ply failure—membrane load (
reference, 12—13 LPF), 273—302
Axes systems, thin-walled composite first ply, 274—80, 291—3
sections, 484—5 second ply, 280—5, 293—4
Axial forces, thin-walled composite third ply, 285—90, 298—302
sections, 485—97 Composite beams, line elements,
606—10 Composite,
definition of, 1 Composite properties,
4—8 Compound isotropic beams,
Beam constitutive equation, 99—113 104—13,
symmetric compound, isotropic, 367—74
104—9 symmetric, 104—8
unsymmetric compound, isotropic,
unsymmetric, 109—13
109—13
Compression tests, uniaxial, 624—5
Bending equivalent constants, 144—8
Compressive strength
Bending load, ply failure, and,
333—55 longitudinal, 358—9, 362
first ply, 334—9 transverse, 359
second ply, 339—51 Computer-aided laminate analysis,
third ply, 351—5 597—602
Bending .orthotropy, 589—91 Constant moisture distribution, 431
absence of, 591—7 71
Constant temperature distribution,
391—422
631
632 Index
First ply failures—contd. procedure, 24853
Constitutive equations, layered symmetric laminate, 25365
laminate, 99129 bending load, 2605
beam, 99113 membrane load, 25360
laminate, 11329 unsymmetric laminate,
Cross-ply antisymmetric MOPL, 22531 membrane load, 2659
Cross-ply laminate elastic constants, residual stress, 47282
2378 FPF. See First ply failures
Cross-ply symmetric laminates, 246 Free edge effects, 5578
Cross-ply symmetric MOPL, 191201
FRP. See Fibre-reinforced plastic

E-glass, 2 Generally orthotropic ply, 3445


Elastic constants, 13648 symmetric MOPL, 18591
laminates, 23645 symmetric SOPL, 1707
angle-ply, 23841 Glass fibre types, 2
cross-ply, 2378
quasi-isotropic, 241-5
transformation, 4566 Heterogeneous bodies, 9
Elastic properties, 667 Hoffman theory, 789
Electrical glass. See E-glass Holes, laminates, in, 5818
Element deformation, 1722 membrane orthotropy, 5868
Epoxy resins, 4 specially orthotropic ply, 5826
Equivalent electric constants, 13648 Homogeneous bodies, 9
Estimated laminate strength, 35565 Hookes law, 25, 26, 46, 99, 100, 142
Estimated membrane elastic Hygroscopic diffusion, 4226
constants, 23645 Hygroscopic stress, laminates, 42631
angle-ply laminates, 23841
cross-ply laminates, 2378 quasi-
isotropic laminates, 2415 In-plane shear tests, 6268
Interlaminar stresses, 55780
55862
Failure criterion choice, 967 fYZ, 5627
Failure criteria, ply stength analysis, fz, 5627
and, 7592 free edge effects, 5578
Fibre properties, 28 interlaminar stress, 55867
Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP), 2-6 prediction method, 56772
Fibrous composite failure criteria, stacking sequence, 5729
7692 Isotropic beam line elements, 6036
Fibrous composites, 12 Isotropic beams, 10013, 36774
Finite element method, 60219 axial deformation, 100 bending
line elements, 60210 deformation, 101 strain/stress
shell elements, 61019 distribution, 1014 symmetric
First ply failures, 27480, 2913, 303, compound, 1049 unsymmetric
31621, 3349 compound, 10913
complete, 27480, 2913 Isotropic bodies, 910
bending load, 3349 Isotropic ply, 1625, 6874
membrane load, 27480, 2913 general, and, 26
mechanical/hygrothermal, 47682 maximum principal theories, 70
mechanical/thermal residual, 472 strain, 70
6 stress, 70
partial, membrane load, 303, 31621 shear strain energy theory, 71
Index 633
Laminate thermal stresses, 374–89
Isotropic sections, torsion, and, 534– equivalent thermal coefficients,
8, 547–51 388–9
Isotropic symmetric MOPL plies, linearly varying temperature
177–85 distribution, 385–8
Isotropic symmetric plies, 155–63 residual determination, 381–5
temperature distribution, 381–5
Laminates, holes in, 581–8
Kevlar, 1, 3 Last-ply failure procedure, 269–73
complete ply failure, 273–301,
333–55
bending load, 333–55
Lamina, definition, 12–13 membrane load, 273–301
Laminate analysis, computer-aided, partial failure—membrane load,
597–602 302–33
Laminate configuration types, 153–5 Layered laminates, 99–148
antisymmetric, 154 terminology, 11 – 13
symmetric, 153 types of materials, 9–11
unsymmetric, 154–5 Line elements, 602–10
Laminate constitutive equation, 113–29
composite beam, 606–10
Laminate equivalent hygroscopic
coefficients, 430–1 isotropic beam, 603–6
Laminate equivalent thermal Linear moisture distribution, 431–71
coefficients, 388–9 Linearly varying temperature
Laminate hygroscopic stresses, 426–31 distribution, 385–9
constant moisture distribution, Longitudinal stength, 357–3
427–8 compressive, 358–9, 362
equivalent coefficients, 430–1 tensile, 357–8, 361–3
linearly varying moisture Longitudinal stress, 16–17
distribution, 429–30
residual stress determination, 427
Laminate notation, 129–36 Macromechanics, 11–12
Laminate positive system, axes, of, Material axes, 12–13
114–17 Materials properties comparisons,
Laminate stiffness analysis, 149–247 2–8
Laminate strength, 355–65 Materials classification, 9–11
Laminate strength analysis, 248–366 anisotropic, 10–11
longitudinal compressive strength, heterogeneous, 9
358–9 homogeneous, 9 isotropic,
longitudinal tensile strength, 357– 9–10 orthotropic, 10
8, 361 Matrix
maximum stress theory, 356–7 definition of, 1
negative shear strength, 360 functions of, 2
positive shear strength, 360
Maximum principal stress theory,
transverse compressive strength,
359 70
transverse tensile strength, 362–3 Maximum shear stress theory, 71
Laminate strength residual stresses, Maximal stress theory, 76–8, 356–7
472–82 Maxwell's reciprocal theorem, 50,
FPF, 472–82 142
mechanical/hygrothermal, 476– Membrane elastic constants, 140–4,
82 236–45
mechanical/thermal, 472–6 Membrane load, ply failure, and,
273–333
complete, 273–302
634 Index

Membrane load, ply failure, and Partial ply failure—membrane load,


contd. 30233
first ply, 27480, 2913, 303, first ply, 303, 31621
31621 second ply, 3039, 3215
partial, 30233 third ply, 30916, 32533
second ply, 2805, 2934, 3039, Ply, definition of, 1213
3215 see also specific types of
third ply, 285-90, 298302, 309 Ply angle, 557
16, 32533 longitudinal strength variation, 86
Membrane orthotropy, 5868 longitudinal tensile strength, 87
Micromechanics, 11 positive shear strength, 91 woven
Moisture, 42271 ply, 602
distribution elastic constants, 60
constant, 4279 Ply configuration, laminate notation,
linearly varying, 42930 and, 13640
Moisture content profiles, 4701 Ply failure, 248366
MOPL Ply laminates
antisymmetric, 22536 multioriented. See MOPL
angle-ply, 2316 single oriented. See SOPL
cross-ply, 22531 Ply, specially orthotropic, 5827
Ply stiffness analysis, 1467
symmetric, 177225 assumptions for, 14
angle-ply, 20116 electric constant transformation,
cross-ply, 191200 4566
generally orthotropic plies, 18591 isotropic ply, 1625
isotropic plies, 17785 orthotropic ply, 2545
quasi-isotropic, 21625 Ply stength, 978
Multioriented ply laminates. See analysis, 6898
MOPL failure criteria, 7597 Hoffman
theory, 789 maximal strain
theory, 778 maximal stress
Negative shear stength, 360 theory, 767 shear stress signs,
Negative shear stress, 9394, 360 926 TsaiHill theory, 78 Tsai
Negative stress system, 16 Wu strain theory, 7980 Tsai
Notation, laminate, 12936 Wu stress theory, 79 ultimate
strengths, 745
Point stress, 1516, 70
Open sections, torsion, and, 53347 Poissons ratio, 224, 26, 28, 31, 47,
Orthotropic bodies, 10 50, 53, 58, 141, 143, 1457 ply
Orthotropic plies angle, 56
MOPL, 18591 Polyester resins, 45
SOPL, 16377 Positive shear stress, 923, 360
Positive stress system, 16
generally, 1707 Prepregs, 89
specially, 163-70
Orthotropic ply, 2534, 745
generally, 3445 Quasi-isotropic electric constants,
Orthotropic ply shear stresses, 924 2415
Orthotropy Quasi-isotropic laminate elastic
membrane, 5868 constants, 2415 Quasi-
specially, 5827 isotropic laminates, 247 Quasi-
bending, with, 58991 isotropic symmetric MOPL,
21625
bending, without, 5917
Index 635
Rankine failure criterion, 72 Stiffness formulation, 149
Rankine theory, 70 Strain theory, 70, 778
Reduced compliances, 2830 TsuWu, 7980
Reference axes, 1213 Strength. See Laminate strength
Reinforcement, definition, 1 analysis
Reinforcing fibres, 69 properties, 978
Residual stresses, 367482 Stress
compound isotropic beam, 36774 residual, 367482
constant temperature distribution, unsymmetric compound isotropic
391422 beam, 113
hygroscopic diffusion, 4227 Stressstrain relationship, 2930
laminate hygroscopic, 42631 Stress theory, 70, 767 Stresses,
laminate stength, 47182 interlaminar. See
moisture distribution, 43171 Interlaminar stresses
thermal, determination, 38991 Symmetric angle-ply laminates, 2467
Resins. See specific types of Symmetric compound isotropic
Roving, 7 beams, 1049
Symmetric cross-ply laminates, 246
Symmetric laminate—bending load
(FPF), 2605
Second ply failures, 2805, 2938,
Symmetric laminate configuration
3039, 3215, 33951
types, 153
complete, 2805, 293, 33951
Symmetric laminate—membrane
bending load, 33951
membrane load, 2805, 2934 load, 25360
S-glass, 2 Symmetric MOPL, 177225
angle-ply, 20116 cross-
Shear, 71 ply, 191201
Shear forces, thin-walled composite generally orthotropic plies, 185
sections, 51733
closed section, 52733 91
Shear modulus, ply angle, and, 56 isotropic plies, 17785
Shear strain energy theory, 71 quasi-isotropic, 21625
Shear strength, 360 Symmetric quasi-isotropic laminates,
negative, 360 247
positive, 360 Symmetric SOPL, 15577
Shear stress signs, ply stress analysis, 92 generally orthotropic, 1707
isotropic plies, 15563
Shear tests, in-plane, 6268 specially orthOtropic, 16370
Shell elements, FE method, 61019 Symmetrical bending, thin-walled
symmetry conditions, 61617 composite sections, 497508
validation tests, 61719 Silica-
glass. See S-glass Singly-oriented
ply laminates. See
SOPL Temperature distribution constants,
SOPL 3815, 391422
generally orthotropic, 1707 Temperature distribution, linearly
isotropic plies, 15563 varying, 3859
specially orthotropic plies, 16370 Temperature distribution residual
symmetric, 15577 stresses, 391422
Specially orthotropic ply, 2434, Tensile strength, 28
5827 longitudinal, 3578, 361
symmetric SOPL, 16370 transverse, 359, 3623
Specific modulus, 26 Tension tests, uniaxial, 6223
Stacking sequences, interlaminar Test coupons, 6212
stresses, 5729 Test methods, 61928
coupons, 621
636 Index

Test methods—contd. Transverse stress element


in-plane shear, 6268 deformation, 26-27
standards, 621 Transverse tensile strength, 3623
uniaxial compression, 6246 Tresca failure criterion, 72
uniaxial tension, 6223 Tresca theory, 71
Thermal coefficients, 3889 TsaiHill theory, 78
Thermal stresses, 37489 TsaiWu strain theory, 7980
TsaiWu stress theory, 79
laminates, 37489
Thermal residual strength
determination, 38991
Thermoplastic, 34 Uniaxial compression tests, 6245
Thin-walled composite sections, 483 Uniaxial tension tests, 622-3
556 Unidirection ply elastic constants, ply
assumptions for, 484-5 angle and, 55
axial force, 48597 Unsymmetric compound isotropic
shear forces, 51733 beam, 10913
symmetrical bending, 497508 Unsymmetric laminate configuration,
torsion, 53356 1545
closed sections, of, 54756 Unsymmetric laminate—membrane
%open sections, of, 53347 Third ply load (FPF), 2659
failure, 28590, 298302, Unsymmetrical bending
30916, 32533, 3515 thin-walled composite sections, in,
50817
complete, 28590, 298302, 3515
bending load, 3515
membrane load, 28590, 298
302 Von Mises failure criterion, 72
parital, membrane load, 30916, Von Mises theory, 71
32533
Torsion, 53356
composite sections, 53947, 5516 Woven ply, 602, 89
closed, 54756
open, 53347
isotropic sections, 5348, 54751
Transverse compressive strength, 359 Youngs modulus, 25, 52, 55, 58, 100,
Transverse isotropy, 3134 1367,1412,1457
Transverse strength, compressive,