Look up Table based Fuzzy Logic Controller for
Unmanned Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

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Look up Table based Fuzzy Logic Controller for
Unmanned Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

© All Rights Reserved

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Unmanned Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

P.V.S.Sobhan1, Dr. G.V.Nagesh Kumar2 , M.Ramya Priya2 , and B.Venkateswara Rao3

1

Vignans Institute of Information Technology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

3

Thandrapaparayya Institute of Science and Technology, Bobbili, Vizayanagaram

medium in which they travel is high. The primary objective of

Control System for an underwater vehicle is to generate correct

control signal to attain the stability of the system. In addition to

stability, the response of the system should be fast and it must

be able to reduce errors to tolerable limits. This necessitates a

suitable controller for those systems that need improvement in

their performance. Conventional controllers are inadequate for

such tasks as they provide the robustness only over a small

range and the complete dynamics of the vehicle should be

known precisely for their design. Since the hydrodynamic

characteristics of the vehicle are known only after its design,

the development of a conventional controller involves

exhaustive and expensive testing of the vehicle. Human

operators often satisfactorily control many of them complex

systems and are attributed to the capabilities of human beings

to make decisions based on inexact qualitative information

about the system.

model. The execution of spatial maneuvers are determined

mainly by the dynamic properties of underwater vehicle

particularly controllability and stability. The control surfaces are

situated at the rear end of the underwater vehicle which moves

either vertically or horizontally (Pitch, Yaw, Roll, Pitch-rate,

Yaw-rate etc.) used to steer the vehicle to run according to

preprogrammed course as per logic till such a time the target is

acquired. The underwater vehicle response is slow compared to

air scenario due to constraints like higher density of water; the

resistance motion is many hundred times greater than air. In this

paper a rule-based fuzzy logic controller is designed for Yaw

control, which is used for the rudder movement of an underwater

vehicle. A Plant model is extracted using the input and output

behavior and is assumed to be a linear time invariant second

order. For on line implementation a decision table is stored in

underwater vehicle computer memory in the form of Lookup

table. For each combination of Inputs the required search will be

done in the table and the appropriate value will be picked up.

Using this technique the control algorithm becomes shorter and

runs faster than those that reinterpret the rules at each control

cycle of the system. This Lookup Table is used in the simulation

of Yaw control of a Six Degrees of Freedom Model. The plant

responses are compared for both conventional controller and

fuzzy logic controller with regard to time of response, overshoot

and steady state error.

projectile, which can be launched either from air or from ships.

The control surfaces are situated at the rear end of the

underwater vehicle which moves either vertically or

horizontally (Pitch, Yaw, Roll, Pitch-rate, Yaw-rate etc.) used

to steer the vehicle to run according to preprogrammed course

as per logic till such a time the target is acquired. The

underwater vehicle under consideration is six degrees of

freedom model. The first three degrees of freedom are

translational in nature and are required to position the

underwater vehicle. The remaining three degrees of freedom

are rotational in nature and are required for orientation of the

vehicle. Besides, complex hydrodynamic equations and

transfer functions are required for the actual plant and to the

design of the system. Due to this reason the mathematical

modeling of the plant is difficult. Thus fuzzy logic, which

excels in dealing with imprecision, has an edge over the

conventional controller to tackle highly complex, non-linear

problems beyond the capability of conventional methods [6-10]

Autonomous Vechiles.

I.

INTRODUCTION

major areas in the field of engineering and technology. It is a

fact that the analysis and design of control systems is a very

important and useful aspect in the case of application of

Control theory to practical systems. We know that there are

several methods available for the analysis and design of

systems for the improvement of system behavior and response.

But these available methods are more effective and easily be

applied if the system mathematical model is known. During the

past several years, Fuzzy control has emerged as one of the

most active and fruitful areas for research in the application of

Fuzzy set theory [1-5], especially in the realm of industrial

process, which dont lend themselves to control by

conventional methods because of a lack of quantitative data

regarding the input-output relations. The underwater vehicles

are slow response vehicles because of low speeds and the dense

978-0-7695-3915-7/09 $26.00 2009 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/ACT.2009.128

numerical variables in order to work more easily with systems

too complex for mathematical modeling is the main objective

of Fuzzy logic controller. So, based on the above facts it is felt

that a Fuzzy Logic Controller is to be designed for the present

unmanned autonomous underwater vehicle, which does not

require well-defined mathematical model. The objective of this

paper is to design a Rule-based Fuzzy logic Controller for the

underwater vehicle control. The designed Fuzzy logic

497

the extracted plant model and the results have been presented

and analyzed. Control algorithms for Yaw control and design

considerations for the development of a fuzzy logic controller

are given.

II.

shown in Figure 1. The Data available from the Underwater

Vehicle is the maximum control surface deflections of 20

and maximum turn rate of 20 /sec. The design objective for

this class of underwater vehicles is Minimum Overshoot Maximum permissible overshoot < 10% and Steady State error

< = 10%. In the current application of Fuzzy Logic Controller,

Error and Error Change are treated as the input variables. The

total Universe of discourse for each linguistic variable is

portioned into 8 linguistic values (Large Positive

(LP),

Medium Positive (MP), Small Positive (SP), Positive Zero

(PZ), Negative Zero (NZ), Small Negative (SN), Medium

Negative (MN) and Large Positive (LP).

Triangular

/

Trapezoidal membership functions are assumed for mapping

the input values into the respective linguistic sets. The

Membership functions for inputs (error and error change) and

output (rudder deflection) are shown in Figures 2 to 4.

response. Some of the rules applied in the designed FLC are

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

If (error is PZ) and (error_change is LP) then (rudder_deflection is SN)

If (error is PZ) and (error_change is MP) then (rudder_deflection is SN)

If (error is SP) and (error_change is PZ) then (rudder_deflection is SP)

If (error is SP) and (error_change is NZ) then (rudder_deflection is SP)

If (error is SP) and (error_change is SN) then (rudder_deflection is SP)

If (error is SP) and (error_change is MN) then (rudder_deflection is SP)

complementary conditions. The firing strength of the rules are

determined by the property of intersection i.e., the minimum of

the membership functions.

i = Ai(x) Bi(y)

(1)

implication for finding the control decision.

Cil(w) = i Ci(w)

(2)

with membership functions Ai , Bi ,Ci . and xU, yV,

wW and is the set intersection. The total consequence is

found by taking the union of all rules. The Rudder Deflection is

treated as the Output. Center of Area method (COA) is used to

find the crisp control action from the above fuzzy

consequences as it yields superior results and better steady state

performance. The results obtained are consequent to several

modifications of the rules initially set. The trial and error

method was used to obtain an effective set of rules. In other

words a learning procedure was employed by which human

performance in a similar real life situation is derived. Hence the

stability of the controller is a problem of obtaining an

effective set of rules. In the algorithm used the universe of

discourse of inputs (to controller) has been divided into 9

subsets and only small number of rules 42 has been employed.

This limits the adaptability of the controller.

III.

SIMULATION RESULTS

vehicle are in comparison with an underwater vehicle, the

approximate model is extracted using the input and output

behavior at various times namely rudder deflections vs turn

rate. The Plant model (turn rate/control surface deflection) is

assumed to be a linear time invariant second order

k n2/s2+2ns+n2. The rudder input data are fed to the

models and parameters k, and n are varied till the model

time response matches the trial data within the chosen limits.

The parameters are further fine-tuned with four different sets of

498

trial data. Integrating the turn rate derives the azimuth attitude.

The plant models thus obtained are as follows:

T.F = 280 / (s2+90*s+225)

Second order

MATLAB based Simulink software. The Fuzzy Control

algorithm is developed using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox for

MATLAB. Since the plant models obtained by the above

process are very approximate, 50% variations are given on

damping () and natural frequency (n) of second order plant

on both sides plant models are obtained. To verify the

robustness of the Fuzzy Logic Controller, the extracted plant

models in Table I are tested in Simulink environment. The

block diagram is shown in Figure 4. The fuzzy controllers

behavior under the above varying plant conditions is shown in

Figures 5 to 13. The X-axis is time and Y axis is rudder

deflection for Figures 5 to 13.

The Fuzzy control algorithm derived above is

computation intensive; so far the ease of implementation a

decision table is generated off-line from the above algorithm

to define the output of the controller. This decision table is

generated by quantising the range of Error and Error change

into various levels and passing them offline to the above

algorithm and storing the corresponding output values in a

logic table. The quantisation levels and the logic table can be

seen in Table 3. For on line implementation the decision

table is stored in underwater vehicle computer memory in the

form of lookup table. For each combination of error and errorchange the required search will be done in the table and the

appropriate value will be picked up from the table for that

combination. Using this technique the control algorithm

becomes shorter and runs faster than those that reinterpret the

rules at each control cycle of the system. The look-up-table

formed based on the above fuzzy logic controller is used in the

simulation of the yaw control of a six degrees of freedom

model.

TABLE I

PLANT MODELS FOR SECOND ORDER TRANSFER FUNCTION

Transfer Function

15.0

280 / (s2+90*s+225)

22.5

630 / (s2+135*s+506.25)

7.5

70 / (s2+45*s+56.25)

15

4.5

280 / (s2+135*s+225)

15

1.5

280 / (s2+45*s+225)

22.5

4.5

630 / (s2+202.5*s+506.25)

22.5

1.5

630 / (s2+67.5*s+506.25)

7.5

4.5

70 / (s2+67.5*s+56.25)

7.5

1.5

70 / (s2+22.5*s+56.25)

499

IV.

CONCLUSION

designed for the underwater vehicle direction control. As

underwater vehicles are slow response vehicles because of the

dense medium in which they travel is high and the extraction of

plant models is a complicated process. The designed Fuzzy

Logic Controller is implemented to the physical system which

is six degrees of freedom model. Six degrees of freedom model

is a model for the underwater vehicle trajectory simulation. The

Fuzzy control algorithm derived is computation intensive; so

far the ease of implementation a decision table is generated offline from the fuzzy algorithm to define the output of the

controller. This decision table is generated by quantising the

range of inputs into various levels and passing them offline to

the fuzzy algorithm and storing the corresponding output

values in a logic table. For on line implementation the decision

table is stored in underwater vehicle computer memory in the

form of lookup table. The look-up-table formed based on the

above fuzzy logic controller is used in the simulation of the

yaw control of a six degrees of freedom model. For this plant,

50% variations are given on damping () and natural frequency

(n) of second order plant. Analysis has been done to verify

the robustness of the fuzzy control system, i.e. the parameters

are varied by 50 percent in the extracted plant model, and the

control system has still managed to meet the specifications.

500

[6]

controller in a warm plant, Automatica Vol. 12, PP 301-308, July 1976.

[7] Kwok.L.Tang and Robert J.Mulhovand Comparing Fuzzy Logic with

classical Controller Designs, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems PP

1085-1087, 1987.

[8] L.I.Larkin, Fuzzy Logic Controller for Aircraft Flight Control:, In

Industrial Applications of Fuzzy Control, M.Sugeno, Ed.Amsterdam :

North-Holland, 1985, PP 87-104.

[9] Chuen.Chien Lee, Fuzzy Logic in Control Systems: Fuzzy Logic

Controller Part I & II, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and

Cybernetics, Vol 20, No.2 March/April 1990. PP 404-435.

[10] G.V.Nagesh Kumar, KA. Gopala Rao and N.G.S.Raju Design of

Fuzzy logic Based controller for Unmanned Autonomous Underwater

Vehicle , National Conference on Recent Advances in Electrical

Engineering, NCRAEE 07,

Vignans Institute of Information

Technology, Visakhapatnam, Pg. 5-25 to 5-41.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Fuzzy Logic Controller, Int. Journal on Man-Machine Studies, Vol. 7,

PP 1-13, 1976.

O.Yagishita, O. Ithoh, and M.Sugeno, Application of fuzzy reasoning

to the water purification systems, in Industrial Applications of Fuzzy

Control M.Sugeno, Ed.Amsterdam, North Holland, 1985, PP 19-40.

M.Togai and H.Watanbe,Expert system on a chip: An engine for realtime approximate reasoning, IEEE Expert systems Magazine, Vol-1, PP

55-62, 1986.

L.A.Zadeh,Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex

systems and decisions process ,IEEE Trans.Systems Man, Cybernetics,

SMC-3, no.1, pp-28-44, Jan 1973.

E.H. Mamdani, Application of Fuzzy algorithms for control of Simple

dynamic Plant, Proc. Inst. Elec. Engg. ,Vol 121, PP 1585-1588.

TABLE III

501

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