French 291 Lecture Notes

Table of Contents
Page Lecture Notes Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Introduction to Pre-Roman France France from the Roman Conquest to the Early Middle Ages France of the High and Late Middle Ages (987-1461) French Life and Institutions in the Middle Ages The Art of the Middle Ages Historical Background to the Renaissance Life in France in the Renaissance The Renaissance – Material Conditions and Architecture High Art in the Renaissance: Sculpture, Painting and Literature Renaissance Literature (cont'd): The Transition from the Renaissance to the 17th Century Louis XIV and Versailles Architecture, Sculpture and Painting in France in the 17th Century The Academies in the 17th Century: Painting (cont'd). The Golden Age of French Theatre The Literature of the 17th Century Louis XV and Life in the 18th Century Architecture, Sculpture and Painting in the 18th Century Art and Thought in the Enlightenment Literature in the 18th Century and the End of the Old Régime 1 4 8 13 17 23 26 29 33 36 40 42 44 46 48 51 53 55

Review Exercises for Self-Assessment Answer Keys to Review Exercises

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Lecture 1 Introduction to Pre-Roman France
1. Geographical features: [MAP 5] a. b. c. d. e. 2. Variety of terrain and climate Good access to sea navigation Temperate climate Navigable rivers Mountain defenses

Prehistory: a. Paleolithic period 1. Lascaux [1514], [M 159] Neolithic period 1. Dolmens – St. Michel in Brittany [M 185] 2. Menhirs – Carnac

b.

3.

Greeks and Phoenicians a. b. Began to colonize about 1000 B.C. Interested primarily in trade with Gaul

4.

Gaul (600 B.C.-50 A.D.) a. first inhabitants of France known to history 1. Julius Caesar Gallic Wars 2. Strabo Geography 3. Diodorus of Sicily 4. Tacitus 60 tribes; Parisi found Paris Common features: 1. language 2. religion 3. political system

b. c.

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The Great Vessel of Vix
d. The Treasure of Vix 1. 500 B.C. 2. Burial of warrior leader – woman 3. Contains some of the most important objects of this period of western civilization a. The Great Bronze Vessel of Vix i. over 5 feet or 1 1/2 meters high ii. largest container of its kind remaining anywhere from antiquity b. The Gold Diadem of Vix i. 480 gram diadem c. State Chariot d. Other objects, particularly cups and other ceremonial vessels 4. Important for the evidence it gives us of the nature of early Gallic society a. Trading people b. Powerful and sophisticated civilization c. Women treated as equals

Chapter 1 – Questions 1. 2. 3. Discuss the peoples who settled in France before the arrival of the Romans. Discuss the nature of Gallic society (600-50 B.C.). How was Gaul politically organized by the Romans both before and after the introduction of Christianity? What are the principle lasting effects of the Roman conquest of Gaul?

4.

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Lecture 2 France from the Roman Conquest to the Early Middle Ages
1. 2. Early Greek and Roman presence in France Final conquest by Rome Vercingetorix defeated 52 BC We know about him through the writings of Julius Caesar Contributions of Rome to French civilisation: a. b. c. d. 500 years of effective administration Latin language urban way of life cities were founded Nimes Arles technical advancement Aquaducts Pont du Gard [G 75] domestic conveniences roads bridges Art Christianity Martyrs of Lyon Blandine Martin of Tours

3.

e.

f. g.

Chapter 2 – Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Discuss the effects of the mass migration of Asian peoples into Europe at this time. Explain the origin of the major domus and define his role, using specific examples, during this period of French history. What factors led to a fusion between the German invaders and the Gallo-Roman population left after the collapse of the Roman imperial government? Discuss the rise of Christianity from late Roman times to the early eighth century.

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Merovingian and Carolingian Era
1. 2. Meaning of the term "Middle Ages" Merovingian a. Invasions of tribes from the north-east pushed by the Huns Visigoths Alammani Burgundians Bretons Francs Merovaeous Genevieve Troyes Clovis established Paris as his capital Clothilda crowned at Rheims Later merovingian kings were weak dynasty collapsed

b.

c.

d. 3.

Carolingian a. b. c. Charles Martel Battle of Poitiers against Muslims (732) Pepin the Short established the tradition of divine right of kings Charlemagne* known through Einhard's biography expanded the French Kingdom skilled administrator missi dominici plaids capitularies educational reform Alcuin religious changes French Empire declined after Charlemagne's death kingdom divided conflict Oaths of Strasbourg (Serments de Strasbourg) (842) Treaty of Verdun (843)

d.

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Chapter 3 – Questions 1. Discuss Charlemagne's support of the Roman Catholic Church with specific reference to policies he introduced. After the breakup of Charlemagne's empire, feudalism grew steadily. Briefly outline the nature of the feudal order and discuss the causes for its growth. Describe the origins of the Normans and their effect on the peoples living in what is now France. Discuss Charlemagne's achievement in extending and governing the kingdom left to him by Pepin the Short. Explain why this unity did not long survive his death.

2.

3.

4.

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Lecture 3 France of the High and Late Middle Ages (987-1461)
Capetians (ca. 1000-ca. 1300) Early Valois (ca. 1300-ca. 1450) 1. Capetian Era* Period of expansion of power over the territory of France a. b. Hugues Capet (ca. 941-996) Philip I (1052-1108) Bayeux Tapestry [K 31], [1617] Battle of Hastings Harold

2.

History of everyday life also important during this period a. During the Capetian era: good weather, crops demographic growth founding of the Universities development of France as the centre of the Catholic faith monasteries pilgrimages crusades construction cathedrals fortified castles fortified towns trade fairs French national culture In contrast, during the early Valois period: bad weather crop failure limited demographic growth high death rate plague subsistence existence education ceased to evolve religious decline clergy ignorant and dissolute sale of indulgences venal clergy

b.

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competition grew in trade art and literature became elaborate but repetitive Flamboyant Gothic Rhétoriqueurs 3. Individuals who made a difference: a. Philip Augustus (1165-1223) restitution of the kingdom administrative reform extended King's authority embellished Paris Louis IX (1214-1270) Saint Louis Joinville Sainte Chapelle [G 290], [MG 58] reformed justice financial reform Cour des Comptes Philip the Fair (1478-1506) centralized French State developed Paris as a capital

b.

c.

Late Middle Ages (Early Valois Kings)
1. Features of the period: Hundred Years' War great plagues triumph of centralized monarchy rise of the middle class Some important individuals Christine de Pisan Etienne Marcel* Joan of Arc Jacques Coeur Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)* Cause: Edward III of England claimed throne of France Salic law Battles: Crecy Poiters Agincourt Importance of Joan of Arc to unity

2.

3.

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4.

Plague broke out in 347 Bubonic and Pneumonic Marseilles Avignon population decimated Weak Kings Feudal System based on interdependence of needs Clergy Third Estate (Tiers Etat) Nobility Feudal links largely between members of the nobility Castle Dungeon or Keep Moat Drawbridges Well Kitchen Storage Chapel Open Space Chateau Gaillard [MG 267] Pierrefonds [G 292] Jacques Coeur (1395-1456) entrepreneur Bourges [G 262] Joan of Arc (1412-1431) peasant Lorraine Vaucouleurs Chinon La Ditie de Jeanne d'Arc by Christine de Pisan

5. 6.

2a.

2b.

Chapter 4 – Questions 1. Briefly outline the fortunes of the English kings on French soil from William the Conqueror to 1328 with reference to the causes of the lengthy Anglo-French hostilities. The crusading spirit was founded in France. Discuss the extent of French participation in the crusades of this period.

2.

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3.

In the Middle Ages, Louis IX was considered by his contemporaries as the "perfect model of a Christian king". Discuss his character and achievements. Discuss the varying relations of the French rulers with the Papacy in this period with reference to the lasting effects of this special relationship.

4.

Chapter 6 – Questions 1. Discuss Joan of Arc's short career with reference to her lasting fame as an icon of France. After growing rapidly, the population of France decreased even more rapidly. Discuss the causes. What factors gave the English armies an advantage throughout much of the Hundred Years War? How did Charles V and Charles VII finally meet the challenge? Discuss administrative changes in the central government in this period and their lasting effects.

2.

3.

4.

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Lecture 4 French Life and Institutions in the Middle Ages
1. 2. Importance of the Christian Church Monasticism Monks and nuns governed by the Rule Plain-chant Elements of the Monastery [MG 268] cloister church dormitory refectory chapter house kitchens library/scriptorium cellar infirmary Benedictine Cluny Cistercian Fontenay [MG 269] Bernard of Clairvaux Dominican Franciscan Pilgrimage Santiago de Compostella (St Jacques de Compostelle) Le Puy Conques Moissac Crusades similar to pilgrimages Knights of Saint John Templars important impact on French way of life Educational institutions Clergy Administrators Tradespeople Guilds Universities Paris College de Navarre College de Guienne

3.

4.

5.

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Seven Liberal Arts Trivium Quadrivium Toulouse Montpellier 6. 7. Daily Life limited, repetitive existence Life in Towns artisans, professionals, students lived in towns walled Carcassonne [G 266] Rouen Life in the Country Tres Riches Heures of the Duc de Berri [K 294], [1218], [K 202] Jean de Berri* Limbourg brothers Jean Colombe a rich source of information about life in the country Peasant and Noble life The lives of peasants changed little throughout the whole time period They eked out an existence on the land travelled very little left few monuments Gradually through the same period, the lives of the nobility evolved from one scarcely different from that of the peasants to one characterized by riches and greater comfort. Life of the Nobility Early Middle Ages Lived in Castles, in dungeon kitchen separate lord absent lady ran castle in his absence news brought by roving entertainers Later Middle Ages as need to fight declined, nobles moved to unfortified castles tournaments, group entertainments visiting

8.

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Chapter 5 – Questions 1. 2. Describe the characteristics of the most important monastic orders of this time. A middle class was developing in this period as trade and industry were reawakened from the "dark ages" following the fall of Rome. Discuss its growth. The Roman Catholic Church was responsible for much of the growth of civilization during this period. Describe its beneficial effects. Discuss the effects of the Crusades on the French way of life.

3.

4.

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Lecture 5 The Art of the Middle Ages
Art for Wealthy and powerful Two styles dominate the art of the High Middle Ages Romanesque (1000-1130) horizontal emphasis simple, heavy lines geometric ornamentation little expressivity of human figures thick walls, few windows and doors relatively low ceilings round vaults plain exteriors Gothic (1135-1450) vertical emphasis human figures expressive, life-like pointed arch pointed vaults high, large windows thin walls with flying buttresses Painting Fresco Murals on walls of churches 1. View of Apse: Christ in glory Church at Berzé-la-Ville 12th century [K 177]

Miniature manuscript illumination 800-1500 brilliant colours 1. St. Matthew: Shatzkammer Gospel (Coronation Book of Charlemage) About 800 A.D. (NOT 19th century: sorry about the slip of my tongue!) [K 167]

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2.

Trumpets of Jericho. Psalter of St. Louis About 1256 [1609] Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux: Annunciation Jean Pucelle About 1325-1328 [K 293] Très Riches Heures of the Duc de Berri A Book of Hours or prayer book Pol de Limbourg and Brothers 1415-16 [1218]

3.

4.

Sculpture 1. Tympanum, Moissac First half, 12th century [K 48] Romanesque in style Tympanum, Facade, Chartres Middle of 12th century [K 56] Gothic in style Sculptured Capital Mozac First half of 12th century [K 44] Annunciation of the resurrection of Christ to Mary Magdelaine Figures stubby, disproportionate and schematic Figures, West Front, Chartres Middle of the 12th century [K 57] The Virgin, Portal of Vièrge Dorée, Amiens About 1265-1270 [K 161] Figure expressive, well proportioned and realistic

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Architecture: The Great Cathedrals Architects highly prestigious calling in the Middle Ages designed and supervised the building The only professional visual art practised by gentlemen Pierre de Montreuil (xxxx) Saint Germain des Près Sainte Chapelle [G 290], [MG 58] St Denis Saint-Sernin, Toulouse – Romanesque [G 322] 1. East End, St. Sernin, Toulouse About 1060-70-13th century [G 323] Nave, looking east, St. Sernin, Toulouse About 1060-1120 [G 324] Plan, St. Sernin, Toulouse [MG 186]

2.

3.

Amiens – Gothic 1. Cathedral, West End, Amiens About 1220-1269 [G 251] Nave, looking east, Amiens 1220-1269 [G 252] Plans of Gothic Cathedrals [G 330]

2.

3.

Other Cathedrals 1. Notre Dame de Paris [G 287], [G 288] Chartres [G 268], [G 269]

2.

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Stained Glass St Denis Numinosity 1. King David with Harp, Chartres 12th century [1608] Rose Window dedicated to the Virgin, Chartres 12th century [K 267]

2.

Fine Metalwork Skill practised by earlier celtic ancestors Used to religious purposes Cabochon cut jewels 1. Sainte Foy (Gilded Wood with Jewels) Late 10th century [K 313] Chalice of Abbot Suger 12th century [P 100] Sliver Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux 14th century [K 272]

2.

3.

Needlework Paris Arras Tournai 1. Bayeux Tapestry 11th century [K 31], [1617] Apocalypse of Angers: John's Vision Jean Bondel 14th century [K 98]

2.

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3.

Lady and Unicorn Tapestry 15th century [K 273]

Literature 1. 2. Strasbourg Oaths Chansons de Geste Song of Roland (Chanson de Roland) Roncesvalles Romances Romance of the Rose (Roman de la Rose) Guillaume de Lorris Jean de Meung Chansons de Toile anonymously composed by women Fabliaux parodies of the Chanson de Geste and Romances Renard the Fox Ysengrin the Wolf Roman de Renard Theatre Serious plays Mystery plays Biblical themes Miracle plays Saints lives Comic Farce Farce de Pathelin 7. François Villon (1431-1463) poor orphan raised by a priest educated at the Sorbonne involved in crime: theft and murder imprisoned and condemned to death, although not executed Note: distance between the courtly writing of the earlier Middle Ages and the realism of this work.

3.

4.

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6.

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Ballad (NOT battle!) of the Hanged Men Brother humans who after us live on Do not make your hearts hard against us For if you show pity to wretches like us God will the sooner show mercy to you, You see us, five or six, hanging here, As for the flesh we pampered too much A little while ago it was eaten and rotted away And we the bones turn into ashes and dust, Let no one make jokes at our fate But pray God that He will absolve us all. Because we call you "brothers" there's no need To be angry, though we were put to death By justice: anyway, you understand Not everyone is born with good sense, Make our excuses, now we've passed on Before the Son of the Virgin Mary That His mercy shall not, for us, go dry Which keeps us from the thunderbolts of hell, We are dead, let no one harass us But pray God that He will absolve us all. The rain has rinsed and washed us And the sun has dried us and blackened us, Magpies and ravens have caved our eyes And plucked out our beards and eyebrows, Never, at no time, can we stay still, Now here, now there, as the wind shifts At its whim without end it carries us Pocked by birds worse than a sewing thimble, Therefore don't be one of our brotherhood But pray God that He will absolve us all. Prince Jesus, master over all, Don't let us fall in the clutches of Hell, We've no accounts to settle down there, Humans, there's nothing in this to laugh about, But pray God that He will absolve us all.

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Lecture 6 Historical Background to the Renaissance
1. Contrast between homogeneity of the Middle Ages and the diversity of the Renaissance religion concept of the 'world' feudalism Major events of the 15th century which influenced the development of the Renaissance in France 1. 2. 3. 4 Fall of Constantinople (1453) influx of Greek scholars Invention of the printing press Paris, 1470 Contact with Italy Italian Wars Discovery of America (1492)* Jacques Cartier (1534, 5) Heptameron, story No. 77

2.

And, in the 16th century 5. Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter reformation Luther, 1520's

The Itinerant Court of Francis I (March, 1533-June, 1533) 3. France, 1460-1595 1. Last kings of the Middle Ages Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII The Valois Kings Francis I (1515-1547) [1219] first modern king Fontainebleau Italian artists patron of art and literature religious tolerance

2.

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Henry II (1547-1559) patron of literature married Catherine de Medici 3 sons who succeeded him 1. Francis II (1559-60) 2. Charles IX (1560-1574) [E 4] Massacre of St. Bartholomew, August, 1572 3. Henry III (1574-1589) 3. The first Bourbon King Henry IV King of Navarre converted from Protestantism to Catholicism Life at court in the 16th century how the country's elite lived

4.

Chapter 7 – Questions 1. In 1435, the Duke of Burgandy was made an independent ruler. Discuss the extent of the Burgundian influence in this period. Discuss the methods Louis XI used to consolidate his power with reference to specific examples. Although Salic Law prohibited women from ruling France, they could inherit the great duchies. Discuss the roles of Anne of Brittany and Mary of Burgandy. French territorial ambitions in Italy produced some lasting results. Discuss.

2.

3.

4.

Chapter 8 – Questions 1. 2. 3. Discuss changes in the role of the bourgeoisie in the reign of Francis I. Summarize the ways in which Francis I consolidated royal power. In this period peasants suffered as other groups in society became more affluent. Discuss. Briefly discuss the sources of the conflict between Francis I and Charles V of Austria.

4.

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Chapter 9 – Questions 1. Briefly discuss the origins of Protestantism in France. Show how the social composition of the new church represented a divisive force. Henry of Navarre became Henry IV of France after a severe struggle. Discuss the opposition to him and the reasons for his eventual success. Describe the role of Catherine de Medicis in the religious struggles of this time. Discuss the major suppressions of the Protestant religion from its beginnings in France to 1598 with specific reference to St. Bartholemew's Day.

2.

3. 4.

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Lecture 7 Life in France in the Renaissance
1. 2. 95% of the population did not live at court The world of this group marked by: 1. Physical insecurity agricultural techniques unimproved a. Cold: led to disease & discomfort b. Disease: high birth rate high infant mortality rate famine common plague recurrent Psychological insecurity a. fear of real dangers disease violence b. fear of the unknown darkness natural disaster spiritual forces God the Devil

2.

3.

Sources of protection from these insecurities: a. Not: the state the family b. More usually: the extended family artificial kinship societies active, communal life Renaissance world view for the majority (95%) there was little change in mentalities limited concept of Space imprecise idea of Time cyclical, rather than progressive

4.

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5.

Renaissance cyclical year related to pre-Christian festivals a continuation of a medieval view of society Rhythmical alternation of festivals and work-times 1. Easter 2. May 3. Ascension & Pentecost 4. Midsummer – St. John's Eve 5. Assumption 6. All Saints and All Soul's 7. Christmas 8. Carnival and Lent

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Lecture 8 The Renaissance – Material Conditions and Architecture
1. Dwellings: majority lived in small, one room homes merchant middle class, a small minority lived in larger, urban homes wealthy middle class and nobility lived in large, elaborate stone homes influence of Italian and Classical contact most evident in these Furniture: evolved from basic, portable items of the Middle Ages to larger, heavier, more decorative fixed furniture Chairs – simple stool or chest, with added arms and, sometimes a backrest by eventually being upholstered Chest – used for storage placed on legs to become a cabinet given drawers to become chest of drawers in both cases, becomes larger & heavier Bed – in Middle Ages, most beds consisted of a mattress with a frame on which curtains could be hung to provide warmth and some privacy frame becomes an integral part of the bed and is decorated with carving Tables – the trestle table of Middle Ages replaced by fixed, heavy, ornate tables Ornamental detail Italian & Classical influence decorative detail inlay marquetry gilding upholstery 3. Food: a. Diet of poor: pottage beer Diet of more affluent pottage with meat roasts wine bread some condiments

2.

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b.

Cooking done on open hearth large copper, iron pots spits pies, in covered "Dutch ovens" Eating Affluent metal plates wooden plates slice of dried bread knives, later spoons and forks metal and glass cups table cloth on trestle table Poor dipped from central bowl leather drinking vessels Procuring food Poor: gathered local produce some small gardens More Affluent purchased some imported foods: salt sugar fish spices Some foods not introduced until about 1570 tomato coffee vanilla Ceramic vessels reserved for use in dairy

c.

d.

4.

Architecture of the Renaissance few cathedrals most significant buildings of this period are the castles or châteaux of the wealthy three periods of Renaissance Style: 1. Early Renaissance (1500-1525) Blois-Louis XII [G 258] Amboise Period of Francis I (1525-1550) Greek and Roman influence Blois – wing of Francis [G 335] [G 336] Chenonceaux [G 339] Chambord [G 338]

2.

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3.

Classical Renaissance (1550-1600) Greek and Roman influence Louvre of Lescot [G 342] Fontainebleau [G 340], [MG 187]

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Lecture 9

High Art in the Renaissance: Sculpture, Painting and Literature
1. Sculpture a. Jean Goujon (1510-1568) influenced by Benvenuto Cellini mannerist in style [E 180] Germain Pilon (1525-1596) influenced by Primaticcio mannerist – Three Graces [E 177] realistic – Tomb of Henry II [K 123]

b.

2.

Painting a. early: portraits Jean de Paris (1450-1530) manuscript illustrations Jean Bourdichon (1457-1521) under Francis I The work of Italian artists brought to France Raphael Titian Andrea del Santo Michaelangelo Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa buried at Amboise Fontainebleau Rosso and Primaticcio supervised decoration mannerist in style Gallery of Francis I [MG 187], [MG 96], [C 207] new style of decoration as well as new architectural feature c. Portraiture Jean Clouet (1475?-1541) [1219] portraits of many court figures François Clouet (1520-1572) [E 3] portraits Corneille de Lyon (? -1574) simple, sensitive portraits

b.

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d.

Painters independent of the School of Fontainebleau Jean Cousin (1490-1561) [ME 29] continued in the mannerist style Antoine Caron (1521-1599) painter of the end of the 16th century allegorical subjects exaggerated use of perspective

3.

Literature a. Roots – Medieval French – Greek and Latin Classics – Italian Literature Poetry 1. Rhétoriqueurs elaborate, rimed poetry little attention to content School of Marot a. Clément Marot (1496-1544) first of the great Renaissance poets best known for poetic epistles clever, satirical tone translated Psalms Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549) lyric, religious poetry

b.

2.

b.

3.

School of Lyons a. Maurice Scève (1500-ca. 1560) Delia Louis Labé (1524-1566) Sonnets Pernette du Guillet (1520-1545) Rimes all show the influence of Petrarch, the Italian poet, and Plato, the Greek philosopher

b.

c.

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4.

The Pleiade Defense and Illustration of the French Language (1549) revolutionary treatise replaced poetic forms of the Middle Ages with new ones of classical inspiration the work of Ronsard and du Bellay

Poetes of the Pleïade Ronsard du Bellay and Baïf Belleau Dorat Jodelle Pontus de Tyard a. Guillaume du Bellay (1522-1560) a. Antiquities of Rome (1558) sonnets on the ruins in Rome focus on the nobility and decadence of the city Regrets (1558) intimate feeling of intense nostalgia for France personal disappointment with rome

b.

b.

Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) the "Prince of Poets" possibly the greatest of all French writers of sonnets many collections Sonnets for Helen (1578) inspired poets in many languages and times, including Yeats

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Lecture 10 Renaissance Literature (cont'd): The Transition from the Renaissance to the 17th Century
1. Poetry of the Renaissance (cont'd) The Baroque Poets (ca. 1580-ca. 1630) Agrippa d'Aubigné (1522-1630) Les Tragiques Prose in the Renaissance The Short Story influenced by Bocaccio, Decameron Bonaventure des Periers (1500-1544) Nouvelles récreations & Joyeux Devis Marguerite de Navarre Heptameron (see introduction to text) François Rabelais (ca. 1494-ca. 1553) one of the greatest French comic writers known in his time as medical doctor and writer of medical works Pantagruel (1532)* Gargantua (1534) adventures of giants contains social, political and religious criticism innovative and creative use of language Rabelais responsible for the creation of over 1,000 words in the French language Jean Calvin (1509-1564) Institute of the Christian Religion 1540 first use of French in important theological document Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays (1580) a new genre, difficult to classify rather unstructured musings on a variety of subjects: social (slavery), philosophical (death, friendship) and personal the first autobiographical work of modern times

2.

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3.

Political transition to the Classical period a. Henry IV (1553-1610) first Bourbon King Internal accomplishments end of Wars of Religion, Edict of Nantes (1598) appointment of Sully as minister progress in Trade extensive building of public works reformation of taxes encouragement of industry at home and trade abroad assassinated by Ravaillac, 1610 Louis XIII (1610-1643) came to throne at age 8 good but ineffective king Richelieu [E 12] his prime minister ruled for him ambitious Cardinal and clever minister 4 Objectives: 1. Ruin the Huguenots 2. Humble the nobles 3. Subject the people 4. Raise the status of the King also encouraged colonization and trade with the new world founded the French Academy (1634)

b.

4.

Life in the 17th Century a. Life in the country focussed in villages and around the home of a noble lord Lord – lived off the land and some remaining feudal rights spent some time at court, if possible, in order to arrange the future of his children his wife entertained largely by letters from court and by gossip with neighbours Other important inhabitants of country villages the Parish Priest most educated person in town lived supported by tithes and his 'living' the Schoolmaster 1698 on – schools compulsory marginally educated

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Town officers a. Tambour – person who acted as postman and town crier b. Garde – champetre – village shepherd and maintenance man Midwife older, single woman frequently accused of witchcraft Peasants largest population group continued to bear heavy tax burden, and to live as the peasants of earlier times had lived "Taille" was the heaviest of the direct taxes also "Gabelle": salt tax "Douane" customs duty "Corvée" tax or labour required of all b. Life in the city except for Paris and Versailles, town life continued as it had since the 10th century Paris* transformed in the 17th century from a medieval, walled city to the beginnings of a modern, open city streets paved – 1667 sanitary regulations 1697 Marais "swamp" fashionable living area Ile de la Cité island in the Seine river site of Notre Dame Cathedral Parliament Law Courts commercial centre Left bank student quarter – Sorbonne new convent foundations – Port Royal Right bank Louvre – King's palace Marais

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Paris citizens had considerable autonomy ruled by Mayor, aldermen and Councillors Their responsibilities: hospitals education commercial inspection sanitation defence roads policing Special commercial activity located on streets e.g. rue de la Huchette – area of cut-throats

Chapter 10 – Questions 1. Explain how the nobility in seventeenth century France retained their preeminence despite measures Richelieu took to curb their power and a changing economy. Discuss the reasons for open conflict between Louis XIII and the Hapsburg monarchs. Describe three ways in which Richelieu's policies were beneficial for France. Summarize the measures Henry IV and Sully took to give economic and political security to France.

2.

3. 4.

Chapter 11 – Questions 1. In the middle of the seventeenth century, the Catholic renaissance reached its height. Discuss the causes briefly and comment on the effects of this spiritual reawakening on the social and political life of the time. Identify the two Frondes and show how their challenge to Mazarin and Anne of Austria led to greater royal authority. Compare the relationship of Richelieu with Louis XIII with that of Mazarin and the young Louis XIV. Discuss how Mazarin's foreign policy, culminating in two major treaties, made France the dominant power in Europe.

2.

3.

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Lecture 11 Louis XIV and Versailles
1. Louis XIV (1638-1715) [1221], [E 20] very long reign (1643-1715) known to us by the writings of the period Duc de Saint-Simon Memoirs Mme de Sâvigné Letters – see assigned text as well as others in the huge court which surrounded him at all times a remarkable and controversial character profoundly religious several mistresses two important ministers Mazarin prime minister until 1661 Colbert not a prime minister, but responsible for a wide variety of measures modern accounting system stimulated industry External policies disastrous Internal policies frequently unsuccessful Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) increased debt and misery among the people Court life under Louis XIV very different from the itinerant court of Francis I centered in Versailles after 1663 Courtier's day (7:30 a.m. to 1:30 a.m.) began early "Lever" Mass King's dinner Afternoon activities outdoors Apartments King's supper "Coucher" ended very late

2.

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3.

Versailles [MG 285], [G 346], [G 347], [G 348], [MG 286], [MG 117] began as a small hunting lodge 1663 – became Louis XIV's royal residence Large palace 1/2 km long housed 5,000 persons built in stages under a series of architects [MG 115] 1. Le Roy 2. Le Vau 3. Hardouin – Mansart restored in 20th century Gardens – designed by Le Nôtre [MG 114]

Chapter 12 – Questions 1. Discuss the ways in which Louis XIV's personal rule influenced art and architecture all over Europe. Summarize the methods Colbert used to increase the king's wealth. Discuss their effects both in the short term and at the end of Louis XIV's long reign. although an orthodox Catholic, Louis XIV was often in conflict with the Papacy. Explain. As the defender of Catholicism, Louis XIV attacked what he saw as heresy. Outline the measures he took and discuss their results.

2.

3.

4.

Chapter 13 – Questions 1. What advancements in military organization, engineering, and tactics developed in this period? Discuss the ways in which these changes pointed toward a modern army. Summarize the main events of the War of the Spanish Succession and discuss the results for France. Discuss the role played by England in the military and diplomatic campaigns of the reign of Louis XIV. Briefly describe the state of the kingdom inherited by Louis XV in 1715.

2.

3.

4.

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Lecture 12 Architecture, Sculpture and Painting in France in the 17th Century Architecture
1. General tendencies: return from ornate style of Fontainebleau to more sober classicism as seen earliest in work of Philibert de Lorme, Château of Anêt, Salmon de Brosse, Luxembourg Palace Pre-Louis XIV and Versailles Jacques Lemercier (1585-1654) church of the Sorbonne, Paris [MG 99] town of Richelieu François Mansart (1598-1667) Maisons – Lafitte Val-de-Grâe, Paris [MG 278] 3. Period of Versailles Louis LeVau (1612-1670) Vaux-le-Vicomte [MG 113] Institut de France, Paris East Front of Louvre Versailles Characterized by both baroque: ornate, emotional style and classical: symmetrical, rational style Jules Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708) Versailles (after 1673) esp. Hall of Mirrors (Galerie des Glaces) church of the Invalides, Paris [MG 103] Place Vendôme, Paris [MG 281] Place des Victoires, Paris

2.

Sculpture
1. 2. General tendencies: usually designed to be incorporated into an architectural setting: building, tomb, garden François Girardon (1628-1715) "Tomb of Richelieu"[ME 37] "Apollo served by the Nymphs of Thetis" [ME 128] "The Nymphs Bathing" [E 182] Decoration of the rooms of Versailles

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3.

Antoine Coysevox (1640-1720) Decoration of Versailles Hall of Mirrors [G 348] War Room (Salon de Mars) [MG 286] Tomb of Cardinal Mazarin [ME 130] Statue of Louis XIV [ME 129] Pierre Puget (1620-1694) not associated with Versailles "Milo of Crotona" [E 181]

4.

Painting
1. General tendencies: movement from mannerism of the end of the 16th century, through baroque and classicism often seen together in early paintings. Simon Vouet (1590-1649) "The Presentation of Christ in the Temple" Louvre, Paris [ME 33] Eustache le Sueur (1616-1655) "The Death of St. Bruno", Louvre [E 16] The Le Nain Brothers Antoine (1660?-1648) Mathieu (1607-1677) Louis (1600?-1648) "Peasant Family", Louvre [1255] Georges de la Tour (1593-1652) "The Adoration of the Shepherds", Louvre [1256] "Joseph the Carpenter", Louvre [ME 4] Portraitists a. Philippe de Champaigne (1602-1670) "Cardinal Richelieu", Louvre [1269] "Two Nuns of Port Royal", Louvre [ME 116] Hyacinthe Rigaud (1659-1743) "Louis XIV", Louvre [1221] "Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux", Louvre [E 22] Nicolas Largillière (1656-1746) "Louis XIV and his family" [E 20]

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

b.

c.

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Lecture 13 The Academies in the 17th Century: Painting (cont'd.). The Golden Age of French Theatre
1. Seventeenth Century Academies a. Académie Française (1635) questions of French language dictionary Academy of Painting and Sculpture (1648) director: Charles Lebrun (1619-1690) "Alexander entering Babylon" [E 19] Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres – (1663) questions of history Academy of Sciences – (1666) mathematics, physics and chemistry

b.

c.

d.

2.

Two great classical painters: 1. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) sums up all the qualities traditionally associated with classicism "The Inspitation of the Poet" [ME 110] "The Kingdom of Flora" [1257] "Shepherds of Arcadia" [1285] "Ordination" [ME 114] Claude (Le) Lorrain (1600-1682) enormous influence on all subsequent landscape painters "The Arrival of Cleopatra at Tarsus" [1220] "The Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba" [E 9] "The Rape of Europa"

2.

3.

Theatre in the 17th century: The Golden Age a. Three greatest playwrites Corneille Molière Racine Theatrical companies in France 1. Jesuit colleges 2. Wandering companies

b.

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3.

Parisian theatres a. Hotel de Bourgogne Theatre of the Marais Molière's company Petit Bourbon Palais – Royal b. Marais and Molière join to form Guénégaud theatre (1673) c. 1680 – Guénegaud and Hotel de Bourgogne form Comédie Française Commedia dell'arte Harlequin Polichinelle Scaramouche Opera Pierre Perrin Lully Pierre Corneille (1606-1684) Illusion Comique (1636) Le Cid (1636) Polyeucte (1643) Suréna (1674) Molière (1622-1673) Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Tartuffe (1664) Misanthrope (1666) The Miser (1669) The Middle-class Gentleman (1670) The Imaginary Invalid (1673) Jean Racine (1639-1699) Andromaque (1667) Phèdre (1677)

4.

5.

c.

d.

e.

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Lecture 14 The Literature of the 17th Century
1. The Golden Age of French Literature usually divided – 1600-1661 – 1601-1715 Prose a. The Novel to 1661 Very long novels Honoré d'Urfé L'Astree (1607-1625) Madeleine de Scudéry Le Grand Cyrus (1649-1653) Clélie (1654-1661) Paul Scarron Le Roman Comique (1651-1657) After 1661 shorter books Catherine de Villedieu The Disorders of Love (1675) Catherine Bernard The Miseries of Love (1687) Inès de Cordoue (1696) Catherine d'Aulnoy Story of Hippolytus, The Count of Douglas (1690) M. Madeleine de Lafayette The Princess of Cleves (1678) Fairy Stories Charles Perrault Catherine Bernard Catherine d'Aulnoy Other genres: Letters Mme de Sévigné Saint Evremond Mme de Maintenon Mme de Sablé Memoirs Cardinal de Retz Duke de Saint-Simon

2.

b.

c.

d.

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Aphorisms La Rochefoucauld Maxims La Bruyère Characters Pascal Pensées e. Intellectual and didactical genres Bossuet Funeral Orations Fenelon Telemachus (1699) Treatise on the Education of Girls Bayle Historical and Critical Dictionary Fontenelle Discussions on the Plurality of Worlds Boileau Art poétique (1674)

3.

Poetry Jean de la Fontaine (1621-1695) Fables Satirical, free verse intended for adults

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Lecture 15 Louis XV and Life in the 18th Century
1. The Regency (1716-1723) a. Philippe d'Orleans regent 1. Internal chaos: economy badly managed, debt, bankruptcy 2. Law's financial system 3. External relations: France isolated; English domination of high seas

2.

Louis XV's majority (1723-1774)* [E 44] a. Fleury: period of good advice until 1743 1. Annexation of Lorraine 2. Negotiation for peace with England an Spain 3. Careful economic policy: balanced budget, sea ports prosperous 1743 – with Fleury's death, Louis decides to reign personally 1. No interest in routine of ruling 2. Poor judgement, neglect of economy and foreign affairs 3. Increasing discontent in all areas of society a. Montesquieu Persian Letters b. Voltaire English Letters 4. 1757 – assassination attempt 5. 1758 – Choiseul appointed a. Jesuits banned b. Treaty of Paris, 1763. France loses most of her North American Colonies. c. Attempts to reform economy fail d. Provincial parliaments are increasingly demanding e. 1770 – Choiseul dies 6. Maupeou appointed (1768) a. Fails to effect reform 7. Final years of reign: uncontrollable increase in criticism of Louis XV and his policies

b.

3.

Daily Life in the 18th Century a. b. The largest country in Europe in the 18th century Life in cities: 1. Main cities: Paris, Lyon, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Rouen, Nantes, Lille

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2.

3.

Paris replaces Versailles as the centre of intellectual life in France a. Business b. Cultural: Salons c. material improvements in Paris i. New suburbs ii. Apartment houses iii. Street lighting iv. Cafés v. Commercial art galleries d. Paris life also very hard for some i. Brutal police ii. High cost of living iii. Increasing unemployment Port cities a. Involved in overseas trades, especially with colonies. Important proportion of total trade of France in the 18th century b. Bordeaux i. Direct trade of manufactured goods with colonies c. Nantes i. Indirect trade in slaves to Africa, then to America

c.

Life in the Countryside 1. Not changed since the Middle Ages 2. Growth in population substantial 3. Taxes a. Mainly born by peasants b. Unevenly assessed c. All goods taxed, especially staples 4. Good crops until about 1775, then serious crop failures.

Chapter 14 – Questions 1. 2. What were the events leading to the Treaty of Paris in 1763? Discuss its effects. Discuss the intellectual ferment of the time and its long range effects. Suggest reasons for the growth of dissent. Like his predecessors, Louis XV had to deal with religious controversy. Briefly compare and contrast the religious controversies of Louis XV's reign with those of Louis XIV's reign. Discuss the effects of Mme. de Pompadour's influence over Louis XV.

3.

4.

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Lecture 16 Architecture, Sculpture and Painting in the 18th Century
1. The "French" style: Period divides (1715-1750, 1750-1800) into two stylistically different halves Architecture: a. 1715 – 1750: Return to Paris from Versailles Suburbs – St. Honoré, St. Germain Roccoco period Gabriel "Ecole Militaire" "Place de la Concorde", Paris [MG 109] Public Squares: Rennes, Bordeaux, Nancy 1750 – 1800: Return to straight, classical lines Gabriel: "Petit Trianon" [MG 118] Interior of the Versailles Opera [MG 287] Follies: Richard Mique "Hameau", Petit Trianon Park, Versailles [MG 188]

2.

b.

3.

Sculpture: a. Trend to smaller works, done in more fragile and reproduceable media: bisque and terra cotta. Some exceptions Guillaume Coustou (1677-1746) "Horses of Marly" [E 185] Etienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) "Equestrian Monument of Peter the Great" [ME 134] "The Punishment of Cupid" [P 105] Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) Busts of "Washington", "Mirabeau" [E 190] "Voltaire Seated" [E 187]

b.

c.

d.

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4.

Painting: 1715-1750 a. Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) "Embarkation at Cythera"(1717) [1222] "Le Concert" "Gilles" – "Commedia dellÁrte". Pierrot [E 25] "Gersaint's Signboard" (L'Enseigne de Gersaint) [E 30] his pupil: Lancret "The Music Lesson" [1223] François Boucher (1703-1770) "The Triumph of "Amphitrite" "Diana Leaving the Bath" [E 40] "Mme de Pompadour" [1224] Portraits: 1. Jean-Marc Nattier (1685-1766) "Mme Adelaïde" [E 33] 2. Maurice Quentin de la Tour (1704-1788) "Self-Portrait" (1751) [E 45] 3. Elizabeth Vigée-Lebrun (1755-1842) "Portrait of the Artist and her daughter" [E 60] "Marie Antoinette" [ME 49]

b.

c.

d.

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Lecture 17 Art and Thought in the Enlightenment
1. Painting: 1750-1800 a. Period of division in art: court art continues to reflect frivolity; middle class art introduces social and moral messages Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806) "The Swing" (1766) [1286] Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805) "The Village Bride" (1761) [E 46] "The Broken Pitcher" [E 47] "Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin (1699-1779) "Boy with a Top" [1270] "The Blessing" [1203] "Still Life, Menu de Gras" [ME 56] "L'Ecureuse" Two landscape painters who bridge the 18th century 1. Claude-Joseph Vernet (1714-1789) 2. Hubert Robert (1733-1808) "The Pont du Gard" [ME 121]

b.

c.

d.

e.

2.

The Enlightenment: a. Roots: 16th century – Montaigne, 17th century – Descartes Also fed by English thought – Locke Characteristics: 1. Sensationalism 2. Rationalism 3. Theory of Progress 4. Naturism 5. Tolerance 6. Scientific Spirit The Salons: centres of intellectual life in the 18th century Mme de Lambert, Mme de Tencin, Mme du Deffand, Mme Geoffrin

b.

c.

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d.

The Encyclopedia (1751-1772) Editors: Diderot; d'Alembert Purpose: to sum up the progress of humanity Ultimately filled 33 volumes, 10 volumes of plates The first monument of modern, technical society Scientists of the Enlightenment 1. Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) Diverse Thoughts on the Comet Historical and Critical Dictionary 2. Fontenelle (1657-1757) Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds History of Oracels 3. Buffon (1707-1788) Complete and Scientific History of Nature, 36 volumes 4. Lavoisier (1743-1794). Chemistry 5. Montgolfiers (brothers) Joseph (1740-1810) and Etienne (1745-1799) Hot air balloon The Philosophers 1. A group of thinkers who attempted to reassess all knowledge in the light of reason, using the scientific method 2. François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) (1694-1778) [E 187] The dominant figure of his time Oedipe (1718) English Letters (1734) Candide (1759) 3. Denis Diderot (1723-1784) Editor of the Encyclopedia The Nun Paradox on the Actor (1733) Salons – art criticism 4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Early association with the Philosophers, followed by alienation which foreshadows 19th century thought The most influential of the Philosophers, especially through his works on political theory: The Social Contract, (1761) and educational theory, Emile (1762) The Confessions The Reveries of the Solitary Wanderer La Nouvelle Héloïse

e.

f.

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Lecture 18 Literature in the 18th Century and the End of the Old Régime
1. 2. Thought and "belles-lettres" closely allied in the 18th century Three divisions in the period a. b. c. 3. 1715-1734. Early development of critical spirit with continuation of old forms (tragedy, comedy, novel, etc.) 1734-1760. The Philosophers. New forms (history, political science, metaphysical treatises, scientific writing) 1761– French Revolution. The influence of reason loosens. Return to nature, the refuge of irrationality and immorality – Sade

The Novel a. b. c. d. Alain-René Lesge (1668-1747) Gil Blas (1707) L'abbé Prévost (1697-1763) Manon Lescaut (1731) Isabelle de Charriére (???) Caliste Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) The Philosopher Prince

4.

Drama a. b. Pierre Carlet de Marivaux (1688-1763) Le Jeu de l'amour et de hazard (1730) Pierre-Augustin de Beaumarchais (1732-1799) The Barber of Seville The Marriage of Figaro

5.

Poetry a. André Chenier (1752-1794)

6.

Louis XVI (1754-1793) I. a. The early, hopeful period (1774-1794)

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b.

Young and inexperienced and unwilling to take control of his accession in 1774. Married to a very unpopular foreign princess, Marie-Antoinette of Austria Early appointments able, if not always popular: 1. Anne Robert Turgot (1727-1781) 2. Jacques Necker (1732-1804) The Aristocratic pre-revolution (1781-1788) May 3, 1788 – Declaration of the rights of the nation August 8, 1788 – The "Estates General" meet July 14, 1789 – Bastille Day

c.

II.

a.

7.

French Society on the eve of the Revolution a. b. c. d. e. The Nobility. Represented .5 to 1.5% of the population; owned 1/4 to 1/3 of the land; monopolized taxes and offices The Clergy. Represented .5-1% of the population; owned 6-10% of the land; exempted from taxation; supported social and charitable work The Middle Class. 8% of the population; no privileges, ambitious and wealthy Peasants. 80% of the population; owned about 1/2 of the land; bore most of the tax burden Urban workers. 10% of the population; owned no land. Amongst the poorest in France

Chapter 15 – Questions 1. Throughout the eighteenth century, little had happened to improve the conditions in which the poorest people in France lived. Describe the factors leading to the development of a rootless and potentially revolutionary class. Show how the laissez-faire economics and administrative reforms of Turgot and Calonne were unsuccessful. Discuss the sources of opposition to their policies. René de Maupeou, as chancellor for Louis XV had introduced a series of judicial reforms in 1771. Discuss the reforms briefly (see chapter 13) and show how their repeal by Louis XVI added to the unrest in the kingdom at the eve of the Revolution. Discuss France's involvement in the birth of the new republic of the United States and the effects, both immediate and long term, for the French nation.

2. 3.

4.

Review Exercises for Self-Assessment

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Chapter 1

I.

Mark the following statements true (T) or false (F). a) b) c) d) e) f) The Romans introduced making wine from grapes. There was no opposition to Julius Caesar's conquest. In the fourth century, Christian bishops became the most important elected officials in the towns. The pre-Roman Gauls produced a great body of art depicting their gods. All of Gaul became Christian by the end of the first century. Between 58 and 50 B.C., Julius Caesar conquered most of Gaul.

II.

Matching a) b) c) d) e) f) g) cave paintings bronze crater Christian religious centre Gallic chief megaliths Gallic priests Greek colony 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Lyons druids Lascaux Vix Massilia Brittany Vercingetorix

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Chapter 2

I.

Complete the following statements by filling in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase. Germanic tribes were pushed west into Gaul by Asian invaders called . A tribal leader, Clovis, was supported by the leaders of the Christian population, the . . The real power behind the throne was the mayor of the palace or Charles Martel joined with the southern kingdoms to win a great battle over the . The cultural heritage of the ancient world was preserved by the church in the . . The Romans finally settled on a border zone at The most successful monastic order of this period was founded by . Germanic culture was more pronounced in the while the Gallo. Roman heritage was preserved in the

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Identify the importance of the following people in one or two sentences. Attila Ste. Geneviève Clotilda Pepin II Dagobert I Clovis Charles Martel

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Chapter 3

I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) f)

Identify the importance of the following. oath of fealty longships Aix-la-Chapelle Song of Roland divine right of kings St. Benedict of Aniane February 14, 842 A.D., Strasbourg fief

II. a) b) c) d) e)

Circle the inappropriate word or phrase in the following lists. suzerain, fief, fealty, chapel, vassal canons, bishop, marches, scriptoria, Benedictine Celts, Lombards, Saxons, Basques, Avars Charlemagne, Louis I, Lothair, Charles the Bald, Charles Martel Treaty of Verdun, Champ de Mai, founding of schools, missi dominici, expedition into Spain

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Chapter 4

I.

Mark the following statements true (T) or false (F). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Philip the Fair was in conflict with the legalists. St. Louis attacked the Moslems in Egypt. Eleanor of Aquitaine brought a huge dowry of French territory to her second husband. Philip Augustus instigated the imprisonment of Richard I of England. The Templars were destroyed by Philip the Fair. William of Nogaret worked to increase the power of the Papacy. St. Louis died while on crusade. William the Conqueror was a vassal of the French king.

II. a)

Circle the correct response. William the Conqueror was duke of 1) Aquitaine 2) Burgandy 3) Normandy 4) Brittany 5) Toulouse Philip Augustus took part in the 1) Battle of Mansurah 2) First Crusade 3) suppression of the Templars 4) conflict with Pope Boniface VIII 5) Third Crusade

b)

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c)

Philip the Fair 1) increased taxes 2) led a crusade 3) married Eleanor of Aquitaine 4) was canonized by the Church 5) allied his kingdom with John I (Lackland) The battle at Bouvines 1) was won by Richard the Lionhearted 2) occurred during the second Crusade 3) ended a six month seige 4) greatly increased Philip Augustus' domains 5) increased the power of the Papacy Clement V 1) preached the Third Crusade 2) reformed and purified the Church 3) was poisoned by William of Nogaret 4) supported the order of the Templars 5) settled the Papacy in France at Avignon

d)

e)

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Chapter 5

I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase. The invention of the and the made the use of heavier breeds of horses much more effective. The ship on the coat of arms of Paris recalls the . To enter the ranks of the knights, or chevaliers, possession of a was essential. Pope Gregory VII established the principle that spiritual powers could be given and not by lay authorities. only by Trading in the Mediterranean was restored by the . In this period population . Mendicant orders of monks had neither lands nor permanent houses. They subsisted . solely on

II.

Matching a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Bernard of Clairvaux Cluny dubbing University of Paris First Crusade Last Judgment Champagne Abbey of St. Denis mold board 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Benedictine order Robert de Sorbon Pope Urban II Cistercian order knighthood trade fair 1000 A.D. agriculture Sugar

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Chapter 6

I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

Complete the following with the appropriate word or phrase. Joan of Arc was handed over to the English by . Charles VII 's most able administrator was . In 1337, formally claimed the throne of France. At the end of the war, was England's only continental possession. According to , a woman could neither inherit the throne or pass on that right to her children. After Philip VI's reign, the heir to the French throne was called the commander of the army and constable of Charles V made France. After an informal peace of thirty-six years, reopened the war at Harfleur. The Treaty of Arras in 1435 made an independent ruler.

.

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Chapter 7

I.

Matching a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Louis XII the universal spider Treaty of Piquigny national assembly Charles VIII Charles the Bold great French nobles 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Edward IV first conquest of Naples Louis XI Duke of Burgandy the father of his people Estates General Leagues of the Commonweal

II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Identify the importance of the following. the "perpetual peace" Pope Julius II Anne of Brittany introduction of the silk industry the "good uncle" Good King René duchy of Milan

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Chapter 8

I.

Mark the following true (T) or false (F). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Francis tried to be elected Holy Roman Emperor. A lasting alliance between France and England was formed at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Francis I established trade relations with the Turkish empire. Burgundy was restored to Francis I in the Treaty of Cambrai. The city of Calais was recovered from the English in 1558. Population remained stable in this period. Inflation led to major social changes. French art and culture began to show an Italian influence in the reign of Francis I.

II. a)

Choose the answer that best completes the statement above it. The French language was confirmed as the only official language 1) by the Concordat of 1516 2) in the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529 3) in the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts of 1539 4) by the acquisition of the "Three Bishoprics" in 1550 The major trading and banking centre in France was 1) Harfleur 2) Calais 3) Paris 4) Lyons

b)

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c)

Francis I was responsible for the origin of 1) the Collège du France 2) Gothic cathedrals 3) the Sorbonne 4) the Salic Law In this period, the Treasury 1) had the right to appoint bishops 2) centralized all tax collection 3) was directed by the Constable of France 4) was controlled by the bourgeoisie For France, the final outcome of the wars in Italy was 1) the capture of Rome 2) no gains in Italian territory 3) the annexation of Sicily 4) closer ties with the Papacy

d)

e)

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Chapter 9

I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Identify the importance of the following. John Calvin Jacques Lefèvre d'Etaples La Rochelle Catherine de Médicis Huguenots Peace of St. Germain Mary Stuart massacre of Vassy

II. a) b) c) d) e)

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase. In 1598, gave important religious concessions to the Protestants. In 1593, made a solemn profession of Catholicism. In August 1572, Parisian citizens and soldiers massacred any people suspected of . The attempted assassination of in August led to the massacre of St. Bartholemew's Day. A plot to capture Francis II and the royal family was formed by conspirators.

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Chapter 10

I. a)

Choose the answer that best completes the statement above it. One of Richelieu's chief policies was to 1) destroy the Huguenots 2) support the Austrian throne 3) increase the rights of nobles 4) discourage colonial activity The traditional economic basis of the nobility's power was 1) foreign investments 2) sale of offices to the bourgeoisie 3) income from land 4 ) trading privileges Richelieu was responsible for 1) starting a silk industry in Lyons 2) the tax on office-holding called the paulette 3) building the Long Gallery 4) founding the French Academy A special ordinance allowed noblemen to engage in overseas commerce 1) only with Catholic countries 2) without losing their status as gentlemen 3) without paying taxes 4) if they had purchased hereditary offices from the crown Louis XIII had his mother's councillor put to death. His name was 1) Concini 2) Mazarin 3) Sully 4) de Luynes

b)

c)

d)

e)

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f)

"A chicken in the pot" for each peasant family was a wish of 1) Anne of Austria 2) Louis XIII 3) Cardinal de Richelieu 4) Henry IV 5) Col. Saunders

II. a)

Circle the word or phrase that doesn't belong in the following lists. silk industry, road and bridge building, protection of fields and vineyards, annual tax on inherited offices, persecution of Huguenots. Austria, Sweden, Spain, Milan, the Netherlands. Church of Val de Grace, Briare Canal, Pont Neuf, lodge at Versailles, Company of the Isles. support of peasants' demands, strong navy, colonial expansion, suppression of Protestantism, "special commissions". Sully, Richelieu, Descartes, Concini, de Luynes.

b) c)

d)

e)

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Chapter 11

I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase. One of Jansenism's chief supporters was the writer of the Provinciales, . The Fronde of the Princes was led by . Anne of Austria took the command of the army away from Condé and gave it to . resulted from a meeting of nearly all the European In 1648, the powers. . Louis XIV married The Home for Foundlings was started by . The main centre of Jansenism in Paris was .

II.

Matching a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Jansenism St. Vincent de Paul Bishop Francis de Sales Treaties of Westphalia The Parlementary Fronde Anne of Austria Marie Theresa Ursulines 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) French acquisition of Alsace large dowry to be paid in full Cardinal Pierre de Bérulle Paul de Gondi education of females regent for Louis XIV Congregation of the Daughters of Charity hermits of Port Royal

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Chapter 12

I. a)

Choose the answer that best completes the statement above it. The great gardens of Versailles were created by 1) Mme. de Maintenon 2) Pierre Paul Ricquet 3) André Lenôtre 4) St. Simon Louis XIV wanted to have the central government administered by members of 1) the old nobility 2) the bourgeoisie 3) the Parlement of Paris 4) the Three Estates On October 18, 1685, Louis signed 1) the Treaty of the Pyrenees 2) the Declaration of the Four Articles 3) the Commercial Ordinance 4) the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Gobelins in Paris, one of the "king's manufactories" was most famous for 1) cotton goods 2) tapestries 3) glassworks 4) publishing scientific works A theoretical and religious justification for Louis XIV's belief in his divine right to absolute rule was provided by 1) Jean Baptiste Colbert 2) Bishop Jacques Bossuet 3) St. Simon 4) Cardinal Mazarin

b)

c)

d)

e)

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f)

The only method Colbert didn't use to raise money was 1) denying pensions to the navy 2) prosecuting corrupt officials 3) fostering new industries 4) adding new taxes Louis XIV was known as "Le Roi Soleil" because he chose as the symbol of his reign 1) Joan of Arc 2) the cross 3) the sun 4) a ship 5) the "Golden Arches"

g)

II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Identify the importance of the following. Mme. de Maintenon Jean-Baptiste Lully Vaux-le-Vicomte the Camisards the Declaration of the Four Articles Jansenism Robert de Salle St. Simon

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Chapter 13

I.

Mark the following statements true (T) or false (F). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) The Marquis of Vauban was responsible for revolutionizing the science of attacking and defending fortresses. Louis XIV was succeeded by his son, Louis the Great Dauphin. In the Treaty of the Pyrenees, Louis XIV gave up unconditionally any and all claims to the Spanish throne. The Duke of Marlborough was very successful in leading the English armies in France. Louis XIV had a strong legal basis for the annexation of Strasbourg. Prince William of Orange gave decisive leadership to the Dutch in their struggle with Louis XIV. Charles II of England gave Dunkirk back to the French.

II. a) b) c)

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase. Louis XIV sent troops to assist the Holy Roman Empire when it was attacked by . After 1685, Louis XIV lost support from Protestant kingdoms such as England and Holland because he had signed the . Because James II of England was succeeded by in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the coalition of powers against Louis XIV was strengthened. . Louis XIV was succeeded by his great grandson, Louis XV, in The Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt gave England two territories in New France, and . In 1704, at the Battle of , the English army destroyed the main French army stationed in Germany.

d) e) f)

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Chapter 14

I.

Matching a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Austria Corps of Bridges & Roads Encyclopedia Prussia regent of France General Bank Spain attack on the Jesuits Louis XV's tutor 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Denis Diderot Frederick II John Law Daniel Trudaine Maria Theresa Choiseul Cardinal Fleury Philip V Duke of Orlèans

II. a)

Choose the answer that best completes the statement. About 1) 95% 2) 50% 3) 40% 4) 85% of the population lived directly from agriculture.

b)

The iron industry in this period 1) produced a large new class of industrialists 2) was centralized in a few large cities 3) remained small and backward 4) became a major source of wealth The Farmers General 1) built a wall around Paris to facilitate tax collection 2) supported the innovations of John Law 3) undertook the building of canals to move goods 4) oversaw agriculture throughout France

c)

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d)

Intellectual life flourished in 1) the queen's household 2) the French colonies 3) the court at Versailles 4) the salons of Paris In this period, population grew rapidly because 1) there were no foreign wars 2) the peasants' living conditions became more luxurious 3) agriculture and transportation improved 4) Louis XV gained important new territories in Europe and North America

e)

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Chapter 15

I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Fill in the blanks. France regained and in the treaty with England following the American Revolution. The Roman Catholic Church, while controlling a large percentage of the wealth and property in France, was exempt from . The great nobles, who lived at the royal court most of the time, had incomes in excess of 50,000 livres and discredited their class by their . , , The Estates General or Three Estates consisted of and . The economic crisis at the end of Louis XVI's reign was worsened by the failure off . the grain harvest in 1788 leading to a sharp rise in Since 1786 industry had suffered badly and the army had to be called out to put down a by in the Faubourg St. Antoine in 1789. . Louis XVI married The final collapse off the reform effort seemed inevitable when was dismissed as minister of finance in 1781.

II.

Matching a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Turgot nobility Calonne resignation of Necker Marie Antoinette Marquis de Lafayette Estates General Catholic Church 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Report to the King American Revolution doubling of the Third Estate laissez-faire financing of schools, hospitals, etc. the Austrian woman "assembly of notables" exemption from the taille

Answer Keys

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Chapter 1
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) T (p. 11) F (p. 10) T (p. 13) F (p. 9) F (p. 13) T (p. 10) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 3 (p. 6) 4 (p. 7) 1 (p. 13) 7 (p. 10) 6 (p. 6) 2 (p. 8) 5 (p. 6)

Chapter 2
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) huns (p. 16) bishops (p. 19) major domus (p. 21) Moslem invaders (p. 23) monasteries (p. 24) the Rhine River (p. 16) St. Benedict (p. 24) north, south (p. 25) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) p. 18 p. 18 p. 19 p. 22 p. 21 pp. 18-19 pp. 22-23

Chapter 3
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) a) b) c) d) e) pp. 37-38 p. 36 p. 32 p. 29 p. 28 p. 32 p. 34 p. 38, see also p. 32 chapel – All the others concern feudalism directly. marches – The others relate to the Christian Church. Celts – Charlemagne led military campaigns against the others. For more information about the Celts, see Chapter 1 and all references to Brittany. Charles Martel – The rest all took the title of king. He was the power behind puppet kings. Treaty of Verdun – This happened in 843 A.D. after Charlemagne's death. The others belong directly to his lifetime.

II.

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Chapter 4
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) F (p. 52) T (p. 50) T (p. 44) F (p. 46 – he merely prolonged it) T (p. 54) F (p. 52) T (p. 51) T (p. 43) II. a) b) c) d) e) 3 (p. 43) 5 (pp. 45-46) 1 (p. 54) 4 (pp. 46-47) 5 (p. 52)

Chapter 5
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) horse collar, iron horse shoes (p. 57) II. hanse of merchant boatmen (p. 59) horse (p. 61) the Papacy (p. 63) Crusades (p. 59) grew rapidly (p. 58) alms (p. 65) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 4 (p 65) 1 (p. 64) 5 (p. 67) 2 (p. 66) 3 (p. 68) 7 (p. 63) 6 (p. 59) 9 (p. 64) 8 (p. 57)

Chapter 6
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) the Burgundians (p. 82) Jacques Coeur (p. 82) Edward III of England (p. 74) Calais (p. 83) Salic Law (p. 72) dauphin (p. 74) Bertrand Du Guesclin (p. 77) King Henry V of England (p. 79) the Duke of Burgandy (p. 83)

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Chapter 7
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 5 (p. 93) 3 (p. 86) 1 (p. 89) 6 (p. 91) 2 (p. 94) 4 (p. 88) 7 (p. 88) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) p. 96 p. 95 p. 91 p. 87 p. 87 p. 89 p. 94, p. 96

Chapter 8
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) T (pp. 100-101) F (p. 102) T (p. 102) T (p. 104) T (p. 105) F (p. 106) T (p. 107) T (p. 110) II. a) b) c) d) e) 3 (p. 108) 4 (p. 107) 1 (p. 110) 2 (p. 109) 2 (p. 106)

Chapter 9
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) see p. 114 see p. 113 see p. 121 see p. 116 see p. 114 see p. 120 see p. 116 see p. 117 II. a) b) c) d) e) Edict of Nantes (p. 125) Henry IV or Henry of Navarre (p. 124) Protestantism (p. 121) Admiral de Coligny (p. 121) Calvinist (p. 116)

Chapter 10
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) 1 (p. 132) 3 (p. 134) 4 (p. 136) 2 (p. 135) 1 (p. 131) 4 (p. 129)

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II.

a) b) c) d) e)

persecution of Huguenots. The rest were encouraged by Henry IV and his chief minister Sully. Sweden (p. 137). The rest were ruled by Hapsburg monarchs. Company of the Isles (p. 135). The rest are building projects. support of the peasants' demands. The rest are policies of Cardinal Richelieu's. He sternly repressed protest from the peasants (p. 135). Descartes (p. 136). The others were ministers of state.

Chapter 11
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Blaise Pascal (p. 149) the Prince de Condè (p. 142) Henri de Turenne (p. 143) Treaties of Westphalia (p. 144) Marie Theresa, infanta of Spain (p. 145) St. Vincent de Paul (p. 148) the monastery of Port Royal (p. 148) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 8 (pp. 148-49) 7 (p. 148) 3 (p. 146) 1 (pp. 144-45) 4 (p. 142) 6 (p. 139) 2 (pp. 146-47) 5 (p. 147)

Chapter 12
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 3 (p. 154) 2 (p. 155) 4 (p. 162) 2 (p. 157) 2 (p. 152) 1 (p. 159) 3 (p. 152) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) p. 153 p. 155 p. 156 p. 162 pp. 160-61 p. 161 p. 159 p. 152

Chapter 13
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) T (p. 168) F (p. 176) F (p. 169) T (p. 175) F (p. 171) T (p. 170) T (p. 169) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) the Turks (p. 168) Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (p. 171) William of Orange (p. 172) 1715 (p. 177) Acadia, Newfoundland (pp. 17576) Blenheim (p. 175)

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Chapter 14
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 5 (p.186) 4 (p. 191) 1 (p. 193) 2 (p. 186) 9 (p. 179) 3 (p. 180) 8 (p. 181) 6 (p. 184) 7 (p. 182) II. a) b) c) d) e) 4 (p. 190) 3 (p. 190) 1 (p. 192) 4 (p. 192) 3 (p. 190)

Chapter 15
I. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) St. Pierre and Miquelon (p. 201) taxation (p. 202) ostentatious lifestyle, extravagance etc. (p. 202) nobility, clergy and commoners (p. 205) the price of bread (and therefore unrest) (p. 206) riot, workers (p. 207) Marie Antoinette (p. 198) Jacques Necker (p. 199) II. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 4 (p. 198) 8 (p. 202) 7 (p. 205) 1 (p. 199) 6 (p. 200) 2 (p. 200) 3 (p. 206) 5 (p. 202)

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