You are on page 1of 53


Our project aims at providing a smart way for physically
challenged people for offering movement without any assistance to the
user, as well as remote control of the chair by an external user, which not
only reduces mechanical effort for operating the wheel chair but also
allows tracking and control of the path of the user’s movement from a
far distance with the help of different control modules, that includes,
joystick control, voice control, external DTMF control etc.
There are different modules in this device which incorporates with all
kinds of physical disability to provide maximum usability. The user can
simply operate the chair using the joystick module, if incase the person
is a quadriplegic the chair offers voice control, so the user can operate
the chair using voice commands to alter the orientation of the chair
movements as per will, the chair also provides a remote assistance for its
operation using DTMF module, which can be used by calling the phone
integrated with the chair and pressing dial tones on the caller’s phone.
The movement of the chair can be constantly monitored using a live
video camera application pre-installed in the phone integrated with the
chair to remotely control the chair. There is also the obstacle detecting
module installed on the front and back to abruptly stop the device incase
of a barrier in front or behind the chair so the user can turn around and
take a different route.

Page 1





















Page 2






Page 3


The smart chair is a step taken with an intention to make a difference to the lives of people
with restricted mobility. It is the next step in easing mobility for the disable people and allowing
them the freedom to move about on their on free will without any assistance from others as far as
possible. The Smart wheel chair incorporates many modules to make the chair as user-friendly as
possible and also the different modules means that people with any disability can utilize the chair
due to the versatility of this smart chair. Smart systems are devices that incorporate functions of
sensing, actuation and control through their capability of describing and analyzing a situation,
and taking decisions based on the available data in a predictive or adaptive manner, thereby
performing smart actions. This paper is based on a project work which aims at achieving cost
effectiveness in automated wheelchairs by providing the patients with the facility of
incorporating need based individual modules into the chair so as to customize as compared to an
integrated one commonly available in the market. Key words- Accelerometer based activation,
Obstacle Detection, mobile control (DTMF based), Voice Activation, Joystick control, Chin

Quadriplegia is a medical condition characterized by partial or complete paralysis of the four
limbs and torso. Paraplegia is a variant of quadriplegia where only waist downwards is nonfunctional. The smart chair is an improved version and extension of work already carried out
where motion control had been achieved using neck movement, joystick, voice activation and
mobile phones. The earlier work done on the chair used Arduino (Atmega 8) for the sensor inputs

Page 4

and to produce control signals. For this work, Atmega 16 an efficient hardware platform has been
used which apparently overcomes the limitations of Atmega 8. Arduino is a tool for making
computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It's
an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a
development environment for writing software for the board.
Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or
sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects
can be stand-alone, or they can communicate with software running on your computer (e.g.
Flash, Processing, MaxMSP.) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled;
the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free.
The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical
computing platform, which is based on the Processing multimedia programming environment.

It is our foremost duty to serve the people around us as much as we can. The main motivation
towards this project came by considering the fact that even though in today’s modern world

Page 5

even for the very worst conditions in physical disabilities. The lesser the assistance required the more the self esteem grows in people like them.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING technology has moved so forward that there is almost nothing that is impossible for us humans to do. who are challenged and deprived by the nature. the various modules allow the chair to be automatically controlled by a near by person in case of emergency or in case the module used by the rider comes across some problem. With the help of a wheel chair that can be controlled in so many ways.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs. a segment of the disabled SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 6 . Not only the person mounted on the chair. The worst part of being physically disabled is probably the lack of free will in mobility and the need of constant assistance for that. I. the person can himself operate the chair and move about as he likes. Smart Wheel chair intends to enhance their self respect by letting them know they can survive well without any assistance from others. with the help of technological progression. though they are disabled physically they have still all the chance in the world to prove their worth to the society and to the nation and it is our responsibility to motivate them as much as we can. there are still so many people around us who are deprived of even living a normal life because of their physical disability.

or cognitive deficits. For example. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 7 . tremors. impaired mobility often results in decreased opportunities to socialize. visual field reduction. 31 percent of persons with major mobility difficulties reported being frequently depressed or anxious. compared with only 4 percent of persons without mobility difficulties . These individuals often lack independent mobility and rely on a caregiver to push them in a manual wheelchair. In addition. spasticity. Even though some advanced wheelchairs with joystick movement control is available. which leads to social isolation. anxiety. but is not limited to. This population includes. and depression. The contemporary wheelchairs requires physical effort for its movement which has to be taken by either the patient or his helper.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. individuals with low vision. Also in certain cases of emergency the patient may be alone which makes him completely helpless since he can’t control the wheelchair. they are of no use for quadriplegia patients .

passing through doorways).g. Another objective of this project is to produce a voice controlled system attached to the wheel chair so that it provides great assistance to quadriplegia patients. The project also aims on creating a distant access mechanism to the wheelchair when the patient is in an emergency and deserted situation. such as assuring collision-free travel.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT Smart wheelchairs have been designed that provide navigation assistance to the user in a number of different ways. Another objective of the project is to provide a wheelchair monitoring system to continuously ensure the safety of the patient.. aiding the performance of specific tasks (e. This project focuses on reducing the physical effort required to operate it as compared to the effort required in a manual wheel chair. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 8 .TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING I.Thus the goal of this project is to make a person with disability self reliable so that his active participation in the society can be ensured. and autonomously transporting the user between locations.

Hence it is difficult to design.  A network coverage is a must for DTMF system.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 1. size and charging capacity of the battery is of a major concern.  Constant power supply is required for its operation. If dc supply is provided.which can’t be ensured always.  Circuitry is complex.  Noise interference can disturb the voice recognition mechanism in crowded areas.  It has a practical limitation of unavailability of separate path for its driving in current traffic system. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 9 .4 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT  Highly expensive because it contains various electronic modules.

impaired mobility often results in decreased opportunities to socialize. independent mobility serves as the foundation for much early learning. they may do so less often or they may drink less fluid to reduce the frequency of urination. with an estimated prevalence of 40 per 1. and promotes feelings of self-reliance. Non ambulatory children lack access to the wealth of stimuli afforded self-ambulating children.000 persons age 18 to 44 and 188 per 1. For adults. Mobility limitations are the leading cause of functional limitations among adults. anxiety. compared with only 4 per cent of persons without mobility difficulties. and depression. Mobility difficulties are also strong predictors of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL disabilities because of the need to move to accomplish many of these activities.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. but is not limited SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 10 . independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem and plays a pivotal role in "aging in place. For example. which leads to social isolation. assisted living) may be necessary.LITERATURE SURVEY 2. including power wheelchairs. While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs.. reduces dependence on caregivers and family members. 31 per cent of persons with major mobility difficulties reported being frequently depressed or anxious. Independent mobility increases vocational and educational opportunities. This lack of exploration and control often produces a cycle of deprivation and reduced motivation that leads to learned helplessness. manual wheelchairs. This population includes. a move to a more enabling environment (e. If they become unable to walk or wheel themselves to the commode and help is not routinely available in the home when needed. For young children.g. a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. In addition." For example. and walkers. scooters.000 at age 85 and older . if older people find it increasingly difficult to walk or wheel themselves to the commode.1 INTRODUCTION Several studies have shown that both children and adults benefit substantially from access to a means of independent mobility.

several researchers have used technologies originally developed for mobile robots to create "smart wheelchairs. and autonomously transporting the user between locations. Of these clinicians. Smart wheelchairs have been designed that provide navigation assistance to the user in a number of different ways. To accommodate this population. individuals with low vision. · When asked specifically about steering and maneuvering tasks. These individuals often lack independent mobility and rely on a caregiver to push them in a manual wheelchair. or visual acuity. or cognitive deficits.g. the percentage of patients who reported these tasks difficult or impossible jumped to 40 percent. · Nearly half of patients unable to control a power wheelchair by conventional methods would benefit from an automated navigation system according to the clinicians who treat them. strength.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING to. · Clinicians indicated that 9 to 10 percent of patients who receive power wheelchair training find it extremely difficult or impossible to use the wheelchair for ADL. such as assuring collision-free travel. visual field reduction. tremors. spasticity. A recent survey indicated that clinicians have a strong desire for the services that a smart wheelchair can offer. passing through doorways)." A smart wheelchair typically consists of either a standard power wheelchair to which a computer and a collection of sensors have been added or a mobile robot base to which a seat has been attached. aiding the performance of specific tasks (e. Significant survey results included. · Eighty-five percent of responding clinicians reported seeing some number of patients each year who cannot use a power wheelchair because they lack the requisite motor skills. 32 percent (27% of all respondents) reported seeing at least as many patients who cannot use a power wheelchair as who can. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 11 ..

If you have enough function to propel a manual wheelchair. and provide a form of exercise. However. Most people with an injury level below C6 can propel a manual chair and SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 12 . they are not for everyone. An electric-powered wheelchair is a wheelchair that is moved via the means of an electric motor and navigational controls. Manual wheelchairs are easy to transport. There are often handles behind the seat to allow it to be pushed by another person. need fewer repairs. injury. rather than manual power. it is probably the best form of mobility. The device comes in variations allowing either manual propulsion by the seated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand.2 EXISTING SYSTEM A wheelchair is a chair fitted with wheels. or disability. usually a small joystick mounted on the armrest. People who have difficulty sitting and walking often make use of a wheel bench. you need to have the ability to propel.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of research since the early 1980s and have been developed on four continents. or electric propulsion by motors. Wheelchairs are used by people for whom walking is difficult or impossible due to illness. 2.

TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING some individuals with a C6 level can as well. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 13 . level of pain. this will be dependent on your weight. fitness. and the environment in which you need to push. strength.

individuals with low vision. impaired mobility often results in decreased opportunities to socialize. which leads to social isolation. they are of no use for quadriplegia patients. In addition. Also in certain cases of emergency the patient may be alone which makes him completely helpless since he can’t control the wheelchair. The contemporary wheel chairs requires physical effort for its movement which has to be taken by either the patient or his helper.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2. visual field reduction. or cognitive deficits. and depression. Even though some advanced wheelchairs with joystick movement control is available. tremors. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 14 . This population includes.3 LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING SYSTEM While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs. a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. but is not limited to. spasticity. anxiety. These individuals often lack independent mobility and rely on a caregiver to push them in a manual wheelchair .

The signal received and the estimated distance of obstruction is obtained. In our work. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 15 . we are designing tomorrow's intelligent wheelchairs: we are developing a voice-command able intelligent wheelchair that is aware of its surroundings so that it can assist its user in a variety of tasks. Corresponding control signals are generated using ATMEGA 16 on the ARDUINO board. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. a wireless device for room-level location determination. but more generally called transducers) work on a principle similar to radar or sonar which evaluates attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves respectively. The goal of this smart wheelchair project is to enhance an ordinary powered wheelchair using sensors to perceive the wheelchair's surroundings. Ultrasonic sensors (also known as transceivers when they both send and receive. Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object. a speech interface to interpret commands.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM New engineering developments offer opportunities to develop smart wheelchair assistive technology that can improve the lives of many people who use wheelchairs. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. and motor-control software to effect the wheelchair's motion. The sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object. The following functionalities are accomplished in the Smart Wheel chair: OBSTACLE DETECTION USING ULTRASONIC SENSOR: An ultrasonic sensor is mounted on the front and the back of the wheelchair which continuously measures the distance of the obstacles and updates the user so that the user can take appropriate control.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 2.

another person monitoring the chair using a live video interface by the use of an external camera application installed on the phone. the key 1 produces a superimposition of tones of 697 and 1209 hertz (Hz). The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent 16 different numbers. The joystick is connected to the Arduino through USB cable. the receiver and the transmitter side to transmit and receive the DTM frequency and control the movement of the chair accordingly by the press of the buttons in his mobile phone. can immediately call the phone integrated on the chair and using the numbers on his dial pad give corresponding signals to maneuver the chair MOVEMENT CONTROL WITH JOYSTICK: This module simply allows the user to press the push switches to control the movement of the chair as required.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING EXTERNAL MOVEMENT CONTROL BY DTMF: DTMF using DTMF DECODER IC Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. Pressing a single key sends a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies. For example. The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4×4 matrix in which each row represents a low frequency and each column represents a high frequency. Initial pushbutton designs employed levers. The tones are decoded by the switching center to determine the keys pressed by the user. The chair can be controlled by using an outsider staying from somewhere far away. plus the simplicity of the switches makes it easier for any user to be able to use this module for controlling the chair. The external control can be achieved using a DTMF module. left and right thus the user can effectively control the direction of the chair’s movements. symbols and letters. In case the user loses control over the chair. This control is accurate and precise. The four switches corresponds to front. Paraplegics can use this method of control by using their hands. back. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 16 . using mobile phones at the two sides. so that each button activated two contacts. It is quite effective and precise.

TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING which addresses the joystick and looks for interrupts. When the program receives the text version of speech. which is analyzed by the ATMEGA to send appropriate command signals to control the movement of the chair . Program is configured only for Forward. It sends the recorded voice to Google speech to text converter over the internet. Reverse. The user can utilize the Bluetooth module integrated in the chair and connect to it using the inbuilt Bluetooth module in his own phone and speak into the microphone to give directions to the chair on how to move. MOVEMENT CONTROL BY VOICE: Since the joystick control cannot be used by Quadriplegics. the voice pattern for each of the commands is recognized by the app AMR voice and converted to digital signals. direction of the chair is controlled accordingly. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 17 . Any variation in the input from the joystick triggers a corresponding configured-output in the Arduino. It can also be configured according to user's requirement. for our project we have chosen four commands to operate the movement of the chair. this module is to control the chair by the help of voice. Left and Right.

both the sensors are again connected to the Arduino. The user can control the wheelchair using three interfaces namely. so the user can turn the device to some other direction and continue moving. manual. DESIGN 3.5 mm headphone jack which is then connected to the Arduino board. there are four inputs which can be controlled by pushing switches on the joystick. this allows the chair to automatically stop in case the chair encounters an obstacle. In this project. particularly in developing nations. the echo pin and the trigger pin provide the necessary input signals. mobile camera and an android phone. our focus is to design and develop a smart wheelchair using inexpensive hardware and open-source software so as to make it affordable to a larger section of the target population. The software and hardware architecture of the platform is described in detail and experiments are performed to demonstrate the usability of the platform. Microphone is used for controlling the wheelchair through discrete voice commands. The mobile phone which is to be used as the receiver for the DTMF module is connected to the module itself using a 3. joystick.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 3. automatic and tele-operation modes. The Bluetooth module is also connected to the Arduino. Finally the joystick module is also given as an input interface to the Arduino.1 INTRODUCTION A smart wheelchair can restore autonomy to patients with sensori-motor disabilities by enabling them to move around freely without depending on the care givers. The wheelchair can be operated in three modes namely. The objective of a smart wheelchair is to reduce user effort in controlling the wheelchair and to ensure safety during movement. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 18 . There are two ultrasonic sensors to detect barriers at the path of movement of the chair.


the chair will rotate towards right and the similar case for the left movement. i.e. However. and incase the motors are rotated with the same speed at the backward direction then the chair will also move backwards. The motor IC causes differentiation in the movement of the motors according to the input received from the Arduino. there are four inputs which can be controlled by pushing switches on the joystick. the mobile phone which is to be used as the receiver for the DTMF module is connected to the module itself using a 3. From the top left corner. corresponding to the feed from the modules used. The Bluetooth module is also connected to the Arduino. Finally the joystick module is also given as an input interface to the Arduino. both the sensors are again connected to the Arduino. The input into the Arduino is used to provide a binary coded output to the motor IC which in turn uses these codes to rotate the wheels by rotating the motors driven by the IC itself. if the right hand side motor rotates while the left hand motor stays still.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The above block diagram shows the interfacing of different modules with the Arduino UNO board. 3. There are two ultrasonic sensors to detect barriers at the path of movement of the chair. the echo pin and the trigger pin provide the necessary input signals. so the user can turn the device to some other direction and continue moving. while the other stays stationary the chair will rotate towards the direction of that particular motor. If both the motors rotate with the same speed in the forward direction the chair will also move forward. if one of the motors rotate. this allows the chair to automatically stop in case the chair encounters an obstacle.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 20 .5 mm headphone jack which is then connected to the Arduino board. and hence the movement of the chair is controlled.

the decoder IC circuit is particularly designed for the frequency of the dual tones in the dial pad of the phone used in the smart wheel chair. A5 of the microcontroller. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 21 . A4 and from the next sensor to the pins 7. The headphone jack used in the decoder IC has two terminals the TIP and the RING . A2. which is merely a series of switches is given as inputs to the pins A0. here resistances of 100K . whereas the oscillator used is of 3.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION The circuit diagram shows a DTMF decoder IC MT8870 interfaced with the ARDUINO UNO board. 12.1 microfarad are used. A1. The output is taken from the pins 11.330K and capacitances of 0. 5 of the microcontroller respectively. A3 of the microcontroller.57 MHZ crystal oscillator. 14 and give to the pins 2.5 and 9 where as the input from the TIP is differentiated and provide as a trigger to drive the IC. 3 4. From the joystick. the RING is grounded along with the pins 6. 13. The ultrasonic sensor used is HC SR04 whose echo pin and trigger pin is given as inputs to pin 9.

TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The output from the microcontroller is taken from the pins 6. 8 12. IMPLEMENTATION &RESULTS SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 22 . 6 . except for the Bluetooth module IC which requires a 3V supply which is given by using a regulator IC to convert the variable power supply to the required amount of voltage and the Arduino which requires a 9 volt supply. 10. 13 and given to the motor IC L293D to the pins 2. 15 and the output is taken from the driver IC’s pins no. all the ICs require a 5 volt supply. 3. 11 and 14. 7. 4.

TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4. PCB’s are used to route electrical currents and signals through proper tracks which are firmly bounded to an insulating base.1 PCB DESIGN: PCB FABRICATION TECHNIQUE Printed Circuit board (PCB) is a piece of art. A PCB mechanically support and connect components by conductive path ways . The performance of an electronic circuit depend on the layout and design of PCB. PCB fabrication involves the following steps: Drawing the layout of the PCB in a paper. etched from copper sheets laminated onto insulated substrate . It is then transferred to SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 23 . The track layout of the electronic circuit should be made in such a manner that the paths are in easy routes.

The sheet is then touched with Black ink. Holes are then drilled.  The dried sheet is then etched using ferric chloride solution till all the unwanted copper is etched away . STEPS IN PCB DESIGN AND FABRICATION SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 24 .  This is put in cold water and then the rough side is struck on the silk screen.  The plastic sheet of the five star sheet is removed leaving the pattern on the screen. Then it is exposed to sunlight with Mylar sheet facing the sunlight.  The solder side of the Mylar sheet is placed on the shiny side of the five star sheet and is placed in a frame.swish the board to keep the etched fluid moving . then it is put in hot water and shook until exposed regions becomes transparent.Lift the PCB and check whether all the unwanted copper is removed .this is placed under the screen.  A copper clad sheet is cut to the size and cleaned .Etching is done by immersing the marked copper clad in ferric chloride solution .  The exposed five star sheets are put in hydrogen peroxide solution.  The unwanted resistant ink is removed using the sodium hydroxide solution . after that the Etched sheet is dried.  Acid resistant ink is spread on the screen so that a pattern of track and a pad is obtained on the copper clad sheet .  Necessary connections are made by soldering the components on to the board and wiring them as required.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING a Mylar sheet .it is then dried. This is then pressed and dried well.

2 SOLDERING Soldering is the joining together of two metals to give physical bonding and good SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 25 .TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 4.

the soldering bit is specially shaped piece of copper .plated with chrome or iron . 37% tin . To solder you need a soldering iron. rather than for main stream construction or assembly work.this is then thermally insulated from the handle. wires and sometimes directly to other components. Soldering is the primary way how electronic components are connected to circuit boards.ones warmed up .and provides and adequate oxide removal. Currently the best commonly is known as eutectic solder .the chemical reactions at the point of connections must take place for the metal to fuse .The tip planting makes it very resistant to aggressive solders and fluxes. which are solid at the normal temperature and become liquid between 180`C and 200`C.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING electrical conductivity. the heating element of soldering iron usually reaches temperatures of around 370`C to 400`C(higher than that needed to melt the solder). A Modern basic electrical soldering iron consist of a heating element. solder bonds well to various metals and extremely well to coppers. It is used primarily in electrical and electronic circuitry. a 60/40 fluxed core solder is used. Gas powered soldering irons are designed for occasional on the spot used for quick repairs. which operate at 24V . a soldering bit (often called the tip).with flux SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 26 .that is 63% lead. workable and safe solder alloy is 63/37. This consists of 60%lead and 40%tin.The heating element can be either a resistance wire wound around a ceramic tube or a thick film resistance element printed on a ceramic base .continues to glow hot when gas passes over them .the element is then insulated and placed into a metal tube for strength and protection . a handle and power cord . most laboratories and repair shops uses soldering irons.gas powered soldering irons use butane rather than the mains electrical supply to operate . Solder is the combination of metal.The metals involved are not the only things to consider in a solder.Flux is an aggressive chemical that remove oxides and impurities from the part to be soldered . Flux is vital to a good solder joint .RMA-type flux(Rosin Mildly Active) is the least corrosive of the readily available materials .they have a catalytic element which . In electronics. Today .

apply solder to as it heats up.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING cores added through the length of the solder . 4. Turn off the iron when you don’t use it. or suspended by the hook.When using a new bit .3 ERGONOMICS AND AESTHETICS IN DESIGN SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 27 .before and during use wipe the bit on the damp sponge .the soldering iron will last longer with proper care . Periodically remove the bit and clear away any oxide build up. Regularly check the mains leads for burns or other damage (change mains lead if necessary). Always keep a hot iron in a bench stand. when not in use.

and motor response. it is undesirable if you don’t like it. aesthetics and representation of design form. consideration is given to the appreciation and development of skills in ergonomics. and there are significant implications for productivity. Aesthetics involves all your sense visions. It requires considerations consideration and involvement with other professionals such as design engineers.This is embodied in the aesthetics of the products . The basic human sciences involved are anatomy. aesthetics and technology . If it is aesthetically displeasing to you. efficiency. policies and processes. computer specialists. design has been considered to compromise of three main elements: ergonomics. If something is aesthetically pleasing to you. and psychology . it is pleasurable and you like it. health and safety practitioners.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Traditionally. The overall aim is to ensure that the knowledge of human characteristics is considered in practical problems of people at work and leisure.ergonomics is a multidisciplinary activity.physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical.Designers need knowledge of all these elements. 4. production engineers. industrial physicians. anthropometric. and specialists in human resources.4 POWER SUPPLY SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 28 . touch and smell and your emotions. Ergonomics deals with the interaction of technological and work situation with the human being. hearing. An appreciation of pleasure in product use is of primary importance to both consumer and design industry alike . except usability and a seeking product that elicit other feeling such as pleasure or strike an emotional chord .cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes such as perception.the way it looks the feel of the material the tactile response of controls or more abstract feelings such as reflected status that gives pleasure. memory reasoning. and the application to the everyday industrial design. physiology. industrial designers. safety and health . as they affect interactions between human and other elements of the system. psychological and biomechanical characteristics as they are related to physical activity . In this course.consumers demand functionally. The term “aesthetics” concerns our senses and our responses to an object. Ergonomics (sometimes called human factor) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interaction between human and other elements of a system. Organizational ergonomics is organizational structures.

TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The entire circuit is powered up by a power supply circuit. After rectification. Since the output may be pulsated DC. The positive voltage regulator IC 7805. Filter capacitors and resistors The AC supply of 220V is step-downed to 9V by the step-down transformer. The circuit comprises following components. which is shown above. provides a constant 5v DC to the load. And vice versa during the negative half cycle of the AC source. Bridge rectifier IC 3. which two of them comprises forward bias and other two of them reverse bias during the positive half cycle of AC voltage.5 MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 29 . A Positive 5 V regulator IC 4. And the 9v is now given to bridge rectifier to convert the AC source to DC source. Step-down transformer of 9V/500mA 2. A Positive 3 V regulator IC 5. 4. 1. the 9v DC is given to regulator IC 7805. The bridge rectifier IC consists of four diodes. the filters circuit filters the AC components present in the output to provide a pure DC.

The wheel we have used for the model is a standard miniature robotic wheel with parallel grid as treads. right underneath the chair’s seat. For maximum comfort the top part of the chair rest has been inclined at an angle. Slots have been cut at either side at the bottom half to allow wheel to come out for rolling. Underneath the chair a support chassis has been used to screw the wheels and place the motors on them. the headphone jack for the DTMF module also protrudes out from underneath so the phone can be connected to the jack wherever the user may find it convenient. which is rotated using two individual DC motors each of 150 rpm both driven using the driver IC L293D. On the front of the chassis one small castor wheel has also been attached to make the movement of the chair easier specially when turning and rotating. with a total height of 37 cm. The joystick is a series of push switches that it placed on the handle of the chair for easy access.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The model we have used has been made out of plain wood board in a chair shaped design and painted white for simplicity. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 30 . The Bluetooth modules for the voice control has been attached to the front side for better reception and finally the Ultrasonic range finders are placed at the front and back of the chair at a suitable height to allow the barriers to be easily detected. a breadth of 18 cm and length of 25 cm. We have used plastic boxes to fit our circuit components and also placed the PCB board on top of it. it also acts as the bottom support underneath the chair. The bottom part of the chair has a built in compartment to fit in all the circuit components just underneath the chair. it provides support and mobility to the chair but is not controlled by the IC since it is only a supporting wheel.

The output was verified. The components are arranged in accordance to the circuit on to a bread board. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 31 . readings of Arduino was caliberated according to the angle of rotation. The ICs required in the circuit are specifically tested using IC tester. The voltage at various points were measured using multimeter. The PCB layout of the circuit is made and the components are then assembled onto the PCB and the circuit is then attached to the mechanical body. The ease of movement of tyres in all directions was adjusted. Using serial monitor. The mechanical frame work was built and tested for the specific functions. It was also verified that the delay time given met the requirement.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5. Now each module was tested separately and accurate rotation of the tyres were ensured. Supply is then given to it.TESTING All the components are tested and verified for proper functioning.

Because the chair can be controlled in so many ways there is very less chance of failure and also because the fact that even if the modules may get out of order. the smart wheel chair provides a genius and effective way by allowing self-movement without the assistance or guidance by any external person because the chair is smart enough to do so.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 6. in order to increase the self-esteem of physically disabled people. mechanically the chair can still be used as a wheel chair. With additional advancements and integrations in the device. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 32 .CONCLUSION In conclusion we can write that. the chair can be a revolutionary design for unfortunate people and provide them with a boost in their spirit by not letting them consider themselves as a burden to society and their friends and family. The chair with its different modules allows people with severe cases of handicap to be able to move about freely.

Hence we can safely say that the Smart wheel chair has better days to see. this chair can even be a life saver when the user is in a sever condition and assistance is nowhere around. A slope detection module can help overcome the problem of having to move to higher ground without any difficulties. Using modules such as given below ACCELEROMETER SLOPE DETECTION CHIN CONTROL GPRS CONNECTIVITY LOCATION ACCESS PROVIDING EMERGERNCY ALERT BUTTONS We can increase the effective use of the device. more advancements to be integrated and more people to be serve. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 33 . or is unable to use other parts of his body to control the chair.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FUTURE SCOPE FOR THE PRODUCT: The Smart wheel chair is an ingenius invention to enhance the mobility of the people who are physically challenged and cannot live a normal life due to their disability. Similarly. we can further develop other integrations to make the quality and usability of the chair more efficient and desirable. although the device contains three specific modules for movement control. using the motion of the chin the chair can be given commands to move in a particular direction in case the user can only move his/her neck. like using accelerometers to use the movement of body parts to control the chair in case the user doesn’t have functional vocal chords. Using advancements like GPRS technology integrated with GPS and emergency alert systems .  http://www. Simpson.  pp.ti.pdf http://www.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  http://www.REFERENCES TEXTBOOKS:  S. Edwin Langbein.  Develop.engineersgarage. Yi. Fehr. APPENDIX SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 34 . 2000. Multiple-Microphone Robust Speech Recognition Using DecoderBased Channel Selection. Yasunari Obuchi. Journal of Computer Science and Communication-January-June  2011. Rehabil. J.national.Z.A. pp.arduino. 2004 URL ADDRESS:    http://Iraj. 2005. Chhabria and R. J.cplusplus. W. R. Res. 42. Advanced Research Laboratory. and S. ‘Adequacy of Power Wheelchair Control Interfaces for Persons with Severe Disabilities: A Clinical Survey’.cc  http://www. Res. 423-436. Develop. 37 (3).com (Texas Instruments)  http://www. L. Ang.R. Rehabil.B.K.’ Microcontroller Based Voice-Activated Powered Wheelchair  Control’ ACM 2007 ISBN: 978-1-59593-852-7. ( National Semiconductor Corporation) http://www. J. Dharaskar ‘Multimodal Interface for Disabled Persons’. Skaar.V. ‘Smart Wheelchairs: A Literature Review’.datasheetcatalog.

return(distance0). distance0= distance0/58. LOW).h> #define ECHOPIN0 A5 // Pin to receive echo pulse #define TRIGPIN0 7 #define ECHOPIN1 A4 #define TRIGPIN1 9 float Distance0 () { digitalWrite(TRIGPIN0. // Distance Calculation SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 35 . digitalWrite(TRIGPIN1. digitalWrite(TRIGPIN0. delayMicroseconds(2).TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING PROGRAM CODE The code we used to program the Arduino is given below: #include <SoftwareSerial. digitalWrite(TRIGPIN1.LOW). // Distance Calculation float distance0 = pulseIn(ECHOPIN0. digitalWrite(TRIGPIN0. HIGH). HIGH). delayMicroseconds(10). delayMicroseconds(10). LOW). } float Distance1 () { digitalWrite(TRIGPIN1. delayMicroseconds(2). LOW). HIGH).

LOW). digitalWrite(6. digitalWrite(6.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING float distance1 = pulseIn(ECHOPIN1.LOW). digitalWrite(13. digitalWrite(6. digitalWrite(8. digitalWrite(8. } void leftgo() { digitalWrite(12. return(distance1).LOW). delay(200).LOW).LOW). digitalWrite(13. } void frontgo() { digitalWrite(12.LOW).LOW). digitalWrite(12. HIGH). digitalWrite(6.LOW). delay(200). digitalWrite(13.HIGH). distance1= distance1/58. digitalWrite(8.LOW).HIGH). } void rightgo() { digitalWrite(12.LOW). } void backgo() SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 36 .HIGH).HIGH).

LOW). digitalWrite(13. pinMode(2.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING { digitalWrite(12. int a = 0.LOW). 10). OUTPUT). digitalWrite(8.LOW). pinMode(8. pinMode(6. } void stopmtr() { digitalWrite(12. //TX. INPUT).begin(9600). INPUT). SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 37 . void setup() { pinMode(ECHOPIN1. RX respetively String voice. BT. OUTPUT). pinMode(TRIGPIN1. OUTPUT). INPUT). OUTPUT).LOW).HIGH). pinMode(4. digitalWrite(8. pinMode(ECHOPIN0.LOW). pinMode(TRIGPIN0. INPUT). pinMode(12. OUTPUT).HIGH). digitalWrite(6. digitalWrite(13. pinMode(5. pinMode(3. digitalWrite(6. OUTPUT) . INPUT). } SoftwareSerial BT(11. INPUT).LOW). pinMode(13.

0)/1023.LOW). int back1 = analogRead(A3). int right1 = analogRead(A1). float back = back1*((5.} if (front > 4) {if(Distance0()>30.0)/1023. delay(100). Serial. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 38 . float left = left1*((5.00) { frontgo().0). } if(Distance0()<30.LOW).00) { digitalWrite(13.LOW).LOW).0)/1023.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Serial. } if (left > 4) {leftgo().begin(9600).00) { digitalWrite(12. float right = right1*((5.0)/1023. int front1 = analogRead(A2).} if (right > 4) {rightgo().println(Distance1()). if(Distance1()<30. float front = front1*((5.println(Distance0()). Serial. delay(1000).0). digitalWrite(6.0). } void loop() { int left1 = analogRead(A0). digitalWrite(8.0).

digitalWrite(6.LOW).LOW).LOW). digitalWrite(8.available()){ //Check if there is an available byte to read delay(10).00) { backgo(). //Delay added to make thing stable char c = BT. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 39 .TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING digitalWrite(12. //Conduct a serial read if (c == '#') {break.00) {backgo().} } if(voice == "*back") {if(Distance1()>30. if(voice == "*go") {if(Distance0()>30.println(voice).} //Exit the loop when the # is detected after the word voice += c.length() > 0) { Serial.} } if(voice == "*right") { rightgo().read().} } if (back > 4) {if(Distance1()>30.LOW). //Shorthand for voice = voice + c } if (voice.00) {frontgo(). digitalWrite(13. delay(1000).} } while (BT.

} a= 0.}} if (a==3) {rightgo(). if(digitalRead(3)) a=a+2. if(digitalRead(2)) a=a+1.} if (a==5) {if(Distance1()>30. if (a==2) {if(Distance0()>30. } voice="".00) {frontgo(). } if(voice=="*stop") {stopmtr().} if (a==4) {leftgo().}} if (a==6) {stopmtr().00) { backgo().} SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 40 . Serial.println(a).TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING } if(voice == "*left") {leftgo(). if(digitalRead(4)) a=a+4. if(digitalRead(5)) a=a+8.

It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller. it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. a USB connection. making it easier to put into DFU mode. Revision 3 of the board has the following new features:  1. and a reset button. an ICSP header. Revision 2 of the Uno board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground. a 16 MHz ceramic resonator. simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. In future. the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board.0 pinout: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin. Instead. 6 analog inputs. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. a power jack. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs). shields will be compatible with both the board that uses the SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 41 .TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING } DATASHEET OF COMPONENTS: ARDUINO UNO: OVERVIEW: The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet).

TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AVR. The second one is a not connected pin. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards. for a comparison with previous versions. Summary Microcontroller Operating Voltage Input Voltage (recommended) Input Voltage (limits) Digital I/O Pins Analog Input Pins DC Current per I/O Pin DC Current for 3.  Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2.6 mm (NOTE: works with Eagle 6. that is reserved for future purposes.0.pdf SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 42 . and the reference model for the Arduino platform.4 mm 25 g Schematic & Reference Design EAGLE files: arduino-uno-Rev3-reference-design. moving forward.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino. which operates with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operates with 3. "Uno" means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.  Stronger RESET circuit.5 KB used by bootloader 2 KB (ATmega328) 1 KB (ATmega328) 16 MHz 68.0 and newer) Schematic: arduino-uno-Rev3-schematic.3V Pin Flash Memory SRAM EEPROM Clock Speed Length Width Weight ATmega328 5V 7-12V 6-20V 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) 6 40 mA 50 mA 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.3V. see the index of Arduino boards. The Uno and version 1.

the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. or.3V pins bypasses the regulator.12V). The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2. You can supply voltage through this pin. Maximum current draw is 50 mA. or 328.1mm center-positive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source).3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. If using more than 12V.This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. access it through this pin.  3V3. but an Atmega8 is shown in the schematic for reference. We don't advise it. The power pins are as follows:  VIN. however. Current models use an ATmega328.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Note: The Arduino reference design can use an Atmega8. A 3.  5V. the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 . Power The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). If supplied with less than 7V. The pin configuration is identical on all three processors. the USB connector (5V). The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. 168. and can damage your board. Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 43 . if supplying voltage via the power jack. The power source is selected automatically.

3V. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. Input and Output Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output. 12 (MISO). some pins have specialized functions:  Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). 13 (SCK). Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value. 5. In addition. using pinMode().  IOREF. Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. This pin on the Arduino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. 9. Ground pins. Memory The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0. or a change in value.5 KB used for the bootloader). 10. They operate at 5 volts.  PWM: 3. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 44 . 11 (MOSI).  External Interrupts: 2 and 3. 6. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. and 11. See the attachInterrupt() function for details. a rising or falling edge. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. digitalWrite().TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  GND. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.  SPI: 10 (SS). anddigitalRead() functions. It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).

Communication The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer. or other microcontrollers. which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts. See also the mapping between Arduino pins and ATmega328 ports. a . An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. Support TWI communication using the Wire library. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USBto-serial chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).e. though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference() function. The Uno has 6 analog inputs. Additionally. However. each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i. and no external driver is needed. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13.  Reset. 168. another Arduino. some pins have specialized functionality:  TWI: A4 or SDA pin and A5 or SCL pin. when the pin is LOW.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  LED: 13. labeled A0 through A5. There are a couple of other pins on the board:  AREF. the LED is on. The '16U2 firmware uses the standard USB COM drivers. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The mapping for the Atmega8. Used with analogReference().inf file is required. When the pin is HIGH value. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. and 328 is identical. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. on Windows. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board. SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 45 . The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication. it's off. 1024 different values).

The ATmega16U2/8U2 is loaded with a DFU bootloader. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol (reference. The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. The ATmega16U2 (or 8U2 in the rev1 and rev2 boards) firmware source code is available . SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 46 . For SPI communication. Or you can use the ISP header with an external programmer (overwriting the DFU bootloader). The ATmega328 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. making it easier to put into DFU mode. You can then use Atmel's FLIP software (Windows) or the DFU programmer (Mac OS X and Linux) to load a new firmware. For details.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the Uno's digital pins. C header files). Programming The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). see the documentation for details. see the reference and tutorials. use the SPI library. which can be activated by:  On Rev1 boards: connecting the solder jumper on the back of the board (near the map of Italy) and then resetting the 8U2. You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (InCircuit Serial Programming) header using Arduino ISP or similar. See this user-contributed tutorial for more information. Select "Arduino Uno from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your board).  On Rev2 or later boards: there is a resistor that pulling the 8U2/16U2 HWB line to ground. see these instructions for details.

For the following half-second or so. the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. see this forum thread for details. the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. Although most computers provide their own internal protection. the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed. The Uno contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout. make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before sending this data. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts. When the Uno is connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux. This setup has other implications. anything besides an upload of new code). the Arduino Uno is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Automatic (Software) Reset Rather than requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload. One of the hardware flow control lines (DTR) of theATmega8U2/16U2 is connected to the reset line of the ATmega328 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. as the lowering of DTR can be wellcoordinated with the start of the upload. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port. Physical Characteristics SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 47 .e. When this line is asserted (taken low). You may also be able to disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset line. The pads on either side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB). The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. USB Overcurrent Protection The Arduino Uno has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer's USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i. the bootloader is running on the Uno. It's labeled "RESET-EN".

These modules have two modes: master and slaver device. This Bluetooth connection is equivalently liked to a serial port line connection SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 48 . Bluetooth serial module is used for converting serial port to Bluetooth. When HC-03 and HC-05 are out of factory.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING The maximum length and width of the Uno PCB are 2. please state it clearly or place an order for HC-O4-M directly. HC-05 as they want. If you need master mode. HC-06-D (with baseboard. HC-04(HC-04M. since user can set the mode of HC-03.16"). not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins. one part of parameters are set for activating the device. There are two MCUs want to communicate with each other.1 inches respectively. with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. such as: 1. users can set the work mode (master or slaver) of the device by AT commands. S=slaver The default situation of HC-04 is slave mode. HC-06(HC-06-M. Four screw holes allow the board to be attached to a surface or case.7 and 2.The naming rule of HC-06 is same. Their connection can be built once the pair is made. HC SERIAL BLUETOOTH: HC serial Bluetooth products consist of Bluetooth serial interface module and Bluetooth adapter. But for the device named after odd number. M=master Slave device: HC-04-S. HC-04 specifically includes: Master device: HC-04-M. The work mode is not set. HC-06-S) HC-05-D. The device named after even number is defined to be master or slaver when out of factory and can’t be changed to the other mode. such as: (1) Bluetooth serial interface module: Industrial level: HC-03. The main function of Bluetooth serial module is replacing the serial port line. Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0. HC-04-S) Civil level: HC-05. for test and evaluation) (2) Bluetooth adapter: HC-M4 HC-M6 This document mainly introduces Bluetooth serial module. One connects to Bluetooth master device while the other one connects to slave device.

TXD signals.) material and photos. And they can use the Bluetooth serial module to communicate with each other. Its operation is not affected by sunlight or black material. we will repeatedly refer to Linvor’s (Formerly known as Guangzhou HC Information Technology Co. The measured distance is SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 49 . HC-SR04 ULTRASONIC RANGE FINDER: Description: The HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor uses sonar signals to determine distance to an object. such as Bluetooth printer. Bluetooth Serial module’s operation doesn’t need drive. it can communicate with Bluetooth adapter of computers and smart phones. and can communicate with the other Bluetooth device who has the serial. However. But communication between two Bluetooth modules requires at least two conditions: (1) The communication must be between master and slave. There are also some other conditions basing on different device model. However. Detailed information is provided in the following chapters.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING including RXD. The Bluetooth devices in the market mostly are salve devices. the two conditions are not sufficient conditions. acoustically soft materials like cloth can be difficult to detect. Ltd. So. we can use master module to make pair and communicate with them. If a 10μs width trigger pulse is sent to the signal pin. Then there is a virtual communicable serial port line between MCU and computer or smart phone. 2. Bluetooth GPS. reflected by an object. The next pulse can be transmitted when the echo is faded away.. When MCU has Bluetooth salve module. In the following chapters. It offers excellent range accuracy and stable readings in an easy-to-use package. The sensor receives this signal and converts it to an electric signal. The recommended cycle period should not be less than 50ms. A short ultrasonic pulse is transmitted at the time 0. (2) The password must be correct. 3. This time period is called cycle period. the Ultrasonic module will output eight 40kHz ultrasonic signal and detect the echo back.

If no obstacle is detected. HC-SR04 Specifications Working Voltage: DC 5V Working Current: 15mA Working Frequency: 40Hz Max Range: 4m Min Range: 2cm Measuring Angle: 15 degree Trigger Input Signal: 10µS TTL pulse Echo Output Signal Input TTL lever signal and the range in proportion  Dimension 45 * 20 * 15mm SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 50 . the output pin will give a 38ms high level signal.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING proportional to the echo pulse width and can be calculated by the formula above.

1+) SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 51 . PICAXE . Features include: • Several web renderers to choose from: Flash. security monitors and most audio players. Stream video inside WiFi network without internet access. Use IP Webcam with third-party MJPG software. Two-way audio supported in tiny Cam Monitor on another android device. Optional Ivideon cloud streaming is supported for instant global access. Javascript or built-in • Video recording in WebM.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS USED: AMR_VOICE APPLICATION: Android Meets Robots: Voice Recognition   Uses android mobiles internal voice recognition to pass voice commands to your robot Pairs with Bluetooth Serial Modules and sends in the recognized voice as a string for example if you say Hello the android phone will return a sting *Hello# to your  Bluetooth module *and # indicate the start and stop bits Can Be used with any micro controller which can handle strings Examples Platforms : Arduino . including video surveillance software. View your camera on any platform with VLC player or web browser. MSP430 . 8051 based and many other processors and controllers IP WEBCAM: IP Webcam turns your phone into a network camera with multiple viewing options. MOV or MPEG4 (on Android 4. ARM .

time and battery level video overlay. Lite version is supported with unobtrusive ads. Tasker integration.TKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING • Audio streaming in wav. but lacks Tasker integration. cloud recording for motion-triggered records. • Date. • Sensor data acquisition with online web graphing. powered by Ivideon. opus and AAC (AAC requires Android 4.1+) • Motion detection with sound trigger. • Videochat support (video stream only for Windows and Linux via an universal MJPEG video streaming driver) • Cloud push notifications on motion and sound. customizable user interface (only editor is present) and has a watermark over recorded vide SMART WHEEL CHAIR Page 52 . It's fully functional.