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Fundamental of Zoology: Animal Cell

James Gil Z. Castasus

Group 1 Section Y 1L

A laboratory report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement in ZOO 11
Fundamentals of Zoology under Prof. Maria Claret Lauan-Tsuchiya2nd Semester 2015-2016

The animal cell is composed of multiple parts and each one performs a different and vital
This scientific paper targets to explain the observation made by the researchers and explain the
mechanism that regulates the flow of materials in and out of the cell through the cell membrane
and differentiate diffusion from osmosis.
Cell is the basic unit of life. There are many different types of cells and its functions varies in its
form, it can be classified according to its shape and arrangements and further categorize in to two
types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells like bacteria and cyanobacteria have no
organized nucleus because they lack nuclear membrane and usually do not have membrane
bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells like plant cell and animal cells are more complex and exhibit
a well- defined nucleus surrounded by a numerous membrane bound organelles. In higher form
of multicellular animals, eukaryotic cells may be further categorized into two types: germ cells
or reproductive cells are cells with haploid set of chromosomes and somatic cell or general body
are cells with diploid set of chromosomes.
Cells may contain several other types of organelles, which includes cell wall, cell membrane,
nucleus nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi
apparatus, ribosomes, and lysosomes, vacuole and some might even have a chloroplasts Each of
these organelles performs a specific function critical to the cell's survival. Most cells size range

between 1 and 100 micrometers and can only be seen through the help a microscope. (Cell
structure, n.d)

Materials and Method

In gathering multiple data needed, numerous materials was used per experiment.
Part 1. Structure of the Animal cells.
Section 1. Human cheek cells. In preparing human cheek cells a toothpick is gently scraped
inside the cheek, and the sample is smeared on a clean glass slide then set for a few seconds, a
small drop of water is dropped onto the smeared sample and stained with a drop of methylene
blue then covered with the coverslip. The prepared sample was first observed and identified
using the low power objective then shifted to high power object for grater magnification.
Section 2. Structure of the Plasma Membrane. In the study of plasma membrane multiple
experiment and observation was made.
Section 2.1 Oil and Water. In an equal amount of oil and water was shook vigorously in a test
tube and set aside for a few minutes. A few drops of the sample was then placed on a clean slide
and observed under the microscope.
Section 2.2 Milk Skin. A small amount of milk is poured into a small beaker and heated to
boiling point. After reaching the boiling point the milk is set aside to cool and observed for any
changes or formation. The process is repeated and observed three times.
Section 2.3 Oil and Egg Albumin. In a petri dish, a portion of oil is poured until the whole
lower dish is covered, a drop of egg albumin is then dropped into the petri dish. A formation of a
thin membrane was observed and pricked with a sharp object and observed once more

Part 2. Diffusion and Osmosis. Section 1 Diffusion. To see the process of diffusion a petri dish
was filled with water, a small portion of ink was then dropped and the movement of the ink was
Section 2 Osmosis. In the observation of osmosis a small portion of a shell, just enough to fit the
end of glass tubing is removed from an egg by chipping a circular opening on the rounded end of
the egg to expose the membrane lining. At the bottom part of the egg another larger portion of
the shell is removed, making sure not to pierce the membrane lining. The lower part of the egg
where the bigger portion where the egg shell is removed is mounted on a clay triangle inside a
1000 ml beaker and the glass tubing was inserted just about an inch inside the egg and a melted
wax was poured to prevent escape of the egg content. A 600 ml of water is then poured to the
beaker semi submerging the egg. After 8 hours, the changes in the rise of egg white was observed
and counted with the help of a ruler.
Section 3 Hemolysis and Crenation of human re blood cells. To be able to observe the process
of hemolysis and crenation of human red blood cell two drops of distilled water, 0.9% sodium
chloride and 10% of sodium chloride was placed onto individual slides and each slide was added
with one drop of human blood. Each slide is then observed under the microscope.

Methods and Discussion

This chapter deals with the method of research used, research design, data gathering, output
making procedure and treatment used. In this laboratory research, the researchers used
experimental method of research that draw on to finding put what will be when data is
gathered through experimentation and observation.
Part 1. Structure of the Animal Cell
Section 1. Human Cheek Cell. By staining the cheek cells with a methylene blue dye the
researches where able to locate the different parts of the cell with precision and with the aid of
the compound microscope the researches are able to see and label the different parts of the
human cheek cell. The researchers first used the low power objectives to be able to locate and
focus the specimen with ease then shifted to high power objectives to further enlarge and focus
the specimen.

Fig. 1 Human Cheek Cell

Section 2. Structure of the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is the boundary between
the cell and its environment. It regulates what enters and exits the cell.

Section 2.1 Oil and Water.

When the researchers shook oil and water vigorously and observed under the microscope the oil
and water did not mix as expected. Water and oil do not mix can be explained by the simple rule
of like dissolve like this explains the way a solvent will react to a solute. Polar solutes will
dissolve in polar solvents, and only non-polar solutes will dissolve in non-polar solvents. (Instant
Answer, n.d.). This could be compared to the way the plasma membrane only allow certain
substances into the cell.

Fig. 2 Oil and Water

Section 2.2 Milk Skin. After the milk is heated to its boiling point and cooled down a skin like
membrane formed on the surface of the milk The skin is comprised of solid proteins that
combine with the milks fat molecules, which begin to evaporate as the milk is heated. These
proteins, casein and beta, clump together when the liquid reaches to boiling point (Milk Fact,

n.d.) every time the experiment is repeated the membrane that formed on the surface of the milk
seems to be growing thicker and darker.

Fig 3. Milk Skin

Section 2.3 Oil and egg albumin. Once the egg albumin is drop into the petri dish with oil a
membrane between the egg albumin and oil started to form. The researchers tried picking and
pricking the membrane with a pointed object but every time the membrane is rupture it quickly
repair itself.
Part 2. Diffusion and Osmosis. A basic knowledge of structure and permeability was need in
order to properly perform and observe the experiment. Diffusion the movement of molecules
from a higher concentration to a lower concentration and Osmosis the movement of water
through a membrane from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
Section 1 Diffusion. A petri dish with water is dropped with ink and the researchers observed
that the ink dispersed throughout the water. The inked dispersed because the high concentration
of ink on the site where it is dropped slowly moved to the sites where there is a lower
Section 2. Osmosis.

Once the membrane lining of the egg was exposed and submerged under distilled water the water
slowly diffuses into the cell because of greater osmotic pressure outside the membrane. After 8
hours the researchers once again observed the change in the height of the displaced egg albumin
with the help of the ruler.

Fig. 4. Osmosis
Section 3. Hemolysis and crenation of human red blood cells. The human plasma has a solute
concentration of 0.9% sodium chloride. If a blood is placed in a hypertonic solution water enters
the cell and causes it to burst and if blood is placed in a hypertonic solution water leaves the cell
and causes it to shrink. In the experiment where the blood cell is put in a distilled water, water
(hypotonic) enters the cells causing it to burst, In the experiment with 10% sodium chloride the
water in the blood cell moved out of the cell causing the cell to shrink, and In the experiment
0.9% sodium chloride the water move in and out the cell with ease.

Summary and Conclusion

In this laboratory experiment report, the study is focused on the mechanism by which the cell
membrane regulates the flow of material in and out of the cell, the difference between diffusion
and osmosis and the identification of the different parts of the cell. The researchers were able to
identify the different parts of the cell mainly the parts of the cheek cells that are visible in the
compound microscope, namely plasma membrane and nucleus. The researchers were also able to
observe and identify the mechanism that allow the flow of material in and out of cell, namely the
cellular membrane, and researchers were able to differentiate the difference between diffusion
and osmosis


CK-12. (n.d.). Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell. Retrieved from.
CellStructure.(n.d.) retrieved from.
Instant answer. Retrieved from:
What is diffusion? Retrieved from:
MilkFacts. Retrieved from: