Renée Jackson Article Summaries Article #1 Stiler, G. (2007, Fall2007).

MP3 players: Applications and implications for the use of popular technology in secondary schools. Education, 128(1), 20-33. Retrieved September 24, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Research Summary: This article covers a small exploratory study using a focus group format on the possible classroom applications of MP3 players in a high school setting. The author chose to conduct this study on the premise that given the common use of MP3 players by adolescents and youth, there might be missed educational opportunities to use them in the classroom. The author sets out to find the limitations of MP3 players, gather teacher recommendations for potential use of the players, and to learn to what extensions of the curriculum the MP3 players might lend themselves. Two focus groups from the same high school participated in the three month trial and study. Four social studies teachers that were also coaches made up Group 1. Group 2 consisted of one French language teacher, one special education teacher, and a media specialist. The author of the article acted as project coordinator and served in a support capacity to the participants. Funding from a research grant was used to purchase six popular models of MP3 players based on a set of criteria developed to maximize available functions of the various models of players. A list of known academic uses for MP3 players was developed and given to the participants to prompt their validation on what applications were already being done with the players. Participants were given instruction on basic operation of the players and asked to record their likes and dislikes of the players along with any ideas they had for application in the classroom. Suggestions for classroom applications for the MP3 players were made including transporting, storing and archiving data, oral history interviews, and listening to web-based history and government audio archives. It was agreed that increased student interest in webbased information could result with the use of MP3 players. It was noted that there was a school policy in place prohibiting use of MP3 players during class time. All participants agreed that for any of the potential uses to be realized all students would need MP3 players and that technology training and support for teachers would be issues. According to the author, the implications of the study indicate two themes. The participants were able to envision applications that integrated MP3 players into existing lesson plans and they were aware of potential uses with certain learning styles and the needs of particular students and subjects. Also, the consensus of the participants was the need for a ³comprehensive and sustainable technology plan´ that offered training and support for incorporating the new technology. Critique: This article would be useful for teachers and media specialists looking for a list of applications or suggestions for using MP3 players. Although it was interesting to read, the study was too small, too localized and the use of the focus group format was not conducive to

generating any real data. The article started out substantiating the reason for the study by reporting data on the use of MP3 players. The format of the article followed a coherent outline for the information and tables were provided for the potential classroom applications and participant profiles. The problem with the study came in that there was only one school involved, there were only two small focus groups, and each of the groups met once, for about an hour. The author also states that ³discussions were cued with leading questions and statements´. I think for this type of study more than one school should have been included. The MP3 players could have been divided between the schools if the study had to be completed during a certain time period. Also, the participants should not have been given a prepared list of classroom applications. They should have been asked to provide their own suggestions after using the players for a period of time and then the researcher could have compared their responses with the known classroom uses of MP3 players. I do think it was advantageous to the study that a special education teacher, a foreign language teacher and a media specialist were included to gain the perspective of diverse learners and content. As a future media specialist, I appreciated the comments and suggestions made by the media specialist concerning the potential use of the MP3 player in the media center. It was also informative to hear from the various teachers the way the players could be used with their classes. I also found it interesting that the author mentions that there was no discussion of connections to curriculum standards and that the questions were not designed to find out the participant¶s knowledge of the standards. With curriculum standards being the basis for all classroom instruction, this seems to be an area for inquiry that should not be overlooked. Article #2 Sadik, A. (2008, August). Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(4), 487-506. Retrieved September 24, 2009, doi:10.1007/s11423-008-9091-8 Research Summary: This article chronicles the use of Microsoft Photo Story 3 for Windows to encourage Egyptian teachers to integrate technology into their regular classroom instruction. The researcher notes that even though investment had been made by the Egyptian Ministry of Education in computers and technology, teachers seemed to be lacking in classroom implementation due to the quality of their training and their inability to see the potential for improved learning in the classroom. The study¶s intent was to help teachers ³develop the nature of teaching and learning´ by using digital storytelling technology. The study sets out to answer to what extent digital storytelling can engage students in authentic learning tasks, how effectively the approach can support integration of technology into learning, and what the teachers¶ concerns and views were concerning the use of this technology in the classroom by using multiple methods of data collection and analysis. A scaling rubric was used as the assessment tool to gauge the students¶ level of engagement and authentic learning, while observations and interviews were used to gain insight into teacher concerns and their perception of the integration of the technology and what factors influenced the teachers as they integrated digital storytelling into their classroom.

The study took place at two private Basic Education schools. Each school had a computer lab with computers, Internet connections, scanner, color printer, and digital camera. A media specialist was also available in the lab at both schools to help teachers and students with the computer and peripherals. Four teachers of different subjects from each school were chosen based on their training and use of technology integration in the curriculum. Each teacher nominated one class (35-45 students) serving students 13 ± 15 years old. A person-level orientation and group workshop on using digital storytelling in the curriculum, the tools required, and the importance of involving students in all stages of the process were provided. It was observed that although students liked the Photo Story software and found it easy to use, teachers were not technically able to explain all the nuances of using the computer and peripherals to produce the digital story. Technical assistance was often referred to the computer teacher. The students with adequate technical skills did more of the work and made use of the digital technologies but many students were able to develop their technical skills during the project. It was also noted that student motivation and engagement in story development increased and that most of the class time was spent on relevant and productive learning activities. Student assessment showed students scored average on cooperation, good on using content, resources and sound, and very good for the remaining nine criteria. This also translated as 75% of students having some difficulty in working effectively in a group, while 40% of student groups asked the teacher for subject ideas and assistance in finding images and resources for their story. The last result dealt with teacher concerns and their views about the use and integration of digital storytelling into the curriculum. All the teacher interviews were coded through a two step process and recorded on a spreadsheet. The teachers expressed that time was a big concern for the planning and preparation of lessons using digital storytelling and that it also took a great deal of time for students to learn to use the software appropriately. However, the data suggested digital storytelling was a motivating tool that enhanced the classroom by offering a creative, productive tool and the teachers felt that students were motivated by the use of technology in an authentic learning situation. Five of the eight teachers were willing to include digital storytelling into their curriculum. Lastly, the data indicated that more technical assistance and access to technology would be needed to successfully integrate technology into the classroom. The implications of the study suggest that students were motivated to use higher level skills to convey meaning, use a personal point of view and reflect their own thoughts while acquiring new technology skills and media literacy in an authentic learning environment when they used the digital storytelling software. The findings suggest teachers need more encouragement to incorporate more long-term, problem-solving projects for their students that offer them time for collaboration, creation and presentation of their digital stories. The study found that traditional assessments might not be appropriate for finding evidence of profound understanding when using technology and suggests the use of an e-portfolio for assessment. The study calls for research in the use of digital storytelling in math and science, and the professional development of teachers by providing them with opportunities to collaborate with colleagues on integrating technology into the curriculum in general, and on using digital storytelling in particular. Critique: I think this article was useful for presenting information and data on how an authentic activity that uses digital technology can be integrated into the curriculum. It offers evidence of student and teacher involvement and outcomes. It also makes reference to constructivist

strategies that involve the use of information and communication tools. I do think it was a rather small study but the outcomes and implications were relevant and relatable. I think it would be useful to teachers, media specialists and administrators because it gives rationale, examples, and assessment for projects using digital storytelling. The objectives of the studies were met and all of the research questions were addressed in the results. I would have liked to have seen more information on the actual use of the Microsoft Photo Story software. I would have liked to have been presented with more data concerning student and teacher reaction to this specific software beyond that they found it easy to use and enjoyed using it. Although four examples of the student projects that were included in the project were given, I would have liked to have seen more specific examples of projects that could be created in the different subject areas. The main problem I found with the study was that because the projects were conducted in computer labs that were set up in row by row configurations student group collaboration was impeded and this possibly interfered with the educational effectiveness of the outcome of the digital storytelling projects. I found this research article to be helpful to me as a future media specialist by providing qualitative and quantitative evidence that could be presented to teachers and administrators as proof that digital storytelling is a useful way to integrate technology into the curriculum. It is evidence that student learning can be motivated by using technology and an example of authentic learning. It is evidence that by using digital storytelling students will be learning useful technology skills while using higher level thinking skills. Article #3 Hew, K. (2009, June). Use of audio podcast in K-12 and higher education: A review of research topics and methodologies. Educational Technology Research & Development, 57(3), 333-357. Retrieved September 24, 2009, doi:10.1007/s11423-008-9108-3 Research Summary: This article¶s purpose was to review the use of audio podcasting in K-12 environments and in higher education. The review covers three areas. It sets out to offer educators information for understanding how students use podcasts and how integrating podcasts in the classroom can create more opportunities for student achievement. Second, it summarizes and critiques past research on the subject. Last, it points out areas in past research that have left unanswered questions and offers proposal for the direction of future research. The study used a three stage process for searching and selecting articles on podcasting. An initial search was made by using the keyword podcast for empirical and original articles. Specific databases were used and articles not following specified criteria were discarded. Thirty articles were used in the constant-comparative approach of data analysis and the coding scheme ³emerged inductively from the data.´ At the conclusion of this approach, three main research topics were chosen. They were podcast user profiles, learners¶ outcomes, and the use of podcasting in education. The data was then compiled and discussed. The general results of the research study showed that podcasts were most commonly used by instructors for lectures and supplemental material. It also showed that podcasts were most often used in higher education and traditional course settings. It was found that students in

general enjoyed using podcasts but used them on home desktop computers, not on mobile devices, and that the availability of a podcast did not appear to add to students skipping class. It was noted that instructors felt that podcasts made learning opportunities more available and provided students with the chance to listen to material numerous times which they believed could lead to improved learning and understanding of the curriculum. The implications of the study include the suggestion that more research is needed specifically into the use of podcasting in the K-12 environment. Other suggestions for future research included whether or not student creation of their own podcasts could influence their learning, the impact of using podcasts on learning over time, and which courses would benefit students most by being podcast. It was also noted that more research was needed on which learner characteristics would benefit from the integration of podcasting into the curriculum. Critique: The article was most useful for pointing out the unanswered questions concerning podcasts in education and would be most useful to researchers that were interested in further investigating the answers to those questions. The review found that most current research articles on podcasting focus on the use in higher education and are very limited on the use with K-12 students. Perhaps a larger database of research journals could be used to expand the search and yield more relevant articles. While this article was well organized and readable, it was not helpful in offering suggests or opportunities to use podcasting in a K-12 environment. The unanswered question I found most intriguing as an educator is the correlation between learning characteristics of a student and the benefit of using a podcast. I think this would be especially important in making decisions about how and when podcasting could be used and how it might affect academic achievement for certain students. One study revealing that cognitive style was a ³statistically significant predictor of achievement with podcast instruction´ was mentioned but it only involved female participants. Even though the article pointed out some positive reasons for using podcasting, it made me aware that further reading concerning the affect on the academic achievement of both genders and with various age groups in K-12 schools would be necessary to make informed decisions on the use of podcasting in the classroom. The article also pointed out that critics of podcasting are concerned that podcasting increases the workload of teachers and may be seen as a crutch to students that do not report to class. Bringing these and other issues concerning podcasting to the attention of educators and administrators make it a worthwhile read. Article #4 Biggs, M., Homan, S., Dedrick, R., Minick, V., & Rasinski, T. (2008, May). Using an interactive singing software program: A comparative study of struggling middle school readers. Reading Psychology, 29(3), 195-213. Retrieved September 24, 2009, doi:10.1080/02702710802073438 Research Summary: This study was designed to measure the impact of systematically using a singing software program on the reading development of struggling middle school readers. The Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI) was used to authenticate fluency rates and reading level of the students.

The pretest, posttest, and follow-up assessments were administered by the researchers to all of the participants. Bias was controlled by scoring blind, co-scoring all of the tests, and by using ³inter-rater reliability´ with the chorus teacher. The school in the study was a Title 1 middle school in rural west central Florida. The students that participated in the study were seventh or eighth graders who scored below proficiency in reading on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). There were initially twenty-four students in both the treatment and control groups and they were matched by FCAT scores, grade, gender, and teacher. Students in the treatment group were taking chorus or another music elective for a 9-week session. The signing software program, Carry-A-Tune, was chosen because it provided real-time pitch recognition and immediate feedback to the user. The twenty-four songs on the CD were analyzed for readability level. Students were able to read the lyrics of the song silently three times as they listened to the tempo of the music. Then another opportunity to read the text was provided with words broken into syllables and accented at the student¶s personal pitch level. Prior to using the singing software program the treatment group scored slightly higher on the QRI than the control group. After the 9 weeks of using the program, the scores of the treatment group showed a large advantage over the control group. The follow-up assessment proved that the advantage of the treatment group was very large. The results of using ANOVA to look at the QRI scores ³revealed a statistically significant Group x Time interaction.´ The treatment group¶s gain in instructional reading level grew more than 7 months in 9 weeks and was considered to be of ³strong practical significance.´ The results of the study support the use of singing as a way of increasing instructional reading levels and in particular the use of the interactive singing software to help struggling middle school readers. The singing software allows for integration of technology, repetition that improves fluency, immediate feedback, and opportunity for self-regulation. It was also noted that the music and singing in combination with the use of computers could provide engagement and motivation for middle school students which can cause gains in reading achievement. It was recommended that further studies be done to examine alternate and diverse reading materials. Critique: I thought this article was very useful for reading and language arts teachers. It was interesting to read about the correlation between singing and reading skills. It is especially helpful for middle school teachers, whose students may need some extra motivation or means of engagement, to learn about delivering text in this alternative manner. The study was well organized. The research purpose was supported by the study and good educational research practices were employed. The results of the study were clearly stated and recommendations were made for future research. The problems with the study were that it was a small sample from one school, the study was only 9 weeks long, and only two grade levels participated. Random assignment of participants to the groups may have also improved the study. By using a larger group of students for a longer period of time, the study could make more strides in examining reading growth. I liked that the article discussed how motivation and engagement can be achieved by using varied strategies of presenting text that go beyond the traditional. The use of the singing software gives me a suggestion for an authentic learning experience to use with struggling readers as well as an engaging and motivating activity for all readers while integrating

technology into the curriculum. I like that this real-world experience with technology could help students with vocabulary, comprehension and reading fluency. Article #5 Davis, A., & McGrail, E. (2009, March). Proof-revising with podcasting: Keeping readers in mind as students listen to and rethink their writing. Reading Teacher, 62(6), 522-529. Retrieved September 24, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Professional Practice Summary: This article discusses the advantages of combining podcasting and blogging as a way to encourage and assist students in proofreading and revising their writing. The project was based on the theories that writing blogs motivate students to strive for their best work because of the possibility of reaching a worldwide audience, and that podcasting and blogging technologies use visual and aural senses which provide students with the opportunity to write and then listen for clarity of meaning of what they have written. By having a student write the blog and a teacher read it for the podcast, the student would be able to hear someone¶s reaction to their writing as it is actually read. The goal of the project was to have students become willing to ³rethink and revise´ their work to engage their readers while making their writing clear and easily understood. The project set out to use podcasts to help the students understand that their ideas must be clearly communicated to be understood by their audience, and to answer the question of ³How can we help students develop such understanding?´ The authors¶ answer to the question was to ³teach students proof-revising, a process that is both revision and copyediting.´ The project involved fifth grade bloggers and their teacher. The teacher began scaffolding by first asking a series of questions to gauge the students¶ knowledge of proofreading and the process they were using to proofread their writing. The results were that students focused on mechanical errors and did not check for reader understanding. The authors¶ approach was to have the teacher provide ³specific and personalized feedback through teacher podcasts of each story.´ Initially, teacher communication to the students was personal and provided a model for proof-revising for each student. The podcasts were revised and then published on a blog and accessible for other students and educators. As the project progressed, students were asked to listen to podcasts of their stories and improve the flow of their stories by answering a series of questions about content, comprehension, flow, and punctuation. Students had access to their written blog while listening to the podcast and soon learned habits to improve their writing for reader comprehension. Following a class discussion, students created mini podcasts on proof-revising tips. The results of the study were that students recognized how podcasting helped them to develop their writing and communication skills. Students were observed to be developing selfmonitoring while proofing their writing and an appreciation for the process. Results were also noted by teacher observation of students brainstorming with classmates and reading their revisions aloud. Critique:

This article on combining blogging and podcasting covered the theory behind the integration of the technologies into the classroom and offered teachers, media specialists, and administrators with the rationale for introducing blogs and podcasting into the elementary school classroom. The article also covered how to actually construct a podcast with step by step instructions and a list of hardware and software needed to produce a podcast. Actual links to software downloads and several screenshots were incorporated as well as a link to additional screenshots and tutorials. I thought this was a well-written and useful article. I appreciated the fact that the process of using proof-revising is a literacy task that offers authentic learning opportunities while using two technologies. The authors do admit that the process is a challenge for teachers and students and that it is not an approach that is to be used in the classroom daily. However, they do include guidance on using the process in a limited way by using only excerpts from student¶s work to show their writing strengths and weaknesses. I would have liked to have had more information on the actual class subject and the topics they used for their blogs. I can see the usefulness of the article to me as a future media specialist because it is an idea that can integrate information literacy, technology and communication skills in an engaging and motivating format for students. This type of project involves students with reading, writing, and using technology in a while requiring them to use higher level thinking and communication skills. I can see this type of project as being a beneficial tool in an authentic learning toolkit. Article #6 Mitchell, L. (2007, Winter2007). Using technology in Reggio Emilia-inspired programs. Theory Into Practice, 46(1), 32-39. Retrieved September 24, 2009, doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4601_5 Theory-into-practice Summary: This article gives the rationale behind the constructivist learning theory that the municipal early childhood schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy have been based upon and how technology supports this learning philosophy. It points out that in Reggio Emilia-inspired programs; technology is used as a tool to encourage student exploration and interaction with their environment to the fullest extent. The article cites using specific technology in the Reggio Emilia approach such as internet searches to further inquiry, videotaping to help construct knowledge, producing digital movies for creativity, and assistive technology for children with disabilities. The author notes that in Piaget¶s constructivist theory, discovery is a fundamental basis of learning and it is by children being allowed to learn ³through their own interests and discoveries that learning occurs.´ The article points out that technology can be an important tool in producing successful learners by creating an environment where students can play, explore, create, discover, and interact in meaningful ways. The article says that Reggio Emilia learning philosophy is based on the belief that all children can learn through inquiry, and that technology can aid students by providing a way to answer questions. The author writes that Reggio Emilia programs have also included technology to promote creativity among the children, and that without technology ³much of the conversation, ideas, and continued learning may not have happened.´ The article gives some insight, rationale, and

suggestions for using assistive technology for students with disabilities. Possible uses of technology for parents and educators such as communication, assessment, and training are also included. The implication of the article is that Reggio-Emilia-inspired programs are based on Piaget¶s constructivist belief that ³learning is through discovery.´ To this end, the article suggests that technology is important within early childhood education and should be ³viewed with a wide angle´ going beyond ³simply placing a computer in a classroom.´ The author notes that even though Malguzzi did not specifically name technology as one of the hundred languages of a child, it is definitely part of their lives. Critique: This article would be useful to educators, parents and administrators interested in the constructivist learning philosophy in general, and the Reggio Emilia-inspired learning program in particular. The article gave specific examples of how using technology supports the various learning components of Reggio Emilia-inspired programs. It also included additional information on how using technology benefits students with disabilities and can be used by parents and educators in conjunction with early childhood education. It also gave suggestions for using technology to share examples of childhood learning. I found this article to be well organized and interesting. The article covered the major points the author wished to make in a section by section format. The technology examples could be easily duplicated in any early childhood learning environment. The suggestions for documentation, communication, and training for adults were also helpful and doable. As someone that believes in the constructivist learning theory, I found this article to be beneficial because it strongly supported the use of technology to further this learning approach. I gained some good ideas of integrating technology into curriculum for inquiry based learning and scaffolding knowledge for young learners. I also gained awareness of some assistive technology for students with disabilities or limitations. I could easily relate the information in this article with classroom instruction. Article #7 Johnson, L., & Levine, A. (2008, March). Virtual worlds: Inherently immersive, highly social learning spaces. Theory Into Practice, 47(2), 161-170. Retrieved September 29, 2009, doi:10.1080/00405840801992397 Professional Practice Summary: The point of view of this article is that immersive learning has been around for some time and because of this, developers of virtual world platforms have a theoretical basis for using this technology in K-12 and higher educational environments. According to the article, using virtual world technology supports discovery and interactive learning. The authors also point out that virtual world learning offers an opportunity to experiment at low cost and risk of danger while allowing teachers to design learning experiences for their students. The authors offer supportive examples of the premise in scientific situations, historical role play and reenactments, and foreign languages. Various software titles that capitalize on the

benefits of this type of technology, such as Second Life, are also given. The article cites the core element of virtual world technology as the ability to interact with and impact an environment. It also cites Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs as another important part of the experience of using virtual world projects as they are designed for social interaction and the forming of communities. The authors point out that virtual world programs offer an environment for learning experiences that can be entirely new and different from any other learning experience because it allows the manipulation of the characters, setting, and situation by instructors and students. A five step process for developing virtual world projects is provided. The article concludes with a list of virtual world resources. The implication of the article is that the natural social interaction caused by these virtual worlds offer students the sense of community that has the potential of affecting the increase in student learning. The article also implies that the social focus of virtual worlds can bring about self-directed learning and student motivation through the pleasure of learning. It implies that while all sorts of other real world, hands-on learning experiences have been used successfully for a long time, they seldom move students to a higher level of learning where experimentation and discovery can begin like the with the use of virtual world technology. Critique: I think this article would be useful for educators and administrators that were interested in integrating virtual world applications in their school. The article was useful because it offered the theoretical basis for using the technology in education as well as examples of application. It provided references to higher learning skills that can be developed by using the technology. The paper was well-organized and easily understood. The problem with the paper would be that the application may take some time for teachers to become proficient enough with the software to be able to fully realize the potential of the technology. It may take them time to be ready to create highly engaging and significant learning experiences with the software applications. The remedy would be practice with the software to achieve confidence and a sense of accomplishment. I was interested to read about the varied learning opportunities and examples for using virtual world software. I think it would be a great way to engage students that might otherwise be bored by traditional learning experiences. I especially appreciated the authors including the five step process for getting started with a virtual world project and the additional resources for further investigation. Article #8 Dani, D., & Koenig, K. (2008, Summer 2008). Technology and reform-based science education. Theory Into Practice, 47(3), 204-211. Retrieved September 29, 2009, doi:10.1080/00405840802153825 Professional Practice Summary: This article notes that recent educational reform calls for the integration of digital technologies in science education. The purpose of the article is to provide teachers with ³practical research-based examples of digital technologies´ that can be used to support scientific

learning in the classroom. The authors advocate the use of various technologies such as tutorials, virtual models, electronic voting systems, and probeware to support deep scientific understanding through concrete experiences, scaffolding knowledge through questioning and personal instruction, and by promoting reflection. The authors give examples of using specific software that provide computer models of real world occurrences such as the properties of water that can engage and motivate students by allowing them to be active learners. They also note that the virtual environment of tutorials not only can be used to present new material but they scaffold learning. Another interesting technology mentioned is the Electronic Voting Machine (EVM). The authors point out that the EVM is useful in conjunction with questioning in a lecture setting. This technology allows the learning to become interactive and helps students to absorb and comprehend the information they have heard. The article is broken down by the different technologies that are reviewed. Each section gives examples of using the technology in education, and their learning implications. The authors include a table of the surveyed digital technologies, its purpose, and the correlated pedagogical impact. The implication of the article is that the authors take the point of view that teachers often do not integrate technology into their teaching because they do not know how it can be used to facilitate science as inquiry based learning. The result of the article is that the authors feel the examples of technology that are presented can facilitate the development of ³content-specific, high-quality technology-enhanced´ learning in science curriculum. It suggests that technology used in science education can increase content knowledge, scaffold learning, create the opportunity for reflection, and present students with authentic experiences for design, analysis, and data interpretation. The authors feel that it is important for teachers to become used to an electronic learning environment. Critique: This article can be useful as a resource for technologies that can be used in inquiry based learning in general and science education in particular. I think this would be useful to teachers, media specialists, and anyone designing curriculum. The article supports a need for creating an electronic learning environment and would help with presenting the need for new or additional technology to administrators and school board members. The examples for the technologies are mostly science based but they can be translated into other subjects. The use of the Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) could easily be incorporated into many subject areas to create a more collaborative classroom. The only problem with some of the technology mentioned would be the cost. The EVM can be costly, but research shows that it can significantly impact student understanding of content material. It also provides instant feedback as an assessment tool and interactive learning opportunities. I thought the article was well written. It was organized into easy to use sections and the pedagogical impact table features implementation difficulty of the various technologies. I think this would be very useful as a future media specialist for helping teachers integrate technology into instruction. It would also be helpful when trying to persuade administrators and school boards to increase funding for technology. I think that in preparing students for the 21st century workplace, schools must integrate digital technologies into the science classroom to produce a scientifically literate population.