Architecture & Structures Module

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Architecture & Structures Module

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Architecture&StructuresModule

Part1Year1

2013/2014

Introduction

The conception of new structures is not possible by a direct, mathematical approach of statement

of problem, assembling data and the application of formulae. Conception of a building or

architecture is an imaginative and intuitive process, which requires experience, a lively sense of

structure, the knowledge of behavior of structures for assurance of safety of its occupants.

Undoubtedly, conceivable imagination and sense of structural behavior has to be vivid enough in

the minds of architect when a concept for a building is mooted.

Structure

A structure comprises with number of structural elements interconnected together to create a

continuous load path to transfer loads from the point of application to the ground. Any element

that bears load other than that arising from its self-weight is considered as a structural element.

Imitative structure and authentic structural members that are not load-bearing, even though they

might clearly express their materiality and display standard structural dimensions, are

disregarded.

Sometimes the structure is not exposed but concealed, perhaps hidden within wall cavities,

screened by suspended ceilings or undifferentiated from partition walling. In its fully exposed

state, the raw materiality of structure is visible, be it masonry, concrete, steel or natural timber.

Even if coatings or claddings partially or fully veil structural members and their materiality,

structural form can still play significant and expressive architectural roles.

Safety and serviceability

There are two main requirements of any structure: it must be safe and it must be serviceable.

Safe means that the structure should not collapse either in whole or in part. Serviceable means

that the structure should not deform unduly under the effects of deflection, cracking or vibration.

Safety

A structure must carry the expected loads without collapsing as a whole and without any part of

it collapsing. Safety in this respect depends on two factors:

(1) The loading the structure is designed to carry has been correctly assessed.

(2) The strength of the materials used in the structure is adequate to carry its stresses due to

external loading.

From this it is evident that we need to determine the load on any part of a structure and the

stresses developed within the structure.

Serviceability

A structure must be designed in such a way that it doesnt deflect or crack unduly in use. It is

difficult or impossible to completely eliminate these things the important thing is that the

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CitySchoolofArchitecture

Architecture&StructuresModule

Part1Year1

2013/2014

deflection and cracking are kept within certain limits. It must also be ensured that vibration does

not have an adverse effect on the structure this is particularly important in parts of buildings

containing plant or machinery. If, when you walk across the floor of a building, you feel the floor

deflect or give underneath your feet, it may lead you to be concerned about the integrity of the

structure. Excessive deflection does not necessarily mean that the floor is about to collapse, but

because it may lead to such concerns, deflection must be controlled; in other words, it must be

kept within certain limits. To take another example, if a lintel above a doorway deflects too

much, it may cause warping of the door frame below it and, consequently, the door itself may not

open or close properly.

Cracking is ugly and may or may not be indicative of a structural problem. But it may, in itself,

lead to problems. For example, if cracking occurs on the outside face of a reinforced concrete

wall then rain may penetrate and cause corrosion of the steel reinforcement within the concrete.

Structural Designs

Structural design consists of creation of a structural system comprises with number of structural

elements which will accommodate the aspects of aesthetics, function, services and cost while

safely serving its intended purpose of transmitting loads applied on to it to the ground.

In order to serve the intended purpose of a structure structural system shall satisfy the following

three Ss;

1. Strength to prevent breaking

2. Stiffness to prevent excessive deformations

3. Stability- to prevent collapse

Architectural and Structural Forms

Architectural form is often used but less frequently defined and it is essentially understood as

and limited to enveloping form, or shape.

Structural form is a buildings primary or most visually dominant structural system. While most

buildings have several primary structural systems, some have only one. Library Square,

Vancouver is one such example Moment-resisting frames running at regular intervals across the

plan resist gravity and longitudinal lateral loads, and two perimeter frames resist transverse

lateral loads.

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Architecture&StructuresModule

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2013/2014

Forces

Force is an influence, or action, on a body or object which causes or attempts to cause

movement.

For example:

When a man is pushing against a wall he is applying a horizontal force to that wall in

other words, he is attempting to push that wall away from him.

When a man standing on a hard surface. The weight of his body is applying a vertical

(downwards) force on the floor in other words, he is attempting to move the floor

downwards.

Forces can act in any direction, but the direction in which a given force acts is important. You

will know from your studies of mathematics that something that has both magnitude and

direction is called a vector quantity. As force has both magnitude and direction, force is an

example of a vector quantity

Force is measured in units of Newtons (N) or kiloNewtons (kN)

Resolution of Forces

Any force can be represented by two components perpendicular to each other.

Eg: The force F in the below given example can be represented by F sin

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and F Cos

CitySchoolofArchitecture

Architecture&StructuresModule

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Moments

A moment is a turning effect. A moment always acts about a given point and is either clockwise

or anticlockwise in nature. The moment about a point A (as shown in the above figure ) caused

by a particular force F is defined as the force F multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the

forces line of action to the point.

Units of moment are kN.m or N.mm

Eg: A practical example to explain moment

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2013/2014

Concept of Equilibrium

If an object, or a point within a structure, is stationary, we know that forces must balance, as

follows:

(1) Total Upward Force = Total Downward Force ( = ) (i.e Vertical Forces are in

equilibrium)

(2) Total Force to Left = Total Force to Right ( = ) (i.e. Horizontal Forces are in

equilibrium)

(3) Total Clockwise Moment = Total Anticlockwise Moment (i.e Moments are in

equilibrium)

Statically Determinate Structures

Structures are statically determinate when all the internal forces/reactions can be determined

from the equations of statics alone. Otherwise the truss is statically indeterminate which requires

more rigorous analysis to determine internal forces/reactions. As we have three equilibrium

equations, we can use them to solve a problem with up to three unknowns in it. In this context, if

the number of unknowns in a given structure is less than 3 those structures are Statically

Determinate.

Stability of Trusses and Statically Determinacy

In fact, the triangle is the most basic stable structure, Trusses are an assemblage of triangular

structural elements with their ends connected as Pin (i.e. rotations are allowed).

Consider two members connected by a pin joint, as shown in the Fig. (a) of the below given

example. Is this a stable structure? (In other words, is it possible for the two members to move

relative to each other?) As the pin allows the two members to move relative to one another, this

is clearly not a stable structure.

Now, lets add a third member to obtain three members connected by pin joints to form a

triangle, as shown in Fig (b). Is this a stable structure?

Yes, it is because even though the joints are pinned, movement of the three members relative to

each other is not possible. So this is a stable, rigid structure

If we add a fourth member we produce the frame shown in Fig. (c).

Is this a stable structure? No it is not. Even though the triangle within it is stable, the spur

member is free to rotate relative to the triangle, so overall this is not a stable structure.

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CitySchoolofArchitecture

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2013/2014

Consider the frame shown in Fig. (d), which is achieved by adding a fifth member to the

previous frame. This is a stable structure. If you are unsure of this, try to determine which

individual member(s) within the frame can move relative to the rest of the frame. You should see

that none of them can and therefore this is a stable structure. This is why you often see this detail

in structural frames as diagonal bracing, which helps to ensure the overall stability of a

structure.

Lets add yet another member to obtain the frame shown in Fig. (e). Is this a stable structure?

No, it is not. In a similar manner to the frame depicted in Fig. (c), it has a spur member which is

free to rotate relative to the rest of the structure. Adding a further member we can obtain the

frame shown in Fig. (f) and we will see that this is a rigid, or stable, structure.

We could carry on adding number of elements in this manner, but I think you can see that a

certain pattern is emerging. The most basic stable structure is a triangle (Fig. (b)). We can add

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CitySchoolofArchitecture

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Part1Year1

2013/2014

two members to a triangle to obtain a new triangle. All of the frames that comprise a series of

triangles (Figs (d) and (f)) are stable; the remaining ones, which have spur members, are not.

Lets now see whether we can devise a means of predicting mathematically whether a given

frame is stable or not.

Table : Comparison of the number of elements with the number of joints in a stable structure

Figure

Fig.(a)

m

2

j

3

No

2j-3

3

Is m=2j-3

No

Fig.(b)

Yes

Yes

Fig.(c)

Fig. (d)

4

5

4

4

No

Yes

5

5

No

Yes

Fig. (e)

No

No

Fig.(f)

Yes

Yes

In the Table shown above each of the six frames considered in the example of Building a Truss is

assessed. The letter m represents the number of members in the frame and j represents the

number of joints (note that unconnected free ends of members are also considered as joints).

The column headed Stable structure? merely records whether the frame is stable (Yes) or not

(No). It can be shown that if m = 2j 3 then the structure is stable. If that equation does not

hold, then the structure is not stable. This is borne out by from the above table by comparing the

entries in the column headed Is the structure stable? with those in the column headed Is m = 2j

3?

Internal stability of Trusses A summary

(1) A framework which contains exactly the correct number of members required to keep it

stable is termed a perfect frame. In these cases, m = 2j 3, where m is the number of

members in the frame and j is the number of joints (including free ends). Frames (b), (d)

and (f) in Figure are examples. These structures are Statically Determinate.

(2) A framework having less than the required number of members is unstable and is termed

a mechanism. In these cases, m < 2j 3. Frames (a), (c) and (e) in the above given figure

are examples. In each case, one member of the frame is free to move relative to the

others.

(3) A framework having more than this required number is over-stable and contains

redundant members that could (in theory at least) be removed. These structures are

Statically Indeterminate.

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