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August 2007


Welding Chrome-Moly Steels

Tooling and Equipment for Job Shops




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August 2007 Volume 86 Number 8

Company Takes Its Shop to the Utah Wilderness

Job shop specializes in field welding operations
Howard M. Woodward

AWS Web site

Washington Watchword ..........4
Press Time News ..................6

P91 and Beyond

Properties of creep strength-enhanced ferritic steels and advanced
chromium-molybdenum steels used for high-temperature service
were examined
K. K. Coleman and W. F. Newell Jr.


Modular Fixturing Helps Fab Shop Maintain Tight Tolerances

Fixturing equipment helps a Massachusetts fab shop produce largesized, yet precisely manufactured, components


Tips for GTA Welding 4130 Chrome-Moly Steel Tubing

These suggestions will help you perform better gas tungsten arc
welds on this strong, yet malleable, steel
J. Fulcer and J. Fogle

Editorial ............................8
News of the Industry ............10
Brazing Q&A ......................14
Aluminum Q & A ................16
New Products ....................18
Welding Workbook ..............44
Coming Events....................46
Society News ....................51
Tech Topics ......................52
Guide to AWS Services..........69

Welding Research Supplement



Computational Kinetics Simulation of the Dissolution and

Coarsening in the HAZ during Laser Welding of 6061-T6
Results showed it is possible to simulate the microstructure
evolution and hardness in the HAZ of heat-treatable aluminum
laser beam welds
A. D. Zervaki et al.


The Influence of Oxygen on the Nitrogen Content of

Autogenous Stainless Steel Arc Welds
The presence of oxygen in the shielding gas was shown to
increase the weld metal nitrogen content, stabilize the arc,
suppress degassing, and curb porosity
M. du Toit et al.


Double-Electrode GMAW Process and Control

A novel welding process adds a GTAW torch to a conventional
GMAW system to create a bypass arc for increased melting
current and a controlled base current
K. H. Li et al.


A Look at the Optimization of Robot Welding Speed Based

on Process Modeling
An algorithm was designed to maintain complete joint
penetration while maximizing productivity by using the fastest
weld speed
M. Ericsson et al.


Repair Techniques for Fusion Reactor Applications

Measurements were made of the effects of helium on the
weldability of Types 304 and 316LN stainless steels
M. H. Tosten et al.

New Literature....................74
Personnel ........................78
Classifieds ........................81
Advertiser Index..................84

Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published

monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50 per
single issue for AWS members and $10.00 per single issue for nonmembers. American Welding Society is located at 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL
33126-5671; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes
to Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami,
FL 33126-5671.
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of articles for personal, archival, educational or research
purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided
customary acknowledgment of authors and
sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded from


Washington August 2007 corr:Layout 1



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First Hexavalent Chromium Exposure

Citations Issued

ages and increases the amount of R&D investment undertaken

by private business, which is vital to the U.S. economy.

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

(OSHA) has reported that so far in 2007 it has issued more than
60 citations for violations of the new hexavalent chromium standard for general industry and construction. While OSHA is not
presently specifically focusing on policing violations of the hexavalent chromium standard, violations are being found in the
course of normal OSHA inspections. The monitoring requirements of the standard apparently are the most common violations to date.
The hexavalent chromium standard became effective November 2006 for large employers and May 30, 2007, for smaller employers (defined as those with less than 20 employees).
In a related development, OSHA has settled outstanding litigation regarding the standard, and as part of that settlement has
issued a letter of interpretation that addresses specific questions
regarding the standard. This letter is available at

Competitiveness Legislation Set to

Become Law

H-1B Reform a Victim of Failed

Immigration Bill
Among the collateral damage caused by the failure of the comprehensive immigration reform legislation, which died in the U.S.
Senate in June, is an initiative to reform the H-1B visa program
for highly skilled workers. Under the immigration bill, the annual H-1B cap of 85,000 visas would have been increased to as
many as 185,000.
But reform efforts are continuing. Already several stand-alone
bills have been introduced to address the H-1B visa issue, most
of which actually are more expansive than the provisions that
were contained in the immigration legislation, as those had been
modified as part of compromise efforts undertaken to secure sufficient support.

Report Confirms Urgency of R&D Tax Credit

The research and development tax credit has never been a
permanent provision of the federal tax code. It has been extended
twelve times since its initial enactment in 1981 and is currently
scheduled to expire at the end of 2007. The business community
continues to urge Congress to take timely action, and a new report by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) confirms the
importance of this tax credit to the U.S. economy.
According to the CRS report Research Tax Credit: Current
Status and Selective Issues for Congress, issued earlier this year,
research and development, which is the lifeblood of innovation
and therefore a major driving force behind long-term economic
growth, is undertaken to a large degree by privately owned firms.
However, because these firms generally cannot recapture all the
returns to their R&D investments, they are inclined to spend less
on R&D than its economic benefits would warrant. The tax credit,
therefore, is vital to negate this natural inclination and therefore
increase R&D investment. In other words, according to this CRS
report, the tax credit is not simply a tax break for businesses for
something they would otherwise engage in; it actually encour-


Congress is close to passing the America Competes Act (S.

761), which is designed to support U.S. competitiveness, and in
particular is a response to reports by the National Academy of
Science and the Council on Competitiveness concluding that urgent legislative action is necessary in this area.
This legislation will, among other things, significantly increase
funding for the National Science Foundation, the Department
of Energys Office of Science, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. It will also strengthen educational opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and math through
such measures as building training and education programs for
math and science teachers and establishing more statewide specialty schools in math and science.

Patent Reform Legislation Sparks

While there is broad agreement that the U.S. patent system
is flawed the current application backlog is almost 800,000,
the average time for approval is approaching three years, and
patent litigation is rampant battle lines are being drawn over
exactly how to fix these problems. At the center of the controversy is the Patent Reform Act of 2007, which is slowly but steadily
moving through Congress. This legislation would
Give patent priority to whoever first files a patent application, as opposed to the first inventor. This is intended to provide clarity and avoid litigation;
Expand the ability to challenge a patent through the Patent
and Trademark Office after the patent has been granted, rather
than having to file suit in a federal court;
Limit damage recoveries in patent infringement cases to the
economic value of the invention itself, not the full value of
overall product in which the invention is used; and
Increase the burden of proof for allegations of willful infringement.
The primary supporters of the Patent Reform Act are large
corporations, many in the computer and IT sector. Many small
business interests and independent inventors, however, have lined
up in opposition, claiming that these reforms, while beneficial in
some respects, favor these large corporations over their small
business competitors. For example, replacing the first to invent
rule with a first to file rule will, according to opponents, be to
the advantage of companies with large staffs of engineers and attorneys. Similarly, expanding the ability to administratively challenge a patent may result in many more challenges and therefore
raise the cost of defending patents, to the disadvantage of smaller
firms. Supporters counter that reform of the U.S. patent system
is long overdue and will assist all inventors, particularly in competing in foreign markets.
Contact the AWS Washington Government Affairs Office at
1747 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006; e-mail; FAX (202) 835-0243.



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North American Robot Orders Jump 24% in First Quarter
of 2007
North American robotics companies posted gains of 24% in new orders in the first
quarter, according to statistics recently released by Robotic Industries Association (RIA),
Ann Arbor, Mich.
A total of 4603 robots valued at $274.5 million were sold to North American manufacturing firms through March. When sales to companies outside North America are included, the totals are 5027 robots valued at $293.9 million, a gain of 26% in units and
3% in revenue.
Donald A. Vincent, RIAs executive vice president, explained that one of the drivers
in the first-quarter growth was a pickup in orders placed by automotive manufacturing
companies and their suppliers.
In addition, from an applications standpoint, the first quarter saw growth in orders
for robots that perform spot welding, arc welding, coating/dispensing, and material handling applications.

Auburn Engineering Adds Linear Vibration

Welding Capabilities
Auburn Engineering, Inc., Rochester Hills, Mich., has added linear vibration welding capabilities to its prototype development services. Linear vibration welding is a frictional application between two or more plastic parts that is capable of creating strong,
airtight welds in thermoplastic parts.
The company is capable of using its existing CNC tooling resources to build custom
vibration fixtures in-house. This capability to create parts, and vibration welding without third-party outsourcing yields faster lead times and reduced fixture costs.
Auburns linear vibration welding unit has a 15-hp digital vibrator, for precise control of amplitude, from 0.040 to 0.070 in. in increments of 0.001 in. This drive also supports an 80-lb top tool weight capacity and a part size of 48 20 in.

Barnes Group to Open New Manufacturing Facility

Barnes Aerospace, a business segment of Barnes Group Inc., Bristol, Conn., recently
announced the expansion of its large fabrication operations in Ogden, Utah. It plans to
open a new 120,000-sq-ft manufacturing facility to produce precision aerospace components for use in a wide range of aircraft engine and airframe applications.
The facility will accommodate growth in the business, future opportunities, and longterm contracts with customers. Construction is scheduled for completion in the first
quarter of next year.

Airgas Acquires Lehner & Martin

Airgas, Inc., Radnor, Pa., has acquired Lehner & Martin, Inc. (L&M), a Santa Ana,
Calif.-based industrial gas and welding supply distributor with branches in Placentia,
Gardena, and Chino, Calif. The acquired company generated sales of more than $13
million in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2007.
The operations have been integrated into Airgas West. L&M, founded by Ken Lehner
in 1975, is currently managed by his son, Mark Lehner, who will join Airgas West as an
area vice president.

Thermadyne Holdings Corp. Sells Maxweld & Braze

and Unique Welding Alloys to Destiny Corp.
Thermadyne Holdings Corp. has sold its Maxweld & Braze Pty, Ltd., and Unique
Welding Alloys businesses to Destiny Corp. The two South Africa-based businesses supply welding equipment and consumables, safety items and related products to distributors, resellers, and large industrial and construction companies in South Africa and the
entire African continent.
Goldsmith Agio Helms in cooperation with its South African partner-bank, Rand
Merchant Bank, acted as financial advisor to the company on the sale of the businesses.

Publisher Andrew Cullison

Editor/Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Senior Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Assistant Editor Kristin Campbell
Peer Review Coordinator Erin Adams
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Graphics and Production
Managing Editor Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Garrigan Badwy
Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
American Welding Society
550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
T. A. Barry, Vice Chair
Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
R. L. Arn, WELDtech International
S. Bartholomew, ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. Deckrow, Hypertherm
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
J. Horvath, Thermadyne Industries
D. Levin, Airgas
J. Mueller, Thermadyne Industries
R. G. Pali, J. P. Nissen Co.
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Wilson Industries
H. Castner, Ex Off., Edison Welding Institute
D. C. Klingman, Ex Off., The Lincoln Electric Co.
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
E. C. Lipphardt, Ex Off., Consultant
S. Liu, Ex Off., Colorado School of Mines
V. Y. Matthews, Ex Off., The Lincoln Electric Co.
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
G. D. Uttrachi, Ex Off., WA Technology, LLC

Copyright 2007 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.





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Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding

Fill Your Shopping Basket in

the U.S. Aisle
My husband, Terry, says we dont make anything any more. By we, he means the
United States, and what hes implying is that the United States no longer manufactures
much of anything. Terry knows, of course, that his statement isnt really correct. During
the 18 years Ive worked on the Welding Journal staff, Ive visited many types of manufacturers, and Ive regaled him with stories on how they use welding to make jewelry,
farm equipment, rail cars, wheels, aerospace components, and pressure vessels, just to
name a few. Despite that, his impression is that were no longer a manufacturing power,
and hes not alone in his thinking.
I believe I know where that idea originates. Hes thinking about so many of our everyday consumer items, especially electronics such as televisions, computers, and cell
phones, which for the most part are not manufactured in the United States. Hes looking at the labels on his clothing, which indicate theyve mostly been sewn by someone in
a Third World country. And, of course, hes heard and read all the gloom and doom
reports on television and in the newspapers about problems in the U.S. auto industry, as
well as the stories saying weve changed from a manufacturing economy to a service
Now Im not going to claim that manufacturing hasnt changed in the United States.
Of course, it has. But the truth is, were still an industrial powerhouse. Even though the
U.S. auto industry may not be what it once was, the Big Three is still making and selling a tremendous number of vehicles. The economy is strong; therefore, many U.S.
manufacturers are doing well. And its a great time to be a welder in the United States
because plenty of jobs are available.
Yet somehow industry does a poor job of promoting itself, and that needs to change.
Even when manufacturers try, they often fall short. Do you remember those commercials
that ran on television a couple of years ago, the ones that went something like this: We
dont make the surfboard, we make it ride better on the water, and we dont make the
paint, we make it go on the wall more smoothly. I used to watch those and then ask
myself, So what do they make? And the second question I asked myself was, If they
dont sell to consumers, why are they bothering to advertise on television? The ads
never mentioned what the company actually produced. In fact, I didnt find out until I
sat down to write this editorial and looked the company up on the Internet. It turns out
its a chemical company. Now maybe Im more ill informed than some people, or maybe
even a little dense about some things, but I figure if I didnt know what that company
made, then there probably were other folks out there who didnt know either. Therefore,
the ads had missed their point and that money was wasted.
So whats to be done? I wish I had all the answers. I dont, but I can think of a few.
First of all, prominently display where your products are produced on your packaging
and promotional materials. Participate as individuals and as manufacturers in professional and business organizations such as the American Welding Society, ASNT,
Fabricators and Manufacturers Association, and National Association of Manufacturers.
They are your industry advocates, and common sense tells me that by banding together
you can make a greater impact than you can by working alone. Spend some money on
public relations. Believe it or not, the various branches of the media are interested in success stories. Give
them some to report.

President Gerald D. Uttrachi
WA Technology, LLC
Vice President Gene E. Lawson
ESAB Welding & Cutting Products
Vice President Victor Y. Matthews
The Lincoln Electric Co.
Vice President John C. Bruskotter
Bruskotter Consulting Services
Treasurer Earl C. Lipphardt
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society

B. P. Albrecht (At Large), Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
O. Al-Erhayem (At Large), JOM
A. J. Badeaux Sr. (Dist. 3), Charles Cty. Career & Tech. Center
H. R. Castner (At Large), Edison Welding Institute
N. A. Chapman (Dist. 6), Entergy Nuclear Northeast
N. C. Cole (At Large), NCC Engineering
J. D. Compton (Dist. 21), College of the Canyons
L. P. Connor (Dist. 5), Consultant
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Gonzalez Industrial X-Ray
D. Flood (Dist. 22), Tri Tool, Inc.
J. E. Greer (Past President), Moraine Valley C. C.
M. V. Harris (Dist. 15), Reynolds Welding Supply
R. A. Harris (Dist. 10), Consultant
W. E. Honey (Dist. 8), Anchor Research Corp.
D. C. Howard (Dist. 7), Concurrent Technologies Corp.
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech LLC
D. J. Kotecki (Past President), The Lincoln Electric Co.
D. Landon (Dist. 16), Vermeer Mfg. Co.
R. C. Lanier (Dist. 4), Pitt C.C.
J. L. Mendoza (Dist. 18), CPS Energy
S. P. Moran (Dist. 12), Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
R. L. Norris (Dist. 1), Merriam Graves Corp.
T. C. Parker (Dist. 14), Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
W. R. Polanin (Dist. 13), Illinois Central College
O. P. Reich (Dist. 17), Texas State Technical College at Waco
W. A. Rice (At Large), OKI Bering, Inc.
E. Siradakis (Dist. 11), Airgas Great Lakes
N. S. Shannon (Dist. 19), Carlson Testing of Portland
K. R. Stockton (Dist. 2), PSE&G, Maplewood Testing Serv.
D. R. Wilson (At Large), Wilson Industries

Mary Ruth Johnsen

Senior Editor, Welding Journal




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Students Compete in Five Categories at State Secondary Welding Competition

At the 2007 State Secondary Welding Competition, hosted by Ferris State Universitys Welding Engineering Technology Department,
students competed for more than $30,000 in scholarships, prizes,
and awards. Shown above, from left, are gas tungsten arc welding
winners Chad Mier (first place), Preston Graham (second place),
Rick Hovey (third place), and Devon DeFranceso (honorable

Team Ares Reaches Key Milestones

As part of their Ares I Upper Stage production proposal, Alliant Techsystems, Lockheed Martin, and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., the three core companies that make up Team Ares,
have been utilizing internal company funds that will help NASA
mitigate the development risk for its future fleet of exploration
launch vehicles.
In particular, Lockheed Martin is leveraging its experience in
designing and manufacturing high-performance, lightweight
aerostructures to fabricate a demonstration article of the common bulkhead dome that separates the fuel and oxidizer compartments of the propellant tank. The demonstration utilizes
processes such as friction stir welding of thin gauge alloys, phasedarray ultrasonic inspection of weldments, and shearography inspection of honeycomb bonds to face-sheets. The companys Michoud Operations is leading this activity in New Orleans.

Welding Scholarship to Aid Monroe Career

& Technical Institute Students
When welding instructor Gregory J. Smith from the Monroe
Career & Technical Institute (MCTI) in Bartonsville, Pa., visited
the Pennsylvania College of Technology in March 2006 for a meeting of the Pennsylvania Welding Educators Association, he was
impressed by a tour of the colleges welding labs. So much, in
fact, that he decided to do something substantial to encourage



On May 4, the Welding Engineering Technology Department

at Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Mich., hosted the 2007
State Secondary Welding Competition. Students competed in
five welding categories for more than $30,000 in scholarships,
prizes, and awards. This fifth annual event drew 103 competitors from 26 educational institutions.
The combined welding winners were as follows: Chris Szeszulski, first place; Steven Fitzgerald, second place; Mike Concessi,
third place; and Joe Klocke, honorable mention.
In the gas metal arc welding category, Kalvin Myers took first
place; Jason Townsend took second place; Matt Krokstrom took
third place; and Jeremy Knickerbocker took honorable mention.
With gas tungsten arc welding, the winners were Chad Mier,
first place; Preston Graham, second place; Rick Hovey, third
place; and Devon DeFranceso, honorable mention.
For oxyfuel welding, John Estepp earned first place; Zeke
Chambers second place; Ryan Inman third place; and Aaron
Sova honorable mention.
With shielded metal arc welding, Daniel Hammer won first
place; Dalton Dougherty won second place; Jeremy Lowell won
third place; and Phil King won honorable mention.
The winners came from the following schools: Bay Arenac Skill
Center, Mecosta-Osceola CC, Flat Rock High School, Lapeer
County TC, Alma High School, Dickinson-Irons TC, Calhoun Area
TC, Newaygo County TC, Oakland TC SW, William D. Ford TC,
Traverse Bay CTC, and Cheboygan High School.
The 6th Annual State Secondary Welding Competition is
scheduled for May 9, 2008.

his students to attend the college after graduating from their high
school program.
The Monroe Career & Technical Institute Welding Scholarship will provide an annual award of $500 to a graduate of the
schools welding program who enrolls as a full-time student in
Penn Colleges welding and fabrication engineering technology
bachelor degree major, the welding technology associate degree
major, or the welding certificate major.
Additionally, Smith said the scholarship honors the memory
of one of his students, Jason E. Ammon Honey, who died in a
collision with a drunken driver in January 2006. Ammon Honey
was a junior at MCTI and Pleasant Valley High School, and he
worked part time at his fathers welding business in Kunkletown
at the time of his death.

California Steel Industries to Produce More

Carbon Steel Flat Rolled Sheet, Pipe
California Steel Industries, Inc., Fontana, Calif., plans to increase total annual production capacity by a million tons, through
addition of a second reheat furnace with environmental
In addition to the clean-burning, natural gas-fired walking
beam reheat furnace, the investment includes associated additional improvements in cooling water treatment and in slab handling facilities, for a total capital investment of approximately
$60 million.

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The company now ships an average of approximately 2 million tons per year of carbon steel flat rolled sheet and pipe. With
the proposed changes, it will have the capability and flexibility to
produce up to 3 million tons per year.

MG Systems & Welding Breaks

Ground on New Addition

On April 30, MG Systems & Welding, Inc., Menomonee Falls, Wis.,

broke ground on a two-story addition to expand the area for its
Service and Accounting Departments. In the picture (from left) are
company employees John Laskowski, Ron Schneider, Gary Norville,
Gary Wierzbinski, Carl Lock, and Bill Hendren. The addition encompasses 4334 sq ft of space. The main goal is to allow space for
the growing service area. Also, the larger space allows for the
planned growth in the Service Department and locates it near the
Engineering and Applications Departments for better coordination
of customer services. Construction is expected to last until late August. The Service and Accounting Departments are expected to
move into the addition in mid to late September.

KUKA Selected to Supply Robotics for

Negri BossiAutomation Division

KUKA Robotics Corp., Clinton Township, Mich., has recently been

selected by Negri Bossi Inc., Mississauga, Ont., Canada, to provide
floor- and shelf-mounted robots for its injection molding systems.
The robots will be utilized in the companys systems being manufactured by Negri Bossis new automation division that offers customers single-source automation solutions from design concept and
quotation to installation, training, and hands-on troubleshooting.

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Babcock Power Opens Cladding

Service Center
Babcock Power Services Inc. (BPS), Worcester, Mass., a subsidiary of Babcock Power Inc., Danvers, Mass., has opened a new
service center in Duncan, S.C. Cladding Technology, a division
of BPS, will occupy the facility, allowing it to meet the power generation markets growing demand for its patented weld cladding
A specialized welding group, Cladding Technology deals with
the weld cladding process commonly referred to as hardfacing.
This process consists of the application of hard metals to surfaces that are subject to high wear. Cladding Technology developed a patented resurfacing process that utilizes a tungsten carbide matrix applied to the high wear areas as well.

Industry Notes

Wis., is offering refining services to its customers. Recovery

services are being provided through Handy & Harman of
Canada, Ltd., at its facility in Toronto, Ont. Materials accepted
include silver-based metallic scrap such as brazing alloys, mirror plating sludge, fuse link scrap, and other copper/silver materials. The scrap-to-cash recovery program offers businesses
an environmentally responsible and cost saving alternative; for
example, a large industrial manufacturer that used to pay to
have braze scrap removed as a hazardous material can now receive payment for the recovered precious metal. For more information, visit

KNUTH Machine Tools USA has moved to a new location.

The facility is located in Lincolnshire, Ill., and has allowed for
the consolidation of three buildings into a single 60,000-sq-ft
facility. The larger premises house more than $8 million of machine tools inventory and allow room for future expansion.

As of May 2007, the American Torch Tip Co., Bradenton, Fla.,

ThyssenKrupp, Troy, Mich., has selected Alabama as the home

for its new steel and stainless steel processing facility. A cooperative effort between ThyssenKrupp Steel and ThyssenKrupp
Stainless, the facility will be located in Northern Mobile and
Southern Washington counties. Initially planned as a $2.9 billion investment, the company will now invest $3.7 billion in
this facility. The plant complex is scheduled to begin operations in 2010. Approximately 29,000 jobs will be generated during the construction phase. When it is fully operational, the
plant will employ 2700 people.

Lucas-Milhaupt, Inc., a Handy & Harman Co., Milwaukee,

has purchased Precision Products Co., Canaan, N.H. The acquired company specializes in manufacturing plasma torches
and consumables used primarily in the metal fabricating industry. The acquisition will give American Torch Tip Co. an expanded product line and increased manufacturing capability.

At its annual Small Business Excellence Awards Luncheon on

May 23, the Cincinnati USA Regional Chamber honored
Wright Brothers, Inc., a national provider of specialty gases to
the bioscience, research, leisure, and manufacturing industries,
as the regions best small enterprises. In front of a 700-person
crowd representing the Cincinnati community, CEO Charlie

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Wright was presented with the honor for his companys business achievements, management, innovations in product, service, technology, and community service.

MISTRAS Group Inc., Princeton Junction, N.J., recently announced CONAM Inspection & Engineering Services has received accreditation by the Nadcap (National Aerospace &
Defense Contractors Accreditation Program) Nondestructive
Testing Task Group after the completion of an audit at its
Heath, Ohio, facility. The requirements of the Nadcap audit
process entitles CONAM to be listed in the Nadcap Qualified
Manufacturers List and is valid until January 31, 2009.

neered metal buildings. During a banquet held in honor of the

occasion on May 15, officials from VP Buildings presented the
award to Norm Elliott, a senior partner with the Permasteel
Group of companies. In addition, Permasteels construction
of the Word of Life Tabernacle in Sherwood Park, A.B., was
the first-place winner in the church category while the new TIC
Canada Ltd. facility in Edmonton, A.B., won top honors in the
manufacturing category. The largest project award for 2006
went to Permasteel, Vancouver, for the new Athabasca Oriented Strand Board plant currently under construction for
Tolko Industries Ltd. in Slave Lake, Alb.

Northwest Pipe Co., Portland, Ore., has been named as pipe

AK Steel, Middletown, Ohio, recently announced the Columbus, Ind., plant of its wholly owned subsidiary AK Tube LLC
had received the Safety Award of Merit from the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International for its 2006
safety performance. According to the company, the Columbus
plants illness and injury incidence rate of 1.48 last year was
more than five times better than the pipe and tube industry average rate of 8.3, as published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor

supplier by John D. Stephens of Lawrenceville, Ga., for a water

transmission pipeline for Gwinnett County Department of Public Utilities. Approximately 25,000 feet of steel pipe valued at
approximately $7.5 million will be supplied by the company
for an engineered and custom fabricated piping system. The
pipe is expected to be manufactured in the companys Parkersburg, W.Va., division with delivery scheduled to begin in the
third quarter of this year.

3M, St. Paul, Minn., has acquired Diamond Productions Inc.

Dynamic Materials Corp. (DMC), Boulder, Colo., a provider
of explosion-welded clad metal plates, has ranked eighth on
Business Weeks Annual List of 100 Hot Growth Companies.
DMC advanced from a 51st-place ranking on last years list.

The Permasteel Group, a building construction firm headquartered in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, has been named Builder of
the Year by VP Buildings, a large manufacturer of preengi-

(DPI), Wayne, N.J., a manufacturer of superabrasive diamond

and cubic boron nitride wheels and tools for dimensioning and
finishing hard-to-grind materials in metalworking, woodworking, and stone fabrication markets. Terms of the transaction
were not disclosed. DPI brings industrial metalworking
strengths as well as new applications for stone processing to
the companys offering of grinding and finishing tools for the
industrial and commercial markets.

For info go to



Brazing Q+A AUGUST:Layout 1


11:19 AM

Q: We are experiencing undercutting and
erosion when brazing base metal 600,
UNS N06600, with BNi-2 brazing filler
metal at 1066C (1950F). We are brazing
a 0.8-mm- (0.031-in.-) wall tubing 25.4
mm (1 in.) in diameter into a heavy fitting. The brazing filler metal, in paste
form, is applied around the tube at the
joint to be brazed. The assemblies are
taken directly to the brazing temperature. After brazing, we find that the tube
has eroded, leaving a thinned tube wall,
and sometimes a hole in the tubing. What
can we do?
A: Erosion and undercutting are controllable and should not occur. If they do
occur, the brazing engineer probably does
not have a good understanding of the
brazing filler metals and process. Many
successful brazements are made every day
with brazing filler metals that have mutual solubility with the base metal.
Any brazing filler metal that has mutual solubility with a base metal at the brazing temperature can alloy with the base
metal, and in so doing, dissolves some of
the base metal to form a modified brazing

Page 14

filler metal to some degree or another. In
some cases, the alloying effect improves
the properties of the brazing filler metal
in the alloyed area. Sometimes, it may
have no effect, and at other times may
change the filler metal properties.
Braze erosion and undercutting are
generally caused when an excessive
amount of brazing filler metal is applied.
In particular, when the brazing filler
metal and the base metal are mutually
soluble in each other. Erosion and undercutting can result when aluminum is
brazed with an AlSi brazing filler metal,
copper is brazed with a AgCu filler metal,
or a nickel-based metal is brazed with a
NiCrB filler metal, whenever an excessive
amount of brazing filler metal is present,
and all have mutual solubility. When
brazing an iron-based metal with a copper filler metal, there isnt a problem with
erosion because there is extremely small
solubility of copper in iron at the brazing
Nicrobraz 130, and other nickel brazing filler metals that contain boron, are
prone to cause erosion and undercutting.
Boron is a small molecule and is the melt-

Stainless, Nickel,
Aluminum, and
Low Alloy Welding
Consistent High
Quality Products

ing-point depressant. It is very mobile,

and therefore moves into many base metals with ease, which can result in some
melting of the base metal. Nicrobraz 30
has silicon, a much larger molecule, as the
melting-point depressant. Silicon is not
very mobile and therefore has less tendency to erode, but it can cause erosion, if
not properly controlled.
In the case you presented, there is a
far different erosion problem. Brazing a
heavy fitting and a fairly thin tube is causing part of your problem. When the
assembly is heated, the heavy fitting takes
a longer time to reach the brazing temperature. Meanwhile, the thin tube and
the brazing filler metal have already
reached the brazing temperature. The
molten brazing filler metal would like to
flow into the joint by capillary action, but
since the heavy fitting is still far below the
brazing temperature, the molten brazing
filler metal remains at the hot tube wall.
The 600 base metal is primarily nickel.
The BNi-2 brazing filler metal is also primarily nickel, and its boron melting point
depressant will allow it to readily diffuse
into the 600 base metal, resulting in the
surface melting. The liquid portion of the
600 base metal will then become a part of
the brazing filler metal.
When the heavy fitting reaches the
brazing temperature, the BNi-2 brazing
filler metal and the dissolved 600 base
metal will suddenly flow into the joint and
make a fillet at the joint area. When the
large amount of new filler metal flows
into the joint, it leaves the eroded thinned
wall of the tube visible.
To prevent this type of erosion from
occurring, the heating portion of the
brazing cycle should be modified to add a
hold at 927C (1700F), long enough to
allow the heavy fitting to reach the hold
temperature before increasing to the
brazing temperature. Then, when the
brazing filler metal melts, it will flow
directly into the brazed joint and not have
time to diffuse into the tube and cause
erosion. To determine the length of necessary hold time, the heavy fitting should
be adequately thermocoupled to signal
when it reaches 927C (1700F).

Technical Support
In stock: St. Louis or Houston

For info go to



R. L. PEASLEE is vice president emeritus, Wall

Colmonoy Corp., Madison Heights, Mich.
Readers may send questions to Mr. Peaslee
c/o Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune
Rd., Miami, FL 33126 or via e-mail to



2:25 PM

Page 7

For Info go to


Aluminum Q and A August 2007:Layout 1


Q: In one of my processes, I have been
using aluminum extruded tube made of
6061-T6 alloy. The way these tubes are
used requires the following heating and
cooling profile:
a) Ramp up from room temperature
25C (77F) to 425C (797F) at the rate
of 10C per min
b) Dwell at 425C for 2 h
c) Cool down to room temperature at
the rate of 1C per min.
The initial hardness of the aluminum
tube is 80 hardness Brinell (HB). The
hardness dropped to approximately 8 HB
in 6 cycles of heating and stayed at approximately 8 HB after 30 cycles.
My questions are as follows:
1. What is the reason for this drop in
hardness and will the hardness drop
2. What is the phenomenon behind the
hardness drop?
3. Surface roughness of the aluminum
tube is critical; will the hardness drop
affect surface roughness, pitting, corrosion, etc.?
A: What is the reason for this drop in hard-



12:18 PM

Page 16

ness and will the hardness drop
First, I question the hardness readings, particularly the
lower reading (8 HB), which
appears too low.
On examination of your
heating and cooling profile,
it is not surprising that you
are experiencing a substantial
reduction in hardness of your
aluminum tubing. The Aluminum Associations Aluminum Standards and Data
provides typical Brinell hard- Fig. 1 Solution heat treatment requires that the mateness numbers and tensile rial be heated to around 990F, followed by quenching in
strengths for most aluminum water. Artificial aging or precipitation hardening as it is
alloys in various strain-hard- also known requires that the solution heat-treated mateened and heat-treated condi- rial be reheated to around 340F for up to 18 h.
tions. ASTM B918, Standard
Practice for Heat Treatment of
to drastically change the materials
Wrought Aluminum Alloys, provides the
strength and hardness. In fact, these times
times and temperatures recommended for
and temperatures are adequate to reduce
obtaining the various tempers of the aluthe material to its lowest strength and
minum heat-treated conditions. After refhardness, the fully annealed condition.
erencing these documents, it was easy to
After reviewing the data supplied and
confirm that the times and temperatures
comparing it with data provided by The
used in your heating profile are sufficient

For info go to

Aluminum Q and A August 2007:Layout 1


Aluminum Association and ASTM, I can

only conclude that your testing method
may have been flawed. The issue of inaccurate hardness test data is probably secondary as the main issue is the materials
exposure to the temperature. This temperature will fully anneal the material. Because it is in the fully annealed condition,
the material will not get any lower in
strength and the hardness will not drop
any further.
What is the phenomenon behind the
hardness drop?
To understand this phenomenon, we
need to consider the heat-treated condition of the original material and the effect
on this condition due to the temperature
exposure during your process.
The 6xxx series aluminum alloys are
one of the heat-treatable series of aluminum alloys. The 6061 alloy is composed
of aluminum alloyed with magnesium and
silicon. When subjected to heat treatment,
the magnesium and silicon produce a
compound within the aluminum called
magnesium silicide. This magnesium silicide is taken into solution within the material during the heat treatment used to
produce the T6 condition. The T6 condition denotes that the material has undergone thermal treatment in the form of
solution heat treatment and artificial
aging Fig. 1. During the solution heat
treatment part of the T6 process, the material is heated to approximately 990F,
followed by quenching in water. The artificial aging or precipitation hardening, as
it is also known, requires the solution
heat-treated material to be reheated to
around 340F for up to 18 h. This subsequent heating facilitates a controlled precipitation of the magnesium silicide, which
consequently optimizes the materials mechanical properties. The solution heattreated and artificial aged condition (T6)
of the 6061 provides a material with the
guaranteed minimum ultimate tensile
strength of 42 ksi and a typical Brinell
hardness number of 95.
When the 6061-T6 material is heated
in your process, it will begin to overage
(lose strength) through the additional precipitation of magnesium silicide. This precipitation will continue during your heating process, resulting in the material progressively losing strength and hardness.
Eventually, all the magnesium silicide will
precipitate out of solution, and the material will become fully annealed, which is
the softest condition of this material. The
annealed condition of 6061 provides a material with the guaranteed maximum ultimate tensile strength of 20 ksi and a typical Brinell hardness number of 30. A typical annealing temperature as specified by
ASTM B918, Standard Practice for Heat
Treatment of Wrought Aluminum Alloys,
for the 6061 alloy is 765F (407C) for 2

12:19 PM

Page 17

to 3 h. It is therefore apparent that your

process is subjecting the material to time
at temperature more than adequate to
fully anneal its structure.
The surface roughness of the aluminum
tube is critical; will the hardness drop affect
surface roughness (pitting, etc.)?
Surface roughness of the part should
not be significantly affected; the potential
for (pitting) corrosion is generally improved in the annealed condition so this
should not be a problem. As the surface
condition is critical, I would suggest that
further testing is performed to verify the
acceptability of this characteristic.

TONY ANDERSON is corporate technical

training manager for ESAB North America and
coordinates specialized training in aluminum
welding technology for AlcoTec Wire Corporation. He is a Senior Member of TWI and a Registered Chartered Engineer. He is chairman of
the Aluminum Association Technical Advisory
Committee for Welding and holds numerous positions including chairman, vice chairman, and
member of various AWS technical committees.
Questions may be sent to Mr. Anderson c/o Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL
33126, or via e-mail at

For info go to



New Products August 2007:Layout 1


10:07 AM

Page 18


Low-Alloy Flux Cored Wires Designed for Chrome-Moly Applications

The company offers a full line of low-alloy gas shielded flux cored wires
for weldability, creep resistance, and high-temperature tensile strength on
chrome-moly applications. The TM-81B2 and TM-811B2 wires, designed for
steels containing 114% chrome and 12% molybdenum, can be used as replacements for E8018-B2 covered electrodes to increase productivity. The TM91B3 and TM-911B3 wires match the chemistry of steels with 214% chrome
and 1% molybdenum and can be used to replace E9018-B3 covered electrodes.
In addition, TM-81B2 and TM-91B3 are available for use in either the flat or
horizontal position and are available in 116- and 332-in. diameters. These wires
should be used only with a 100% CO2 shielding gas. Also, TM-811B2 and TM911B3 have all-position capabilities and are available in 0.045, 0.052, and 116
in. These wires can be used with either 100% CO2 or a 75/25 argon/CO2 mixture. An argon/CO2 mixture may produce welds with tensile strengths exceeding 100 ksi, for the TM-811B2 wire, and 110 ksi, for the TM-911B3 wire.
Hobart Brothers Co.
(800) 424-1543

Maintenance Products Line

Includes Various Brushes

The company has added several products to its maintenance offering. The comfort-grip hand scrub brush with polypropylene fill comes with a contoured handle
and rubber insert to fit more comfortably
in the hand. Two scratch brushes have
been added as well a V-groove brush
designed with wire that is angled to a point
to reach in tight areas that require a narrow face and a double-sided plastic handle scratch brush that offers two types of
fill in one brush. The different fill combinations include brass/white nylon,
brass/stainless, or stainless/white nylon. A


tube fitting brush, useful for cleaning tube

ends, is available with a -in. stem for
quick mounting on a cordless drill.

in. hex bit holder allows for fast exchange

of accessories, and the variable-speed trigger produces smooth, controlled starts.

Weiler Corp.

Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp.
(800) 835-9999
(800) 729-3878

Screwdriver Contains
Powerful Motor

Welding Generator
Available with
Weatherproof Stainless
Steel Case

The 6780-20 Metal Fastening, Adjustable Clutch Screwdriver features a

02500 rpm motor for light-gauge sheet
metal fastening and assembly work. The
6.5-A motor provides 140 in./lb of max
torque, and the tool features a 21position adjustable clutch for maximum
fastening control. The screwdriver has an
ergonomic grip that gives better holding
comfort and control. It also has a steel-reinforced clutch housing for increased
durability and longer tool life. The screwdriver comes with a 10-ft flexible rubber
cord and a belt clip. Its Quick-Action 14-

The Miller PRO 300 welding generator with an optional stainless steel case
provides protection of the units motor
and generator from harsh weather conditions and corrosive environments. Capable of shielded metal arc, gas metal arc,
flux cored, DC gas tungsten arc, and air
carbon arc with a welding output range of
20410 A, it offers good arc performance

New Products August 2007:Layout 1


10:08 AM

Page 19

and provides 12,000 W of peak generator

power while welding. The product is powered by a 22-hp Caterpillar industrial engine. It uses solid stainless steel panels
with matching stainless steel nuts and
bolts. To protect the solid-state control
board, the company developed the Vault,
a sealed component impenetrable to dust
and moisture.
Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
(800) 426-4553

Rust Preventative Protects

Steel Surfaces
Bloxide aluminized rust-preventive
weld-through primer may be applied on
all steels including high tensile, carbon
moly, and chrome moly. The product is
available in quarts, gallons, 5-gal pails, and
55-gallon drums, as well as aerosol cans
for touch-up use. It protects prepared
edges and surfaces prior to welding and
other heat-joining methods, eliminating
the need for secondary weld preparation
on steel parts. The aluminized product
serves as a weld-through primer for paint
and other coatings and can be applied by
brush, dip, or spray. It is temperature resistant to 800F and covers approximately
800 sq ft/gal. In addition, Weldable Blox-

ide allows welders to strike an arc directly

on the coating without removing the product. It is an aid to reducing porosity and
Tempil, Inc.
(800) 757-8301

Flux Cored Wires Give Fast

Travel Speeds
The Dual Shield X-Series flux cored
wires give the welder a wide range of operating parameters, high deposition rates,
fast travel speeds, flat bead profile, limited spatter, and easy slag removal. It includes wires for use with CO2 or mixed
gases, and wires for flat, horizontal, and

For info go to

For info go to

For info go to



New Products August 2007:Layout 1


10:08 AM

Page 20

all-position welding. These wires meet requirements for multiple weld procedures
ranging from general fabrication to critical welding applications.

as gears, pinions, king pins, and levers.

The collars are supplied standard in sizes
from 14 to 6 in. I.D., with specials up to 16
in. I.D. offered.

ESAB Welding & Cutting Products

Stafford Manufacturing Corp.
(800) 372-2123
(800) 695-5551

Weldable Shaft Collars Let

Users Build Structural

Pulsed GMAW Power

Source Features Wave
Pulse Functions

Stafford Weldable Shaft Collars are

available in one- and two-piece styles to
let users custom fabricate all types of
drive, motion control, and structural components. Machined from AISI 1018 steel,
they are suitable for creating parts such

The CobraMig 400P software algorithms allow for hard wire and aluminum
welding when using the Cobramatic wire
feed cabinet (Model 150-006). Wave pulse
functions of the product allow for gas tungsten arc-like welds on aluminum. The wave

For info go to



frequency is adjustable from 0.5 to 30 Hz.

The CobraMig 400P and the Cobramatic system is completely synergic as
programmed. Wire feed speed, amperage,
and arc voltage are commanded by the wire
speed potentiometer in the push-pull welding gun. It is rated at 60% duty cycle in standard DC and 50% in pulse DC at 400 A
max. Automatic three-phase voltage sensing allows for either 208/230VAC or
460VAC at 50/60 Hz input.
MK Products
(949) 863-1234

For info go to

New Products August 2007:Layout 1


Fiber Discs, Belts Offered

with Ceramic Grain

10:09 AM

Page 21

that allows operators to convert their standard 17F or 17FV gas tungsten arc torch
into 20 different torch styles using an existing cable. The kit includes the following 1726: 200 A, 70-deg head; 1726P:
200 A, 180-deg head; 9-90: 125 A, 90-deg
head; 9P: 125 A, 180-deg head; 24-90: 80
A, 90-deg head; 150CE molded coil element; 150SE solid element; 150TB torch
body (without valve); 150VTB torch body
(with valve); and 105Z55R ribbed handle.

Disc Sander Designed for

Demanding Applications
The Model DS12V disc sander is a
heavy-duty machine featuring a 12-in. aluminum disc, heavy-duty all-steel construction, an 8- 14-in. tilt table ranging from
45 deg down to 15 deg up, a 1-hp 110/220V
single-phase TEFC motor, and a vacuum
dust collector. It is also available with an
optional miter gauge.


Kalamazoo Industries, Inc.
(800) 752-7620
(269) 382-2050

Ceramic oxide (CO) fiber discs have a

durable cloth backing, are available in six
grits from 24 to 120 in standard or 58 11
quick change types, and in three sizes. Active additives in its coating improve grinding performance, prevent loading, and reduce heat buildup in the workpiece. CO
belts are available in eight width/length
sizes and four grits for work on small contact surfaces or on contours and hard-toreach areas. POLIFAN flap discs are
available in flat (Type 27) and conical
(Type 29) styles with threaded and unthreaded arbor holes and in three diameters, all with a 40 grit. COMBI-DISC
CO mini fiber discs feature a rapid cool
change capability in type CD with a female thread and in type CDR with a male
thread. They are available in 2 and 3 in.
diameters and in four grits from 36 to 120.
(978) 8406420

GTA Torch Kit Delivers

Multiple Configurations

The AK-150 Modular Flex (AK150MF) Kit was designed to provide flexibility on a wide range of gas tungsten arc
welding applications. It is an all-in-one kit

For info go to



Page 22-23:FP_TEMP


1:19 PM

Page 22

American Welding Society 2007 ESV1506

Charting the Course in Welding: U.S. Shipyards

Newport News Omni Hotel
Oct. 18-19, 2007
Welding is the most vital and fundamental manufacturing process in the construction of ships and metal hull boats.
AWSs fifth shipbuilding conference endeavors to provide up-to-date information on new and emerging technologies being
developed for shipbuilding applications. The conference serves as a forum for communicating the focus and progress of
these new innovative developments, as well as their potential value and impact to the shipbuilding community. Join an
outstanding assemblage of experts from academia and industry to explore the state of the art in shipbuilding technology.
This conference is a compelling opportunity for shipbuilders, designers, suppliers, researchers, educators, and administrators
involved in ship procurement and construction.

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.

Page 22-23:FP_TEMP


1:19 PM

Page 23

Charting the Course in Welding: U.S. Shipyards

Newport News Omni Hotel
Oct. 18-19, 2007
Sensor Torch Based Adaptive Intelligent
System for Circumferential Welding of Pipe
YuMing Zhang, President, Adaptive Intelligent
Systems LLC, Lexington, Ky.

Tandem MAG
Lars-Erik Stridh, IWE, Process R&D, Application
Manager, ESAB AB, Gothenburg, Sweden

Induction Brazing Equipment for

Shipbuilding Applications
Tom Brown, Regional Sales Manager, EFD
Induction Inc., Madison Heights, Mich.

Independent Control of Melting Speed and

Base Metal Current Using Double-Electrode
YuMing Zhang, Professor, University of
Kentucky, College of Engineering, Lexington, Ky.

Introduction to TERAC-Fairing with

Mark Wells, Product & Application Manager,
EFD Induction A.S., Skien, Norway

Transient Thermal Tensioning to Control

Buckling Distortion
Randal M. Dull, P.E., Senior Engineer, Edison
Welding Institute, Columbus, Ohio

Single-Pass GMAW of Pipe Socket Welds

Michael Ludwig, Chief Welding Engineer,
General DynamicsBath Iron Works, Bath,

High Speed Tandem SAW

Nancy C. Porter, Project Manager, Edison
Welding Institute, Columbus, Ohio

Orbital Pipe Welding Today: An Overview

Kenneth J. LeDuc, Technical SpecialistTraining
& Service, Magnatech Limited Partnership, East
Granby, Conn.

Development of a Cr-Free Consumable for

Joining Austenitic Stainless Steels
John C. Lippold, Professor, The Ohio State
University, Edison Joining Technology Center,
Columbus, Ohio`

Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding for Out-ofPosition High-Strength Steel Erection Joints
Nancy C. Porter, Project Manager, Edison
Welding Institute, Columbus, Ohio

The Use of Portable XRF for Rapid Alloy

Verification and Analysis
Bree Allen, Director, Sales, Thermo Scientific
NITON Analyzers LLC, Billerica, Mass.

Development of a Large Tee Welder

Michael Ludwig, Chief Welding Engineer,
General DynamicsBath Iron Works, Bath,

Impact of the New OSHA Hexavalent

Chromium Standard
Susan R. Fiore, Senior Engineer, Edison Welding
Institute, Columbus, Ohio

Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of Pipe and Thin

Steel Panel Structures
Shawn Kelly, Research Associate, Applied
Research Laboratory, Penn State University,
State College, Penn.

Evaluation of Modeling and Simulation

Software for Multi-Pass Welded Structures
Garrett Sonnenberg, Engineer IV, Northrop
Grumman Newport News, Newport News, Va.

FSW for Naval Shipbuilding

Maria Posada, Materials Engineer, Naval
Surface Warfare Center, West Bethesda, Md.

Conference price is $550 for AWS members, $680 for

nonmembers.To register or to receive a descriptive brochure,
call (800) 443-9353 ext. 229, (outside North America, call
305-443-9353), or visit

Progressive Construction2:Layout 1


9:46 AM

Page 24

Company Takes Its

Shop to the Utah
A do-it-all company has plans to do more
rogressive Construction Systems, an
AWS Affiliate Company located in
Providence, Utah, is a specialized job shop
operated by Jeff and Debbie Baldwin.
Jeff, an AWS Certified Welding Inspector
(CWI), said, Our business is a field welding-based operation. We literally take our
shop to the job sites. Most of our work is
in remote locations or is so customized
that fabricating in a shop and delivering
the product to the job site is not practical
or productive. This is what I think makes
us different from most shops. Debbie
noted that, Most all shops have a
portable welding machine, but most of our
equipment is portable. We typically show
up on site, set up our tables, jigs, welding
machines, generator, and tent cover, then
we are ready to go to work.

Saving Customers Money on Site

Fig. 1 By building these steel chimneys on-site, Progressive Construction Systems saved
the customer thousands of dollars in transportation costs.

Jeff recalled, A good example of this

was a job where we built two large chimneys on-site on jigs (Figs. 1, 2). When the
assemblies were completed, we just used a
crane to lift them from the jigs right into
place. Building those chimneys on-site
saved several thousand dollars in truck
transportation costs alone.
One of the best projects we have done,
Jeff said, is a contemporary art horse
statue Fig. 3. It stands more than 13 feet
high and weighs about 4200 pounds. This

statue is located at a horse breeding ranch

that was famous in the 1940s, that is now
converted into a hobby ranch. Whimsical
handrails (lead photo) and spiral staircases
are always fun to do, but are always a challenge, too. Our staircases feature handmolded parts and usually use expensive
hard woods for trimming them out Fig.
4. An average staircase from us runs about
$25,000, including the steel, wood, and finishing. We have always preferred to finish

our own ironwork to ensure the quality of

the finished product.

Tooling that Works in the Field

The companys welding capabilities include shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW),
plasma arc cutting oxyacetylene (PAC-A),
and oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC).

HOWARD M. WOODWARD ( is associate editor of the Welding Journal.



Progressive Construction2:Layout 1


7:56 AM

Page 25

Fig. 4 Baldwins artful staircases feature exquisite blending of steel with expensive hard woods. All work is done in house.
Fig. 2 CWI Jeff Baldwin performs all
weld inspections personally. Here he is
shown working on a steel chimney frame.
Our metals capabilities, Jeff explained, mainly cover steel, stainless
steel, and aluminum. We also get into aircraft metals such as Type 4130 tubing and
321 stainless steel using the GTAW
process. The tooling and equipment that
we use in our shop is mainly from Miller,
Jeff explained, not because we dont like
the other brands, but its pricing has consistently been better for our needs.
Our portable welder, he said, is a
Miller Trailblazer 301G. We use the Miller
S-32P suitcase feeder for FCAW and this
combination works great. For plasma arc
cutting we use a Hypertherm 1000. It gives
us enough capacity but does not overdraw
the generator. The shop-based machines
include the Miller XMT 300 CC/CV with
a S-22A feeder on solid wire using Star 66
TriMix from Praxair. The XMT power
supplies are the best machines we have
used. For our precision GTA welding we
recently purchased a Miller Dynasty
200 DX.

Fig. 3 A fanciful horse sculptured from

steel was custom made for display at a

Views on Safety and Training

When it comes to training, Jeff said,
we require all employees to complete initial and recurrent safety awareness, equipment familiarization, and basic first aid
training. Because we work in remote locations, having even a minor accident can
become a serious matter in a big hurry.
Emergency care facilities are usually more
than an hour away. On the job, the Baldwins require all employees to wear steeltoe boots, safety glasses, ear plugs, plus
additional personal protective equipment,
as required.
Company policy requires that applicants for welding positions provide proof
of formal education in welding from a tech
school or college, in addition to SMAW
certifications in 1-4G.

Expansion Plans Underway

Keeping Control of Quality Welds

Our plans for the near future, Jeff

said, are to expand and add a precision
lathe and vertical mill to the shop. We constantly need machine work done and this
additional equipment will allow us to do it
in-house. Matthew, one of my top
welders, Jeff said, has been going to
school to learn more about machine shop
operations in preparation for this expansion. This is a good example of continuing
education in our shop.
The companys additional services include drafting, engineering, and carpentry
to provide their customers with a complete contractor service.

Jeff stated, As the company CWI, all

welds are inspected by me prior to being
put into service. We also take detailed
photos of the welds to document our weld
quality. Its amazing, he added, what
photos can do to prove the quality of workmanship on a weld or entire project.
Jeff encourages all of his employees to
continue their educations, even if it is not
in welding. Jeff said, I have an engineering degree from Utah State University
plus an additional ten years of night school
at Bridgerland Applied Technology College, and I still feel like I need to learn a
lot more.

Fig. 5 Michael, Progressives artistic

projects welder, knows that working onsite in Utah in winter has its downside.

Fig. 6 Marias carpentry skills compliment her weld prep and fitup talents.


Progressive Construction2:Layout 1


9:48 AM

Page 26

Whos Who at Progressive

The shops personnel includes Jeff, responsible for the total operation of the
business; Debbie, who does the drafting
and design work; Matthew, the lead
welder and machinist; Michael (Fig. 5),
who specializes in artistic welding assignments; Maria (Fig. 6), who excels in weld
prep and fitup as well as performing outstanding carpentry work; and Mark, a
journeyman welder who works part time.
The Progressive Construction Systems
customer base is about 40% subcontract
and 60% direct to customer. Jeff has
found that his direct customers can be a
greater time investment considering the
time necessary to help them settle on a design, and then build the product. But he
has found that the direct customers also
pay on time. General contractors, Jeff
noted, are always slow to pay and I do not
like to microfinance projects.
To learn more about Progressive Construction Systems and its services, contact
owners Jeff and Debbie Baldwin, 246 N.
300 E., Providence, UT 84332; (435) 7602500;

For info go to

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Newell Feature August 2007:Layout 1


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P91 and Beyond

Welding the new-generation Cr-Mo alloys for high-temperature service
reep strength-enhanced ferritic
steel (CSEF) and advanced
chromium-molybdenum steels are
experiencing worldwide usage. The desire
to increase efficiency has introduced a
need for advanced materials with superior
material properties at higher temperatures. Advanced chromium-molybdenum
pipe and tubing such as 9 CrMoV [P(T)91],
tungsten, and/or boron-enhanced materials (i.e., Grades 92, 122, E911, 23, 24, etc.)
are now being specified. The lessons
learned thus far with P(T)91 weldments
have truly demonstrated that CSEF steels
are quite different and require significantly
more attention than the P(T)22 and lesser
Of the candidate advanced base materials and consumables, T23 appears to
have the highest priority among challenges to P91, followed by P92 and then
to a lesser extent the higher chromiumand nickel-based alloys. Emphasis placed
herein on Grade 91 and the importance
of maintaining preheat, interpass temperature, and dangers inherent in interrupted
heating cycles or improper postweld heat
treatment plus detailed attention to filler
metal procurement to avoid metallurgical complications is equally true for the
other advanced chromium-molybdenum

Comparison of Properties
hese CSEF alloys have similar compositions within a given alloy family. Specific properties, particularly
strength or enhanced corrosion resistance
at elevated temperatures, are achieved by
controlled alloy additions such as tungsten, vanadium, or boron. Compositions
and specifications for candidate advanced
chromium-molybdenum steels for hightemperature service are shown in Tables
1 and 2.
Base material development and code
acceptance have preceded effort and research in the areas of weld properties and
welding consumables for the advanced
chromium alloys. Information presented

at recent conferences on advanced materials suggest that although the base metals offer potentially superior properties,
restoration of heat-affected zones (HAZ)
created by welding or remediation of cold
work/bending effects may not have been
fully examined and need further investigation. Like P(T)91, dealing with the
HAZ in other CSEF alloys may in fact
offer the most challenges. Figure 1 illustrates the typical soft zone that forms
in CSEF HAZs. (See Refs. 110.)

Comparison of P91 Steel

and other CSEFs
Use of P91 is now worldwide. There
are various sources for base materials,
welding consumables, and fabrication.
(See Refs. 113.) The art is such that few
welding problems are encountered. Fabrication and field erection problems have
been noted, but are typically related to
improper or inadequate heat treating and
bending operations. Design and implementation of dissimilar weldments continue to be a subject of much discussion.
Review of creep performance for welding
consumables remains a key factor for selection. Other CSEFs can be summarized
as follows:
P92: Similar to P91, but with 0.5Mo1.7W
E911: Similar to P91, but with 1%W
P122: Like P92, but with 11%Cr +
T23: Similar to P22, but stronger with
~ 2%W
T24: Similar to T22, but with V + Ti +
Representative creep rupture results
for selected CSEFs are shown in Fig. 2.

Code Acceptance
Base Material
ASME/AWS specifications are approved for using P91 base material and
weld metal. Table 3 illustrates base metal
code cases that have been issued for

ASME Section I construction. (See Refs.

15, 16.)
The American Welding Societys D10
Committee on Piping and Tubing decided
to remove P(T)91 materials from its existing guideline publication on welding
CrMo piping and tubing (D10.8) and prepare a new document (D10.21, pending)
for P(T)91 and the other advanced
chromium-molybdenums. The AWS document is pending resolution of technical
items, due to lessons learned, now being
deliberated in various ASME committees.

Comparing Base Metal,

Heat-Affected Zone, and
Weld Metal Strength
ifferences in hardness between
the base metal, weld metal, and
HAZ for a P91 weldment are
shown in Fig. 1. This trend for the HAZ
to be a soft zone exists with all the
CSEFs. Given that hardness can be an indicator for strength in low-alloy materials, the HAZ offers the least performance,
regardless of the weld metal or base metal
involved. Even when matching CSEF weld
metal is used, it tends to be stronger than
the base metal and definitely stronger
than the HAZ. Increased times at temperature could be employed to reduce the
weld metal strength, but this approach is
usually not used for economic reasons.
(See Refs. 14, 15, 17.)

Welding Consumables
A variety of welding consumables with
AWS or other national specifications are
available for P91 materials. (See Refs. 15,
1825.) This is not the case for the other
CSEF alloys. Table 4 provides examples
of welding consumables, and Table 5 lists
consumables for welding P91. Where an
AWS classification is shown, specific consumables are available from more than
one source. Those without an AWS classification are available on a commercial
basis and characteristically mirror base

KENT K. COLEMAN is manager, Boiler Life and Availability Improvement, Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, N.C. W. F.
NEWELL JR., PE, IWE, is cofounder and vice president Engineering, Euroweld, Ltd., Mooresville, N.C.


Newell Feature August 2007:Layout 1


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Page 30

Fig. 1 Representative microhardness across a typical P91 weldment

(Ref. 10).

metal compositions. In most cases, AWS

A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines, provides the means to specify and
obtain satisfactory material for materials
with a classification and those that must
be ordered with the -G classification.
elding consumables for Type P/T
92, 122, 23, or 24 alloys do not
have recognized specifications at
this writing. Filler metals for these alloys
are formulated to provide weld deposits
similar in composition and performance
as the base material. In lieu of a specification, manufacturers should be consulted
for consumables that are available for
these alloys. Typical compositions are
shown in Table 6.
Crater cracking and other undesirable
grain boundary phenomena can be minimized by ordering weld metal with low
residual element content and a 15 coating as well as observing a Mn/S ratio
greater than 50. These recommendations
are offered to reduce the potential for
problems that occur as a result of low

Fig. 2 103 h creep rupture values of T/P22, T/P23, T/P24, and

T/P91 as a function of temperature. (Kimura/Prager, Refs. 1315).

melting constituents or other precipitates

that influence grain boundary integrity.
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
and flux cored arc welding (FCAW) electrodes should undergo actual chemical
and mechanical testing. A satisfactory
chemical analysis does not guarantee acceptable mechanical properties, especially
toughness. Mechanical testing, including
tensile and impact tests, is recommended
on a lot to lot, per size per diameter basis.
Testing and reporting only actual
chemical analysis on a per size, per heat
supplied basis for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and submerged arc welding
(SAW) bare wires is normally satisfactory.

Heating Operations
roper application of heating operations is critical to success. Application and rigorous control of preheat,
interpass, and postweld heat treatment
operations are required to ensure that de-

sired toughness and creep resistance are

obtained. Control of preheat and interpass temperatures and even postbaking
operations are necessary to avoid hydrogen retention/cracking problems in this
extremely hardenable alloy family. Flame,
furnace heating, electrical resistance, and
electrical induction heating have been
used successfully. Temperature monitoring and control of thermal gradients is extremely important. For these reasons,
local flame heating is not recommended
and should not be permitted. Changes in
section thickness, chimney, and position
effects must also be considered. If unknown, mock-ups should be used to establish heated band, soak times, and actual thermal gradients. (See Refs. 18,

The literature suggests that 200C
(~400F) is adequate for preheating P91
and P92 weldments. Fabricators typically

Table 1 CSEF Base Material Typical Composition Ranges

Base Material Specification














1060 ppm




560 ppm




1570 ppm



Newell Feature August 2007:Layout 1


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Page 31

Table 5 Consumables Listed in ASME/AWS

Specifications for Welding P91

Table 2 Example Specification Designations (Refs. 17, 11, 12)



Specification or Designation



A 213 T91 (seamless tubes)

A 335 P91 (seamless pipes)
A 387 Gr 91 (plates)
A 182 / A336 F91 (forgings)
A 217 C12A (castings)
A 234 WP91
A 369 FP91
EN 10222-2; 1.4903 (X10CrMoVNb 9-1)
1503 Gr 91
NF A-49213/A-49219 Gr TU Z 10
CDVNb 09-01






1.4905 (X11CrMoWVNb 9 1 1)
G-X12CrMoWVNbN 10 1 1 (cast)
A 213 T92 (seamless tubes)
A 335 P92 (seamless pipes)
A 387 Gr 92 (plates)
A 182 F92 (forgings)
A 369 FP92 (forged & bored pipe)
X10CrWMoVNb 9-2
Nf 616
KA-STPA29 (pie)
KA-SFVAF29 (forging)
KA-STBA29 (tube)
A 213 T23 (seamless tubes)











EB9 + flux

lems with interpass temperature on heavy

sections (Refs. 9, 20).

Postweld Bake-Out
postweld bake-out may be of
critical importance, especially for
heavy sections or where flux-type
processes are used. This involves maintaining the preheat/interpass temperature
for an extended period of time subsequent
to interruption or completion of the weld.
When establishing the length of time necessary, factors that play a role include
thickness of the material, length of time
the weldment has been exposed to the
heat regime, and the extent of low hydrogen practices used. Where proper
preheat, consumables, and storage/handling are implemented, bake-outs can be
minimized or even eliminated.

KA-STPA24J1 (pipe)
KA-SFVAF22AJ1 (forging)
KA-STBA24J1 (tube)
7 CrMoVTiB 10-10



Interruption of Heating Cycle

Table 3 ASME Code Acceptance
Trade Name


Material (seamless)

Code Case

Issue Date





August 8, 1994
August 8, 1994
June 5, 1995
May 2, 2000

Table 4 Example Welding Consumables













* Filler metals available to manufacturer or OEM specifications only.

aim for 200250C (~400500F), but will

go as low as 121C (250F) for root and hot
pass layers, thin-walled components, or
where GTAW is utilized. Experience indicates that no elevated preheat is required
for T23 or T24 weldments; however, some
code bodies including ASME require preheat or postweld heat treatment (PWHT)
for these alloys (Table 7).

A typical maximum interpass temperature is 300C (572F); less is acceptable
but no more than 370C (700F). The interpass maximum helps to prevent the
possibility of hot cracking due to the silicon and niobium content of the weld
metal. Field operations rarely have prob-

Interruption of the heat cycle should

be avoided if at all possible. The mass of
the weldment must be considered. Increases in pipe wall thickness translate
into increases in the restraint on the weld
and the cooling rate from welding temperatures. Therefore, the weld area is subjected to high residual stresses at a time
when it may have minimum section thickness (or strength) and be less ductile. If
interruption is unavoidable, at least one
fourth of the wall thickness should be deposited and preheat must be maintained
until the groove is completed or a postbake implemented.

Postweld Heat Treatment

pplication of PWHT is absolutely
necessary with Grade 91, 911, 92,
and 122 weldments, regardless of
diameter or thickness.
PWHT is one of the most important factors in producing satisfactory weldments. The PWHT methodology and
implementation must be verified to ensure that the weldments are actually receiving PWHT at the proper temperature. Additional thermocouples or qualification testing may be required.
Proper tempering of the martensitic
microstructure is essential for obtaining



Newell Feature August 2007:Layout 1


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Page 32

Table 6 Typical Weld Metal Deposit Compositions and Mechanical Properties (Refs. 15, 1825)
Weld Metal
P, max
S, max
Si, max
Ni, max
N, max
Al, max
Cu, max
Ult, ksi

Yield, ksi

Elong. %






(110138, as-welded)
[90102; 1365 2 h]
(126, as-welded)
[7489; 1365 2 h]
(1819, as-welded)
[19; 1365 2 h]


(116136, as-welded)
[91126; 1365F 2 h]
(96102, as-welded)
[7486; 1365F 2 h]
(1719, as-welded)
[2022; 1365F 2 h]


(107116; 1400F 24 h)

0.80 (0.6)

(107116; 1400F 24 h)

(91102; 1400F 24 h)

(91102; 1400F 24 h)

(1622; 1400F 24 h)

(1622; 1400F 24 h)

1. Base Material; ASME Code Case 2199

2. Base Material; Vallourec-Mannessman
3. Base Material; ASME Code Case 2327
4. Base Material; ASME Code Case 2179.

Table 7 Recommended Preheat Temperatures

Max. Preheat, F (C)

Max. Interpass, F (C)

w/o or 340 (170)

660 (350)

400 (200)
480 (250)

reasonable levels of toughness. In practice, this involves selecting both an appropriate temperature and time in accordance with governing code requirements.

ase material development and code
acceptance has preceded effort and
research in the areas of weldment
properties and welding consumables for
advanced chromium alloys. Although the
base metals offer potentially superior
properties, restoration of weld heataffected zones (HAZ) or remediation of
cold work/bending effects may not have
been fully examined and need further investigation. From a welders standpoint,
the ability to weld the creep strengthenhanced ferritic steel is rather straightforward. For the majority of the CSEFs,
proper preheat and PWHT are not optional, they are mandatory.



Lessons learned with P(T)91 weldments have truly demonstrated that these
(CrMo) steels are quite different and require significantly more attention than the
P(T)22 and lesser chromium-molybdenum alloys. The members of the American Welding Societys D10 Committee on
Piping and Tubing decided to remove
P(T)91 materials from their existing
guideline publication on welding CrMo
piping and tubing (D10.8) and prepare a
new document (D10.21, pending) for it
and the other advanced chrome-molys
such as P(T) 92, etc. Greater attention to
weld metal selection, preheating, and rigorous postweld heat treatment schedules
were offered as some of the reasons that
the CSEF alloys must be treated differently. However, the AWS document is
pending resolution of technical items, due
to lessons learned, now being deliberated
in various ASME committees.

1. Staubli, M. E., Mayer, K-H., Kern,

T. U., and Vanstone, R. W. 2000. COST
501/COST522 The European collaboration in advanced steam turbine materials for ultraefficient, low emission steam
power plant. Proceedings 5th International
Charles Parsons Turbine Conference.
2. Proceedings 3rd EPRI Conference on
Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power Plants. 2001. University of Wales,
Swansea, UK.
3. Parker, J. D. 2001. Creep and fracture of engineering materials and structures. Proceedings of the 9th International
Conference, University of Wales, Swansea.
4. Coussement, C. 2001. New ferritic/martensitic creep resistant steels:
Promises and challenges in the new century. EPRI Conference on 9 Cr Materials
Fabrication and Joining Technologies,
Myrtle Beach, S.C.
5. Guntz, G., Julien, M., Kittmann, G.,
Pellicani, F., Apoilly, and Vaillant, J.C.
1994. The T91 Book, Ferritic Tubes and
Pipe for High Temperature Use in Boilers.
Vallourec Industries, Rev 2.
6. Richardot, D., Vaillant, J. C., Arbab,
A., and Bendick, W. 2000. The T92/P92
Book. Vallourec & Mannessman Tubes.
7. Arndt, J., Haarmann, K., Kottmann,
G., Vaillant, J. C., Bendick, W., and Deshayes, F. 1998. The T23/T24 Book, New
Grades for Waterwalls and Superheaters.

Newell Feature August 2007:Layout 1


Vallourec & Mannessmann Tubes.

8. McGeehee, A. 2004. Hardness evaluation of P91 weldments. Euroweld Conference.
9. Henry, J. Investigation of a leak in
a main steamline piping joint: Causes and
implications. Euroweld Conference,
Columbus, Ohio.
10. Henry, J. 2002. Heat treatment and
forming issues with advanced alloys. WRC
Conference, Welding Do It Right The
First Time, New Orleans, La.
11. Heuser, H., and Jochum, C., Fuchs,
R., and Hahn, B. Matching Filler Metal for
T23/T24. Bohler-Thyssen.
12. Heuser, H., and Fuchs, R. Properties of Weldments in the Creep Resistant
CrMo-Steels T23/T24 and P91/92 and E911
Made with Matching Filler Metals. BohlerThyssen.
13. Prager, M. 2006. Material properties presentation updates, ASME II &
strength of weldments.
14. Kimura, K. 2005. PVP2006ICPVTII-93294, Creep strength assessment and review of allowable tensile stress
of creep strength enhanced ferritic steels
in Japan.
15. Prager, M. 2006. Presentation from
Strength-Enhanced Ferritic Steels. Henderson, Nev.
16. D10 Piping and Tubing Meeting,
American Welding Society, May 78,
2001, Cleveland, Ohio.
17. Vallourec-Mannessman. 2006.
Evaluation of allowable stresses for Grade
24, ASME SCII TG, creep strengthenhanced ferritic steels. Henderson, Nev.
18. ANSI/AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.
19. Newell, W. F. Jr. 2004. Guidelines
for Welding P(T)91. Euroweld, Ltd.,
March 2004.
20. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section I; Section II, Parts A, B, and
C; Section VIII, Section IX; and B31.1,
Power Piping. New York, N.Y.: American
Society of Mechanical Engineers.
21. Consumables for the Welding of 9
Cr - 1 Mo - V Steels including: 1) welding of modified 9% Cr steel, 2) optimized
filler metals for the fabrication/installation of T(P)91, 3) SMAW of P91 piping
with optimized filler metals and 4) TSG
test report Welding of P91 Material:
SMAW, SAW, and GTAW. Thyssen Welding, April 1995, Carol Stream, Ill.
22. Dittrich, S., Heuser, H., and Swain,
R. 1994. Optimized Filler Metals for the
Fabrication/Installation of T(P) 91. Harrisburg, N.C.
23. Farrar, J. C. M., Zhang, Z., and
Marshall, A. W. 1998. Welding consumables for P(T)-91 creep resisting steels.
Metrode Products Ltd., UK. EPRI Welding and Repair Technology For Power

11:04 AM

Page 33

Plants, Third International EPRI Conference, Scottsdale, Ariz.

24. Heuser, H., and Fuchs, R. Properties of matching filler metals for E911
(P911) and P92. Bulletin HC/4-113,
Thyssen Welding.
25. T23/24, General Technical
Brochure, Bohler-Thyssen.
26. ANSI/AWS D10.10, Recommended
Practices for Local Heating of Welds in Piping and Tubing. Miami, Fla.: American
Welding Society.
27. ANSI/AWS D10.11, Recommended
Practices for Root Pass Welding of Pipe without Backing. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.
28. Lundin, C. D., Khan, K. K., and AlEjel, K. A. 1994. Modified 9Cr (P91) SMA
weldments microstructural evaluation.
Materials Joining Group, Knoxville, Tenn.
29. Heuser, H., and Wellnitz, G. 1992.
GTA/SA welding of the 9% CR T91/P91
steel. AWS Annual Convention, Chicago,
30. Gold, M., Hainsworth, J., and Tanzosh, J. M. 2001. Service experience with
design and manufacturing approaches
with T/P91 materials. Babcock & Wilcox
Co., Barberton, Ohio; EPRI Conference
on 9 Cr Materials Fabrication and Joining Technologies. Myrtle Beach, S.C.
31. Newell, W. F. Jr., and Gandy, D. W.
1998. Advances in P(T)91 welding using

flux and metal cored wires. EPRI Welding and Repair Technology for Power
Plants, Third International EPRI Conference. Scottsdale, Ariz.
32. Zhang, Z., Farrar, J. C. M., and
Barnes, A. M. 2000. Weld metals for P91
Tough enough? Conference Proceedings, Fourth International EPRI Conference
on Welding and Repair Technology for
Power Plants. Naples, Fla.
33. Zhang, Z., Marshall, A.W., and
Holloway, G. B. 2001. Flux Cored Arc
Welding: The High Productivity Welding
Process for P91 Steels. Metrode Products,
34. Newell, W. F. Jr., and Scott, J. R
2000. Properties and fabrication experience with submerged arc welding of P91
piping systems. Conference Proceedings,
Fourth International EPRI Conference on
Welding and Repair Technology for Power
Plants, Naples, Fla.

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Bluco Feature August 2007:Layout 1


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Page 34

Modular Fixturing
Helps Fab Shop
Maintain Tight
Production bottlenecks and high assembly costs sent a
Massachusetts fab shop searching for solutions that would
produce precise, easy-to-assemble fabrications
Precision Metal Fabricators, LLC,
Franklin, Mass., is a young, fast-growing
fab shop focused on the fabrication and
field installation of large-scale, gantrybased ultrasonic inspection systems.
These inspection systems are designed
and engineered by the shops principal
customer, Matec Instrument Companies,
Inc., a leading ultrasonic systems integrator and supplier of quality control inspection instrumentation and production test
Matecs ultrasonic gantry systems are
used for nondestructive examination, primarily in the aerospace industry to inspect
components such as wing and fuselage
sections, turbine disks, machinery cases,
and similar items. Its customers include
Boeing and its sub-tier contractors on the
787, 737, and various winglet programs.
Cessna is also an airframe customer.
Other applications include the Joint
Strike Fighter program as well as nonaerospace uses such as inspection of ordinance, railroad wheels and axles, and
the like.
Precision Metal Fabricators was spun
off from Matec in 2004 by its president,
Carmen Fruci, who then, as now, was also
the companys chief design engineer. The

spin-off was in response to the rapidly

growing demand for the companys gantry
systems and the need to solve the resulting production/field installation bottlenecks. Heres how it happened.

Needed: Precision on a
Large Scale
These ultrasonic gantry systems are a
manufacturing challenge. Typical systems
utilize a large operating envelope as
big as 20 160 ft Fig. 1.
The gantry is fitted with water
squirters and associated ultrasonic sensors and equipment, all of which are programmed to automatically traverse the
workpiece to generate and capture inspection data. Positioning the sensors relative to the workpiece is critical tolerances of 0.005 in. must be held throughout the measuring envelope.
The systems incorporate precision motion control components including drives,
motors, gears, and rack and pinions, so
gantry structures must be precisely aligned
to one another to ensure that mounting
points, bolt holes, etc., are in the correct
relative locations Fig. 2. As a result,

precise gantry assembly is critical, not only

to system functionality, but also to ensure
reliability and long operating life. High
loads are generated in operation and the
structure must accommodate highprecision bearings being driven over long
distances. Additionally, the structure must
provide a stable platform for operation of
multiple, high-precision electromechanical components.

Precision Work:
Done Once Too Often
From the outset, Matec outsourced the
largest gantry components such as the 14in. 16-in. 30-ft main carrying beams
and column weldments Fig. 3. These
large structural elements were delivered
to the installation site with mounting surfaces premachined, and mounting holes
predrilled and tapped.
Components would be machined to
accuracies commensurate with 160-ft-long
precision systems, Fruci explained, but
no matter how accurate the machine
shops work all paid for at machining
center rates we still had to pay technicians who spent inordinate amounts of

Based on a story from Bluco Corp. (, Naperville, Ill.



Bluco Feature August 2007:Layout 1


1:45 PM

Page 35

Fig. 1 Main gantry structure for ultrasonic system used in fuselage inspection installed at end-users site.

time shimming, tweaking, and muscling

alignments during on-site installation. We
were actually doing the precision stuff
So Fruci undertook an initiative to reduce the total time, effort, and cost of final
system assembly.

Reinventing a Process and

Inventing a Company
I figured that if mounting holes could
be precisely located, drilled, and tapped
after the gantry elements were positioned
on-site, then we could eliminate the effort
and cost of premachining, Fruci explained. Then came my Ah Ha moment.
I realized that if the gantry beams were
originally fabricated to high enough tolerances, then they could serve as a foundation on which to perform final machining on-site, after the beams were installed.
The trick would be to fabricate gantry element weldments with flat, true, clean surfaces, then to use these surfaces to attach
precision-ground stock, which could act
as a starting point for in-the-field drilling
and tapping.
He continued, I went to Matec management and said, Instead of outsourcing fabrication and machining to general
machine shops, I propose we set up an operation dedicated to producing precision
gantry elements that can be efficiently assembled in the field. Management liked
the idea, but outsourcing large fabrications had proven advantageous, so a new,
separate company, Precision Metal Fabricators, LLC, was organized.
According to Fruci, Initially, building
our welding fixturing was a by-the-seatof-the-pants operation involving laying
out with measuring tape, chalk, and string,
and holding parts by hand. That sufficed
for a while, but as weldments became big-

Fig. 2 Ultrasonic sensors (squirters) are driven into position

via precision motion control on a system used to inspect composite panels.

ger and heavier and as volume grew, repeatability and fast setup became critical.
We needed a way to efficiently create precision welding fixturing.
While doing online research, Fruci
came across the Demmeler modular welding fixture systems from Bluco Corp.,
Naperville, Ill. Fruci commented, The
modular fixturing looked like it would fit
the bill. And, since Bluco had a rental program, we were able to explore use of components to determine the exact mix
needed before committing to purchase.

In any case, after one month of renting,

Precision Metal Fab decided to purchase.

Modular Fixturing
The fixturing system is based on a fivesided, high-tensile-strength steel table
with a grid of accurately located 28-mm
(1.1-in.) bores on 100-mm (3.9-in.) centers, a pattern of grid lines across the top
and a scale etched on all four edges to aid
setups. Flatness of the table is 0.004 in.
overall, and the bores are located 0.001

Fig. 3 A gantry end-brace weldment clamped to Demmeler modular fixturing table.



Bluco Feature August 2007:Layout 1


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Page 36

Fig. 4 Welding table uses a 40-in. extension block bolted to the

side to support a 20-ft section of the main gantry-carrying beam.

Fig. 5 A Demmeler precision locating angle squares up the end

of a main gantry-carrying beam section.

Fig. 6 Precision-ground plate at end of bridge traverse assembly

accommodates accurate attachment of critical drive components.

Fig. 7 Precision guide rails clamped to the table preparatory to

permanent attachment. Rails will carry a small gantry-mounted
drill press positioned via a linear encoder.

in. hole to hole and 0.002-in. overall.

System angles and blocks can be attached
to the sides of the table to act as outriggers for parts that are larger than the table
surface Fig. 4.
Fixture elements are engineered to
precision-match the tables hole-and-grid
pattern for quick setup; robust, stable performance; and easy removal. Structural
pieces have slots to locate fixtures between holes. Positioning and clamping
bolts attach fixtures, workpiece positioners, and other elements to the worktables
or to each other Fig. 5. The hardened
clamping bolts provide up to three tons of
clamping force and withstand up to 25
tons of shear.
We use a 10- 5-ft Bluco table to assemble the gantry beams box sections as
squarely as possible, Fruci said. Our materials are typical steels: 8036, 304 stainless, and lots of 1018 cold-rolled. Proper
techniques such as skip welding, and weld36


ing from both ends mean we avoid distortions due to overheating we hold a tolerance of less than one millimeter over
the length of the beams. Then we weld
precision-ground stripper plates to the
beams Fig. 6.
With this approach, we pay technicians to do final drilling and tapping in the
field after gantry elements are erected
on the customers site rather than paying for both milling center time while nevertheless having to pay field techs to make
final adjustments anyway.

Advanced Development
A complete 3-D solid model database
including all the tables parts, tools, and
modular elements was included with the
package Precision Metal Fab ordered.
Fruci said, We design in 3-D models and
actually have the Demmeler table in our
3-D realm. When we design a part, first

we go for functionality, then we tweak it

to fit the dimensioning norms of the Bluco
The company is in the process of
adding precision guided rails on either
side of the table Fig. 7. A small gantry
running on the rails will be installed across
the table. Then, a precision drill press will
be mounted to the gantry and positioned
via a linear encoder. The resulting hybrid
fixturing table/machine tool will enable
both welding and drilling of a fabricated
section without moving the workpiece
from the fixture.
The efforts to increase Precision Metal
Fabs capacity to produce high-quality,
cost-effective components for customers
are paying off, and the steadily increasing
business has led to the need for larger
quarters. In March, the company moved
into new facilities almost double the original size.



2:24 PM

Page 37

For Info go to

Fulcer and Fogle Feature August 2007:Layout 1


3:20 PM

Page 38

Tips for GTA Welding

4130 Chrome-Moly
Steel Tubing

When GTA welding chrome-moly tubing, minimizing heat creates quality welds.

How to choose the

correct filler rod
and establish a
weld pool are
among the details

4130 chrome-moly steel is heavier than

aluminum and less corrosion resistant
than stainless steel. So why use it?
In a word: strength. In another word:
4130 chrome-moly steel offers approximately 70,000 lb/in.2 of tensile strength
down to 18-in. wall thickness, but is malleable enough to bend to the needs of critical tubing applications used in certain
racing and aviation applications. It is also
a material that continues to be surrounded
with mystery when it comes to welding.
For many years, welding operators
have used the oxyfuel process to weld 4130
steel tubing, while others avoided it altogether, thinking it was too exotic and difficult to weld. However, welding operators are learning that it is not so different



JACK FULCER is operations and product manager at Weldcraft, Appleton, Wis., and JEFF
FOGLE is process specialist, TIG solutions, at Miller Electric Co., Appleton, Wis.



to weld than mild steel, and in some instances gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding
has replaced oxyfuel as a preferred
method of joining.
As with most materials, heat is the
number one enemy of 4130 steel. Fortunately, GTA welding creates a narrow
heat-affected zone (HAZ) to minimize
weak joints or cracking that can result
from excessive heat.
4130 chrome-moly steel contains approximately 0.28 to 0.33% carbon, 20%
molybdenum, and 0.8 to 1.0% chromium.
While the latter amounts of chromium
make it significantly less corrosion resistant than stainless steel, the amount of carbon it contains (though higher) makes it
similarly weldable and conductive as mild

Fulcer and Fogle Feature August 2007:Layout 1


11:09 AM

Page 39

Fig. 1 Clean the tubing.

Fig. 2 Grind the tungsten.

Fig. 3 Set the tungsten extension.

Fig. 4 A cluster joint of three tubes.

Start to Finish with

Dirt, oil, and rust can weaken or contaminate 4130 chrome-moly steel welds,
and therefore, the tubing must be thoroughly cleaned prior to GTA welding. Remove any rust with a 3M Scotch-Brite
pad and/or an emery cloth and wipe the
tubing with a clean cloth Fig. 1. A stainless steel brush designated for the purpose
also works.
Next, choose the appropriate filler rod
for the desired weld results. For example,
more rigid welds would be best made with
an ER80S-D2 classification filler rod (due
to its higher tensile strength), while an
ER70S-2 classification filler rod would be
better suited for welds requiring more
flexibility or ductility. In either instance,
both filler rods offer overmatching
strength (more than the 70,000 lb/in.2 of
the 4130 chrome-moly tubing itself).
A 332-in.-diameter filler rod works well
for 4130 chrome-moly tubing with a wall
thickness of 18 in. thick (a common thickness for certain aviation and racing appli-

cations). Thinner tubing (116 in.) would require a 116-in.-diameter filler rod.
As with the tubing itself, clean the filler
rod with an emery cloth or Scotch Brite
pad to remove any contaminates that may
have been picked up from a worktable or
another filler rod.
Note: stainless steel filler rods, despite
their corrosion resistance, are not
A pointed, 332-in. ceriated tungsten
provides good arc transfer at a wide range
of amperages and is an appropriate
choice for GTA welding 4130 chromemoly tubing. Grind the tungsten with an
electric grinder or on a grinding wheel
designated for this purpose Fig. 2.
When using a grinding wheel, grind the
tungsten straight vs. at a 90-deg angle to
ensure that the grind marks run the length
of the electrode, which in turn helps reduce arc wandering.
Set the tungsten extention no farther
than the distance of the inside-diameter
of the cup being used. For example, the
tungsten extension with a number four cup
should be approximately 14 in. Fig. 3.
A DC power source with 100- to 200-

A welding capabilities is preferred for

GTA welding 4130 tubing, as most of the
welding takes place in the range of 80 to
120 A. Match the power source with a 200A air-cooled GTAW torch.
It is not necessary to preheat or
postheat 4130 chrome-moly unless the
wall thickness is greater than 18 in. Instead,
set the power source amperage higher
than needed so there is more heat when
first beginning to weld on the cold material. As the tubing becomes warmer, the
welding operator should decrease the
amount of heat required to complete the
weld, as overheating can result in cracking. Use only the amount of heat required
to obtain complete penetration of the
joint and to maintain uniform bead width.
4130 chrome-moly steel requires pure
argon shielding gas, and the gas flow
should be set according to the cup size
used. For example, when welding indoors
using a number four cup 10 ft3/h would be
adequate, whereas a cup as large as a number eight would require gas flow closer to
20 ft3/h. When GTA welding outdoors or
in an area that is prone to breezes, increase the gas flow to approximately 20 to



Fulcer and Fogle Feature August 2007:Layout 1

Fig. 5 Saddle joints.

30 ft3/h as proportionate to the cup size;

this higher rate helps ensure proper coverage of the weld pool and prevents discontinuities such as cracking.
Backpurging the tubing is not required;
however, for critical applications it is recommended. Backpurging ensures that the
underside of the weld is protected from
atmospheric elements and can be done
with commercial apparatuses or individually manufactured methods.
For complex or tight welding joints,
such as a cluster where three to five tubes
meet, using a gas lens is recommended
Fig. 4. A gas lens replaces the collet body
that is standard in a GTAW torch and provides more laminar, less-turbulent shielding gas flow to better protect the weld
pool. It also allows the welding operator
to move the nozzle farther away from the
joint and extend the tungsten electrode
past the nozzle by 1 in. or more. This extension helps minimize tungsten inclusions and improves visibility of the arc and
the weld pool.

Taking Your Mark





11:10 AM

Page 40

Fig. 6 A standard torch grip.

Fig. 7 Establish a weld pool.




reaches the welding operator with the joints already prepared. Commonly, this tubing has a
saddle joint that is cut
either by an end mill or
a die cutting machine,
and it must be tacked to
avoid shifting and creating gaps during welding
Fig. 5.
To tack the tubing,
first secure it with a
clamp, find a comfortable position, and be
certain there is enough
room around the work
area to move unobstructed during welding. Remember, GTA welding tubing requires a certain amount of agility on the
part of the welding operator, so comfort
is key.
Using either a pencil grip or a standard grip, hold the torch in a manner that
provides the most control, and hold it at
a 90-deg angle to the tubing Fig. 6.
Place the filler rod at a 45-deg angle
and weld four short tacks (approximately
8 in. long) on the tubing, one in each quadrant: top, bottom, left, and right. These
tacks prevent the tubing from shifting and
also eliminate gaps that can lead to incomplete fusion during welding. They also
serve as good starting and stopping points
during welding. For example, it is recommended to weld between the nine-oclock
and twelve-oclock position first, stop, and
then weld on the opposite side.
To establish a weld pool, a good rule
of thumb is to increase the welding amperage (via a foot petal or fingertip control) until the pool is approximately twice
the diameter of the filler rod Fig. 7. For
example, when using a 332-in.-diameter
filler rod, establish a pool that is around
16 of an inch in diameter.
Because 4130 chrome-moly steel is sus-

ceptible to carbide precipitation, care

should be taken to minimize heat input.
The best way to do this is to maintain the
amperage and travel speed necessary to
keep the weld pool uniform at twice the
diameter of the filler rod.
There are two methods to adding the
filler metal to the weld pool. Some welding operators prefer to dab the filler rod
into the weld pool at a steady rate, as is
required when GTA welding aluminum.
Others prefer to rest the filler rod on the
workpiece, keeping it in constant contact
with the weld pool.
The method chosen is primarily a matter of preference and practice, but in both
cases, maintaining a shielding gas postflow of approximately 10 to 15 s after completing the weld is recommended. Doing
so helps protect the weld pool from

A Final Word
Remember, as when welding any other
material, becoming proficient at GTA
welding chrome-moly tubing requires
practice. Beginning welding operators
may find that using less heat and slower
travel speeds is necessary until they have
had more experience GTA welding on
4130 tubing, while the more experienced
welding operators may choose to weld
faster and hotter.
In either instance, the goal is the same:
minimize heat, and with it the HAZ, to
create sound, quality welds.

Change of Address?
Make sure delivery of your Welding Journal is not interrupted. Contact the Membership Department with your new address information (800) 443-9353, ext.

Page 41:FP_TEMP


1:24 PM

Page 41

New day. New challenge. No matter what part

of operations youre responsible for, you need
the best there is. Thats why you and your team
need to be at the 2007 FABTECH International
& AWS Welding Show. Its the way to go to

See metal fabricating machinery in action.

Compare new products and technology.
Talk face-to-face with suppliers.
Evaluate new materials and consumables.
Learn best practices from the pros.

Register today for YOUR SHOW at

North Americas Largest Metal Forming, Fabricating & Welding Event

November 1114, 2007

McCormick Place Chicago, IL USA


Page 42-43:FP_TEMP


1:48 PM

Page 42

American Welding Society 2007 ESV1513

Conference on Weld Cracking

Las Vegas Imperial Palace Hotel & Casino
October 16-17, 2007
Weld cracking is everybodys problem and there is more than one way to tackle it. The popular AWS-sponsored Weld
Cracking Conference will move to Las Vegas this fall. Now known as Weld Cracking 6, this conference will differ from
previous weld cracking conferences, with greater emphasis on the role of the heat-affected zone in such problems. Many
solutions will be presented.

Conference price is $550 for AWS members, $680 for

nonmembers. To register or to receive a descriptive brochure,
call (800) 443-9353 ext. 224, (outside North America, call
305-443-9353), or visit

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.

Page 42-43:FP_TEMP


1:49 PM

Page 43

Conference on Weld Cracking

Las Vegas Imperial Palace Hotel & Casino
October 16-17, 2007
Weld cracking was brought to the attention of government,
engineers, and the public during World War II, when incidents
of cracking appeared in the mass-produced Liberty ships
that were used to deliver our troops to the battlefield.
Metallurgists propelled to investigate the causes of the
cracking and to find solutions. But the interest in cracking
did not stop there. The metallurgists dug deeper and found
that the problem was more widespread than just Liberty
ships. They discovered that welds are made up of three
constituentsthe base metal, the weld itself, and something
called the heat-affected zone (HAZ). And it was in the HAZ
where many cracks were initiated. Often, the HAZ and weld
cracking can go hand in hand.
Much has been learned about weld cracking over the
years, and most of it has been put to use in plants and
infrastructure throughout the world. But industry continues
to develop new materials and new welding processes, so
cracking can arise in new and unexpected ways.
The latest AWS-sponsored conference on the subject, Weld
Cracking 6, will take place in Las Vegas on October 16-17,
2007. Fourteen experts will be on hand to discuss the many
types of cracking that take place in welds, the causes, and
best of all, the solutions, many of which are very interesting.
Experts will speak on the cracking situations facing
numerous materials, including stainless steel, aluminum,
titanium, nickel-base superalloys, and the latest popular
material, grade 91 steel.

Cracking and Heat Treatment Problems in Grade 91 Welds

Jeffrey Henry, Associate, Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.,
Chattanooga, Tenn.
Weld Cracking of Stainless Steel and Nickel Alloys
Causes and Cures
Donald J. Tillack,Tillack Metallurgical Consulting, Inc.,
Consultant to the Nickel Institute, Catlettsburg, Ky.
Avoid Hot Cracking in Aluminum Welds
William Hamilton, Quality Assurance Manager, AlcoTec Wire
Corp., Traverse City, Mich.
How to Avoid Cracking in Titanium Welds
John Lawmon, Principal Engineer, American Engineering &
Manufacturing, Inc., Sheffield, Ohio
A Gleeble-Based Method for Ranking the Strain-Age
Cracking Susceptibility of Nickel-Base Superalloys
David A. Metzler, Senior Mechanical Metallurgist, Haynes
International, Kokomo, Ind.
Characterization of the Number and Sizes of Flaws in
Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds
Fredric A. Simonen, Laboratory Fellow, Engineering Mechanics
Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Wash.
Practical Weld Failure Analysis, and Repair Procedure
Development for Cyclically Loaded Structures
Alma Olsen, Welding Engineer and Owner, ARO Testing, Parma,
Quality Improvements in Heat Treatment
Gary Lewis, Director of Business Development, Superheat
FGH, Mooresville, N.C.
Measuring Residual Stress Using X-Ray Diffraction
Robert Drake, Physicist, Proto Manufacturing Ltd, Oldcastle,
Prediction of Hydrogen Cracking Delay Time to Define
Inspection Delay
Aaron Dinovitzer, President and Principal Engineer, BMT Fleet
Technology, Ltd., Kanata, Ontario
Weldability Tests: The Best Way to Prevent Cracking
Bruce Madigan, Assistant Professor, Welding Engineering,
General Engineering Department, Montana Tech of The
University of Montana,Butte, Mont.
Fracture MechanicsOperating with Defects
Kyle Koppenhoefer, Principal, Advanced Computational and
Engineering Services, Gahanna, Ohio
Semiautomated Ultrasonic Testing for Solidification
Cracking in High Nickel Alloy Butt Welds
Ronald W. Kruzic, Corporate QA/NDE Consultant, Chicago
Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, Ill.
Experience with Alloy 52M Temperbead Weld Overlays on
Dissimilar Metal Welds of PWR Pressurizer Nozzles
Richard E. Smith, PhD, Associate, Structural Integrity
Associates, Inc., Mooresville, N.C.


07 corr:Layout 1


8:17 AM

Page 44


Datasheet 288

Chromium-Molybdenum Steels
Chromium-molybdenum (Cr-Mo) steels are widely used in the
petroleum industry and in elevated-temperature applications
such as in power-generating equipment. They come in various
product forms as shown in Table 1. Oxidation resistance, elevated
temperature strength, and resistance to sulfide corrosion all increase as the chromium and molybdenum contents increase.
Cr-Mo steels are hardenable and undergo high and low metallugical transformations common to low-alloy steels. Mechanical
properties depend upon the condition of heat treatment. Preheat

is required to prevent hardening and cracking. The tensile property requirements of the ASTM specifications for these steels
vary with the product form and type of heat treatment (Table 2).
Low-hydrogen welding procedures must be used with Cr-Mo
steels.The composition of the filler metal should be close to that
of the base metal except the carbon content, which is usually
lower than the base metal. However, higher carbon levels are required when the weldment is to be quenched and tempered, or
when 100% joint efficiency is required at elevated temperatures.

Table 1 Representative ASTM Specifications for Chromium-Molybdenum Steel Product Forms










1 Cr-12Mo







3 Cr-1Mo











9Cr-1Mo and












Table 2 Representative Minimum Tensile Properties of Cr-Mo Products Manufactured to ASTM Standards
Tensile Strength

Yield Strength






60 to 85
60 to 85
55 to 90
70 to 90
55 to 85

30 to 65
30 to 60
30 to 60
40 to 60
30 to 60

207 to 448
207 to 414
207 to 414
276 to 414
207 to 414

20 to 22
20 to 30
18 to 20
18 to 20
18 to 22

414 to 586
414 to 586
379 to 621
483 to 621
379 to 586

Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol. 4, eighth edition.




of Area
30 to 50

35 to 45
40 to 45

Page 45:FP_TEMP


1:51 PM

Page 45


The Emmet A. Craig

is coming to Chicago!
Tuesday & Wednesday, November 13 & 14, 2007
at the

McCormick Center, Chicago

This two-day certificate program is a resistance welding school sponsored by the American
Welding Society and the Resistance Welding Manufacturing Alliance, and taught by industry specialists with extensive resistance welding experience. It covers the basics of resistance welding,
reviews the process, and offers enrichment opportunities. Each participant may learn at their own
pace, and discuss specific welding concerns with the instructors.You are invited to bring your own
samples for discussion.
Please plan to be present for both days of the school.The program is limited to 100 students.
The registration fee includes a copy of the Resistance Welding Manual, Revised Fourth Edition
(a $125 value) and a course binder containing all instructor presentations. Participants will also
receive a certificate of completion.

Lunch is included on both session days. Valuable manual,
guide, and certificate of completion are provided, and
complimentary admission to the show floor. (Hotel
accommodations, all other meals, and transportation are
the responsibility of the attending participant.)

For more info or to secure tabletop exhibit

space, call (800) 443-9353, ext. 223 or e-mail

Resistance Welding Manufacturing Alliance

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied processes including
joining, brazing, soldering, cutting and thermal spraying.

2007 American Welding Society RWM1505

RWMA and AWS Members:

Tabletop Exhibit Space:

X CE August:Layout 1


10:29 AM


Page 46


Metalriciclo 2007: Second Run; Intl Exhibition on Technologies

for the Recovery and Recycling of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. Sept. 1315, Garda Exhibition Center, Montichiari, Brescia,
Italy. Visit
EMO Hannover World of Machine Tools and Metalworking.
Sept. 1722, Hannover Fairgrounds, Hannover, Germany. Visit

METALFORM Mexico. Sept. 2527, Cintermex, Monterrey,

Mexico. Contact Precision Metalforming Assn., (216) 901-8800;;
National Robot Safety Conf. XIX. Oct. 14, Marriott Center East,
Indianapolis, Ind. Contact Robotic Industries Assn.,

24th Annual ASM Intl Heat Treating Society Conf. and Expo.
Sept. 1719, Cobo Hall, Detroit, Mich. Visit

SOUTH-TEC and SME Motorsports. Oct. 24, Charlotte Convention Center, Charlotte, N.C. Cosponsored by Society of Mfg.
Engineers, Assn. for Mfg. Technology, and American Machine
Tool Distributors Assn. Visit

3rd Technical Conf. on Injection Molding. Sept. 1819, Wyndham in Playhouse Square, Cleveland, Ohio. Contact Plastics Technology,; (646) 827-4848.

National Maritime Salvage Conf. & Expo. Oct. 911, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, Va. Sponsored by American Salvage Assn. and Marine Log magazine. Visit

5th Annual North American Hydroforming Conf. and Expo. Sept.

1921, Loews Vanderbilt Hotel, Nashville, Tenn. Contact The
Tube & Pipe Assn., Intl.,; (815) 399-8775.

ASME India Oil and Gas Pipeline Conf. Oct. 1518, Le Meridien, New Delhi, India. Contact: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Visit

Marine Log Global Greenship Conf. & Expo. Sept. 20, 21, Washington Marriott, Washington, D.C. Will focus on cost-effective
solutions for meeting pollution-prevention regulations. Visit

3rd Annual Careers in Construction Week. Oct. 1519,

Gainesville, Fla. Contact: National Center for Construction, Education, and Research,

Die Mold Expo. Sept. 2527, Tech Center, Auburn Hills, Mich.
Contact (800) 552-3288;

For info go to



Southeast Asia Wire and Tube Trade Fairs. Oct. 1618, Bangkok,
Thailand. Contact: Messe Dsseldorf North America,;

For info go to

X CE August:Layout 1


10:29 AM

Page 47

Weld Cracking VI Conf. Oct. 16, 17, Imperial Palace Hotel, Las
Vegas, Nev. To include conditions that trigger cracking in weldments and steps to prevent cracking in steel, stainless steels, aluminum, and titanium. Contact: AWS Conferences and Seminars
Business Unit, (800) 443-9353, ext. 223;
ICALEO 2007 Conf. Oct. 29Nov. 1, Hilton Hotel, Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, Fla. Contact: Laser Institute of
America, Conference Dept.,
Kiev Technical Trade Show 2007. Oct. 31Nov. 2, National Complex Expocenter of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine. Contact
Safety Management Academy. Nov. 39, Clemson University,
Clemson, S.C. Hosted by National Center for Construction Education and Research. Contact; (888) 622-3720.
16th Steelmaking Conf. and 6th Ironmaking Conf. Nov. 68,
Metropolitano Convention Center, Rosario, Argentina.

FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show. Nov. 1114,

McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. This show is the largest event in
North America dedicated to showcasing a full spectrum of metal
forming, fabricating, tube and pipe, and welding equipment and
technology. Contact: American Welding Society, (800/305) 4439353, ext. 462;

Friction Welding. Nov. 12, 13, Chicago, Ill., during the

FABTECH Intl and AWS Welding Show. Will include numerous
short presentations on linear friction, friction stir, and conventional friction welding. Contact: AWS Conferences and Seminars
Business Unit, (800) 443-9353, ext. 223;

For info go to

PACE 2008, The Power of Paint + Coatings. Jan. 2730, Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, Calif. Visit
MetalForm. April 13, Birmingham-Jefferson Convention Complex, Birmingham, Ala. Contact Precision Metalforming Assn.,
(216) 901-8800;;
PICALO 2008. April 1618, Capital Hotel, Beijing, China. Third
Pacific Intl Conf. on Applications of Lasers and Optics. For information, visit
Automotive Laser Application Workshop, ALAW 2008. May
1315, Plymouth, Mich. Contact The Laser Institute of America,; (407) 380-1553.

Educational Opportunities
Advanced Pipe Welding. Aug. 2024, Aug. 2731, Sept. 47, Oct.
15, Oct. 812, Oct. 1519, Nov. 1216, Nov. 1923, Nov. 2630,
Cleveland, Ohio. Contact The Lincoln Electric Co. Welding
School. Visit for Bulletin ED.122; (216)
ASME Section IX Seminars. Oct. 2325, Houston, Tex.; Dec.
35, Atlanta, Ga.; April 810, 2008, Las Vegas, Nev. Contact:
ASME Continuing Education Institute, (800) 843-2763;
Automotive Body in White Training for Skilled Trades and
Engineers. Orion, Mich. A 5-day course covers operations, troubleshooting, error recovery programs, and safety procedures for
For info go to



X CE August:Layout 1


10:30 AM

Page 48

automotive lines and integrated cells. Contact: Applied Mfg.

Technologies, Inc., (248) 409-2000;

Meet SNT-TC-1A and NAS-410 requirements. Contact: T.E.S.T.

NDT, Inc., (714) 255-1500;;

Basic Plate & Sheet Metal Welding. A six-week course offered

weeks of Sept. 10Oct. 19, and Oct. 22Nov. 30. Contact The
Lincoln Electric Co. Welding School, Cleveland, Ohio. Visit to obtain Bulletin ED.122; (216) 3838325.

CWI Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. Classes

presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Houston, Tex., and Houma and
Sulphur, La. Contact: Real Educational Services, Inc., (800) 4892890;

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Training Courses and

Seminars. Columbus, Ohio. Contact: Richard McGuire, (614)
Certified Laser Safety Officer Exams. Sept. 21, San Francisco,
Calif.; Nov. 2, Orlando, Fla. Contact: Board of Laser Safety,

Environmental Health and Safety-Related Web Seminars. These

30-min-long Web seminars on various topics are online, real-time
events conducted by industry experts. Most seminars are free.
EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical skills
training in visual examination, ultrasonic examination, ASME
Section XI, and UT operator training. Contact: Sherryl Stogner,
(704) 547-6174;

Comprehensive, All Common Welding Processes Program. A 15week course offered Sept. 10Dec. 21, Oct. 22Feb. 8, 2008,
Cleveland, Ohio. Contact The Lincoln Electric Co. Welding
School. Visit to obtain Bulletin ED.122;
(216) 383-8325.

Essentials of Safety Seminars. Courses are held at numerous

locations nationwide to address federal and California OSHA
safety regulations. Contact: American Safety Training, Inc., (800)

Continuing Education for Welding Inspectors and CWIs. Sept.

2528, Dec. 1114. Chicago, Ill. Atema, Inc. Contact (312) 8613000;

Fabricators and Manufacturers Assn. and Tube and Pipe Assn.

Courses. Contacts: (815) 399-8775;;

CWI/CWE Course and Exam. This 10-day program prepares students for the AWS CWI/CWE exam. Contact: Hobart Institute
of Welding Technology, (800) 332-9448;

Flux Cored Arc Welding/Semiautomatic. A one-week course offered Sept. 2428, Nov. 59, Dec. 1721, Cleveland, Ohio. Contact The Lincoln Electric Co. Welding School. Visit for Bulletin ED.122; (216) 383-8325.

CWI Preparation. Courses on ultrasonic, eddy current, radiography, dye penetrant, magnetic particle, and visual at Levels 13.

Fundamentals of Brazing Course. This three-day course begins



AWS Affiliate Company Members receive:

AWS Individual Membership
Group of AWS Pocket Handbooks
62% discount on shipping
And much more...

For more information, please call

(800) 443-9353, ext. 480, or
(305) 443-9353, ext. 480
For info go to



X CE August:Layout 1


1:53 PM

Page 49

on these dates: Sept. 11, Cincinnati, Ohio; Oct. 16, Greenville,

S.C.; Nov. 13, Hartford, Conn. Includes furnace, torch, dip,
resistance, and induction brazing of metals based on Ni, Al, Ag,
Cu, etc. Contact: Kay & Associates,; (860)
Fundamentals of Brazing Seminar. Sept. 18-20, Cleveland, Ohio.
Topics include technology overview, terms and definitions, six
fundamentals steps of brazing, braze design, filler metals, heating methods, and problem solving. Visit
Gas Detection Made Easy Courses. Web-based and classroom
courses for managing a gas monitor program from technology of
gas detection to confined-space safety. Contact: Industrial
Scientific Corp., (800) 338-3287;
Gas Metal Arc Welding/Semiautomatic. A one-week course offered Sept. 1721, Oct. 29Nov. 2, Nov. 2630, Dec. 1014, Cleveland, Ohio. Contact The Lincoln Electric Co. Welding School. Visit for Bulletin ED.122; (216) 383-8325.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. A one-week course offered Sept.
1014, Oct. 2226, Dec. 37, Cleveland, Ohio. Contact The Lincoln Electric Co. Welding School. Visit
for Bulletin ED.122; (216) 383-8325.
Hellier NDT Courses. Contact: Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2,
Niantic, CT 06357; (860) 739-8950; FAX: (860) 739-6732.
Laser Safety Training Courses. Courses based on ANSI Z136.1,
Safe Use of Lasers, presented in Orlando, Fla., or at customers
site. Contact: Laser Institute of America, (800) 345-3737;
For info go to

Machine Safeguarding Seminars. Contact: Rockford Systems,

Inc., (800) 922-7533;
Machining and Grinding Courses. Contact: TechSolve,

Impress my

Maybe save
my employer

Maintenance Welding. Aug. 2024, Oct. 29Nov. 2, Cleveland,

Ohio. Contact The Lincoln Electric Co. Welding School. Visit for Bulletin ED.122; (216) 383-8325.
Modern Furnace Brazing. Oct. 2426. Madison Heights, Mich.
Course teaches successful brazing using controlled and vacuum
atmospheres, joint design, and problem solving. Contact Marianne Huesing,; or visit
Motorsports Welding School, Advanced Materials Course. A fiveday course begins on these dates: Sept. 17, Oct. 15, Dec. 10,
Cleveland, Ohio. Contact: The Lincoln Electric Co.,; (216) 383-8325.

Consider the AWS Certified

Welding Supervisor Program.

Motorsports Welding School, Basic Materials Course.

Cleveland, Ohio. All are five-day courses beginning on these
dates: Sept. 10, Sept. 24, Oct. 8, Nov. 12, and Dec. 3. Contact:
The Lincoln Electric Co., (216) 383-8325; www.lincolnelectric

Natl Robot Safety Conf. XIX. Oct. 14, Indianapolis Marriott

Center East, Indianapolis, Ind. Contact Robotics Industries
(734) 994-6088.

2006 American Welding Society

NACE Intl Training and Certification Courses. Contact: Natl

Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers, (281) 228-6223;

Now theres an AWS certification for welders, foremen and

managers who want to lead their companys welding team to
new heights of productivity and quality. A five-day prep
course focuses on knowledge of the science and economics
of high-throughput welding. As an AWS Certified Welding
Supervisor, you can make a difference in making your
company more profitable and competitive!
For more information on the AWS Certified Welding Supervisor
program, visit our website at
or call 1-800-443-9353 ext 470 (outside the U.S. call 305-4439353). See a schedule of certification seminars coming to your
area in the Coming Events pages of this Welding Journal.



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Page 50

AWS Certification Schedule

Certification Seminars, Code Clinics and Examinations
Application deadlines are six weeks before the scheduled seminar or exam. Late applications will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee.

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)

9-Year Recertification for CWI and SCWI







Corpus Christi, TX
Miami, FL
Anchorage, AK
Salt Lake City, UT
Philadelphia, PA
Tulsa, OK
Seattle, WA
Minneapolis, MN
St. Louis, MO
Miami, FL
Baton Rouge, LA
Long Beach, CA
Newark, NJ
Roanoke, VA
Corpus Christi, TX
Nashville, TN
Dallas, TX
Portland, OR
Columbus, OH*
Sacramento, CA
Miami, FL
Syracuse, NY
Reno, NV
Houston, TX
Fresno, CA
New Orleans, LA
Miami, FL
Albuquerque, NM
Pittsburgh, PA
Denver, CO
Seattle, WA
Milwaukee, WI
Indianapolis, IN
Atlanta, GA
Houston, TX
San Diego, CA
Norfolk, VA
Portland, OR
Boston, MA
Phoenix, AZ
Miami, FL
Anchorage, AK
Dallas, TX
Chicago, IL

Sep. 23-28
Sep. 23-28
Sep. 30-Oct. 5
Sep. 30-Oct. 5
Oct. 14-19
Oct. 14-19
Oct. 21-26
Oct. 21-26
Oct. 28-Nov. 2
Oct. 28-Nov. 2
Nov. 25-30
Nov. 25-30
Dec. 2-7
Dec. 3-7
Dec. 9-14
Dec. 9-14
Dec. 9-14
Dec. 16-21
Dec. 16-21
Jan. 6-11, 2008
Jan. 6-11
Jan. 13-18
Jan. 13-18
Jan. 27-Feb. 1
Jan. 27-Feb. 1
Feb. 3-8
Feb. 3-8
Feb. 10-15
Feb. 10-15
Feb. 24-29
Feb. 24-29
Feb. 24-29
Mar. 2-7
Mar. 2-7
Mar. 2-7
Mar. 9-14
Mar. 30-Apr. 4
Mar. 30-Apr. 4
Mar. 30 -Apr. 4

Sep. 1
Sep. 20
Sep. 22
Sep. 29
Sep. 29
Sep. 29
Oct. 6
Oct. 6
Oct. 20
Oct. 20
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Nov. 3
Nov. 3
Nov. 3
Dec. 1
Dec. 1
Dec. 8
Dec. 8
Dec. 15
Dec. 15
Dec. 15
Dec. 22
Dec. 22
Jan. 12, 2008
Jan. 12
Jan. 19
Jan. 19
Feb. 2
Feb. 2
Feb. 9
Feb. 9
Feb. 16
Feb. 16
Mar. 1
Mar. 1
Mar. 1
Mar. 8
Mar. 8
Mar. 8
Mar. 15
Apr. 5
Apr. 5
Apr. 5

Dallas, TX
Orlando, FL
New Orleans, LA
Denver, CO
Dallas, TX

Oct. 29-Nov. 3
Dec. 3-8
Jan. 14-19, 2008
Feb. 11-Feb. 16
Mar. 10-Mar. 15


* Mail seminar registration and fees for Columbus seminars only

to National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 1055
Crupper Ave., Columbus, OH 43229-1183. Phone (614) 888-8320.
Exam application and fees should be mailed to AWS.

**For current CWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the
exam. If needed, recertification exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified
Welding Inspector.

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)




Atlanta, GA
Tulsa, OK
Atlanta, GA
Long Beach, CA
Atlanta, GA
Houston, TX
Baton Rouge, LA

Sept. 24-28
Oct. 15-19
Nov. 12-16
Nov. 26-30
Jan. 14-18, 2008
Jan. 28-Feb. 1
Mar. 31-Apr. 4

Sept. 29
Oct. 20
Nov. 17
Dec. 1
Jan. 19, 2008
Feb. 2
Apr. 5

CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (RI)




St. Louis, MO
Philadelphia, PA
Seattle, WA
Jacksonville, FL
Long Beach, CA
Indianapolis, IN
Houston, TX

Sept. 24-28
Oct. 22-26
Nov. 5-9
Nov. 26-30
Jan. 14-18, 2008
Feb. 11-15
Mar. 10-14

Sept. 29
Oct. 27
Nov. 10
Dec. 1
Jan. 19, 2008
Feb. 16
Mar. 15

Radiographic Interpreter certification can be a stand-alone credential or

can exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)

Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the
Code Clinic portion of the seminar (usually first two days).

Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWI)

Exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding
Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.

Certified Welding Fabricator

This program is designed to certify companies to specific
requirements in the ANSI standard AWS B5.17, Specification for
the Qualification of Welding Fabricators. There is no seminar or
exam for this program. Call ext. 448 for more information.

Code Clinics & Individual Prep Courses

The following workshops are offered at all sites where the CWI
seminar is offered (code books not included with individual prep
courses): Welding Inspection Technology (general knowledge and
prep course for CWI Exam-Part A); Visual Inspection Workshop
(prep course for CWI Exam-Part B); and D1.1 and API-1104
Code Clinics (prep courses for CWI Exam-Part C).

On-site Training and Examination

For information on any of our seminars and certification
programs, visit our website at or contact
AWS at (800/305) 443-9353, Ext. 273 for Certification and Ext.
224 for Seminars.
Please apply early to save Fast Track fees. This schedule is
subject to change without notice. Please verify the dates with the
Certification Dept. and confirm your course status before making
final travel plans.

AWS 2007


On-site training is available for larger groups or for programs

customized to meet specific needs of a company. Call ext. 219 for
more information.

International Courses
The Mexico AWS-accredited seminar and testing location is
Dalus, S.A. de C.V., Monterrey, N.L. It employs S.E.N.S.E.
(Schools Excelling Through Skill Standards Education)
programs. Contact Lorena Garza at



Monterrey, Mexico

Nov. 5-9

Nov. 10

Society News August:Layout 1


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Page 51



Team Industries Receives Labor-Management Award

eam Industries, Inc., Kaukauna,
Wis., an AWS Sustaining Member
company, was selected by the
Union Label & Service Trades Department, AFL-CIO, to receive its 2007
Labor-Management Award for their
firm dedication to the principles of progressive labor-management relations and
their commitment to the dignity of work
and workers. The company was nominated by the United Association of
Plumbers and Steamfitters (UA).
Team Industries, founded in 1987, has
completed 20 years in the union fabrication business without a single grievance
being filed. The companys state-of-theart facility produces piping and pressure
vessels for numerous industries with emphasis on petroleum, chemical, and
power-generating plants throughout the
United States and Canada. It also markets a welding positioner and gripper designed for pipe welding.
Present at the ceremony were Charlie
E. Mercer and James H. Dunn, president
and secretary-treasurer, respectively,
Union Label & Service Trades Dept.;
Rich Trumka, secretary-treasurer, AFLCIO; Stephen F. Kelly, assistant general
president, United Assn. of Plumbers and
Steamfitters; and John R. Panetti, chairman of the board, Team Industries, Inc.
Panetti noted, Team Industries is
committed to the advancement of the

Proudly displaying the prestigious Labor-Management Award are (from left) James H. Dunn,
Charlie E. Mercer, Rich Trumka, John R. Panetti, and Stephen F. Kelly.
welding and fabrication industry by playing active roles on national committees
devoted to the development of codes and
standards, including participation on the
AWS D1, Structural Welding Committee,
Pipe Fabrication Institute, and American
Society of Mechanical Engineers committees. Team Industries has sponsored

AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)

training for more than 50 of its employees in the shop, engineering, management, and quality control. It also helped
to develop the UA Fabricator classification denoting a journeyman who is a
specialist in fabrication techniques with
emphasis on x-ray quality welding.

Three Conferences to Address Current Welding Issues

his months AWS conference on
new welding processes will be followed in October by conferences
on weld cracking and innovative welding
processes affecting the nations shipbuilding industry.
Among the topics to be discussed Aug.
14 and 15, in San Diego, Calif., during the
Conference on the Explosion of New
Processes, are deformation resistance,
magnetic pulse, disc laser, laser stir, and
several variations of friction stir welding,
plus an innovative room-temperature
brazing using nanoscale layers, and updates on the gas metal arc process, ultra-

sonic joining of metals, and variations on

fiber laser welding. One presentation will
detail a new ultrasonic impact treatment
for improving fatigue resistance of welded
The AWS Conference on Weld Cracking VI, scheduled for Oct. 16, 17, in Las
Vegas, Nev., will offer solutions to a number of cracking and heat treatment problems impacting stainless steel, nickel alloys, aluminum, and titanium. Addressed
will be practical weld failure analysis and
repair procedures for cyclically loaded
structures, measuring residual stress using
x-ray diffraction, prediction of hydrogen

cracking delay time, ultrasonic testing for

solidification cracking in high-nickel alloy
butt joint welds, and overlays placed over
dissimilar metal weldments.
Chaired by Lee Kvidahl, past AWS
president, the 5th Charting the Course in
Welding: U.S. Shipyards Conference, will
be held in Newport News, Va., Oct. 18,
19. Featured will be 17 papers addressing
welding-related and safety concerns
unique to the shipbuilding industry.
Complete descriptions of these conferences and registration information is
online at, or call
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 229.



Society News August:Layout 1


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Page 52

Tech Topics
Standards for Public Review
A5.16/A5.16M:200X, Specification for
Titanium and Titanium-Alloy Welding
Electrodes and Rods. Revised $25. Review expired 7/30/07.
D14.5/D14.5M:200X, Specification for
Welding of Presses and Press Components.
Revised $92. Review expires 8/13/07.
AWS was approved as an accredited
standards-preparing organization by the
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved
by ANSI, require that all standards be
open to public review for comment during the approval process. The above standards have been submitted for public review. A draft copy may be obtained from
Rosalinda ONeill,;
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 451.
ISO/DIS 9606-1, Qualification test of
welders Fusion welding Part 1: Steels.
ISO/DIS 14172, Welding consumables
Covered electrodes for manual metal arc
welding of nickel and nickel alloys Classification.
ISO/DIS 2503, Gas welding equipment
Pressure regulators and pressure regulators with flow metering devices for gas cylinders used in welding, cutting and allied
processes up to 300 bar.
ISO/DIS 26304, Welding consumables
Solid wire electrodes, tubular cored electrodes and electrode-flux combinations for
submerged arc welding of high strength

steels Classification.
Copies of the above Draft International Standards are available from your
national standards body, which in the
United States is ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St., 4th
Floor, New York, NY 10036; (212) 6424900. Any comments regarding ISO documents should be sent to your national
standards body. In the United States, if
you wish to participate in the development
of International Standards for welding,
contact Andrew Davis,;
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 466.
Standard Approved by ANSI
D1.9/D1.9M:2007, Structural Welding
Code Titanium. Approved 6/5/07.

Technical Committee
Aug. 15, International Standards Activities Committee. Pella, Iowa. Contact:
A. Davis, ext. 466.
Aug. 16, Technical Activities Committee. Pella, Iowa. Contact: J. Gayler, ext.
Sept. 1821, D1 Committee on Structural Welding. Salt Lake City, Utah. Contact: S. Morales, ext. 313.
All AWS technical committee meetings are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend a meeting should contact the
committee secretary listed for the meeting notice at (800/305) 443-9353.

Technical Help Wanted

Resistance Welding Pros
Pros interested in the design, construction, calibration, safe operation,
and maintenance of resistance welding equipment are sought by the J1
Committee on Resistance Welding
Equipment to help prepare standards
related to RW consumables, components, and machinery. The committees next meeting will be held Nov.
13 during the Fabtech International
& AWS Welding Show in Chicago.
Contact Secretary Annette Alonso,; (800) 443-9353,
ext. 299. To apply for membership online, visit
Sign Structures Pros
Volunteers are sought to help
draft a new AWS standard for welding of on-premise sign structures. Experts involved in the manufacture and
installation of signs and related structures as well as users of on-premise
sign structures are urged to join. Intl
Sign Assn. members initiated the
project and will participate. Contact
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 472.

A2.4:2007, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and NDE, Released

WS A2.4:2007, Standard Symbols

for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination, presents
detailed information and examples for the
construction and interpretation of these
symbols. Developed by the AWS A2 Committee on Definitions and Symbols, the

document is intended to streamline communication between fabrication, design,

and inspection personnel.
The 138-page standard lists for $108
for AWS members; $144 for nonmembers.
This document may be purchased from
World Engineering Xchange (WEX),

Ltd., in the United States and Canada by

calling toll-free (888) 935-3464; elsewhere, call (305) 824-1177; or FAX (305)
Visit to download a catalog listing all AWS standards,
books, and other products.

Nominees Solicited for Robotic Arc Welding Awards

ominations are solicited for the
2008 Robotic and Automatic Arc
Welding Award. December 31 is
the deadline for submitting nominations.
The nomination packet should include
a summary statement of the candidates
accomplishments, interests, educational
background, professional experience,
publications, honors, and awards.
Send your nomination package to
Wendy Sue Reeve, awards coordinator,
550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126.



For more information, contact Reeve

at, or call (800/305) 4439353, ext. 293.
In 2004, the AWS D16 Robotic and Automatic Arc Welding Committee, with the
approval of the AWS Board of Directors,
established the Robotic and Automatic
Arc Welding Award. The award was created to recognize individuals for their significant achievements in the area of robotic arc welding. This work can include
the introduction of new technologies, es-

tablishment of the proper infrastructure

(training, service, etc.) to enable success,
and any other activity having significantly
improved the state of a company and/or
industry. The Robotic Arc Welding Award
is funded by private contributions. It will
be presented this year at the AWS Awards
and AWS Foundation Recognition Ceremony and Luncheon to be held in conjunction with the FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show, Nov. 1114,
in Chicago, Ill.

Society News August:Layout 1


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Page 53

New AWS Supporters

Sustaining Members
Anderson Steel Supply, Inc.
3811 River Dr. N.
Great Falls, MT 59405
Representative: Dan Rooney
Anderson Steel Supply is a structural
steel fabricator servicing industrial, commercial, and residential construction. It
also offers a wide range of products and
services, including supplying steel and
miscellaneous metals, rebar, commercial
doors and frames, finish hardware, and
building specialty products.
JGC Corp.
2-3-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-Ku
Yokohama 200-6001, Japan
Representative: Keizo Hosoya
JGC Corp. is a leading engineering
contractor in Japan. It has participated in
more than 20,000 projects in more than
50 countries. The wide range of its projects include oil and gas development, petroleum refining, gas processing, petrochemicals, and environment protection.
Maine Oxy/NESOM
22 Albiston Way
Auburn, ME 04210
Representative: Warren Swan
Maine Oxy offers a full line of gas,
welding, and safety equipment made by
leading manufacturers. Its New England
School of Metalwork (NESOM) offers
complete welding and safety training and
welder certification programs, featuring
multiple training locations and a complete mobile welder training trailer.

Affiliate Companies
A & B Metal Services, Inc.
6219 Wendell Dr.
Wesley Chapel, FL 33544
Advance Mfg. Co.
8 Turnpike Industrial Rd.
PO Box 726
Westfield, MA 01085
Alpine Mobile Welding
PO Box 385
Shoshone, ID 83352
Azure Dynamics
9 Forbes Rd.
Woburn, MA 01801

Membership Counts

As of

Welding distributor............................46
Total corporate members..................1,627
Individual members.....................46,265
Student + transitional members........5,220
Total members..............................51,485

Coastal Precision Machine

250 Edsel Dr.
Richmond Hill, GA 31324

Microtech Welding Corp.

3601 Focus Dr.
Ft. Wayne, IN 46818

Av Banzer 3510
Entre 4 to y 5 to anillo Frente
al banco visa, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Science and Technology Corp.

15 Research Dr.
Hampton, VA 23666

Enduron/Custom Inc.
150 Cree Crescent
Winnepeg, MB R3J 3W1
Fluid Dynamics International
1095 Cedar Ridge Rd.
Kendrick, ID 83537
Gastonia Iron Works
624 Legion Rd., PO Box 748
Mount Holly, NC 28120

Supporting Companies
Hackett Precision Co., Inc.
1001 W. Kirkland Ave.
Nashville, TN 37216

Gulf Coast Environmental Systems, LLC

18150 I-45 N.
Willis, TX 77318

General Electrode Engineering Co., Inc.

P. O. Box 841, 109 Beaver St.
Cockeysville, MD 21030

Kendra Construction Services, Inc.

3401 State Rd.
Bakersfield, CA 93308

S. Q. Fabrication, Inc.
391 Progress Dr.
Andalusia, AL 36421

Magnum Piering
6083 Schumacher Park Dr.
Westchester, OH 45069

Vacuum Barrier Corp.

4 Barten Ln., PO Box 529
Woburn, MA 01801
Educational Institutions
Allied Skills Training Center
2045 Les Manedin, Ste. B
Brownsville, TX 78521
Center for Manufacturing Excellence
3000 Log City Trail
Galesburg, IL 61401
Charles H. McCann Tech. H. S.
70 Hodges Cross Rd.
North Adams, MA 01247
Como-Pichton CISD
Hwy. 11 E.
Como, TX 75431
Red Deer College Welding Dept.
100 College Blvd.
Red Deer, Alberta T4N 5H5

Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award Nominees Sought

ctober 14, 2007, is the deadline for
submitting nominations for the
2008 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi
Award, sponsored by the Dept. of Ocean
Engineering at Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. It is presented each year
to one person who has made significant
contributions to the advancement of
materials joining through research and

development. The candidate must be 40

years old or younger, may live anywhere
in the world, and need not be an AWS
member. The nomination should be
prepared by someone familiar with the
research background of the candidate.
Include a rsum listing background, experience, publications, honors, awards,
plus at least three letters of recommen-

dation from researchers.

This award was established to recognize Prof. Koichi Masubuchi for his numerous contributions to the advancement
of the science and technology of welding,
especially in the fields of fabricating marine and outer space structures.
Submit nominations to Prof. John
DuPont at


Society News August:Layout 1


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Page 54

Member-Get-a-Member Campaign Final Tally

Final Results 200607 Campaign
Congratulations to these winners:
Most New Individual Members
Linda Taylor
Most New Student Members
Charles Daily
International Sponsor Winner
Chaim Daon
Listed below are the members who par-

ticipated in the June 1, 2006, through May

31, 2007, campaign. See page 65 for rules
and the prize list. Call the Membership
Dept. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 480, for information about your status as a member
proposer. These final result listings are
dated May 31, 2007.
Winners Circle
AWS Members who have sponsored 20 or
more new Individual Members, per year,
since June 1, 1999.
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley7
E. Ezell, Mobile5
J. Merzthal, Peru2
G. Taylor, Pascagoula2
B. Mikeska, Houston1
R. Peaslee, Detroit1
W. Shreve, Fox Valley1
M. Karagoulis, Detroit1
S. McGill, Northeast Tennessee1
L. Taylor, Pascagoula1
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona1
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona1
R. Wray, Nebraska1
M. Haggard, Inland Empire1
Note: The superscript number denotes the
number of times Winners Circle status has
been achieved by the member.
Presidents Guild
AWS Members sponsoring 20 or more new
Individual Members between June 1, 2006,
and May 31, 2007.
L. Taylor, Pascagoula 91
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley 30
E. Ezell, Mobile 20
Presidents Roundtable
AWS Members sponsoring 919 new Individual Members between June 1, 2006, and
May 31, 2007.
M. Palko, Detroit 16
W. Shreve, Fox Valley 15
C. Daon, Israel 11
R. Myers, L.A./Inland Empire 10
R. Ellenbecker, Fox Valley 9
A. Hoover, Northwestern Pa. 9
L. Mathieu, International 9
G. Mulee, Charlotte 9
Presidents Club
AWS Members sponsoring 38 new Individual Members between June 1, 2006, and
May 31, 2007.
D. Eck, Houston 8



G. Fudala, Philadelphia 8
R. Wilsdorf, Tulsa 7
J. Bruskotter, New Orleans 5
G. Taylor, Pascagoula 5
B. Converse, Detroit 4
T. Ferri, Boston 4
H. Jackson, L.A/Inland Empire 4
J. Leen, Chicago 4
K. Smythia, Kansas City 4
B. Trees, Detroit 4
P. Zammit, Spokane 4
S. Chuk, International 3
J. Goldsberry Jr., SE Nebraska 3
G. Lau, Cumberland Valley 3
P. Phelps, Western Carolina 3
T. White, Pittsburgh 3
C. Yaeger, Northeastern Carolina 3
Presidents Honor Roll
AWS Members sponsoring 1 or 2 new Individual Members between June 1, 2006, and
May 31, 2007. Only those sponsoring 2
AWS Individual Members are listed.
C. Amick, Columbia
A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C.
G. Beer, Northern New York
W. Cash, Fresno
G. Cottrell, South Florida
G. Cunningham, North Texas
A. Demarco, New Orleans
J. Dolan, New Jersey
T. Gamble, New Orleans
D. Gillies, Green & White Mts.
R. Gollihue, Tri-State
S. Harris, Triangle
D. Herr, York-Central Pa.
D. Irvin, Mid-Ohio Valley
J. Jones, Maine
G. Koza, Houston
M. Lamarre, Palm Beach
E. Lamont, Detroit
D. Lawrence, Peoria
J. Little, British Columbia
D. Malkiewicz, Niagara Frontier
S. Modrow, Northwest
P. Newhouse, British Columbia
E. Norman, Ozark
R. Pierce, Mobile
K. Price, Northern Plains
M. Rieb, Inland Empire
D. Robinson, Arizona
D. Shackelford, L.A./Inland Empire
T. Shirk, Tidewater
W. Sims, Long Island
L. Weathers, Tulsa
E. White, SW Virginia
D. Wright, Kansas City
R. Wright, San Antonio
Student Sponsors
AWS Members sponsoring 3 or more new
AWS Student Members between June 1,
2006, and May 31, 2007.
C. Daily, Puget Sound 225
G. Euliano, Northwestern Pa. 116
D. Williams, North Texas 116

A. Demarco, New Orleans 45

H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 44
H. Jackson, L.A./Inland Empire 43
S. Burdge, Stark Central 34
J. Ciaramitaro, N. Central Florida 34
S. Siviski, Maine 30
B. Yarrison, York-Central Pa. 30
B. Suckow, Northern Plains 26
A. Zinn, Eastern Iowa 24
R. Durham, Cincinnati 23
T. Kienbaum, Colorado 22
A. Reis, Pittsburgh 22
M. Anderson, Indiana 21
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 21
G. Putnam, Green & White Mts. 21
D. Ketler, Willamette Valley 20
D. Schnalzer, Lehigh Valley 20
D. Zabel, Southeast Nebraska 20
D. Berger, New Orleans 19
B. Lavallee, Northern New York 19
G. Smith, Lehigh Valley 18
M. Arand, Louisville 17
R. Boyer, Nevada 17
H. Browne, New Jersey 17
D. Marks, Lehigh Valley 17
M. Pointer, Sierra Nevada 17
R. Robles, Corpus Christi 17
W. Harris, Pascagoula 16
C. Donnell, Northwest Ohio 15
R. Hutchison, Long Bch./Or. Cty. 15
D. Kowalski, Pittsburgh 15
B. Butela, Pittsburgh 14
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 14
A. Badeaux, Washington D.C. 13
J. Daugherty, Louisville 13
T. Loney, Saginaw Valley 12
L. Collins, Puget Sound 11
M. Koehler, Milwaukee 11
T. Najor, Detroit 11
R. Norris, Maine 11
C. Schiner, Wyoming 11
J. Cox, Northern Plains 10
B. Faccio, Saginaw Valley 10
G. Kirk, Pittsburgh 10
G. Koza Jr., Houston 10
S. Luis Jr., Calif. Central Coast 10
J. Smith Jr., Mobile 10
A. Dropik, Northern Plains 9
A. Kitchens, Olympic 9
M. Harris, Northwest 9
D. Vranich, North Florida 9
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley 8
L. Davis, New Orleans 8
A. Mattox, Lexington 8
J. Morash, Boston 8
D. Newman, Ozark 8
W. Younkins, Mid-Ohio Valley 8
T. Bridigum, Northwest 7
M. Jones, Saginaw Valley 7
J. Robillard, Columbus 7
T. Buchanan, Mid-Ohio Valley 6
C. Chancy, Long Bch./Or. Cty. 6
D. Combs, Santa Clara Valley 6
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 6
MGM continued on page 68

Society News August:Layout 1


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Page 55

Director: Russ Norris
Phone: (603) 433-0855

District 1 Conference

MAY 19
Activity: Sixteen members of the District
1 Sections met to discuss past activities
and plan for the future. Cassie Burrell,
AWS deputy executive director, made a
presentation detailing the Societys national activities. Russ Norris, District 1
director, conducted the program. The
meeting was held at Crisanver House in
Shrewsbury, Vt.


MAY 14
Activity: The Section members visited
New England Laborers Training Center
in Hopkinton, Mass. The facility trains
members of The Laborers International
Union of North America in welding and
other skills. The facility has been approved
by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
for training of other groups, including high
school and junior college students in welding. Center staff members, Jamie Merloni, training director, and Marie Guilmette, hosted the event.

Shown at the District 1 Conference are (from left) District 1 Director Russ Norris, Warren
Ballard, Walter Chojnacki, Geoff Putnam, Jim Reid, Tom Cormier, Tom Ferri, and Joe


Activity: The Section hosted a CWI exam
for about 50 attendees. District 1 Director Russ Norris conducted the event with
the help of test supervisors Teila Norris
and Jim Reid, and proctors Joseph McGloin, Richard Munroe, and Steven Bowling. The program was held at the Sheraton Bradley Airport Hotel in Windsor,

Boston Section Chair Tom Ferri (left) presents an appreciation award to Marie Guilmette and Jamie Merloni at the New England Laborers Training Center.

Shown at the Connecticut Section CWI examination are (front, from left) Teila Norris and Jim Reid; (standing, from left)
Joseph McGloin, Richard Munroe, and
Steven Bowling.


Activity: The Section held a board meeting at Nichols Deli in Montreal, Que.,
Canada. In attendance were Yves Cote,
Michel Marier, Gil Trigo, and District 1
Director Russ Norris.

Director: Kenneth R. Stockton
Phone: (732) 787-0805

Shown at the Montreal Section program are (from left) Yves Cote, District 1 Director Russ
Norris, Michel Marier, and Gil Trigo.


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Page 56

Director: Roy C. Lanier
Phone: (252) 321-4285


Activity: The Section hosted its annual
awards banquet at Lancaster County Career and Technical Center in Mount Joy,
Pa. The results of the student welding
contest were announced. Treasurer Dave
Hibshman presented a scholarship to
Josh Kryeski. Secretary Merilyn
McLaughlin presented outgoing Chair
Chris Ochs an appreciation award for his
services 20052007.

Shown at the West Palm Beach Section program are (from left) Treasurer Neil Prager, OSHA
Compliance Specialist Vergie Bain, and Chairman Frank Rose.

Director: Leonard P. Connor

Phone: (954) 981-3977


MAY 16
Speaker: Vergie Bain, compliance specialist
Affiliation: OSHA, Ft. Lauderdale
Topic: OSHA requirements for hexavalent chromium
Activity: The program was held at Palm
Beach Community College in West Palm
Beach, Fla.

Director: Neal A. Chapman
Phone: (315) 349-6960

Josh Kryeski (right) receives his scholarship
award from Reading Section Treasurer
Dave Hibshman.

James Lutz (left) receives his Gold Member Certificate Award from Kevin Clear,
Columbus Section chairman.

Director: Don Howard

Phone: (814) 269-2895


MAY 31
Speaker: Mike Flagg, SAW applications
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Tandem subarc welding with PWAC/DC technology
Activity: Following the talk, Flagg presented a demonstration of submerged arc
technology. Jim Lutz received his Gold
Member Award for 50 years of service to
the Society. The program was presented
at Edison Welding Institute in Columbus,
Merilyn McLaughlin presents Chris Ochs
his past chairmans award at the Reading
Sections awards banquet.

Mike Flagg (left) accepts the Columbus

Section helmet clock speaker-appreciation
gift from Chairman Kevin Clear.


Director: Alan J. Badeaux Sr.
Phone: (301) 753-1759


Activity: The Section members toured the
J. W. Harris filler metal manufacturing
plant in Lebanon, Ohio. The tour was
conducted by various company personnel
including Dan Arthur.

Society News August:Layout 1


Welding instructor Tom Geisler (left) presents Jason Heinlein with a Pittsburgh Section Scholarship.

3:14 PM

Page 57

Shown at the Columbus Section program are (from left) Owen Meston, Jason Keyes, and
speaker Mike Flagg.

AWS President Gerald Uttrachi (left) is

shown with Don Howard, District 7 director, at the Johnstown-Altoona Section program in March.
MAY 29
Activity: The Dayton Section members
toured the General Motors Moraine Assembly Plant in Dayton, Ohio. The tour
featured the assembly line that produces
GMC trucks.

Dan Arthur (left) discusses the manufacture of filler metal products for members of the Dayton Section on May 8.


Speaker: Gerald Uttrachi, AWS president
Affiliation: WA Technology, LLC
Topic: Welding race cars
Activity: The Section held its past chairmens night program in Johnstown, Pa.
Activity: The Johnstown-Altoona Section
members participated in a students day
program in Altoona, Pa. Awards were
presented to the outstanding welding students from six local high schools.
MAY 25
Activity: The Johnstown-Altoona Section
held its 40th annual golf outing in
Blairsville, Pa., for 37 participants.

Shown are the winners in the Pittsburgh Section weld-off competition.


Activity: John Foley and Roger Hilty presented the weld-off students with their
test results and various awards. Later in
the day, the group of about 150 attendees
toured the MAGLEV, Inc., facilities in

Pittsburgh, Pa. The program was held at

Community College Allegheny County.
Welding instructor Tom Geisler presented
Jason Heinlein a Section scholarship.
Heinlein has plans to attend classes at
the Lincoln Electric Welding School this


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The Beaver Valley Vo-Tech students attended the Pittsburgh Sections student day activities
in April.

Shown at the Birmingham Sections weldoff competition are first-place winners

(from left) Joseph Knight (FCAW), Dennis Wyatt (GMAW), and David Smith


Activity: The Section hosted a banquet at
Columbus-Lowndes Development Link
in Columbus, Miss. Ricky Collier, a welding instructor at East Mississippi Community College, received the Postsecondary Educator of the Year Award.

The incoming NE Mississippi officers are (from left) Robin Shull, chairman; Sam Gray,
vice chair; Gary Gammill, treasurer; and Ervin Perrigan, secretary.

MAY 17
Activity: The NE Mississippi Section
members held its installation of officers
at Golden Horn Steak House in Columbus, Miss. The incoming officers are
Robin Shull, chairman; Kevin Reed and
Sam Gray, vice chairs; Gary Gammill,
treasurer; and Ervin Perrigan, secretary.
Outgoing Chairman Larry Odom was
presented an appreciation award for his


MAY 24
Activity: The Section hosted an all-day
welding contest at Tennessee Technology
Center in McKenzie, Tenn.

Director: George D. Fairbanks
Phone: (225) 673-6600

Ricky Collier received the Postsecondary

Educator of the Year Award at the NE Mississippi Section program in April.

Director: Wallace E. Honey
Phone: (256) 332-3366


Larry Odom (right) receives his past chairmans appreciation certificate from incoming Chair Robin Shull at the NE Mississippi
Section program in May.

District 8 Conference

Activity: The conference was held at Tri
County Technical College in Pendleton, S.C.


Activity: The Section hosted its weld-off
competition at Lawson State Community
College. Four schools participated:
Bessemer Center for Technology, Shelby
County School of Technology, Gardendale High School, and Bibb County AVC.
Scholarships were presented to the topthree winners.

Society News August:Layout 1


The New Orleans Calcutta Contest winners are Kurt Freeman (left) and Romeo

3:15 PM

Page 59

Recognized at the Mobile Section program were (from left) Grant Myers, Doug Baxter, Jerry
Betts, Nick Frazier, and Steve Ward.


MAY 10
Activity: The Section held its election of
officers for the new year. Elected were
Randy Henderson, chairman; Teresa
Hart and Joshua Sanders, vice chairs;
Brenda Bradley, treasurer; and Eleanor
Ezell, secretary. Also recognized were
past chairmen in attendance and the winners of the Sections scholarship awards.
Recognized were the students who passed
their Certified Welding Supervisors
exam, including Grant Myers, Doug Baxter, Jerry Betts, Nick Frazier, and Steve


Speaker: Pat Gootee, owner
Affiliation: Gootee Construction Co.
Topic: The future of construction in the
New Orleans and Gulf Coast area
Activity: Past Section Chair Tony Demarco demonstrated techniques for welding lead. Glen Jruaszek Sr. received a
$450 scholarship as his reward for being
the student who attended the most Section meetings during the year. Following
the meeting, held at the New Orleans
Pipe Trades, the 62 members and students
were taken on a tour of the facilitys
Activity: The New Orleans Section hosted
its Ninth Annual Fishing Rodeo based at
C&M Fishing Marina in Lafitte, La. The
event, well supported by local companies,
benefited student welders affiliated with
the Section. More than 120 people attended the event including the 70 competing fishermen. The Redfish Contest
winners were Romeo Mamolo, Preston
Mamolo, Ken Sapia, and Mike Silom.
The Speckled Trout Contest winners included Kurt Freeman, Ben McNeil, Ron
Crotwell Sr., and Ron Crotwell Jr. The
Calcutta Contest winners were Kurt Freeman and Romeo Mamolo.

The New Orleans Redfish Contest winners are (from left) Romeo Mamolo, Preston Mamolo,
Ken Sapia, and Mike Silom.

The New Orleans Speckled Trout Contest winners are (from left) Kurt Freeman, Ben McNeil, Ron Crotwell Sr., and Ron Crotwell Jr.

Director: Richard A. Harris
Phone: (440) 338-5921


MAY 18
Speaker: Harry Sadler
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Shipbuilding in the United States
Activity: Outgoing Section Chair Dan
Harrison presented the incoming slate of
officers: Bob Gardner, chairman; Larry
Boros and Jim Szmania, vice chairs;
Mark Demchak, secretary; and Harry
Sadler, treasurer.

Harry Sadler discussed shipbuilding at the

Cleveland Section program in May.


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Having fun at the Cleveland Section program are (from left) Paul Null, Colleen Romantic,
and Bob Gardner, incoming Section chair.

Mark Demchak (left), Cleveland Section

secretary, is shown with Larry Boros, incoming first vice chairman.


MAY 17
Speaker: Angie Grosjean, public relations
Affiliation: HNTB Corp., Toledo, Ohio
Topic: Review of the construction details
of the I-280/Maumee River Crossing
Activity: The Section hosted its Old
Timers Night program with the presentation of awards. Reginald L. Scifers received the Silver Certificate Award for 25
years of service to the Society.

Shown at the Saginaw Valley student welding awards program are (from left) welding instructor Mike Jones from Bay-Arenac Career Center with his students Chris Szeszulski,
Chad Mier, and Jeremy Knickerbocker, and District 11 Director Eftihios Siradakis.

Activity: The Section presented local students with their awards for participating
in welding programs held throughout
Michigan during the 20062007 school
year. District 11 Director Eftihios Siradakis presented the awards.

Director: Sean P. Moran
Phone: (920) 954-3828


Lacy Collins discussed welding metallurgy at the Fox Valley Section program in


MAY 24
Activity: The Section members toured
Spectrochemical Testing in Struthers,
Ohio. Frank Galletta demonstrated the
companys chemical, physical, and metallurgical testing procedures.


Shown at the Fox Valley Section program

in November are presenters Lacy Collins
(left) and Cory Satka.

Director: Eftihios Siradakis
Phone: (989) 894-4101

Speakers: Lacy Collins, Team Industries;
District 12 Director Sean Moran, Miller
Electric Co.; and Cory Satka, Weld
Source Alliance
Topic: Welding metallurgy
Activity: The meeting was held at Fox Valley Technical College in Appleton, Wis.
Following the presentations, the Section
members toured the colleges welding facilities.
Speaker: Sam Gentry, executive director
Affiliation: AWS Foundation, Inc.
Topic: AWS Foundation initiatives and
programs for welding workforce develop-

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Shown at the Fox Valley-sponsored program are (from left) Lakeshore Section officers Dave
Ramseur, secretary; Jeff McLeod, chairman; and John Zielonka, treasurer.
Sean Moran (left), District 12 director, presents Ben Mueller the District Educator
Award at the March Fox Valley program.

Dale Dulberger, WisPASS Project Director,

is shown at the Fox Valley Section-sponsored
program in March.
ment, and WisPASS project overview and
initiatives for a skilled workforce
Activity: The Fox Valley Section hosted
this meeting for members of the Fox Valley, Lakeshore, Madison-Beloit, and Milwaukee Sections. Ben Mueller of the
Lakeshore Section received the District
Educator Award from District 12 Director Sean Moran. The event began with a
tour of Miller Electric Mfg. Co. in Appleton, Wis. The meeting was held at Radisson Paper Valley Hotel. Sixty members attended the program.

Shown at the Chicago Section meeting are (rear) Marty Vondra, and (front, from left) Craig
Ticheler, Chuck Hubbard, Hank Sima, Eric Krauss, and Messrs. Host and Harris.

Director: W. Richard Polanin
Phone: (309) 694-5404


Activity: The Section held a board meeting at Bohemian Crystal Restaurant.
Craig Ticheler received the District Educator Award, Martin Vondra received the
District Meritorious Certificate Award,
and Hank Sima received the Section Educator Award.

Craig Ticheler (right) receives the District

13 Educator Award from Eric Krauss at
the Chicago Section program.

Director: Tully C. Parker
Phone: (618) 667-7744

Craig Wentzel (left) and Roger Edge, Milwaukee Section chair and certification
chair, respectively, are shown at the Fox Valley Section-sponsored program.


Activity: The Sections executive committee members and family members


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Page 62

Shown at the St. Louis Section program are the scholarship winners with representatives from their organizations or schools.

Indiana Section executive committee members roughed it at Brown County State Park.
Shown are (from left) LaDonna Dugger, Treasurer Mike Anderson, Conner Flynn, Vice
Chair Bennie Flynn, Chairman Gary Dugger, and Tony Brosio.
camped out for two days at Brown County
State Park for a rustic setting for its activity planning meetings. The top topics discussed were the Mid-West Team Welding
Tournament and the Professional Welding Competition to be held in Chicago.

Craig Allman demonstrated grinding discs

for the Indiana Section members in May.

MAY 17
Speaker: Craig Allman, technical sales
Affiliation: FlexOvit
Topic: Types and uses of abrasives
Activity: The Indiana Section observed its
annual awards presentation program.
Chairman Gary Dugger presented Phil
Bedel with the District Educator Award.


Phil Bedel (left) received the District Educator Award from Gary Dugger, chairman
of the Indiana Section.


MAY 10
Activity: The Section hosted its annual
students night program at Elks Lodge in
St. Louis, Mo., for 50 attendees. Twelve
students received scholarships for their
outstanding efforts and achievements in
welding technologies at local schools and
Sheet Metal Union Local 36. Six received
scholarships of $500, and six received

Ervin G. Stoch (left) receives the AWS Distinguished Member Award from Tom Baldwin, Arrowhead Section chair, in May.

Director: Mace V. Harris
Phone: (952) 925-1222


MAY 18
Activity: The Section hosted its annual
awards-presentation program at Goodfellas Bar and Grill in Eveleth, Minn.
Ervin G. Stoch, a charter member of the
Section and a member of AWS for 54
years, received his AWS Distinguished
Member Award and pin from Tom Baldwin, Section chairman.

Director: David Landon
Phone: (641) 621-7476


MAY 12
Speaker: John Gayler, director, national
standards activities
Affiliation: AWS Technical Services Dept.
Topic: Staff report on national AWS projects and activities

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Page 63

Activity: Dave McKenzie received the

District 16 Director Award. The program
was held at Holiday Inn Express in Kansas
City, Kan.


MAY 16
Activity: The Section members toured the
Spitz Foundry, Inc., in Hastings, Neb., to
study its procedures for machining gravel
pump parts and casting parts.

Director: Oren P. Reich
Phone: (254) 867-2203

District 17 Conference

JUNE 15, 16
Activity: The District 17 conference was
held at Grand Plaza Hotel in Branson,
Mo. Attending were officers from the
Central Arkansas, Central Texas, East
Texas, North Texas, Oklahoma City,
Ozarks, and Tulsa Sections. Five thousand dollars in scholarships were presented.

Shown are the attendees at the District 17 conference held in Branson, Mo.


Activity: The Section members toured the
Plumbers and Pipefitters Local #29 new
hall and apprenticeship training facilities
in Van Buren, Ark., to learn about its
welding programs. Monte Breedon, business manager, made the presentation.
Founded in 1907, Local #29 is celebrating its 100th anniversary this year.


Central Arkansas Section Chair Dennis

Pickering (left) is shown with presenter
Monte Breedon during a tour of Local
Union #29.

Shown at the Lake Charles Section program are award winners (from left) Rahn
Drost, Joe Vidrine, and Drew Fontenot.

Ruel Riggs (left) receives the District 18 Directors Award from John Mendoza at the
Sabine Section program.

Tom Holt (left), a Sabine Section past chair,

is shown with Vice Chair Morris Weeks.

Director: John L. Mendoza

Phone: (210) 353-3679


MAY 23
Speaker: David Savoy, president
Affiliation: Savoy Technical Services, Inc.,
Sulphur, La.
Topic: Principles and applications for ultrasonic testing
Activity: Savoy demonstrated some of the
latest ultrasonic testing equipment. District 18 Director John Mendoza presented
Joe Vidrine the Section CWI of the Year
Award, Rahn Drost the District CWI of
the Year Award, and Drew Fontenot the
District Educator Award and the District
18 Directors Award. The program was
held at Logans Roadhouse Restaurant in
Lake Charles, La.



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Page 64

District 19 conference attendees are shown at Oxarc Welding Supply Training Center in Spokane, Wash.

Director: William A. Komlos
Phone: (801) 560-2353

Director: Jack D. Compton
Phone: (661) 362-3218


Shown at the District 19 conference are (from left) Wendy Sue Reeve, AWS staff representative; Chuck Daily; Lena Rink, student speaker; Neil Shannon, District 19 director; and Phil


MAY 19
Activity: The Section held its installation
of officers program at Weeks Welding
Labs in Beaumont, Tex. John L. Mendoza,
District 18 director, presented Ruel Riggs
the District 18 Directors Award. The incoming slate of officers was installed, including Ken Dillard, chairman; Morris
Weeks and James Amy, vice chairs; Tom
Holt, secretary; and Ruel Riggs, treasurer.

Director: Neil Shannon
Phone: (503) 201-5142

District 19 Director Awards

The District Director Award provides

a means for District directors to recognize individuals who have contributed
their time and efforts to the affairs of their
local Sections and/or District.



District 19 Director Neil Shannon has

nominated the following to receive this
award for 20062007.
Lena Rink, Stanwood High School Student Chapter
Chuck Daily, Puget Sound Section
Jerry Hope, Puget Sound Section
Phil Zammit, Spokane Section

District 19 Conference

MAY 18, 19
Activity: The meeting, hosted by the
Spokane Section, was held at the Oxarc
Welding Supply Training Center in
Spokane, Wash. This year, nine teams
competed in the 39th Annual Stump the
Welding Experts contest. Eric Waterfield
of the British Columbia Section provided
the questions. Student Lena Rink presented a talk on the April 25 Washington
state welding contest. Leaders of the event
included District 19 Director Neil Shannon, Chuck Daily, and Phil Zammit.

Activity: The Section participated in the
Allan Hancock College and Praxair Career Day event featuring a welding
demonstration trailer. More than 100
members, high school students, and visitor attended the event.
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast members met at Praxair in Fresno, Calif., to
study a number of custom-built hot rods
and talk with Miller Roadster representatives.
Activity: Calif. Central Coast Chair Stan
Luis and Praxair manager Joe Ingram led
a tour of the Praxair pumping plant. Featured were industrial gases and demonstration of several welding processes.
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section
members toured the Praxair facility in
Santa Maria, Calif. Special guests were
students from the local colleges who
learned about opportunities in the welding industry.
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section

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Page 67

Many of the Sacramento Section members posed for a group shot during their tour of Holt
of California in May.

Silvio Modena presents a weld power supply to raffle winner Tony Tully at the Sacramento Section program.
members met at El Camino Jr. High
School to participate in its Career Day activities.
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section
members attended an open house at
Speed Ox Welding Supply in Richmond,
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section
members participated in the career day
activities at Tommi Kunst Jr. High School.
The students saw the video presentation
The Weld of Opportunity, then had a handson demonstration of several welding
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section
members assisted with the Allan Hancock
College and high school welding competition held at the college in Santa Maria,
Calif. Nearly $15,000 in prizes were
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section
members participated in the career day
activities at Arellanes Jr. High School in
Santa Maria, Calif.
Activity: The Calif. Central Coast Section
participated in the FFA Welding Finals
held at Cuesta College in San Luis
Obispo, Calif. The Sections booth displayed Welding Journals and offered information on student memberships and
welder education opportunities.

Shown at the Sacramento Section program are (from left) Treasurer Mark Feuerbach, Past
Chair Rob Purvis, Chairman Mike Rabo, Newsletter Editor Matt Wysocki, District 22 Director and Past Chair Dale Flood, and Secretary Don Robinson.

Director: Dale Flood
Phone: (916) 933-5844


MAY 16
Activity: Fifty-five Section members
toured Holt of California in Pleasant
Grove, Calif. The visit included the welding and shop areas used for servicing
Caterpillar earth-moving equipment. Max
Jones, training development, and Bob
Casey, weld shop foreman, conducted the
program. Following the tour, the Section
convened for the election of officers and
a raffle drawing. Silvio Modena, district
manager, northern California, for Miller
Electric, presented a welding power supply to raffle winner Tony Tully.

Sacramento Section Vice Chair Lorne

Grimes (left) is shown with guide Max Jones
during the Holt of California tour.

Your Opinion Counts Take the Online Survey

The AWS Product Development Committee is conducting a survey to evaluate
ideas for new AWS products. Your input is a crucial part of developing new products and services that meet the needs of the welding industry. To complete this brief
survey, visit
I thank you in advance for participating in this important effort.
Harvey Castner, chairman, Product Development Committee



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AWS Foundation Begins its 7th Annual Silent Auction

he AWS Foundation solicits gift
cards to be sold during the Silent
Auction to be held during the
FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show, Nov. 1114, in Chicago, Ill.
These gift cards will be available for
bid at the Show, and all of the proceeds
will go to benefit the AWS Foundation
scholarship programs.
To participate in the Silent Auction,
you may either purchase a gift card for
$200 or $250 yourself, then donate the
card to the Foundation. Or you may send
a check for the amount of your donation
to the Foundation, and a gift card will be

purchased in your name. The Foundation

purchases cards from a variety of vendors,
including Omaha Steaks, Tony Romas,
Bass Pro Shops, JC Penney, Home Depot,
Macys, etc.
With the holidays coming soon after
the Show, these gift cards can be a great
way for Show attendees to do some of
their holiday gift shopping early.
For more information or to donate a
card, contact Nazdhia Prado-Pulido at, or call her at
(800) 443-9353, ext. 250.
The Foundation thanks the first of the
2007 Silent Auction donors:

AWS Chattanooga Section

AWS Cincinnati Section
AWS Drake Well Section
AWS Northwest Section
AWS NW Pennsylvania Section
AWS Tulsa Section
Nancy and Barry Carlson
Sam Gentry
Hobart Brothers Co.
IWDC, Inc.
The Lincoln Electric Co.
Pferd, Inc.
Select-Arc, Inc.
Ray and Sandy Shook
Howard M. Woodward

Detroit Section Announces Two Named Scholarships

he AWS Detroit Section has announced the establishment of two
$25,000 endowments: the Detroit
Arc Welding District 11 Named Scholarship and the Detroit Resistance Welding
District 11 Named Scholarship.
The announcement was made by Ray
Roberts, Detroit Section chairman and
Andre Young, Section treasurer.
Roberts said, With the support of our
past chairman Don DeCorte, current

AWS Foundation Trustee Amos Winsand,

and our full executive committee, we decided this is a legacy that we can establish
that will provide two additional $1250
scholarships at the District level to support welding education. We are happy to be
a part of the Welding for the Strength of
America Capital Campaign by this action.
Sam Gentry, executive director, AWS
Foundation, said, The Detroit Section
is always at the forefront and in a leader-

ship role at AWS. This assures a long-term

commitment for educational support by
the Detroit Section which has always provided educational opportunities.
Correction: In the July Welding Journal, page 57, Andre Young was incorrectly
identified as Andr Odermatt. Andr
Odermatt is president of Hobart Institute
of Welding Technology, Troy, Ohio. The
Welding Journal regrets the error.

Last Call: Nominations for Image of Welding Awards

ugust 15 is the deadline for submitting your nominations for the
Image of Welding Awards. The
awards are presented in seven categories:
1) Individual; 2) AWS Section; 3) Large
Business (200+ employees); 4) Small
Business; 5) Welding Products Distributor; 6) Educator; and 7) Educational Fa-

MGM continued from page 54

D. Gibson, Oklahoma City 6
R. Grays, Kern 6
L. Hjelle, Northwest 6
C. Kipp, Lehigh Valley 6
G. Saari, Inland Empire 6
J. Angelo, El Paso 5
J. Carney, Western Michigan 5
B. Hallila, New Orleans 5
D. Parker, Idaho/Montana 5
J. Boyer, Lancaster 4
E. Ezell, Mobile 4
A. Gades, Northwest 4
C. Neichoy, Houston 4


cility. The awards recognize those who

have shown notable dedication to promoting the image of welding in their communities. The winners will be announced
Nov. 12 at a special ceremony held during the FABTECH International & AWS
Welding Show in Chicago, Ill.
Nominations will be judged by the

Welding Equipment Manufacturers Committee (WEMCO).

Send your nominations to Adrienne
Zalkind,; or mail to
Image of Welding Awards, 550 NW
LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126. Include
your name, phone number, e-mail and
mailing addresses.

M. Rahn, Iowa 4
R. Richwine, Indiana 4
R. Rowe, Kansas City 4
J. Swoyer, Lehigh Valley 4
D. Wright, Kansas City 4
C. Yaeger, NE Carolina 4
T. Zablocki, Pittsburgh 4
C. Bridwell, Ozark 3
R. Chase, L.A./Inland Empire 3
S. Click, Lexington 3
J. Crosby, Atlanta 3
B. Donaldson, British Columbia 3
T. Garcia, New Orleans 3
F. Gorglione, Connecticut 3
L. Gross, Milwaukee 3

L. Ibarra, San Francisco 3

G. Medina, El Paso 3
W. Menegus, Lehigh Valley 3
R. Miller, Detroit 3
S. Miner, San Francisco 3
T. Moore, New Orleans 3
D. Robinson, Sacramento 3
R. Stein, Baltimore 3
T. Strickland, Arizona 3
M. Tait, L.A./Inland Empire 3
L. Taylor, Pascagoula 3
M. Vann, South Carolina 3
R. Vann, South Carolina 3

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Page 69

Guide to AWS Services

550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126; phone (800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559
(Phone extensions are shown in parentheses.)



Gerald D. Uttrachi
WA Technology, LLC
4313 Byrnes Blvd., Florence, SC 29506

Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)

Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. . . . .(249)


Welding Journal
Andrew Cullison.. . . . .(249)

Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. . . . . . . .(210)
CFO/Deputy Executive Director
Frank R. Tarafa.. . . . . . . .(252)
Deputy Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . .(253)
Associate Executive Director
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . .(246)
Executive Assistant for Board Services
Gricelda Manalich.. . .(294)

Administrative Services
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. . . . . . . . . . .(214)
IT Network Director
Armando .(296)
Hidail . . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)

Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits
Luisa Hernandez.. . . . . . .(266)
Manager, Human Resources
Dora Shade.. . . . . . . . . .(235)


Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . .(319)
Provides liaison services with other national and
international professional societies and standards


Hugh K. Webster. . .
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, DC
(202) 466-2976; FAX (202) 835-0243
Identifies funding sources for welding education, research, and development. Monitors legislative and regulatory issues of importance to
the industry.

Brazing and Soldering

Manufacturers Committee
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . .(246)

RWMA Resistance Welding

Manufacturing Alliance
Susan Hopkins.. . . . . . . .(295)

WEMCO Welding Equipment

Manufacturers Committee
Natalie Tapley.. . . . . . . . .(444)


Associate Executive Director
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . .(246)
Corporate Director, Exhibition Sales
Joe Krall.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Organizes the annual AWS Welding Show and
Convention, regulates space assignments, registration items, and other Expo activities.

National Sales Director

Rob Saltzstein.. . . . . . . . . .(243)
Society and Section News Editor
Howard (244)
Welding Handbook
Welding Handbook Editor
Annette OBrien.. . . . .(303)
Publishes the Societys monthly magazine, Welding Journal, which provides information on the
state of the welding industry, its technology, and
Society activities. Publishes Inspection Trends, the
Welding Handbook, and books on general welding subjects.

Ross Hancock.. . . . .(226)
Assistant Director
Adrienne Zalkind.. . . .(416)



Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards and AWS Fellow and
Counselor nominees.
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)
Managing Director
Andrew R. Davis.. . . . . .(466)
Intl Standards Activities, American Council of
the Intl Institute of Welding (IIW)
Director, National Standards Activities
John L. Gayler.. . . . . . . .(472)
Personnel and Facilities Qualification, Computerization of Welding Information, Arc Welding
and Cutting
Manager, Safety and Health
Stephen P. Hedrick.. (305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of
Plastics and Composites
Technical Publications
AWS publishes about 200 documents widely
used throughout the welding industry.
Senior Manager
Rosalinda ONeill.. . . . .(451)
Staff Engineers/Standards Program Managers
Annette Alonso.. . . . . .(299)
Automotive Welding, Resistance Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting, Definitions and

Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)

Deputy Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . .(253)
Rhenda A. Mayo... . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between Section members and
AWS headquarters. Informs members about AWS
benefits and activities.


Stephen Borrero.. . . .(334)

Welding Iron Castings, Joining of Metals and Alloys, Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering
Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, Intl Filler
Metals, Instrumentation for Welding, UNS Numbers Assignment

Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)

Managing Director
Peter Howe.. . . . . . . . . . .(309)

Brian McGrath . . . . .(311)

Methods of Inspection, Mechanical Testing of
Welds, Welding in Marine Construction, Piping
and Tubing

Director, Operations
Terry Perez.. . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Directs the department operations.

Selvis . . . .(313)

Welding Qualification, Structural Welding

Director, Intl Business & Certification Programs

Priti Jain.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(258)
Directs all intl business and certification programs. Is responsible for oversight of all agencies
handling AWS certification programs.
Senior Manager, Certification Programs
Frank Lopez Del Rincon. (258)
Manages all national certification programs, including Accredited Test Facilities.

Managing Director
Dennis Marks.. . . . . . . .(237)
Director, Education Services Administration
and Convention Operations
John Ospina.. . . . . . . . .(462)
Director, Education Product Development
Christopher Pollock.. (219)
Coordinates in-plant seminars and workshops.
Administers the SENSE program. Assists Government Liaison Committee and Education Committees. Also responsible for conferences, exhibitions, and seminars. Organizes CWI, SCWI, and
9-year renewal certification-driven seminars.

Kim . . . . . . . . . .(215)

Machinery and Equipment Welding, Robotic
and Automatic Welding, Sheet Metal Welding,
Thermal Spray
Reino . . . . . . . .(304)
Welding in Sanitary Applications, High-Energy
Beam Welding, Aircraft and Aerospace, Friction
Welding, Railroad Welding.
Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards
may be obtained only by sending a request in writing to the Managing Director, Technical Services.
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered. However, such opinions represent only the
personal opinions of the particular individuals
giving them. These individuals do not speak on
behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are
informal and should not be used as a substitute
for an official interpretation.



Society News August:Layout 1


3:18 PM

Page 70

Nominees for National Office

nly Sustaining Members, Members,
Honorary Members, Life Members,
or Retired Members who have been
members for a period of at least three years
shall be eligible for election as a director or
national officer.
It is the duty of the National Nominating
Committee to nominate candidates for national office. The committee shall hold an
open meeting, preferably at the Annual Meeting, at which members may appear to present
and discuss the eligibility of all candidates.
To be considered a candidate for the positions of president, vice president, treasurer,
or director-at-large, the following qualifications and conditions apply:
President: To be eligible to hold the office
of president, an individual must have served
as a vice president for at least one year.
Vice President: To be eligible to hold the
office of vice president, an individual must
have served at least one year as a director,
other than executive director and secretary.
Treasurer: To be eligible to hold the office of treasurer, an individual must be a

member of the Society, other than a Student Member, must be frequently available
to the national office, and should be of executive status in business or industry with
experience in financial affairs.
Director-at-Large: To be eligible for
election as a director-at-large, an individual shall previously have held office as
chairman of a Section; as chairman or vice
chairman of a standing, technical, or special committee of the Society; or as District
Interested persons should submit a letter stating which office they seek, including
a statement of qualifications, their willingness and ability to serve if nominated and
elected, and a biographical sketch.
E-mail the letter to Gricelda Manalich,, c/o Damian J. Kotecki,
chair, National Nominating Committee.
The next meeting of the National Nominating Committee is scheduled for November 2007. The terms of office for candidates
nominated at this meeting will commence
January 1, 2009.

Honorary Meritorious Awards

he Honorary-Meritorious Awards Committee makes recommendations for the
nominees presented for Honorary Membership, National Meritorious
Certificate, William Irrgang Memorial, and the George E. Willis Awards. These
awards are presented during the FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show held
each fall. The deadline for submissions is December 31 prior to the year of awards presentations. Send candidate materials to Wendy Sue Reeve, secretary, Honorary
Meritorious Awards Committee,; 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL
33126. Descriptions of the awards follow.

National Meritorious Certificate Award:

This award is given in recognition of the
candidates counsel, loyalty, and devotion
to the affairs of the Society, assistance in
promoting cordial relations with industry
and other organizations, and for the contribution of time and effort on behalf of the
William Irrgang Memorial Award: This
award is administered by the American Welding Society and sponsored by The Lincoln
Electric Co. to honor the late William Irrgang. It is awarded each year to the individual who has done the most over the past five
years to enhance the American Welding Societys goal of advancing the science and
technology of welding.
George E. Willis Award: This award is administered by the American Welding Society
and sponsored by The Lincoln Electric Co.
to honor George E. Willis. It is awarded each
year to an individual for promoting the advancement of welding internationally by fostering cooperative participation in areas such
as technology transfer, standards rationalization, and promotion of industrial goodwill.



International Meritorious Certificate

Award: This award is given in recognition
of the recipients significant contributions
to the worldwide welding industry. This
award reflects Service to the International Welding Community in the broadest terms. The awardee is not required to
be a member of the American Welding
Society. Multiple awards can be given per
year as the situation dictates. The award
consists of a certificate to be presented
at the awards luncheon or at another time
as appropriate in conjunction with the
AWS presidents travel itinerary, and, if
appropriate, a one-year membership in
the American Welding Society.
Honorary Membership Award: An
Honorary Member shall be a person of
acknowledged eminence in the welding
profession, or who is accredited with exceptional accomplishments in the development of the welding art, upon whom
the American Welding Society sees fit to
confer an honorary distinction. An Honorary Member shall have full rights of

AWS Publications Sales

Purchase AWS standards, books,
and other publications from
World Engineering Xchange (WEX), Ltd.
Toll-free (888) 935-3464 (U.S., Canada)
(305) 824-1177; FAX (305) 826-6195

Welding Journal Reprints

Copies of Welding Journal articles may be
purchased from Ruben Lara.
Call toll-free
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 288;
Custom reprints of Welding Journal
articles, in quantities of 100 or more,
may be purchased from
Toll-free (866) 879-9144, ext. 121

AWS Foundation, Inc.

The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit
corporation established to provide support
for educational and scientific endeavors
of the American Welding Society.
Information on gift-giving programs is
available upon request.
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Ronald C. Pierce
Executive Director, AWS
Ray Shook
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry
550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126
(305) 445-6628; (800) 443-9353, ext. 293
general information:
(800) 443-9353, ext. 689

AWS Mission Statement

The mission of the American Welding
Society is to advance the science,
technology, and application of welding
and allied processes, including
joining, brazing, soldering,
cutting, and thermal spraying.

It is the intent of the American

Welding Society to build AWS to the
highest quality standards possible.
The Society welcomes your suggestions.
Please contact any staff member or
AWS President Gerald D. Uttrachi,
as listed on the previous page.

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Page 71

American Welding Society 2007 ESV1493R

Conference on Friction Welding

Chicago McCormick Place
November 12, 2007
An AWS-sponsored conference on friction welding will be held at the Fabtech Intl & AWS Welding Show in Chicago. This
daylong conference will be packed with a number of short presentations on various facets of conventional friction welding, linear friction welding, and friction stir welding. Among the presentations will be talks on such topics as direct drive
vs. inertia friction welding, the friction welding of automotive pistons, the linear friction welding of blades onto discs in
aircraft engines, the marriage of robotics and friction stir welding, and the ability of any process within this family to weld
just about any metal or alloyor even plastic, for that matterand to do it without creating fumes. Also, experts will
be on hand to discuss the ability to use these processes to weld dissimilar metals on the fly.
Conference price is $345 for AWS members, $480 for
nonmembers.To register or to receive a descriptive brochure,
call (800) 443-9353 ext. 229, (outside North America, call
305-443-9353), or visit

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.

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2:04 PM

Page 72

American Welding Society 2007 ESV1481S

Conference on the Explosion of New Processes

San Diego Doubletree Golf Resort
August 14-15, 2007

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.

Page 72-73:FP_TEMP


2:05 PM

Page 73

Conference on the Explosion of New Processes

San Diego Doubletree Golf Resort
August 14-15, 2007
The welding industry is now in the midst of an
explosion of new welding technologies, many of
which have made quick passage from the research lab
to the production line. This kind of activity has not been
seen for decades. Presentations on many of these
technologies will form the body of this first-of-its-kind
conference. Two of the main thrusts will explore
interesting variations and improvements on laser
technologies and on friction stir welding.

The Fiber Laser Opens Up New Opportunities for

Laser Welding
Bill Shiner, Director, Industrial Market Development, IPG
Photonics Corp.
Ultrasonic Joining of Metals: Advances in Welding,
Soldering and Brazing
Matt Short, Project Engineer, Edison Welding Institute
Friction Stir Welding and Processing of Advanced
MaterialsAdvances and Challenges
Dr. S. A. David, Corporate Fellow and Group Leader,
Materials Joining Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Friction Stir Welded Components Are Headed to
Mike Skinner, Business Development Manager, MTS
Systems Corp.

Friction Stir Welding and ProcessingAn Update of

Recent Developments
William J. Arbegast, Director, NSAF Center for Friction
Stir Processing, and Director, Advanced Materials
Processing and Joining Center, South Dakota School of
Mines and Technology
The Deformation Resistance Welding Process
Menachem Kimchi, Technology Leader, Edison Welding
A New Approach (Double Electrode) to High
Productivity GMAW
Dr. YuMing Zhang, James R. Boyd Professor, Director of
Graduate Studies, Center for Manufacturing,
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
College of Engineering, University of Kentucky
Magnetic Pulse Welding Extends Its List of
Michael Blakely, Operations Manager, C3 Magnetic
Pulse Division, Hirotec America Inc.

Single-Sided Plasma Spot Welding and Plasma

Brazing ProcessA Review of Applications
R. V. Hughes, Technical Director, Camarc LLC
Laser Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys
R. P. Martukanitz, Head, Laser Processing Division,
Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State
University; and Israel Stol, Senior Manufacturing
Specialist, Joining and Assembly, Alcoa Technical Center
Novel Heat Source Enables Brazing at Room
Dr. Timothy P. Weihs, President, Reactive
NanoTechnologies Inc.
CSC-Controlled Short Circuit TransferA New
GMAW Process That Solves Old Weld Problems
Tom Rankin, Vice President and General Manager, ITW
Jetline Engineering
A New Process (Ultrasonic Impact Treatment) for
Improving Fatigue Strength of Welds
Sougata Roy, Research Scientist III, ATLSS Center,
Lehigh University

Conference price is $550 for AWS members, $680 for

nonmembers.To register or to receive a descriptive brochure,
call (800) 443-9353 ext. 224, (outside North America, call
305-443-9353), or visit

August New Lit:Layout 1


8:00 AM

Page 74

Tools and Ideas to Enhance
Productivity Detailed

and illustrated are application-specific examples of electric, hydraulic, pneumatic,

linear motion, and assembly technology
resources available to manufacturers to
improve the productivity of any machine
tool operation. Shown are machining centers, transfer machines, crankshaft turning machines, assembly operations, and
grinding stations. Included are specifics
on how to sustain a competitive advantage, safer motion, faster cycle times,
higher precision, greater uptime, and the
companys support operations. The
brochure can be downloaded from the
Web site.
Bosch Rexroth Corp.
(847) 645-3600

New Line of Surface Prep

Tools Illustrated
An 8-page, full-color brochure describes the companys solutions to improving manufacturing machine tool productivity, safety, and precision. Detailed



The EZEFIT Wheel Family product

brochure displays the companys new specialized wheel designs for optimal performance in the surface-preparation industry. Displayed are wheels for all types

of applications including customized

products for unique process requirements. The line features bidirectional rotation to accommodate both clockwise
and counterclockwise wheel applications
using a single wheel. Described are wheels
in 312- and 212-in. blade widths, with oper continued on page 76

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Page 75

This months AWS Foundation spotlights:

Spotlight on a scholar
My name is Wesley Doneth. I
received the Praxair
International Scholarship in
2000. The AWS and AWS
local chapters were very
generous to me and
provided several
scholarships to help me pay
for tuition at Ferris State
University so I could complete my
B.S. in Welding Engineering
Technology. My father Richard is a
boilermaker, and grandfather James
Watson had 30+ years as a welder and
foreman for CB&I; welding is in the blood. I
paid for most of my schooling by working
and student loans, as many of my
classmates did, so the scholarships helped

take some of the load off. I recently joined

AlcoTec Wire Corporation, a subsidiary of
ESAB. I have been able to buy a home
and provide for my family of three along
with my wife Dawn, thanks to a great
career in the welding industry. Hard
work and support from the welding
industry through AWS helped me
succeed over the last 10 years. I hope to
contribute back by staying involved with
Ferris State University and through work
with AWS chapters. It is a great industry
with infinite opportunities. I have the
opportunity to work with numerous
manufacturers and meet new people who
contribute to the welding industry almost
daily. You learn more every day and can
always find new challenges.

Spotlight on a scholarship

2007 American Welding Society FDN1397-9

The Robert L. PeasleeDetroit Brazing and

Soldering Division Scholarship is awarded to
a college junior or senior pursuing a
minimum four-year bachelors degree in
welding engineering or welding engineering
technology with an emphasis on brazing and
soldering applications.
Applicants must show emphasis on
brazing and soldering applications in their

One $2,500 award is

given annually. This fund
was established in
2004 by Robert L.
Peaslee and the
AWS Detroit
Brazing and
Soldering Division of
the AWS Detroit

The American Welding Society Foundation has helped thousands of students who
otherwise would be unable to afford a welding education. We are proud of the fact that we
help hundreds of welding students annually by providing them with funding towards their
education. In fact, we are the only industry foundation set up specifically to further welding
education and, in so doing, create the careers that sustain and grow our industry.
These funds are from your generous contributions. If you dont contribute, we will not be
able to expand our work and our students educations. And there is so much work to be
Please make a scholarship contribution, or set up your own Section, District Named, or
National Named Scholarship. Contact the AWS Foundation at 1-800-443-9353, ext. 212.

Welding for the Strength of America

The Campaign for the American Welding Society Foundation

August New Lit:Layout 1


8:00 AM

Page 76

ating speeds of 3600 and 1800 rev/min.

Download the brochure at the Web site,
or call for more information.

around lenses meet ANSI Z87.1, and provide 99.9% protection from both UVA
and UVB rays. Models are available with
smoke, amber, indoor/outdoor, and clear,
antifog lenses.

wheels, stationary saw cut-off wheels, and

chop saw cut-off wheels. Included is information for selecting the right abrasive
for the desired results.

Wheelabrator Group

(800) 544-4144
(888) 346-4652
(800) 447-4248

CD Catalog Pictures
Welding Products

Online Videos Display

Dozens of Robots in Action

continued from page 74

The new Bug-O Systems/Cypress

Welding Equipment catalog is offered in
digital form on a CD. The CD contains all
the products in the companys broad welding-related product lines. The CD may be
requested by sending an e-mail to
Bug-O Systems/Cypress Welding Equip.

Posted on the companys Web site are

more than 70 audiovideo clips, ranging
from one to ten minutes in length, showing robots of all shapes and sizes performing a wide variety of operations. Each clip
is cataloged as a small color photo of the
robot with a caption describing the manufacturer, model number, and the task
shown in the video. Clicking on the photo
starts the video. Shown are robots made
by Motoman, Fanuc, Panasonic, and others, performing numerous operations including welding, handling, painting, cutting, and sanding. The videos can be an
educational experience for newcomers to
the robotics field as well as helping buyers see how the various robots perform
before pursuing a purchase.
(740) 383-8383

361 New Abrasive Products

Pictured in Catalog
(800) 245-3186

Flexible Eye Protection


CGW-Camel Grinding Wheels

Lincoln Releases Complete

Product Line Catalog

The 167-page, full-color, 2007 product

catalog features the companys complete
lines of welding machines, wire feeders,
environmental fume-exhaust systems,
Magnum guns, and Ultracore, Metalshield, Outershield, Innershield,
Blue Max, and hardfacing consumables,
and Ultrashade autodarkening welding
helmets. Included are details on automated robotic systems and custom cells.
The back cover lists contact information
for the companys district sales offices. Request Bulletin E1.10.
The Lincoln Electric Co.
(888) 355-3213

FMA Offers Online Video of

the Organizations Benefits

A brochure details the companys line

of KleenGuard V30 flexible eye protection featuring a padded nose bridge and
a ratcheted temple for easy adjustment of
the lens angle. The impact-resistant, wrap76


The companys latest full-color catalog details more than 1400 metal-fabrication products, including 361 new items.
Pictured are flap discs, thin cut-off wheels,
semi-flex discs, resin fiber discs, back-up
pads, flap wheels, depressed-center
wheels, high-speed reinforced cut-off

A three-minute-long video posted online highlights the mission and member

benefits of the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International (FMA).
Included are segments on health care benefits for employees, cooperative buying
power for discounted purchases, access to
the associations research assistance center, survey results, on-site training, and
educational seminars. At the end of the
video, viewers may apply for FMA membership, request additional information,
or sign up to receive the FMA newsletter.
Fabricators & Manufacturers Assn., Intl
(815) 399-8775

Page 77:FP_TEMP


2:13 PM

Page 77

American Welding Society 2007 ESV1507A

AWS Hot Wire Welding and Cladding Conference

Chicago McCormick Place
November 13, 2007

There is a great deal of new and revived interest in hot wire welding, as a means of combining the deposition rates of
GMAW with the quality of GTAW. One version or other is already being used by participants in the oil and gas industry,
by the Navy, and by builders of aircraft engines. Hot wire welding and cladding will be the subject of a one-day
conference at the FabTech Intl and AWS Welding Show in Chicago. Presentations on both hot wire GTAW and hot wire
plasma processes will be also on the agenda. One topic that will be addressed at the conference will be the popular
use of hot wire gas tungsten arc cladding of tube and piping for the offshore oil and gas industries. In another
presentation, hot wire GTA narrow groove welding will be shown to have performed well on titanium. Advantages
are increased deposition rates and faster travel speeds. Also on the agenda are buildups, butterings, and claddings
of Inconel. Critical metallurgical and other issues will be addressed by hot wire equipment producers, users, and

Conference price is $345 for AWS members, $480 for

nonmembers.To receive a descriptive brochure, call
(800) 443-9353 ext. 229, (outside North America, call
305-443-9353), or visit

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.

Personnel August:Layout 1


10:16 AM

Page 78

Hypertherm Appoints
Sales Manager
Hanover, N.H., has
appointed Thomas
(Tommy) Hanchette
district manager to
support its distributors in Nebraska,
Dakota, Colorado,
and Iowa. Before
Tommy Hanchette joining the company, Hanchette
served as a sales manager for a welding
and cutting manufacturer.

Test Equipment Designates

its Vice President
Test Equipment Distributors, Troy,
Mich., a provider of nondestructive testing
equipment and services, has named Rick
Ballinger vice president. Ballinger, who
joined the company in 1984 as a manufac-

turing technician, most recently served as

operations manager.

President and CEO Named

at Air Liquide
Air Liquide has
named Michael J.
Graff as president
and CEO of Air Liquide USA LLC, and a
director of U.S. subsidiary businesses.
He will lead the companys U.S. industrial
gas operations and
business activities
Michael J. Graff
from its Houston,
Tex., headquarters. Graff previously held a
number of leadership positions at

Jet Edge Names

Sales Manager
Jet Edge, St. Michael, Minn., a supplier
of ultrahigh-pressure waterjet and abrasive

For info go to



jet systems, has appointed Dirk Barrett

as North-Central regional sales manager.
His territory includes
Minnesota, western
Iowa, northern Wisconsin, Michigans
Upper Peninsula,
North and South
Dirk Barrett
Dakota, Montana,
Wyoming, and Manitoba, Canada. With 20 years of sales experience, Barrett has worked for Mohawk Industries, Royal Scot Distributing, Cottage
Industries, and Carpet City.

VP Buildings Names
Plant Manager
VP Buildings, Memphis, Tenn., a manufacturer of metal buildings, has named
Terry Gentle plant manager for its North
Carolina Service Center in Kernersville.
Gentle joined the company in 1976, and
since 1998 has served as the Kernersville
plant superintendent.

Personnel August:Layout 1


10:17 AM

Professional Services
Industries Hires CWI
Professional Services Industries, Inc.,
Green Tree, Pa., has
named Tim Griffith
as a Certified Weld
Inspector (CWI) in
its Nondestructive
Examination Department.
Previously employed by
Tim Griffith
Dansco Engineering, LLC, Griffith
has more than 25 years of experience in
construction, materials testing, and inspection services.

Tregaskiss Welding
Products Fills Two Posts
Tregaskiss Welding Products, Windsor,
Ont., Canada, has named Mark Morgan
as customer training specialist and Judy
Wilson as customer service specialist.
Morgan is responsible for the Midwest
and Pacific Northwest regions. Wilson,
like Morgan, has more than 20 years of
customer service experience.

ESAB Appoints Product

ESAB Welding &
Florence, S.C., has
named Cliff Ankersen
as laser and waterjet
systems product manager. Ankersen most
recently served in a
similar position at W.
A. Whitney.

Page 79

Senior Engineer Hired by

Pennoni Associates

Valley, Md., and a

full professor of materials science and
engineering at Johns
Hopkins University.
Prior to founding
RNT in 2001, Weihs
worked at Lawrence
Livermore National
Laboratory where
Tim Weihs
he codiscovered the
ability to control
exothermic reactions in multilayer foils
with nanoscale layers.

E. A. Hartwell III

Pennoni Associates, Philadelphia,

Pa., has hired Edward A. Hartwell III,
P.E., as a senior engineer in its Nationwide Steel Bridge
Fabrication Inspection division. Specializing in welding
and steel fabrica-

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Handy & Harman Names

Lucas-Milhaupt President
Handy & Harman Precious Metals
Group, Milwaukee, Wis., has named
Joseph Mockus president of Lucas-Milhaupt, Inc., and Handy & Harman of
Canada Ltd. Previously, Mockus was director of business excellence for Underwriters Laboratories.

Weihs Appointed to
Presidents Council
Timothy (Tim) Weihs has been appointed to the Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technologys New
Nanotechnology Technical Advisory
Group. Weihs is CTO and cofounder of
Reactive NanoTechnologies, Inc., Hunt

Toyota is an Equal Opportunity Employer and

supports a diverse and inclusive workforce.

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Personnel August:Layout 1


10:17 AM

Page 80

tion, Hartwell is retired from the New

York State DOT, where he served in a similar capacity.

American Weldquip
Appoints President
Ohio, has appointed
Howard Fisher president. Prior to joining the company,
Fisher was a regional
business manager
for Tregaskiss U.S.
Ltd. He replaces
Howard Fisher
Rex Carper who remains as founder and CEO.

Thermadyne Names
Marketing Manager

Tom Wermert

Industries, Inc., St.
Louis, Mo., has
named Tom Wermert
manager for Americas Arc Welding.
With the company
for 13 years, Wermert
served as global
product manager

for filler metals.

Cynthia L. Jenney
Cynthia Lou Jenney, 53, died June 8
in Miami, Fla., after
a long illness. Ms.
Jenney worked for
the American Welding Society at its
Miami, Fla., from
January 1999 to
Cynthia L. Jenney September 2006.
She started in the
Publications Services Department as staff
editor for the Welding Handbook, Vol. 1,
ninth edition. Her next assignment was in
the AWS Technical Services Department
where she served as a technical editor
working with the A2 Definitions and Symbols and C3 Brazing and Soldering committee members and their documents.
The Brazing Handbook, 5th edition, due to
be published soon, is dedicated to her
memory. The dedication reads in part,


Member Milestone
Castner Receives Premier RIA Robotics Award
Harvey Castner, an AWS Life Member, received the prestigious Engelberger Robotics Award
for Application at a ceremony held June 13 during
the 38th Annual International Symposium on Robotics, hosted by the Robotic Industries Association (RIA), held in Chicago, Ill.
Castners citation reads, His pioneering work
in the early 1980s led to the application of first-generation industrial robots to arc welding tasks for the
manufacture of agricultural products and heavy
equipment. Joining the Edison Welding Institute
(EWI) in 1986, Castner directs the Government
Programs office at the Institute. He serves as director of the Navy Joining Center (NJC), a Navy Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Center of
Excellence at EWI. He is responsible for the development and administration of R programs for the
U.S. Navy, Dept. of Defense, and other government agencies. His extensive experience in welding
engineering and engineering management includes
Harvey Castner
projects that encompass robotics, arc weld vision,
automated inspection, and automated guided vehicle technologies. His work involved robotic welding
for shipbuilding, heavy equipment, and aerospace, adaptive arc welding systems, and
design/implementation of weld vision systems for automated and robotic welding applications. Castner has authored more than 30 welding-related technical articles.
The Engelberger Robotics Awards honor industry leaders in four categories:
Leadership, Application, Education, and Technology Development. The awards were
presented by Trevor Jones, RIA president, and Donald Vincent, RIA executive vice
Castner joined AWS in 1962. Currently, he is serving his second term on the AWS
board of directors as a director-at-large (20032009).

The C3 committee will be forever grateful to

Cynthia for all of her hard work on the
handbook, for serving as a wonderful secretary, and for simply being a very dear friend
to all of our committee members.
Ms. Jenney received a BA degree from
the University of Massachusetts in 1977,
and a MA degree in linguistics from
Florida International University in 1992.
Before joining AWS, she held technical
writing positions at Amadeus North
America in Miami, and various technical
editorial positions at Florida International University.

Duane Clay Alfrey

Duane Clay Alfrey, 50, died April 19 in
Indianapolis, Ind. He graduated from
Warren Central High School, class of
1975, and later from Ivy Tech State College. Mr. Alfrey worked for Ivy Tech State
College in charge of the welding department for 28 years. He was a member of
Cumberland Christian Church and WAR
Brothers Motorcycle Club. He is survived
by his wife Debra, his mother, and a son.

Henry Hahn
Henry Hahn died
June 11 at this home
in Fairfax, Va. Mr.
Hahn was a member
and a past chairman
of the AWS B4
Committee on Mechanical Testing of
Welds, a past chair
of ISO/TC44/SC5,
past chairman of
Henry Hahn
ISAC-05, and a former member of the AWS Technical Activities Committee and ISAC.

Change of Address?
Make sure delivery of your Welding Journal is not interrupted. Contact the Membership Department with your new address information (800) 443-9353, ext.

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07:Layout 1


11:53 AM

Page 211

Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Computational Kinetics Simulation of the

Dissolution and Coarsening in the HAZ
during Laser Welding of 6061-T6 Al-Alloy
Experimental results indicate it is possible to predict HAZ
hardness of heat-treatable aluminum alloys

ABSTRACT. Laser beam welding (LBW)

welding conditions. Models for the nu-

has become common practice in the pro-

merical simulation of precipitation, disso-

duction lines of several industrial sectors

lution, and coarsening of -Mg2Si phase

Fusion welding of heat-treatable alu-

including the electronics, domestic appli-

were developed and solved with the use of

minum alloys, which are strengthened

ances, and automotive industries. The ad-

the computational thermodynamics and

through precipitation hardening, is ac-

vantages of LBW over conventional fusion

kinetics software DICTRA. In this way the

companied by a loss of strength in the

welding processes (mainly GMAW and

volume fraction and average precipitate

HAZ. This degradation often limits the

GTAW) is the lower welding heat input

size were calculated for several types of

application of welding in these alloys.

and smaller weld pool and HAZ dimen-

weld thermal cycles, under extremely non-

Laser beam welding (LBW) has been re-

sions, which are associated with lower

isothermal conditions. Calculated hard-

cently applied successfully (Refs. 1, 2) for

residual stresses and distortion. In addi-

ness profiles in the HAZ are in good

the welding of airframe components. A se-

tion to the general problems encountered

agreement with the experimental values.

ries of experiments on LBW of 6xxx alloys

during the application of LBW on alu-

The above results point to the conclusion

has been carried out (Ref. 3) in order to

minum alloys (high reflectivity, porosity,

that it is possible to simulate the mi-

support current work regarding the effect

loss of alloying elements), the most im-

crostructure evolution and hardness in the

of welding parameters on weld penetra-

portant problem, which concerns the heat

HAZ of aluminum laser welds, thus open-

tion, as well as the size and hardness of

treatable alloys, is the softening of the

ing the way for a more precise control and

HAZ. Complete joint penetration welds

HAZ due to the dissolution and coarsen-

design of LBW of aluminum alloys.

in 6061-T6 were obtained with HAZ width

ing of the strengthening precipitates. The

main objective of the present work is the
simulation of the microstructural evolution in the HAZ in order to predict the
hardness drop of the HAZ as a function of
A. D. ZERVAKI and G. N. HAIDEMENOPOULOS are with Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, Volos, Greece.


of 2 mm. However, despite the limited

Heat-Affected Zone
Hardness Profiles
Laser Beam Welding

HAZ dimensions, a drop in HAZ hardness is still apparent. Softening in the

HAZ is normally attributed to dissolution
and/or coarsening of the strengthening
precipitates. Heat-affected zone softening
is a common and more pronounced effect
when welding with conventional welding



07:Layout 1


11:54 AM

Page 212


Fig. 1 Maximum temperature and corresponding hardness profile in the

HAZ due to dissolution and coarsening (TCR = 400C, Ti=room temperature,
Tm = solidus temperature).

Fig. 2 Thermal cycles in the HAZ (z = 0 lies on the upper surface of the
sheet). Experimental conditions: laser power = 4500 W, weld speed = 4.8
m/min, h = 56 J/mm.

processes. Kou (Ref. 4) observed a hard-

dynamic equilibrium at the phase inter-

maximum particle size is 1.5 times the av-

ness minimum in the HAZ of 6061 alloy

faces. Several models have been devel-

erage size according to the LSW theory of

welded in the artificially aged (T6) or nat-

oped in recent years to describe diffu-

coarsening by Lifshitz and Slyozov (Ref.

urally aged (T4) conditions by GTAW and

sional phase transformations in aluminum

20) and Wagner (Ref. 21). In Ref. 17, the

attributed the softening to coarsening of

alloys. The majority of the models deal

model was applied for the description of

precipitate, the basic strengthening pre-

with isothermal transformations (Refs.7,

the coarsening behavior of carbo-nitrides

cipitate, and formation of the coarser

8). Relatively few research efforts have

in multicomponent Cr-steels under

precipitate. Similar results have been re-

been directed toward modeling of non-

isothermal conditions.

ported by Malin (Ref. 5) on gas-metal-arc-

isothermal transformations as those en-

In the present paper, DICTRA was

welded (GMAW) 6061-T6 aluminum

countered in welding (Refs. 914). The

used for the simulation of dissolution, re-

alloy. The aim of the present paper is to

DICTRA methodology mentioned above

precipitation, and coarsening during the

simulate the softening reactions (dissolu-

has been applied by Agren (Ref. 15) for

welding thermal cycle in the HAZ of 6061-

tion and coarsening) in the HAZ of laser-

the modeling of carbide dissolution in

T6 laser welds. The thermal cycles in the

beam-welded 6061-T6 by a finite-element-

steels under isothermal conditions. Also,

HAZ were calculated by the finite ele-

based heat flow analysis of weld thermal

DICTRA has been applied for the solution

ment method. The results of the heat flow

cycles combined with a computational dif-

of coarsening problems under isothermal

analysis are compared with experimental

fusional kinetics analysis of dissolution

conditions (Refs. 1619). A new coarsen-

data regarding the weld pool shape. The

and coarsening. The latter was performed

ing model presented in Ref. 17 was im-

calculated thermal cycles were linearized

by applying the DICTRA methodology

plemented in DICTRA. The model was

and used as input for the DICTRA simula-

(Ref. 6), a software tool for handling dif-

based on the assumption that coarsening

tions. The major assumptions made are

fusion in multicomponent, multiphase sys-

of a system can be described by perform-

the following:

tems based on the numerical solution of

ing calculations on a particle of maximum

1) The HAZ is divided into two parts

the diffusion equations with local thermo-

size at the center of a spherical cell. The

(Fig. 1): HAZ1 where the maximum tem-

212 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86


07:Layout 1


11:55 AM

Page 213


C / , C /

Fig. 3 Thermal cycles at the boundary HAZ/weld pool interface for three values of heat input at the surface of the plate.

Table 1 Values of the Thermal Cycle Parameters

Used for the Dissolution Simulations

Fig. 4 Schematic representation of weld thermal cycle as used in dissolution


since kinetic data for the metastable

mal cycles are shown in Fig. 2 for various

phases (GP-zones, , ) are not yet in

z-positions in the HAZ of 6061-T6. The effect of heat input on the resulting thermal




cluded in the relevant databases.


1035 107
1035 107
1035 107

7.8 1060.39
7 1060.35
6 1060.3
2 1040.4

Welding Thermal Cycles

cycle is shown in Fig. 3, which depicts the

thermal cycles at the HAZ/weld pool interface at the surface of the plate. It is evThe temperature distribution and the

ident that a lower heat input results in a

associated thermal cycles were calculated

steeper thermal cycle. The major parame-

by employing the general-purpose finite

ters characterizing the thermal cycle at

perature of the welding cycle exceeds TCR

element program ABAQUS (Ref. 22). A

each point in the HAZ are the maximum

and where only dissolution during heating

three-dimensional geometry was em-

temperature, the cycle duration, as well as

and reprecipitation during cooling can

ployed. The boundary conditions involved

the heating and cooling rates, respectively.

occur. In HAZ2, on the other hand, the

heat losses due to convection and radia-

These parameters were evaluated and

maximum temperature does not exceed

tion. The latent heat of fusion was taken

were used as an input in the simulation of

TCR and only precipitate coarsening can

into account. The laser heat source was

dissolution and coarsening discussed in

occur. TCR = 400C is an arbitrary critical

modeled as a moving Gaussian energy dis-

the next sections.

temperature, above which it is assumed

tribution attenuated in the plate thickness

that precipitation dissolution dominates,

direction to account for the keyhole effect.

Simulation of Disolution during

and below which precipitate coarsening

The details of the heat flow analysis are

Laser Welding of 6061-T6


presented elsewhere (Ref. 3). The evalua-

2) Although the primary strengthening

tion of the model was accomplished by

The weld thermal cycle used in the dis-

phases are the metastable phases and

comparing the predicted weld pool shape

solution simulations was linearized as de-

, only the equilibrium precipitate -

with the experimentally determined shape

picted in Fig. 4. In the Figure, Tmax is the

Mg2Si was considered in the simulations,

by metallography. Calculated weld ther-

maximum temperature of the cycle, Tsol is



Fig. 5 Geometrical model of dissolution simulations. A Plan view; B cross section.

Fig. 6 Volume fraction (f) variation vs. time for r =2nm. A Short cycles; B longer cycles.

the solvus temperature, TCR = 400C, is

particle is surrounded by its own hexago-

The problem was considered to be

the cycle duration, while HR and HC are

nal cell and the dissolution region for the

one-dimensional where dissolution takes

the heating and cooling rates, in C/s, re-

-phase is represented by an inscribed

place only in the radial direction.

spectively. The duration of the thermal

cylinder with volume equal to that of the

Because Mg diffuses much slower

cycle is given by the relation

hexagonal cell. Due to symmetry reasons

than Si in the -phase, it was considered

only the prescribed calculation area in Fig.

that only Mg diffusion controls the disso-

5B is considered. Surface energy effects

lution rate.

= (Tmax TCR )


The parameters of the thermal cycle used

were not taken into account since it was

The -precipitate was considered sto-

in the simulations are given in Table 1. The

considered that dissolution of precipitates

ichiometric, and therefore, no diffusion

dissolution problem is treated here using

is driven mainly by differences in chemical

was considered within the -phase.

the DICTRA methodology. The relevant

free energy. For a given volume fraction of

Depending on the amount of the

geometrical model is shown in Fig. 5. The

-phase, the sizes of the (r) and (r)

-phase dissolved during the heating part

rod morphology of the -Mg2Si precipi-

regions are related by the expression

of the thermal cycle, reprecipitation of

tate requires the use of cylindrical geome-

r = 1/ 2 1 r

try. In the geometrical model, r and r are

the radius of the and phase regions, re-

that phase occurs during the cooling part

of the thermal cycle.

The initial compositions of the and

spectively. The geometry of Fig. 5B fol-

where f is the volume fraction of the

phases are calculated by the Thermo-

lows the cell model proposed by Grong


Calc software (Ref. 23) and obey the mass

(Ref. 11), shown in Fig. 5A , where each 214 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Further assumptions are the following:

balance equations


07:Layout 1


11:57 AM

Page 215


Fig. 7 Volume fraction (f) variation vs. time for r

=10 nm . A Short cycles; B longer cycles.

Fig. 8 Volume fraction (f) variation vs. time for r =50nm. A Short cy
cles; B medium cycles; C long cycles.

r0 C Mg, 0 + r0 C Mg
= C Mg
r0 CSi

+ r0 CSi

= CSi


where r0 and r0 are the initial sizes of the

and phases, respectively. C Mg and
C Mg are the initial Mg contents of the

Fig. 9 Volume fraction (f) variation vs. time for r

=2, 10, 50 nm (cycle

duration = 7.8 ms).

and phases, respectively. C
C Si
are the initial Si contents of the
and phases, respectively. C Mg and
are the Mg and Si alloy contents,
The Mg diffusion in the -phase
(0<r<r) is described by the following

C Mg

1 C Mg

r r


where C Mg and D Mg are the Mg content

and the diffusion coefficient of Mg in phase, respectively. The flux balance at the


07:Layout 1


11:57 AM

Page 216


Fig. 10 Variation of volume fraction of vs. thermal cycle duration () and

Fig. 11 Variation of mean radius of vs. thermal cycle duration () and ini-

initial size at Tmax= 595C.

tial size (Tmax = 595C).

Fig. 13 Schematic picture of the coarsening model incorporated in

Fig. 12 Schematic representation of the weld thermal cycle, incorporated in
the coarsening calculations.

/ interface is described by the equation

u / C /

C /

C Mg
= DMg



For this closed system, the boundary
conditions are


= 0 and

216 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

r = ra + r




C Mg ( r, 0 ) = 0.98 for 0 r r

lations were carried out for r 0 = 2, 10,

and 50 nm.
During the weld thermal cycle, the vol-

The initial condition is given by

where u/ is the velocity of the / inter/ /

face and C , C
are the Mg concen

trations of the and phases at the / in-

C Mg

C Mg

ume fraction of the -Mg2Si phase


changes. The variation of f with time

where 0.98 wt-% is the alloy Mg composi-

from t = 0 up to t = , where is the du-

tion. The initial equilibrium volume frac-

ration of the thermal cycle, for Tmax =

tion of the -phase was calculated by

Thermo-Calc and is f = 1.63%.

The problem, described by Equations

595C, is given in Figs. 6, 7, and 8 for ini0

tial sizes r
= 2, 10, and 50 nm, respec
tively. In Fig. 6A, results for short cycles

19, was solved by the DICTRA method-

(up to 4 103 s) are depicted, while Fig.

ology. In order to investigate the effect of

6B depicts results for longer cycles (up to

the initial average size of the -phase dis-

0.15 s). In all cases the thermal cycle starts

persion on dissolution kinetics, the simu-

with dissolution during heating and ends


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Page 217


Fig. 14 Variation of r

vs. for various values of Tmax (r = 2 nm ).

Fig. 15 Variation of r

vs. for various values of Tmax (r = 5 nm).

with reprecipitation during cooling. The

size of dispersion for the same cycle dura-

ilar characteristics as the variation in vol-

dissolution rate is larger for short cycles.

tion = 7.8 ms. The results show that the

ume fraction. Typical results are shown in

However, the extent of dissolution in-

50-nm dispersion is practically not af-

Fig. 11, which depicts the final mean size

creases with the thermal cycle duration

fected by the thermal cycle, the 10-nm dis-

of the dispersion as a function of thermal

while full dissolution (f = 0) commences

persion undergoes partial dissolution

cycle duration , at Tmax = 595C for the

for cycles longer than 102 s. The amount

while during the same thermal cycle, and

three initial dispersion mean size of 2, 10,

of reprecipitation depends on the extent

the 2-nm dispersion undergoes complete

and 50 nm. Again here, the final size first

of dissolution, since dissolution increases

dissolution and a significant amount of re-

decreases and then increases with cycle

supersaturation in Mg and Si and, there-


duration. The minimum in r is shifted to

fore, increases the driving force for pre-

While the above results show the vari-

cipitation during the cooling part of the

ation of f during the thermal cycle, the

thermal cycle. The simulation results for

final value of the volume fraction at the

the case where the initial dispersion of

has a mean size of 10-nm are shown in Fig.

end of the thermal cycle (expressed as

f /f ) is shown as a function of thermal

7. Here complete dissolution commences

cycle duration in Fig. 10 for Tmax =

for large cycle duration (Fig. 7B) where

595C for the three initial mean dispersion

reprecipitation also appears. Reprecipita-

sizes of 2, 10, and 50 nm.

longer cycles with increasing the initial

dispersion mean size.

Simulation of Coarsening during

Laser Welding of 6061-T6
The weld thermal cycle used in the
coarsening simulations is depicted in Fig.

tion for short cycles is low (Fig. 7A). This

For a specific Tmax, the general shape

12. Due to DICTRA software require-

behavior can be attributed to the fact that

of these curves indicates that the final vol-

ments, the heating part of the thermal

the 10-nm dispersion is coarser than the 2-

ume fraction of -phase (at the end of the

cycle was replaced by an equivalent

nm dispersion of -phase and the respec-

thermal cycle) first decreases for short cy-

isothermal part at Tmax with duration 1

tive diffusion distances are larger. The re-

cles and then increases for longer cycles.

The minimum in f /f is shifted to longer

such that the areas below the T, t curves

in Fig. 8, where dissolution followed by re-

cycles as the initial mean size of the dis-

part is followed by a cooling part from

precipitation is evident only for long cycles

persion increases from 2 to 50 nm. Re-

Tmax to Ti (room temperature) with a cool-

of the order of seconds.

garding the effect of Tmax, the minimum is

ing rate Hc. The overall duration of the

shifted to lower values (greater extent of

thermal cycle is . The values of the para-

dissolution) with an increase in Tmax.

meters of the thermal cycles used in the

sults for the 50-nm dispersion are shown

The effect of initial dispersion size is

shown clearly in Fig. 9 where the variation

are the same Fig. 12. The isothermal

of the volume fraction of -phase is com-

The variation of the size r of the -

coarsening simulations, as calculated with

pared for the three cases of initial mean

phase during the thermal cycle shows sim-

the FEM method, are shown in Table 2.



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Page 218

Table 2 Values of the Thermal Cycle
Parameters Used for the Coarsening

Table 3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Microhardness Values for Certain Positions
within HAZ1













Microhardness from



Microhardness from

For the simulations, the coarsening module in DICTRA was employed. According
to this method coarsening of the dispersion can be described by considering one
spherical particle, which has the maximum
size of the dispersion prior to the application of the welding cycle. According to the
LSW theory of coarsening (Refs. 20, 21),
the maximum size rp is 1.5 times the mean

trolled only by Mg diffusion. The interfa-

ness of the base metal reduced by an

cial energy was taken 0.5

(Ref. 11).

amount depending on the extent of disso-

In order to maintain constant volume frac-

lution or coarsening in the HAZ. These in

tion of -phase and the initial overall alloy

turn depend on the final values of f and r

composition, the -phase cell grows ac-

in the HAZ.


cordingly. For a given volume fraction f of

the -phase the relation between and
radii is
Figure 16 depicts all the elements nec-

dispersion size r . The geometrical model

r = 1/ 3 1 r

is shown in Fig. 13. The spherical particle

of -phase is embedded in a sphere of ma-

essary for the comparison of the calcu(12)

trix -phase. At the interface between

Characteristic results of the coarsening

and local thermodynamic equilibrium

simulations are shown in Fig. 14 for the

between -phase and -phase with radius

case where the initial mean dispersion size

rp is assumed. In this case a Gibbs-Thomson contribution is added to the Gibbs free

energy of the particle, which is
2 Vm

is 2 nm. The figure depicts the variation of

cube mean size r as a function of cycle

duration . The mean particle size increases with cycle duration, the change
being more rapid for short cycles. For cy-


where is the interfacial energy of the

particle in the -phase and Vm the molar
volume. At the spherical cell boundary the
-phase is in local equilibrium with phase particle of the mean size r , so the
contribution to the Gibbs energy in this
case is

cles longer than about 0.3 s, particle

growth is very slow. As expected, coarsening kinetics is faster at higher Tmax. Figure
15 depicts similar results for a dispersion
of initial mean size 5 nm. Compared to the


The difference in the Gibbs-Thomson

lated and experimental hardness profiles

in HAZ1. The experimental hardness profile was measured after laser welding with
the following conditions: laser power 4.5
kW, laser travel speed 4.8 m/min, and focal
distance 1 mm. In Fig. 16 the variation of
the following is shown:
Hardness profiles (i.e., hardness at
points A, B, C, D, E, and F of HAZ1), in
Fig. 16A.
The maximum temperature Tmax and
the duration of the thermal cycle for
each respective point in HAZ1, in Fig.

previous case of 2 nm, coarsening kinetics

The volume fraction f of phase -

is slower because the initial dispersion is

Mg2Si at each point at the end of thermal

2 Vm

Hardness Profiles in HAZ1

cycle, in Fig. 16C.

The size r of phase -Mg2Si at each

Comparison with Experimental

point at the end of thermal cycle, in Fig.

Hardness Profiles in the HAZ

The hardness of the base metal is HB =

contributions to the free energy causes difIn this section a comparison is at-

Due to the lower diffusivity of Mg in

profiles and experimental ones. The cal-

118 HV, while for the 6061-T6 used in this

study, the precipitate has f =1.63% and

r=2nm. The experimental hardness pro-

Al, coarsening was considered to be con-

culation of hardness is based on the hard-

file shows that welding is accompanied by

fusion of Mg and Si atoms toward the particle with radius rp , which grows.

218 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

tempted between calculated hardness


07:Layout 1


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Page 219



Fig. 16 A Experimental and predicted microhardness profile in the HAZ1;

Fig. 17 A Experimental and predicted microhardness profile in the

B Tmax and thermal cycle duration; C volume fraction; D size of

HAZ2; B Tmax; C size of phase calculations at certain positions within

phase calculations at certain positions within HAZ1.


=1.63% and r = 2 nm for the

a reduction of hardness in HAZ1. More

for points A to F. The results are plotted

where f

specifically, the hardness is 88 HV at the

in Fig. 16C and D, respectively. Precipita-

condition T6.

boundary with HAZ2 (point F), drops to

tion hardening in HAZ1 comes from two

83 HV in point B, and increases to 85 HV


at the fusion zone boundary (point A).

The maximum temperature of the thermal
cycle Tmax increases from 451C at point F
to 595C at point A. The respective heat-

The hardness for each point of HAZ1

is calculated by the expression

Coherency hardening, which is proportional to f r , and


Orowan hardening (obstacle bypassing), which is proportional to f

2 r1.

H = H BM +



The results for each point of HAZ1 are

ing and cooling rates for these points are

The change in hardness (H) due to

shown in Table 3. The calculated hardness

HR = 12000C/s, HC = 8326C/s for point

dissolution of -phase relative to the hard-

values are plotted with the experimental

ness of the base metal (HBM) is given by

values in Fig. 16A. The simulation under-






HC=17727C/s for point A, while the respective cycle lengths are F = 0.01038 s
and A = 0.019 s. The values of Tmax, HR,
HC, and are the input parameters of the

estimates the softening of the HAZ by

thermal cycle for the simulation of dissolution. The simulation provides the values
of f and r at the end of the thermal cycle

)1/2 (

f0 r0
f r
1/ 2
f0 r0

( ) ( )
( ) ( )

1/ 2 0 1
f1/22 r1 f0


810%. This is attributed to the fact that

1/ 2

only dissolution was accounted for the observed softening. Taking into account all
the assumptions made for the current simulation, the comparison with the experi(13)

mental results is satisfactory.



07:Layout 1


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Page 220

Table 4 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Microhardness Values for Certain Positions
within HAZ2





Microhardness from



Microhardness from

stated in the paper, the calculated hardness profiles in the HAZ are in good
agreement with the experimental values.



1. Tempus, G. 2001. Werkstoffe fur transport und verkehr, Materials Day, ETH, Zurich,
2. Zink, W. 2004. Opening lecture at the Me-

Hardness Profiles in HAZ2

the Orowan mechanism is active (overaging conditions). For this case, hardening is

somechanics Conf. 2004, University of Patras,

3. Zervaki, A. D. 2004. Laser welding of alu-

In HAZ2 the maximum temperature

proportional to f r1. During coarsening

Tmax does not exceed 400C and only

the volume fraction f remains constant for

coarsening was considered to take place.

all points of HAZ2. Therefore, the hard-

PhD dissertation. University of Thessaly,

As stated in the introduction, although the

ness of points A to F in HAZ2 is calculated


primary strengthening phases are the


minum alloys: experimental study and simulation of microstructure evolution in the HAZ,

4. Kou, S. 2003. Welding Metallurgy. pp.

359362, Hoboken, N.J., John Willey & Sons

metastable phases and , only the equilibrium precipitate -Mg2Si was consid-


ered in the simulations, since kinetic data


H BM r0


5. Malin, V. 1995. Aluminum welded joints,

study of metallurgical phenomena in the HAZ of

for the metastable phases (, ) are not

The calculated values are given in Table 4

yet included in the relevant databases.

and are shown in Fig. 17A. Again, taking

6. Engstrom, A., Hoglud, I., and Agren, J.

Taking the above into consideration,

into account the assumptions made, the

1994. Computer simulation of diffusion in mul-

hardness changes are attributed to the

comparison between the calculated and

tiphase systems. Metallurgical Materials Trans-

coarsening of the phase. Figure 17 shows

experimental values is satisfactory.

actions. Vol. 25 A, pp. 11271134.

7. Vermolen, F. J., and Vuik, C. 2000. A

the variation of the following:

Hardness profiles (i.e., hardness at


points A, B, C, D, E, and F of HAZ2), in

Fig. 17A.
The maximum temperature Tmax for

6061-T6. Welding Journal 74(9): 305-s to 318-s.

mathematical model for the dissolution of particles in multi-component alloys. Journal of

Computational and Applied Mathematics. Vol.

The softening of the HAZ following

26, pp. 233254.

laser welding of 6061-T6 Al-alloy has been

8. Bratland, D. H., Grong, O., Schercliff, H.,

each respective point in HAZ2, in Fig.

successfully predicted by the simulation of

Myhr, O. R., and Tjotta, S. 1997. Modelling of


dissolution, reprecipitation, and coarsen-

precipitation reactions in industrial processing.

The size r of phase -Mg2Si at each

ing of the strengthening precipitates dur-

point at the end of the thermal cycle, in

ing the weld thermal cycle. A finite ele-

Fig. 17C.

ment based analysis of heat flow was

The experimental hardness profile in

Fig. 17A shows that the hardness drops

Acta Materialia. Vol. 45, pp. 122.

9. Nicolas, M., and Deschamps, A. 2003.
Characterization and modelling of precipitate
evolution in an Al-Zn-Mg alloy during non-

employed for the calculation of thermal

isothermal heat treatments. Acta Materialia.


Vol. 51, pp. 60776094.

from 118 HV in the base metal to 88 HV

The computational kinetics software

10. Grong, O., and Myhr, H. 2000. Model-

at the boundary with HAZ1 (point A). The

DICTRA was employed for the calculation

ling of nonisothermal transformations in alloys

coarsening simulation shows that the size

of the variation of volume fraction and

of the -Mg2Si phase increases from 2 nm

mean size of the precipitates during the

in the base metal to 3.22 nm at point A. In

welding thermal cycle under nonisother-

order to calculate the hardness at each

mal conditions.

point in HAZ2, it is considered that only

220 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Taking into account the limitations

containing a particle distribution. Acta Materialia. Vol. 45, pp. 1 22.

11. Grong, O. 1997. Metallurgical Modelling
of Welding. pp. 325334, The Institute of Materials, Cambridge University Press, UK.
12. Ion, J. C., Easterling, K. E., and Ashby,


07:Layout 1


12:01 PM

Page 221

M. F. 1984. A second report on diagrams of mi-

crostructural evolution in chromium steels in

preheating of aluminium alloys. Proc. 5th Intl

crostructure and hardness for HAZ in welds.

high temperature applications. PhD disserta-

Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys

Acta Materialia. Vol. 32, pp. 19491962.

tion. KTH Sweden.

and Composites, Colorado, pp. 249256.

13. Bjorneklett, B. I., Grong, O., Myhr, H.,

17. Gustafson, A., Hoglud, L., and Agren, J.

20. Lifshitz, I. M., and Slyozov, V. V. 1961.

and Kluken, A. O. 1998. Additivity and isoki-

1998. Simulation of carbo-nitride coarsening in

The kinetics of precipitation from supersatu-

netic behavior in relation to particle dissolu-

multicomponent Cr-steels for high tempera-

rated solid solutions, J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 19,

tion. Acta Materialia. Vol. 46, pp. 62576266.

ture applications. Advanced Heat Resistant

pp. 3550.

14. Nicolas, M., and Deschamps, A. 2002.

Precipitate microstructure in the heat-affected

Steels for Power Generation. IOM Communications Ltd., London, pp. 270276.

zone of Al-Mn-Mg MIG-welds and evolution

18. Gustafson, A. 2000. Coarsening of TiC

during post welding heat treatments. Materials

in austenitic stainless steel experiments and

Science Forum. Vol. 396402, pp. 15611566.

simulations in comparison. Materials Sci. Eng.

15. Agren, J. 1990. Kinetics of Carbide dissolution. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy.

Vol. 9, pp. 28.
16. Gustafson, A. 2000. Aspects of mi-

Vol. A287, pp. 5258.

21. Wagner, C. 1961. Theorie der Altrung

von Nieederschlagen durch Umblosen (Ostwald-Reinfund), Z. Electrochem.

65, pp.

22. ABAQUS. 1997. Hibbit, Karlsson &
Sorensen, Inc., Pawtucket, R.I.

19. Prikhodovski, A., Hurdado, I., Spencer,

23. Sudman, B., Jonsson, B., and Anders-

P. J., and Neuschutz, D. 1998. Mathematical

son, J.-O. 1985. The thermo-calc databank sys-

simulation of microstructure coarsening during

tem. CALPHAD. Vol. 9, p. 153.

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Page 222


The Influence of Oxygen on the

Nitrogen Content of Autogenous
Stainless Steel Arc Welds
A systematic investigation was conducted on the relationship of nitrogen
in the weld and oxygen additions to argon and argon-nitrogen shielding gases

ABSTRACT. The influence of an addition

of 2% oxygen to argon-rich shielding gas
on nitrogen absorption and desorption
during the autogenous arc welding of
austenitic stainless steels was examined.
Six shielding gases, including argon and
argon-oxygen, argon-nitrogen, and argonnitrogen-oxygen mixtures, were used to
weld two experimental stainless steels
(similar in composition to AISI 310, containing 0.002% and 0.28% nitrogen) and a
nitrogen-alloyed stainless steel, previously
available under the trade name of Cromanite. The presence of oxygen in the
shielding gas was shown to increase the
weld metal nitrogen content, stabilize the
arc, suppress degassing, and curb porosity.
This is attributed to the formation of a
molten slag layer at the weld pool periphery during welding. The higher temperatures under the arc suppress the formation
of this slag layer in the center of the pool.
The slag layer retards nitrogen degassing
by reducing the area available for the adsorption of nitrogen atoms prior to
recombination. The absorption of
monatomic nitrogen from the arc is not
strongly affected, since absorption occurs
at the interface between the arc plasma
and the liquid weld metal, the area not
covered by oxide during welding. This results in higher weld metal nitrogen

Nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless
steels offer a unique combination of high
strength and excellent toughness (Ref. 1).
In addition to its beneficial effect on mechanical properties (Refs. 24), nitrogen
acts as a strong austenite-forming element
in stainless steel (Ref. 5), which favors its
M. DU TOIT is Associate Professor, Department of
Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering,
University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. P. C.
PISTORIUS is Professor, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

222-s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

use as a less-expensive substitute for

nickel. Nitrogen is also reported to increase resistance to localized corrosion
(Refs. 6, 7) and to reduce sensitization effects during welding (Refs. 8, 9).
In nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless
steels, nitrogen degassing during welding
is often a major concern. Nitrogen evolution from the pool increases the risk of
porosity and reduces the weld metal nitrogen content, adversely affecting the
mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the joint. The addition of small
amounts of nitrogen to the shielding gas
has been proposed as a method of curbing
nitrogen losses, but this should be done
with care to prevent active nitrogen degassing during welding (Ref. 10).
Nitrogen absorption and desorption
during arc welding are complex phenomena and no unified theory for the quantitative understanding of the extent of nitrogen dissolution in stainless steel welds
has emerged up to this point. This project
aims at examining the influence of three
variables on nitrogen dissolution during
the autogenous arc welding of stainless
steel: the shielding gas composition, the
base metal nitrogen content, and the weld
surface-active element concentration.
During the first phase of this investigation, experimental stainless steels with
various nitrogen and sulfur concentrations were welded autogenously in argon
and argon-nitrogen shielding gas atmospheres (Ref. 10). The results of this investigation revealed that the weld metal nitrogen content is not influenced to any

Autogenous Welding
Nitrogen Absorption
Oxygen Addition
Shielding Gas
Stainless Steel
Weld Pool

significant extent by the base metal nitrogen content in alloys with lower sulfur levels. In alloys with higher sulfur concentrations, however, an increase in base metal
nitrogen resulted in higher weld metal nitrogen contents over the entire range of
shielding gases evaluated. The nitrogen
saturation limit was reached at progressively lower shielding gas nitrogen contents as the base metal nitrogen level increased. Less nitrogen was required in the
shielding gas to reach the saturation limit
in alloys with higher sulfur concentrations
because an appreciable fraction of the
base metal nitrogen was prevented from
escaping by the higher level of surface
A kinetic model was developed to describe the effect of shielding gas nitrogen
content, base metal nitrogen content, and
weld sulfur concentration on nitrogen absorption and desorption during autogenous arc welding (Ref. 11). This model
displayed good agreement with experimental results, and revealed that the nitrogen desorption rate constant decreases
at higher concentrations of sulfur. This is
consistent with a site blockage model,
where surface-active elements occupy a
fraction of the surface sites required for
nitrogen adsorption. The rate constant for
the absorption of dissociated nitrogen is
not a strong function of the sulfur
As described above, sulfur was deliberately added to the experimental steels during the first phase of this project to
demonstrate the effect of surface-active
elements on nitrogen absorption and desorption during welding. Increasing the sulfur content of nitrogen-alloyed stainless
steels to reduce nitrogen losses is, however, not feasible in practice, as sulfur increases the likelihood of hot cracking. As
an alternative, small amounts of oxygen
(another surface-active element) can be
added to the shielding gas during welding.
Since oxygen is routinely added to shielding gas mixtures for gas metal arc welding
of stainless steels to increase arc stability,


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Page 223


Fig. 1 The measured weld metal nitrogen content as a function of

shielding gas composition. The equilibrium nitrogen levels were calculated as a function of nitrogen partial pressure and alloy composition at
a weld pool temperature of 1995 K.

this seems a more viable alternative.

Ample evidence exists to suggest that
oxygen influences nitrogen dissolution during welding. Lancaster (Ref. 12) reported
that the amount of nitrogen absorbed during arc welding increases in the presence of
oxygen, and Ogawa et al. (Ref. 13) demonstrated that nitrogen-induced porosity in
austenitic stainless steel welds can be
curbed by welding in an oxygen-containing
atmosphere. According to Blake (Ref. 14),
the presence of oxygen lowers nitrogen desorption rates. Uda and Ohno (Ref. 15)
studied the effect of surface-active elements, including sulfur and oxygen, on the
nitrogen content of iron during arc melting
in Ar-N2 atmospheres, and reported that
surface-active elements increase the nitrogen content and the level of supersaturation in welds. Hooijmans and Den Ouden
(Ref. 16) examined nitrogen dissolution in
iron containing different amounts of oxygen during arc melting in argon-nitrogen
atmospheres. An increase in nitrogen content was observed in samples containing up
to 0.008% oxygen. Cross et al. (Ref. 17) reported a significant increase in the nitrogen
content of duplex stainless steel welds with
as little as 250 ppm oxygen in Ar-N2
shielding gas mixtures.
Four hypotheses are offered in literature to account for the influence of oxygen
on nitrogen dissolution during welding.
1) Blake (Ref. 14) attributed the higher
dissolution and lower desorption rates in
the presence of oxygen to the formation of
NO, resulting from the interaction between nitrogen and oxygen in the arc. The
presence of NO in Ar-N2-O2 plasmas has
since been confirmed by Palmer and
DebRoy (Ref. 18) at plasma temperatures
below approximately 7000 K, with an associated increase in the amount of

monatomic nitrogen
in the arc. Such an increase in the level of
monatomic nitrogen
in the arc is expected
to enhance nitrogen
1922). The results of
emission spectroscopy
studies of Ar-N2-O2 Fig. 2 The oxide layers observed after autogenous gas tungsten arc weldglow discharge plas- ing in argon-rich shielding gas containing 2% oxygen. A Alloy VFB 241;
mas, however, illus- B Cromanite.
trated that at temperatures higher than
2) The presence of surface-active eleapproximately 7000 K, NO disappears
ments in the weld pool promotes converfrom the plasma phase, and monatomic
gent surface-tension driven (Marangoni)
species, such as N and O, become domiflow. In a pure metal, Marangoni flow is
nant (Ref. 18). Calculated and measured
divergent across the weld pool surface, but
temperature profiles within the arc colsurface-active elements may cause the
umn illustrate that, even in low-current
gradient of surface tension with temperagas tungsten arc welds, temperatures
ture to reverse. Surface flow then becomes
within the arc generally exceed the range
convergent, causing nitrogen-rich weld
where NO is likely to be stable (Ref. 18).
metal to flow downward toward the weld
This hypothesis also does not account for
root (Ref. 19). In iron-oxygen alloys the
the higher nitrogen levels observed when
gradient of surface tension with temperawelding nitrogen-alloyed stainless steels
ture reverses at approximately 100 ppm
in oxygen-containing shielding gas withoxygen (Refs. 2327). Although converout nitrogen. The formation of NO in the
gent Marangoni flow in the presence of
welding arc is therefore likely to play a
oxygen probably contributes toward enminor role in increasing the nitrogen conhanced nitrogen dissolution during lowtent of most welds.
current gas tungsten arc welding, it is not

Table 1 Chemical Compositions of the Stainless Steel Alloys Included in this Investigation
VFB 237
VFB 241







Low N
High N









percentage by mass, balance Fe



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Page 224

(Ref. 16). Surface oxide formation may be
a likely explanation for the effect of oxygen
on nitrogen dissolution, and needs to be investigated further.
The objective of this investigation was
therefore to systematically examine the influence of oxygen additions to argon and
argon-nitrogen shielding gas mixtures on
nitrogen absorption and desorption during
autogenous arc welding, and to confirm the
mechanism responsible for enhanced nitrogen dissolution in the presence of oxygen.

Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrographs of the
surface oxide layers observed on welds performed
in shielding gas containing argon and 2% oxygen.
A VFB 237; B VFB 241; C Cromanite.

expected to be the dominant mass flow

mechanism in most welds.
3) Surface-active elements tend to occupy a fraction of the available surface
sites, making it more difficult for nitrogen
to adsorb on or desorb from the metal surface (Refs. 19, 28). In view of the results
obtained during the earlier stages of this
investigation, reduced surface availability
may be a viable explanation for the reported influence of oxygen.
4) The formation of an oxide layer on
the weld pool surface in the presence of
oxygen hampers the outflow of nitrogen
224 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Table 2 Shielding Gases Used in this

Investigation to Examine the Influence of
Oxygen and Nitrogen Additions on Nitrogen
Dissolution during Welding
Without O2 addition

With O2 addition

Ar + 1% N2
Ar + 5% N2

Ar + 2% O2
Ar + 1% N2 + 2% O2
Ar + 5% N2 + 2% O2

percentage by volume

Experimental Procedure
Stainless Steel Alloys

Welding Procedure

During this investigation, the influence

of autogenous arc welding in argon-rich
shielding gas containing additions of oxygen and nitrogen on the nitrogen content
of two experimental stainless steels was
evaluated. The chemical compositions of
these alloys, designated VFB 237 and
VFB 241, are shown in Table 1. The experimental alloys were designed to have
compositions similar to that of AISI 310,
an austenitic stainless steel normally produced without deliberate nitrogen addition. This steel was selected as base alloy
because it solidifies as austenite and remains fully austenitic down to room temperature. This prevents bulk solid-state
phase transformations, which may lead to
changes in the solid-state nitrogen solubility, from taking place.
In order to study the influence of the
base metal nitrogen content on nitrogen
absorption and desorption during welding, the experimental alloys were produced with two nitrogen concentrations: a
low nitrogen level (residual nitrogen content of approximately 0.002%), and a high
nitrogen level (approximately 0.28%).
This nitrogen level exceeds the equilibrium solubility limit of approximately
0.25%, calculated at 1873 K and 1 atmosphere nitrogen pressure.
The third steel included in this investigation is a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel that, until recently, was commercially available in South Africa under the
trade name of Cromanite. Whereas nitrogen-alloyed stainless steels are normally produced in pressurized furnaces,
where a high-nitrogen partial pressure
forces the nitrogen into solution, the high
manganese and chromium levels in Cromanite raise the nitrogen solubility to such
an extent that it can be produced under atmospheric pressure using conventional
steel-making processes. Difficulties encountered during the autogenous arc welding of Cromanite using inert shielding gas
(nitrogen losses, porosity, spattering, and
metal expulsion from the weld pool)
prompted its inclusion in this investigation.

The stainless steel samples were hot

rolled to a thickness of 6 mm, ground and
degreased. The plates were welded in a
glove box using automatic autogenous gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Direct current electrode negative polarity and a 2%
thoriated tungsten electrode were used.
To minimize atmospheric contamination,
the glove box was flushed with argon for at
least fifteen minutes prior to welding, and
a low argon flow rate was maintained during welding to ensure a slight positive
pressure inside the glove box. Shielding
was supplied by shielding gas flowing
through the welding torch at a rate of 20
L/min. Welding-grade argon and five premixed shielding gases, listed in Table 2,
were used. Welding was performed using
a current of 150 A, an arc length of 2 mm,
and a welding speed of 2.7 mm/s. The measured arc voltage varied from 15.7 0.5 V
(95% confidence interval) in shielding gas
without oxygen, to 17.3 0.6 V in shielding gas mixtures containing 2% oxygen.
Instability of the arc, characterized by
flashing, spattering, a hissing sound, and
violent metal expulsion from the pool,
served as a visual indication of active nitrogen degassing during welding.
It must be emphasized that the addition of oxygen to inert shielding gas during GTAW is not recommended due to oxidation and rapid degradation of the
tungsten electrode. Although frequent regrinding of the electrode was required, the
GTAW process was selected for the excellent control it offers over heat input and
welding parameters, and because it allows
autogenous welding.
After welding, the nitrogen content of
each weld was analyzed using an inert gas
fusion analysis technique, taking care to
remove the metal drillings required only
from the weld. At least two analyses were
performed on different samples to ensure
repeatability. In order to quantify the level
of oxygen absorption from the shielding
gas, the oxygen contents of welds performed in argon and in an argon-oxygen
shielding gas mixture were also measured.


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Fig. 4 Calculated equilibrium compositions of the liquid metal (upper graphs) and slag (lower graphs) for VFB 237 weld metal reacted with different amounts
of oxygen. The results are shown for two temperatures. A 1750 K; B 1995 K.

Results and Discussion

Visual Observation and Weld Metal
Nitrogen Content

The average weld metal nitrogen contents are given in Table 3, and shown
graphically in Fig. 1. The equilibrium nitrogen solubilities were calculated using
Wada and Pehlkes equations and interaction parameters (Ref. 29) at an average
weld pool temperature of 1995 K (Ref.
10). Appendix A displays photographs of
the welds and details some of the observations made during welding.
Figure 1 confirms that the weld metal
nitrogen contents exceed the equilibrium
concentrations calculated from Sieverts
law for the shielding gases evaluated. The

addition of nitrogen to the inert shielding

gas raises the weld metal nitrogen concentration in all three alloys. The results also
demonstrate that the presence of 2% oxygen in the shielding gas increases the weld
metal nitrogen contents significantly.
During welding, the experimental steel
without any deliberate nitrogen addition
(VFB 237) displayed a stable arc in all the
shielding gas atmospheres. None of the
flashes, spattering, and violent metal expulsion characteristic of active nitrogen
degassing was noted, and no porosity was
observed on the weld surfaces. The welds
were smooth, with fine surface ripples, although more surface oxidation was evident after welding in oxygen-containing
shielding gas. Arc stability and the absence
of porosity are consistent with the weld

metal nitrogen content remaining below

0.2% in all cases, except for the oxygencontaining shielding gas with the highest
nitrogen content (0.2% is the equilibrium
solubility limit at 1995 K and 1 atmosphere
nitrogen pressure).
The beneficial effect of oxygen was
even more apparent on welding the highnitrogen experimental alloy (VFB 241).
Stable arcs were observed when welding in
argon and in an argon-oxygen shielding
gas mixture. With 1% nitrogen in the
shielding gas, the presence of oxygen suppressed nitrogen degassing (even though
the measured weld metal nitrogen content
exceeds the solubility limit at 1 atmosphere nitrogen pressure) and resulted in a
considerably more stable arc. The same
trend was observed in shielding gas con-

Table 3 Average Weld Metal Nitrogen Content of Welded Samples as a Function of Shielding Gas Composition

VFB 237
VFB 241

Metal N

Weld metal N content for various shielding gas compositions

Ar + 2% O2
Ar + 1% N2
Ar + 1% N2 + 2%O2




Ar + 5% N2

Ar + 5% N2 + 2% O2

percentage by mass



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Page 226

within the weld metal. Welds appeared
smoother in the presence of oxygen, with
finer surface ripples.
Weld Oxygen Content and Surface

Fig. 5 Calculated equilibrium compositions of the liquid metal (upper graphs) and slag (lower graphs)
for VFB 241 weld metal reacted with different amounts of oxygen. The results are shown for two temperatures. A 1750 K; B 1995 K.

weld metal nitrogen contents in all the

shielding gases evaluated. Oxygen also
brought about smoother arcs, less degassing, and lower levels of porosity. The
addition of 2% oxygen to argon shielding
gas eliminated porosity and limited nitrogen losses, resulting in a weld metal nitrogen content comparable to that of the base
metal prior to welding (0.495% compared
to 0.51% prior to welding, and 0.41% after
welding in argon). In nitrogen-containing
shielding gas, the addition of oxygen resulted in the formation of fine pores at the
weld interface, rather than large pores

taining 5% nitrogen, where the presence

of oxygen suppressed nitrogen degassing
and reduced porosity. The presence of
oxygen in Ar-N2 shielding gas mixtures resulted in smoother welds, with finer surface ripples.
In Cromanite, welding in argon and
argon-nitrogen mixtures caused degassing
and porosity. This is consistent with the
weld metal nitrogen contents exceeding
the equilibrium solubility limit of 0.32%
(calculated at 1995 K and 1 atmosphere N2
pressure) in all cases. The addition of oxygen to the shielding gas resulted in higher

The measured weld metal oxygen contents after welding in argon and in argonoxygen shielding gas mixtures are shown
in Table 4. These results indicate that very
little oxygen was absorbed by the experimental alloy welds, and that welds produced in argon-oxygen mixtures did not
contain significantly more oxygen than
welds produced in argon. The beneficial
influence of oxygen in suppressing nitrogen degassing is therefore not consistent
with a site-blockage model. This was confirmed by estimating the total fraction of
vacant surface sites (or the surface availability), (1T), from Equation 1 (Ref. 19)
for each weld. This equation is a simplified
version of an equation derived by Byrne
and Belton (Ref. 30) to describe the effect
of sulfur and oxygen on the fraction of vacant surface sites in the adsorbed surface
layer, as determined from measured rate
constants for the reaction of N2 with liquid
iron and Fe-C alloys. The slight decrease
in surface availability on welding in oxygen-containing shielding gas (amounting
to reductions of 3.3 and 8.3% in VFB 237
and VFB 241, respectively) does not adequately explain the observed increase in
weld metal nitrogen contents.

(1 T ) =

1 + K oads ( wt %O ) + K sads ( wt %S )


where KOads is the equilibrium constant

for the adsorption of oxygen, given by

Table 4 Average Weld Metal Oxygen Content after Welding in Ar and Ar-O2 Shielding Gas Mixtures, and the Calculated Surface Availability at
1995 K

VFB 237
VFB 241

Base Metal

Weld Metal



Ar + 2% O2

Weld Metal

(1 - T) = 0.361
(1 - T) = 0.411
(1- T) = 0.496


(1 - T) =0.349
(1 - T) = 0.377
(1 - T) = 0.297

Table 5 Weld Pool Depth-to-Width Ratio (D/W) as a Function of Shielding Gas Composition
VFB 237
VFB 241


Ar + 2% O2

Ar + 1%N2

D/W = 0.48
D/W = 0.57
D/W = 0.32

D/W = 0.20
D/W = 0.11
D/W = 0.28

D/W = 0.51
D/W = 0.53
D/W = 0.43

226 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Ar + 1%N2 + 2%O2
D/W = 0.20
D/W = 0.08
D/W = 0.24

Ar + 5%N2
D/W = 0.40
D/W = 0.38
D/W = 0.34

Ar + 5%N2+2%O2
D/W = 0.14
D/W = 0.08
D/W = 0.24


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Fig. 6 Calculated equilibrium compositions of the liquid metal (upper graphs) and slag (lower graphs) for Cromanite weld metal reacted with different amounts
of oxygen. The results are shown for three temperatures. A 1750 K; B 1995; C 2275 K. For the lowest temperature (1750 K), no liquid slag forms until
the amount of reacted oxygen exceeds 250 ppm, as solid Al2O3 and MnAl2O4 form instead. For the two higher temperatures, the absence of slag at lower levels
of reacted oxygen indicates that all the oxygen dissolves in the metal.

Equation 2, and KSads is the equilibrium

constant for the adsorption of sulfur,
where KSads is assumed to be equal to 65
per wt-% sulfur (reported value at 1873
log K oads =
4.96 per wt-% oxygen
In Cromanite, the weld oxygen content decreased significantly on welding in argon.
This may be attributed to effective deoxidation of the weld pool in the presence of
high levels of manganese. Welding in an
argon-oxygen shielding gas mixture, however, restored the weld oxygen content to
its original base metal concentration. This
increase in oxygen content, compared to
that measured after welding in pure argon,
results in a 40% decrease in calculated
surface availability. This reduction in surface availability probably played a role in
increasing the nitrogen content of Cromanite welds.
Influence of Oxygen on Weld Pool

As shown in Table 5, the addition of

oxygen to argon-rich shielding gas was observed to change the weld depth-to-width
(D/W) ratio. In VFB 237, D/W varied
from between 0.40 and 0.51 in shielding
gas without O2, to 0.2 or less in oxygencontaining shielding gas. The change in
weld pool shape was even more pronounced in VFB 241, with D/W varying

Table 6 Compositions of the Weld Oxide Layers Estimated Using SEM-EDS Analysis





VFB 237
VFB 241





percentage by mass

from between 0.38 and 0.57 in shielding

gas without O2, to 0.11 or less in shielding
gas containing O2. In Cromanite, the addition of oxygen changed D/W from between 0.32 and 0.43 in shielding gas without O2, to between 0.24 and 0.28 in
shielding gas containing oxygen.
As a surface-active element, oxygen is
expected to increase the weld D/W ratio
by promoting convergent surface flow in
the weld pool. The weld oxygen contents
of all three alloys exceed the 100 ppm limit
required for convergent flow, ensuring
good penetration and high D/W ratios
after welding in argon. The addition of
oxygen, however, resulted in considerable
reductions in the weld D/W ratio in the experimental alloys, even though the weld
oxygen levels did not differ appreciably
from those measured after welding in
argon. This reduction in weld D/W ratio is
consistent with results published by Lu et
al. (Refs. 2327). These authors examined
the effects of O2 and CO2 additions to
argon shielding gas on the weld pool shape
during GTAW of AISI 304L stainless steel.
Their results confirmed that the addition

of up to 0.6% oxygen to argon shielding

gas increased the weld oxygen content, resulting in increased weld D/W ratios. With
the addition of more than 0.6% oxygen,
however, the weld oxygen contents stabilized at levels between 200 and 250 ppm,
regardless of the shielding gas oxygen content, and the weld pool shape reverted
back to wide, shallow beads with low D/W
ratios. This was attributed to the formation of a heavy oxide layer on the weld
pool surface in the presence of more than
0.6% oxygen in the shielding gas. This
oxide layer apparently inhibits convergent
Marangoni flow and acts as a barrier for
oxygen absorption. In view of these results, the formation of surface oxides during welding was examined in more detail.
Oxide Formation during Welding

Surface oxide layers were present on all

welds performed in oxygen-containing
shielding gas. In the experimental alloys,
heavy oxide layers were observed at the
weld periphery adjacent to the weld interface, while the rest of the weld pool sur-



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face remained oxide-free Fig. 2A. The
oxide layers at the weld periphery were
continuous, fairly uniform, and tightly adherent. Although a heavy oxide layer was
observed at the periphery of Cromanite
welds after welding in oxygen-containing
shielding gas (Fig. 2B), the oxide layer was
not as continuous or adherent as in the
case of the experimental alloys, and the
oxide appeared to be more granular.
In order to study these surface oxide
layers in more detail, cross sections of the
welds were mounted in resin, polished to
a 3 m finish, and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Micrographs of the oxide layers are shown in
Fig. 3A C. The surface oxides on the experimental steels formed continuous layers over short distances at the weld pool
periphery, while the central region of the
weld was oxide-free. Average oxide thicknesses of 19.7 3.8 m and 17.1 4.1 m
(95% confidence interval) were measured
for VFB 237 and VFB 241, respectively.
No oxide particles were observed within
the weld metal of the experimental alloys
after welding in oxygen-containing shielding gas.
The SEM examination confirmed that
the surface layers on Cromanite welds are
less uniform, and not as continuous as
those observed on the experimental alloys.
The average thickness of the Cromanite
oxide layer was measured as 17.7 4.3
m. The layer had a granular appearance,
and consisted of a mixture of oxide particles and small metal droplets. Although
active degassing was not observed during
welding in argon-oxygen mixtures, the
presence of metal droplets in the surface
layer can probably be attributed to nitrogen evolution during welding. It is postulated that the formation of nitrogen bubbles in the weld pool disrupted the oxide
layer and generated a spray of metal
droplets that became trapped in the oxide
layer. Due to the granular nature of the
layer, the surface oxide probably acted as
a less effective barrier for oxygen absorption, which may account for the higher
oxygen content measured in these welds.
Small oxide inclusions (5 m or less in diameter) were observed within the Cromanite weld metal.
The surface oxide compositions were
determined using SEM-EDS analysis
techniques (Table 6). The oxide layers on
the experimental welds were shown to
consist of almost equal amounts of SiO2
and MnO, with some CrOx (assumed to be
Cr2O3) and a small amount of Al2O3. No
iron was detected in any of the oxide layers. The Cromanite surface oxide layer
was shown to consist largely of Cr2O3, with
some MnO and low levels of SiO2 and
Because of the important influence of

228 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

the dissolved weld oxygen content on nitrogen absorption and degassing during
welding, the factors that control this oxygen content need to be understood. Those
elements that form the most stable oxides
tend to remove dissolved oxygen from the
weld metal. In principle, it is possible to
estimate the weld pool oxygen content by
calculating the deoxidation equilibria for
such elements. This calculation is complicated by the presence of several reactive
(deoxidizing) elements in the weld pool,
namely aluminum, silicon, manganese,
and chromium. The oxide compositions
(Table 6) demonstrate that these elements
reacted simultaneously, and apparently
formed a liquid oxide mixture (slag) on the
weld surface.
In order to evaluate the complex reaction equilibrium of the four main reactive
elements in the weld pool, the FactSage
package (v. 5.4.1) (Ref. 31) was used, with
the alloy compositions (Table 1) as inputs.
In the calculation, different amounts of
oxygen were conceptually allowed to react
with the steel to equilibrium. Equilibrium
phases considered were the liquid steel
(modeled using FactSage liquid solution
phase FTmisc-FeLQ (Ref. 32)), liquid slag
(modeled using FactSage liquid FToxidSLAGA), various solid-solution oxides,
and stoichiometric oxides such as SiO2,
Al2O3, MnO, MnAl2O4, and Cr2O3. Two
temperatures were used in the majority of
calculations. The lower temperature, 1750
K, is approximately 20 K higher than the
equilibrium liquidus temperature of AISI
310 and about 40 K higher than the liquidus of Cromanite. This temperature
represents the cooler weld pool periphery.
The higher temperature, 1995 K, is the average temperature of the pool measured
earlier (Ref. 10). An additional temperature, 2275 K, was used in calculating the
deoxidation equilibria for Cromanite.
This temperature falls within the predicted weld pool peak temperature range,
estimated for AISI 304 during GTAW at a
current of 150 A and a welding speed of
2.5 mm/s (Ref. 33).
The results of the FactSage calculations are presented in Figs. 46. In each of
these figures, the metal composition is
given in the upper graph, and the composition of the oxide (liquid slag) in the lower
graph. If no slag composition is given, no
slag formed typically because all the
oxygen dissolved in the metal. In most
cases, the oxygen was present in two forms
in the equilibrium reaction products: as
dissolved oxygen in the steel, and as liquid
slag. Occasionally (for the lower reaction
temperature), solid Al2O3 or (in the case
of Cromanite) MnAl2O4 were stable, but
only at low amounts of reacted oxygen,
typically less than 250 ppm. The main
form of chromium oxide in the slag was

found to be CrO, with only minor levels of

For all three steel compositions, Al2O3
is a prominent component of the first slag
to form. However, the low level of dissolved aluminum is largely removed from
the melt at small degrees of reaction with
oxygen. The analyzed oxide compositions
(Table 6) indicate that, for the experimental steels, the amount of oxygen that had
reacted with the weld metal was around
0.1% of the steel mass, yielding a slag consisting mainly of SiO2 and MnO, with a significant amount of CrOx. For these intermediate amounts of reacted oxygen, the
analyzed weld oxygen content (Table 4)
agrees reasonably well with the predicted
oxygen content at 1995 K. For this degree
of reaction, where the weld contains little
aluminum, the dissolved oxygen content is
mainly determined by the weld silicon
content. This is confirmed by the high slag
SiO2 content, as well as the noticeable difference between VFB 241 and VFB 237:
the former has a higher silicon content,
which corresponds to a lower dissolved
oxygen content. This effect is also noticeable in the weld metal analyses (Table 4).
The situation is rather different for
Cromanite (Fig. 6), where MnO is the
major slag oxide in most cases. The experimental observations of high weld oxygen
contents (Table 4) and high slag CrOx contents (Table 6) indicate that, for this steel,
the analyzed compositions correspond to
both a higher equilibration temperature
and a higher degree of reaction with oxygen than for the experimental steels.
These calculations confirm that a surface oxide layer forms at the weld periphery on welding in oxygen-containing
shielding gas. In all three alloys, more oxygen dissolves in the weld metal at higher
temperatures, suppressing the formation
of slag at lower amounts of reacted oxygen. The higher temperatures under the
arc therefore prevent the formation of a
molten slag layer in the central regions of
the pool.
Proposed Mechanism

The results of this investigation suggest

that the increased weld metal nitrogen
contents measured after welding in oxygen-containing shielding gas cannot be attributed only to enhanced convergent
Marangoni flow or increased surface coverage. The addition of oxygen to argon
shielding gas raised the weld metal nitrogen contents even when mass flow in the
pool was clearly divergent. Welding in oxygen-containing shielding gas resulted in
higher weld metal nitrogen contents without any significant increase in weld oxygen
content, suggesting that reduced surface
availability plays a minor role in enhanc-


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Page 229

ing nitrogen dissolution. The conclusion
can be drawn that the higher weld metal
nitrogen contents observed in the presence of oxygen are mainly due to the formation of a surface oxide layer.
Any mechanism accounting for the
role of the surface slag layer has to be consistent with the kinetic model developed
earlier (Ref. 11). This model states that
the weld metal nitrogen content is determined by the amounts of nitrogen entering and leaving the weld pool per unit
Nitrogen enters the pool from the arc
atmosphere, i.e., the dissolution of
monatomic nitrogen from the arc plasma
into the liquid metal, and from nitrogencontaining base metal melting at the leading edge of the pool.
Dissolved nitrogen is removed from
the weld pool by recombining to form N2
molecules that escape to the atmosphere,
and through solidification of nitrogencontaining weld metal at the rear of the
Since the travel speed was kept constant, it follows that the melting and solidification rates at the leading and trailing
edges of the pool did not vary significantly
with changes in shielding gas composition.
The presence of a slag layer can therefore
influence the amounts of nitrogen entering
and leaving the pool due to melting and solidification only through a change in the
weld pool dimensions (in particular the
pool volume and length). To examine the
influence of a change in pool dimensions on
the weld metal nitrogen content, the weld
pool length and volume were measured
after welding in various shielding gases and
substituted into the kinetic model. The
model revealed that the increase in pool
length and volume observed after welding
in oxygen-containing shielding gas does not
result in any appreciable change in the predicted steady-state weld metal nitrogen
content. The presence of a surface slag
layer is therefore not expected to affect the
amounts of nitrogen entering and leaving
the weld pool through melting and resolidification to any significant extent.
The presence of a surface oxide layer
can influence the absorption of
monatomic nitrogen from the arc and the
evolution of nitrogen from the pool by acting as a barrier between the liquid weld
metal and the arc atmosphere. Absorption
of monatomic nitrogen, however, occurs
at the interface between the arc plasma
and the liquid weld metal, the area not
covered by the oxide layer. Absorption of
nitrogen from the arc is therefore not influenced by the presence of oxygen. The
recombination of nitrogen to form N2
molecules occurs over the entire weld pool
surface. The presence of a slag layer at the
weld periphery is thus expected to retard

nitrogen evolution by reducing the surface

area available for the adsorption of atomic
nitrogen prior to recombination. The
presence of a surface oxide layer at the
weld pool periphery therefore reduces the
amount of nitrogen leaving the weld pool
per unit time, whereas the amount of nitrogen entering the pool is not influenced
to any significant extent. This results in an
increase in the measured weld metal nitrogen content.
The high nitrogen content measured in
Cromanite after welding in oxygencontaining shielding gas can probably be attributed to the high nitrogen solubility in
the alloy, the granular nature of the oxide
and the higher weld oxygen levels. Since the
recombination of adsorbed nitrogen to
form N2 requires two vacant surface sites,
and the dissolution of monatomic nitrogen
from the arc only one vacant site, the surface slag layer retards nitrogen desorption
to a greater extent than nitrogen absorption. The granular nature of the oxide layer
therefore facilitates greater nitrogen absorption, while retarding nitrogen desorption in the form of N2. This results in high
weld metal nitrogen contents after welding
in oxygen-containing shielding gas.

The addition of nitrogen to argon
shielding gas during autogenous arc welding raises the nitrogen content of stainless
steel welds, but increases the likelihood of
active degassing and porosity. An increase
in base metal nitrogen content results in
higher weld metal nitrogen levels.
The addition of 2% oxygen to argon
and argon-nitrogen shielding gas mixtures
increases the weld metal nitrogen content,
stabilizes the arc, suppresses degassing
and limits nitrogen-induced porosity. The
addition of oxygen to the shielding gas
does not raise the weld oxygen content to
any significant extent.
Thermodynamic calculation of the
deoxidation equilibria in the weld metal
demonstrates that a liquid slag layer forms
on the weld pool surface during welding in
oxygen-containing shielding gas. This slag
layer forms readily at the cooler weld periphery, but is suppressed by the higher
temperatures under the arc due to increased oxygen solubility in the molten
The slag layer that forms at the weld
periphery in the presence of oxygen retards
nitrogen degassing by reducing the surface
area available for the adsorption of nitrogen atoms prior to recombination. The absorption of monatomic nitrogen is, however, not strongly affected by the oxide
layer, since absorption occurs mostly at the
interface between the arc plasma and the
liquid metal, the area not covered by oxide

during welding. The surface oxide layer at

the weld periphery therefore reduces the
amount of nitrogen leaving the weld per
unit time, whereas the amount of nitrogen
entering the pool is not influenced significantly. This results in an increase in the
measured weld metal nitrogen content.

Special thanks to Columbus Stainless

for performing the nitrogen and oxygen
analyses and the University of Pretoria for
providing laboratory facilities. The assistance of Karin Frost and Charl Smal is
gratefully acknowledged.
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19. Katz, J. D., and King, T. B. 1989. The kinetics of nitrogen absorption and desorption
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20. Bandopadhyay, A., Banerjee, A., and
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21. Mundra, K., and DebRoy, T. 1995. A
general model for partitioning of gases between
a metal and its plasma environment. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 26B(1):
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24. Lu, S., Fujii, H., and Nogi, K. 2005. Influence of welding parameters and shielding gas
composition on GTA weld shape. ISIJ International 45(1): 6670.
25. Lu, S., Fujii, H., and Nogi, K. 2004. Weld
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Double-Electrode GMAW
Process and Control
A novel welding process adds a GTAW torch to a conventional
GMAW system to create a bypass arc for increasing melting
current while controlling base current
ABSTRACT. Double-electrode gas metal
arc welding (DE-GMAW) is a novel
process that decouples the melting current
into base metal current and bypass current
by adding a bypass torch to a conventional
GMAW system to establish a bypass arc.
This makes it possible to increase the
melting current while the base metal
current can be controlled at a desired level.
Experiments have been done to find the
conditions that can assure a stable bypass
arc is established/maintained between the
welding wire and the bypass torch. To
control the base metal current at the
desired level, a group of power resistors is
added in the bypass loop. The resistance of
the power resistor group is adjusted realtime by changing the combination of the
resistors, and the change in the resistance
results in a change in the bypass current
and thus a change in the base metal
current. A model has been developed to
correlate the change of the resistance
needed to achieve the desired base metal
current to the deviation of the base metal
current from its desired level. Experiments
demonstrated that the developed control
system can adjust the bypass current in a
great range to maintain the base metal
current at the desired levels.

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is a
major process for metals joining.
Conventional GMAW is normally used in
the direct current electrode positive
polarity (DCEP), in which the wire is
connected to the positive terminal of the
power source and the power source
operates in the constant voltage (CV)
mode. The reverse polarity contributes to
a stable arc, uniform metal transfer, and
greater penetration. A CV power source
can adjust the welding current such that
the wire melting rate is equal to the given
wire feed speed, and the welding voltage,
ZHANG ( are with
Center for Manufacturing and Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, University
of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.

or arc length, is maintained constant. For

automatic and semiautomatic welding, the
productivity is mostly determined by the
travel speed provided that the welding
performance criterion is met, for example,
the cross-section area of the weld bead is
not changed with the travel speed.
Obviously, a faster travel speed requires a
larger wire melting rate such that the
melted metal is enough to form a longer
weld bead in a unit time. Based on the
work by Waszink and Heuvel (Ref. 1), the
melting rate can be calculated by the
following formula if the metal transfer is
in spray mode, i.e., the melting current is
greater than 250 A for mild steels.

GMAW, the double-electrode GMAW process

(Ref. 9) proposes a way to change this
fundamental characteristic so that the
melting rate can be freely increased. In a
previous preliminary study (Ref. 9), this
change was realized by adding a plasma
torch and a second power supply to a
conventional GMAW system. In this
study, the DE-GMAW process is
implemented without the second power
supply. In addition, the plasma torch is
replaced by a gas tungsten arc welding
torch which is more durable and cost

Principles of DE-GMAW

m = 5.1 10 13
+ 2.2 10 6 I
where m (kg/s) is the melting rate, I (A) is
the total melting current, L (m) is the wire
extension, and S (m2) is the cross-sectional
area of the wire. That means the melting
current must be increased in order to
increase the melting rate. Unfortunately,
the melting current in conventional
GMAW is the same as the base metal
current. Thus, a greater melting current
not only melts the wire faster, but also
increases the based metal heat input,
which contributes to increasing the weld
pool, residual stress, and distortion. This
fundamental characteristic of conventional
GMAW makes it difficult to increase the
deposition rate without imposing excessive heat
to the base metal.
While tandem GMAW (Refs. 2, 3), T.I.M.E
(Refs. 4, 5), and variable-polarity GMAW (Refs.
68) have successfully increased the melting rate
to certain degrees without changing this
fundamental characteristic of conventional

Base Metal Current
Heat Input
Welding Productivity

A DE-GMAW system (Fig. 1) is

formed in this study by adding a
nonconsumable tungsten electrode to
decouple the melting current into base
metal current and bypass current
I = I bm + I bp

where I (A) is the total current or melting
current, Ibm (A) is the base metal current,
Ibp (A) is the bypass current. As can be
seen in Fig. 1, the bypass current flows
back to the power source through the
bypass torch without going through the
base metal. As a result, the base metal
current is no longer the same as the
melting current and the fundamental
characteristics in conventional GMAW no
longer apply. On the other hand, as is
illustrated later, the total melting current
is still determined by the wire feed speed
and welding voltage as in conventional
GMAW. Hence, the bypass arc can change
and reduce the base metal current without
changing the total melting current.
The bypass loop in Fig. 1 includes an
adjustable resistor. When this system is
used, the user can choose the wire feed
speed based on the deposition rate
desired. The total current which melts the
wire will be dictated by the wire feed
speed and the arc voltage setting. When
the resistance of the adjustable resistor is
zero, the majority of the melting current
would tend to flow through the bypass
loop because the tungsten



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Page 232


Fig. 1 Proposed DE-GMAW system.

Fig. 2 Relationship between tungsten

electrode, welding wire, and workpiece.

Fig. 3 Controllable power resistor group.

electrons easier than the workpiece. To

control the base metal current at the
desired level, the resistance of the
adjustable resistor is feedback adjusted
using a current sensor that measures the
base metal current Fig. 1.
It is apparent that the heat absorbed by
the tungsten and the power resistor is
wasted. However, this heat would be
applied to the base metal if the bypass
loop is not applied as in conventional
GMAW so that the base metal is overheated. That is, in conventional GMAW,
this heat is not only wasted, but also
produces harm to the process.

Shielding Gas for Bypass Electrode

welding voltage for the GMAW power

source is preset around 2835 V

Process Stability
The presence of the bypass arc is the
fundamental characteristic of the DEGMAW process. A stable bypass arc
assures the DE-GMAW function. Hence,
the behavior and stability of the bypass arc
must be studied and understood. For the
novel DE-GMAW system demonstrated
in Fig. 1, the behavior and stability of the
bypass arc were determined by several
parameters discussed below.
Bypass Electrode

In the proposed DE-GMAW process,

there are two cathodes: one is the
workpiece, and the other is the bypass
electrode, which forms the bypass arc with
the welding wire. The bypass electrode
must have a high melting point and good
electrical conductivity. Two materials have
been tested during the implementation:
water-cooled copper and tungsten. But
the former appears too cold to ignite the
bypass arc even though it is very close to
the GMAW arc. It was found the tungsten
electrode is a very active bypass electrode,
as it is used in GTAW. Thus, a commercial
GTAW torch is used to hold the tungsten
electrode and at the same time to provide
the shielding gas for the bypass electrode.
With a tungsten bypass electrode, the arc
stability is significantly improved.
232 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

To protect the tungsten electrode from

oxidizing, pure argon is recommended for
shielding gas. Because of the action of
electric field and arc radiation, the argon
will be ionized. This ionized argon
atmosphere further improves the stability
of the bypass arc. If the bypass current is
higher than 150 A, a water-cooling system
is required to protect the bypass torch.
Tungsten-to-Welding Wire Distance

The horizontal distance from the

tungsten end to the welding wire end, d3 in
Fig. 2, is also an important parameter to
obtain a stable DE-GMAW process. It was
found that a distance in the range from 2
to 5 mm is optimal for achieving a stable
bypass arc. A greater d3 will increase the
difficulty to start the bypass arc. A shorter
d3 will expedite the melt-off of the
tungsten electrode.
Tungsten-to-Workpiece Distance

The distance between the tungsten

electrode and the workpiece, d2 in Fig. 2,
cannot be too large in order to start the
bypass arc. In DE-GMAW process, the
GMAW gun feeds in the welding wire to
strike the main arc between the welding
wire and the workpiece. The bypass arc is
then ignited via the main arc. To assure the
bypass arc is ignited, the tungsten
electrode has to be close enough to the
main arc. Experiments revealed that the
optimal value of d2 is about 6 mm.
Contact Tube-to-Workpiece Distance

The contact tube-to-workpiece distance

(CTWD) d1, as shown in Fig. 2, is also
important for achieving a stable bypass arc.
A relatively longer d1 is required in order to
provide the space for the bypass torch in the
current implementation. Experimental
observation showed that the optimal
distance d1 is approximately 20 mm. The

Angle between Tungsten and

Welding Wire

Another parameter that determines

the behavior and stability of the bypass arc
is the angle between the tungsten and
the welding wire, illustrated in Fig. 2. The
GMAW gun is placed at a normal work
position. The angle can be adjusted by
changing the position of the bypass torch.
Because the tungsten electrode needs to
point to the weld pool, the angle cannot
be too large. Considering the size of the
bypass torch and the distance d1, the angle
is limited to around 60 deg.

Control System
The control system consisted of an
adjustable power resistor group controlled
by IGBTs (isolated gate bipolar
transistors), two current sensors to detect
the base metal current and bypass current,
and a PC to run the control program. The
controllable power resistor group shown in
Fig. 3 includes four individual parallel
power resistors, and each is controlled by
an IGBT. When the IGBT is in ON
status, the corresponding power resistor
will be used in parallel with other resistors.
Those IGBTs can be switched ON/OFF
very quickly in several milliseconds to
choose the parallel power resistors, and
then adjust the resistance of the power
resistor group. Assume all four power
resistors have the same resistance
(R1=R2=R3=R4=R), then the nominal
resistance r of the power resistor group is
R/N, where N is the number of IGBTs in
ON status in the resistor combination. The
possible nominal resistances are R/4, R/3/,
R/2, R, and infinite (when N = 0). If the
IGBT connected to Ri,i = 2,3,4, is ON, then
the IGBT connected to Ri1 must be ON.
Because the power resistor group was
connected in series with the bypass torch (a


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Fig. 4 Electrical simplification of DE-GMAW.

Fig. 5 Control system of DE-GMAW process.

GTAW torch), any change in the resistance

will affect the bypass current, and further
affect the base metal current based on
Equation 2 because the total current does
not change when the wire feed speed and
the welding voltage are given.

I bp r0 + I bp 0 r + I bp r = 0
In comparison with other two terms in
Equation 4, Ibp r can be omitted as a
higher order small number. Hence,
Equation 4 can be approximated by

System Modeling and Control


As a result

In a stable DE-GMAW process, the

two arcs can be simplified as two parallel
resistors, as shown in Fig. 4. Because the
voltage across the two terminals of the
power supply is controlled at a preset
constant, the sum of the bypass arc voltage
and the voltage across the adjustable
power resistor group is constant during
DE-GMAW. Also, the bypass arc voltage
measured between the two electrodes only
changes slightly (will be experimentally
verified later in this paper) when the
bypass arc current changes. Hence, in a
stable DE-GMAW process, the voltage
across the power resistor group (Fig. 4B)
can only change slightly when the bypass
current is adjusted.
Now assume there is a change Ibp in
the bypass current, there must be a change
r in the resistance of the power resistor
group such that the voltage across the
power resistors does not change. Thus,

I bp 0 r0 = I bp 0 + I bp ( r0 + r )


where Ibp0 and r0 represent the bypass

current and resistance before the change,
and Ibp0+bp and r0+r are their values
after the change. Equation 3 can be
rewritten as

I bp r0 + I bp 0 r = 0
r =

I bp
I bp 0



Equation (6) implies that the
resistance of the power resistor group
should be decreased if the bypass current
needs to be increased, and vice versa. In a
stable DE-GMAW process, the total
(determined by the wire feed speed). If the
base metal current is greater than the
required level, the bypass current must be
increased to reduce the base metal current
as it can be seen in Equation 2. To this end,
the change of the bypass current should be
equal to the negative change of the base
metal current. That means,
I bp = I bm


where Ibp = Ibp Ibp0, Ibm

bm Ibm,
Ibp is the measured bypass current, and
I*bm is the desired base metal current.
Submit Equation 7 into 6, an equation can
be obtained to determine how the
resistance should change

Fig. 6 Flowchart for the control algorithm.

= I*

r =

I bp 0

I bm

adjustment of the resistance should be

completed in a few steps so that the
following algorithm may be used for each
r = K 0 I bm
I bp 0


To assure a robust control, the needed

with a positive ratio K<1. While a larger K

implies a relatively aggressive control or a


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Page 234

Voltage (V)


Current (A)

Current (amp)


Fig. 7 Current relationship. WFS = 14 m/min (550 in./min).

fast adjustment speed, the control of the

base metal current that determines the
base metal heat input may not require an
extraordinary adjustment speed. It was
found that K = 0.6 is fast enough.
The number of IGBTs in ON status in
the resistor combination can thus be

r0 + r

sure the average resistance during the

period T is r = R/N, these two periods are
calculated as below
N + 1 ( N N )
TR / N +1 =
TR / N =

( N + 1 N ) N T


and their ratio is


Hence, the control system shown in Fig. 5

can determine how the power resistor
group needs to be changed to achieve the
desired base metal current.

Implementation of Control
An implementation method has been
proposed to execute the control
algorithm. First, the measurement of the
base metal current is compared with its
desired value and Equation 8b is used to
calculate the required bypass resistance
change r. Second, the new resistance is
calculated as r=r0+r. Third, a new
resistor combination can be determined
such that N = R/r. Finally, the first N
IGBTs are switched to ON to obtain the
required bypass resistance.
When N is not an integer, the
resistance r=R/N is obtained using two
different combinations: r1 = R/N and r2
= R/N+1, where is an operator to
return the integer part of N, and obviously
N+1 = N + 1. For example, when N is
equal to 2.3, this operation will return 2
such that N = 2 and N+1 = 3. Denote T
as the control period, which is 0.05 s. The
control system will first output the resistor
combination for r2 = R/N+1 for a period
of TR/N+1 and then output the resistor
combination for r1 = R/N for a period of
TR/N, where TR/N+1 + TR/N=. To make

234 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Fig. 8 Bypass voltage is only slightly affected by the bypass current.

TR / N +1
TR / N

N + 1 ( N N )
( N + 1 N ) N


If N is an integer, Equations 10 and 11

return TR/N+1 = 0 and TR/N = T. Thus, an
integer N is a special case to Equations
1012. In the control algorithm, it is not
necessary to distinguish an integer N or
noninteger N.
Now take N = 2.3 as an instance. One
can obtain the following results: = 2,
N+1 = 3, TR/3 = 0.3913 T, and TR/2 =
0.6087 T. In the following control period T,
the IGBTs associated with the first three
resistors will be ON for 39.13% of the
period and the IGBTs with the first two
resistors will be ON for the rest (60.87%) of
the period. The average resistance in this
period can be verified as 0.6087 R/2
+0.3913 R/3 = R/2.3, which is the needed
resistance for the power resistor group.
The flowchart shown in Fig. 6
demonstrates the control algorithm
implemented in Matlab Simulink.

Experimental Results
and Discussion
Experimental Setup

A complete DE-GMAW system was

set up with a CV power supply, a GMAW
gun, a water-cooled GTAW torch, and
four 0.1-ohm power resistors controlled by
four IGBTs. The tungsten electrode,

protected by a water cooling system, had a

diameter of 3.2 mm (18 in.). Both the
welding gun and torch were shielded with
pure argon. The gas flow rates for GMAW
gun and GTAW torch were 16.5 L/min (35
ft3/h) and 7.1 L/min (15 ft3/h),
respectively. The following parameters
illustrated in Fig. 2 were used to
determine the geometrical relationship
between the GMAW gun and GTAW
torch and the workpiece: the distance
from the GMAW contact tube to the
workpiece (d1), the distance from the
bypass electrode to the workpiece (d2), the
distance between the bypass electrode and
the electrode wire (d3), and the angle
between the electrode wire and the
tungsten electrode (). These three
distances d1, d2, and d3 were set at 20, 5,
and 4 mm, respectively. The GTAW torch
was placed ahead of the GMAW gun with
an angle of 60 deg and moved from right
to left in a push mode. Experiments were
performed on mild steel plates measuring
50 120 2 mm. The low-carbon wire
ER70S-6 with a diameter of 1.2 mm (0.045
in.) was used. The welding voltage was 35
V. The power resistor group consisted of
four individual power resistors, and each
had a resistance of 0.1 ohm. Two current
sensors were used to detect the base metal
current and the bypass current. The
control algorithm was implemented with
MatLab Simulink.
In all the experiments, the base metal
current was sampled at 1000 Hz, and 25
samples were used to calculate an average
base metal current. The resistance of the
power resistor group was calculated each
0.025 second and the digital control rate was
thus 40 Hz.

Experimental Results
Total Current Relationship with Bypass Arc

The basic idea of DE-GMAW was

07layout:Layout 1


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Page 235

Fig. 11 Experiment 3: base metal current controlled at 220 A with bypass

current at 189 A.

based on Equation 2, which assumes that

with given wire feed speed and given
welding voltage, the total current is not or
just slightly affected because of the bypass
arc. Thus, the base metal current can be
adjusted by adjusting the bypass current.
assumption. The plot in Fig. 7 illustrates
the relationship between the three
currents. As it can be seen, the total
current, which is equal to the sum of the
base metal current and bypass current, is
only slightly changed because of the
bypass arc. Considering a GMAW
process, this slight change is common and
acceptable in GMAW process because the
power supply will automatically adjust the
total current to maintain a constant
voltage. This assumption is also verified in
other experiments.

Control Signal (Number of Resistors)

Current (A)

Fig. 10 Experiment 2: base metal current controlled at 235 A with bypass

current at 171 A.

Control Signal (Number of Resistors)

Control Signal (Number of Resistors)

Fig. 9 Experiment 1: base metal current controlled at 220 A with bypass

current at 103 A. The close-loop control was applied approximately at t =
0.085 s.

Current (A)

Control Signal (Number of Resistors)


Current (A)

Current (A)


Fig. 12 Experiment 4: base metal current controlled at 250 A with bypass

current at 200 A.

Voltage Changes Slightly across

the Power Resistor Group

Bypass Current Has Wide

Range of Adjustment

Experiments have been done to verify

another assumption: the bypass arc
voltage is almost independent of the
bypass current. To this end, the voltage
between the two electrodes (the GMAW
gun and the bypass GTAW torch) was
monitored. As shown in Fig. 8, this voltage
is only slightly changed with a mean value
of 27.5 V and a standard deviation of 2.2
V while there is a very large change in the
bypass current. This voltage is the
difference between the preset GMAW
voltage and the voltage across the power
resistors. With a constant GMAW voltage,
it can be concluded that the voltage across
the adjustable power resistors only slightly
changes with the bypass current.

In DE-GMAW, the base metal current

is adjusted or controlled at a desired level
by dynamically adjusting the bypass
current. In order to have a good
controllability, the power resistors must be
able to adjust the bypass current in a large
range. Experiments (Figs. 913) show that
the proposed design of the power resistor
group can adjust the bypass current in a
wide range. In the proposed system, the
closed-loop control is applied right after the
DE-GMAW process is successfully
established as can be detected from the
bypass current. However, to demonstrate
the effect of the closed-loop control in
comparison with open-loop system, the
closed-loop control was applied with a delay


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Page 236

Fig. 13 Experiment 5: bypass current can be larger than base metal current.
In this experiment, all four IGBTs are in ON status.

Fig. 14 Response of controlled DE-GMAW system.

Fig. 15 Example workpiece welded with controlled DE-GMAW process.

in Experiment 1 after the DE-GMAW

process was successfully established.
In Experiment 1, shown in Fig. 9, the
total current was 323 A (average over the
experiment period), but the base metal
current needed to be controlled at 220 A.
Based on the DE-GMAW design, the
extra 103 A current must flow back to the
power supply through the bypass arc. That
means the bypass current is 103 A.
(Because the total current reduced
gradually, the bypass current should also
reduce gradually.) To that end, the control
system outputs a control signal between 2
and 3. Here the control signal is the
number of IGBTs in ON status or how
many individual power resistors combined
to obtain the required resistance. As can
be seen in the figure, the base metal
current has been successfully controlled at
its desired level 220 A. However, before
the closed-loop control was applied
approximately at t = 0.85 s, the base metal
current was below the desired level.
Moreover, the bypass current actually
increased so that the base metal current
even decreased after approximaley t = 0.7
s. After the closed-loop control was
applied approximately at t = 0.85 s, the
increase in the bypass current was stopped
so that the base metal current started to
236-s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Control Signal (Number of Resistors)


Current (A)

Current (amp)


increase. The effect of the closed-loop

control is thus clearly seen.
In Experiment 2 (Fig. 10), the total
current was increased to 407 A, but the
base metal current needed to be
controlled at 235 A. To this end, a bypass
current of 171 A was applied by adjusting
the power resistors. (Here the total
current and the bypass current are the
average of the measured values, so their
difference should be very close to the
desired base metal current, but sometimes
not equal to the desired value.) As can be
seen, in the beginning of the experiment,
the base metal current was higher than the
desired value, thus the control algorithm
tried to draw more current to the bypass
loop by minimizing the bypass resistance
using all parallel resistors. As a result, the
base metal current rapidly reached its
desired value. To maintain this level, the
control signal then fell into the range of 3
to 4. However, in Experiment 1, the
control signal was from 2 to 3. Its
resistance was higher so that its bypass
current was lower at 103 A.
In Experiment 3, shown in Fig. 11, the
desired base metal current was still 220 A,
but the total current was increased to 409 A.
In the beginning of the experiment, the base
metal current was significantly lower than

the desired value. However, the control

algorithm rapidly reduced the control signal
to increase the resistance of the bypass loop.
As a result, the base metal current quickly
reached its desired value at approximately t
= 0.5 s. Because of the quick actions, a small
overshoot occurred in the base metal
current. However, the control algorithm
immediately increased the control signal to
reduce the resistance of the bypass loop.
After approximately 0.2 s (approximately at
t = 0.7 s), the base metal current was settled
at its desired value.
In Experiment 4, illustrated in Fig. 12,
the bypass current was 200 A, and the total
current was 453 A. This resulted in a base
metal current of 253 A (mean value),
which is very close to the desired base
metal current. It can be seen that the
control signal is almost 4. That means all
the resistors are parallel used to obtain a
bypass current as high as 200 A.
Experiment 5, shown in Fig. 13,
presents an example in which the bypass
current is larger than the base metal
current. In this example, the total current
was approximately 200 A. Before the
bypass arc was established at t = 3 s, the
process was the conventional GMAW and
the liquid metal was transferred in
globular mode. After the bypass arc was
introduced, the spray transfer was
achieved although the base metal current
was only 60 A, approximately.
Furthermore, all these experiments
(Figs. 913) verify the assumption that the
total current is not significantly affected by
the bypass arc.
Response Time of the Control Algorithm

Response speed is important in the

control system design. It must respond fast
enough to stabilize the system if there is
any disturbance. Although the welding
system is a thermal system that usually


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Page 237


Fig. 16 Cross-section of example weld.

Fig. 17 Effect of bypass arc on metal transfer. The total (melting) current in A and B is the same and
is lower than the critical current. The spray mode is achieved because of the presence of the bypass arc.

responds slowly, the workpiece may be

melted through if the control system can
not respond fast enough. Figure 14 shows
that it takes about 0.4 s for the controlled
DE-GMAW system to completely settle
down. This settling time appears fast
enough for the DE-GMAW process.

not changed and stayed at 198 A. Hence,

the critical current needed for the spray
transfer was decreased.
A lower critical current is also
beneficial for decreasing the droplet
impact, which affects the penetration
depth. Figure 17 suggests that the bypass
arc pushes the arc spot backward about 5
mm, which is about half the length of the
weld pool. The droplets thus will fall into
the molten metal instead of the base metal
directly. The molten metal will reduce the
digging action to the base metal. This
effect would further reduce the
penetration in addition to reducing the
base metal current and heat input.

Bypass Arc Decreases the Base Metal

Heat Input

Figure 15 shows example welds for

bead-on-plate tests and lap joint tests,
respectively, with the controlled DEGMAW process. Their current signals are
plotted in Figs. 11 and 7, respectively. The
travel speed is 1.65 m/min (65 in./min),
which doubles the normal GMAW
welding speed. The wire feed speed was
13.97 m/min (550 in./min). It can be seen
that a very smooth weld without spatter
was obtained with long weld ripples
because of the high travel speed. In Fig.
15B, the lap joint test was performed with
DE-GMAW from left to right. As can be
seen in the figure, without the bypass arc,
the workpiece was melted through. This
verifies the DE-GMAW can decrease the
base metal heat input. Compared to
normal GMAW welds, both welds in Fig.
15 have narrower widths and larger
heights of reinforcement (Fig. 16), which
is very common in high-speed welding.
Effect of the Bypass Arc on Metal
Transfer and Penetration

Figure 17 shows two frames of images

extracted from a high-speed video. In this
experiment, the wire feed speed is 5.33
m/min (210 in./min) and the melting
current is 198 A. Without the bypass arc
(Fig. 17A), the metal transfer is in globular
mode because the melting current is only
198 A, lower than the critical current,
which is approximately 225 A for 0.045-in.diameter low-carbon wire (Refs. 911).
However, after the bypass arc was ignited,
the metal transfer became spray mode
(Fig. 17B). Because the wire feed speed
was not changed, the melting current was

A double-electrode GMAW system was
developed by adding a nonconsumable
tungsten electrode in a conventional
GMAW system to form a bypass loop. The
conditions for establishing and maintaining
a stable process were obtained through
experiments. The system utilized an
adjustable power resistor group controlled
by IGBTs to obtain different bypass
currents. A model has been derived to
correlate the change of the resistance
needed to achieve the desired base metal
current to the deviation of the base metal
current from its desired level. Experiments
verified that the control system developed
can assure a fast enough settling time for the
DE-GMAW and that the bypass current
can be adjusted to maintain a desired base
metal current in a relatively wide range of
total current.

1. Waszink, J. H., and Heuvel, G. P. M. V.d.
1982. Heat generation and heat flow in the filler
metal in GMAW welding. Welding Journal
61:269-s to 282-s.
2. Ueyama, T., Ohnawa, T., Tanaka, M., and
Nakata, K. 2005. Effects of torch configuration
and welding current on weld bead formation in
high speed tandem pulsed gas metal arc welding
of steel sheets. Science and Technology of
Welding and Joining 10(6): 750759.
3. Tsushima, S., and Kitamura, M. 1996.
Tandem electrode AC-MIG welding
development of AC-MIG welding process
(Report 4). Welding Research Abroad 42(2):
4. Church, J. 2001. T.I.M.E. process
produces fracture-proof welds. Welding Design
and Fabrication 74(5): 3235.
5. Lahnsteiner, R. 1992. The T.I.M.E.
process an innovative MAG welding process.
Welding Review International 11(1): 1720.
6. Talkington, J. E. 1998. Variable Polarity
Gas Metal Arc Welding, in Welding Engineering.
The Ohio State University: Columbus, Ohio.
7. Chen, K.-X., Li, H.-Q., and Li, C.-X.
2004. Progress in variable polarity plasma arc
welding. Hanjie Xuebao/Transactions of the
China Welding Institution 25(1): 124128.
8. Cary, H., and Chaisson, W. 1986. Variable
Polarity Plasma Arc Welding, Metairie, La.:
Aluminum Assoc, Washington, DC.
9. OBrien, R. L., ed. 1991. Welding
Handbook, Vol. 2: Welding Processes, 8th
edition. American Welding Society.
10. Kim, Y. S., and Eagar, T. W. 1993.
Analysis of metal transfer in gas metal arc
welding. Welding Journal 72(6): 269-s to 278-s.
11. Lancaster, J. F. 1986. The Physics of
Welding, 2nd Edition: International Institute of
Welding, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

This work was funded by the National
Science Foundation under grant
DMI-0355324 and Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America, Inc. The authors sincerely thank Stave Byerly from
Toyota Motor Manufacturing North
America for his technical assistance during this study.

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Page 238


A Look at the Optimization of Robot Welding

Speed Based on Process Modeling
Integrating robot simulation, finite element analysis, and numerical
optimization provides a powerful tool for constructing and optimizing
off-line robot torch trajectories and process parameters

ABSTRACT. Simulation tools to search

for optimal process parameters are of
great interest to reduce the number of experiments and thereby reduce cost and
production time. In this paper, robot simulation has been used in combination with
finite element simulations to optimize
robot speed in order to minimize distortion while keeping complete joint penetration. In an earlier work performed by
the authors, a finite element model was
developed to predict heat transfer and
residual stresses of parts with complex
shapes. An interface between a robot simulation model and a finite element analysis model was also constructed. In this
paper, an iterative method for robot speed
optimization has been developed using
MATLAB. The algorithm is designed to
maintain complete joint penetration while
maximizing productivity by utilizing the
fastest weld speed. The method makes it
possible to optimize the heat input to the
component and thereby minimize component deformation for parts with complex
The system was evaluated on stainless
steel plates with varying thicknesses.
Robot weld paths were defined off line
and automatically downloaded to the finite element software where the optimization was performed. Simulations and experimental validations are presented.

CAD-based path planning of robotwelded parts is an elegant technique.
Using this method, the programming is
moved away from the robot to a graphical
computer system often referred to as an
off-line programming (OLP) system. This
method makes it possible to maintain constant velocity, distance from, and orientation with respect to a part with complex
shape. This would be virtually impossible
using manual programming. The OLP
M. ERICSSON ( and P.
NYLN are with University West, Sweden.

238 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

technology is well established in industry

and has been an active research area
(Refs. 14) for some ten years. There is,
however, a need for a computer-aided
process planning tool by which process parameters could be defined and optimized
off line. This functionality does not exist in
commercially available OLP tools today.
Such a system should be capable of optimizing process parameters such as welding speed and power due to variations in
part geometry (thickness variation), material, and part temperatures (heat sources).
Of specific interest is to determine an optimal weld speed, i.e., the speed that generates the lowest component deformation
while keeping complete joint penetration.
Such a process-planning tool could be developed by a combination of robot simulation and finite element simulations. Finite
element analysis (FEA) for welding
process simulations on fairly simply
shaped parts is a well-established technique (Refs. 511). It is usually used to investigate structural behavior, usually to
predict residual stresses. Manufacturing
simulations to plan welding sequences and
to optimize process parameters or fixture
designs are still rare, specifically simulations of complex three-dimensional parts.
In earlier works performed by the authors, integration between a robot simulation model and a FEA model was proposed (Refs. 1214). This model was
developed to predict heat transfer residual stresses and fixture forces considering
parts with complex shapes. In the present
study work, a MATLAB implementation
of an iterative method to optimize weld

Robot Simulation
Off-Line Programming (OLP)
Welding Speed
Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
Weld Velocity

speed and thereby minimize component

deformation is described. Simulations and
optimizations on plates with varying thicknessess are presented. A validation of the
temperature predictions is performed by
comparing the predictions with thermocouple- and IR-measured temperatures.
A brief description of the OLP-FEA integration as well as the process model are
also summarized. A more detailed description of these models can be found in
Refs. 1214.

Principle of Off-Line
Programming (OLP) and
Integration with the FEA Model
The overall architecture of the simulation system is given in Fig. 1. The programming of the robot motion is based on
a simulation of the process by the IGRIP
system of Deneb, Inc. The model consists
of two main parts: a) a geometric, kinematic, and dynamic model of the robot,
and b) a model of the workpiece to be
welded. The workpiece model is usually
first constructed in a CAD/CAM system
and afterward exported to the OLP system. The geometrical as well as the kinematic model of the work cell are usually
made directly in the OLP system. In this
system, a weld trajectory is also generated
by defining torch locations and orientations. This trajectory is then simulated,
and checks for collisions between the
workpiece and the weld gun are made.
Checks for and elimination of robot singularities are also made. A calibration of
the model with the real cell is thereafter
done; this can include several sub steps
such as tool point, workpiece, and signature calibration (Ref. 1). A translation of
the program to a specific robot manufacturer language is made, and the robot coordinates, welding speeds, and process parameters are finally exported from the
OLP model to the FEA model where a
heat and residual stress prediction is
made. The principle of this FEA model is
given in the next section.

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Page 239


Fig. 1 The overall architecture of the simulation system.

Fig. 2 Principle outline of applied boundary conditions in the FEA model.

Fig. 3 Conductivity for SS 316L. Top Original values (Ref. 20); bottom increased with a factor 10 above the liquidus temperature.

Fig. 4 Specific heat for SS 316L (Ref. 20).

The Heat Transfer Model

A finite element analysis model was
used to predict the temperature evolution
outside the molten zone. The FEA program Marc from MSC Software was used.
User subroutines were developed in earlier work to simulate a moving heat source
(Refs. 1214). A Gaussian surface distribution was used. This distribution was preferred to a volumetric one (Ref. 8) because it reduces the number of parameters
(unknown variables) to be fit. The surface
heat flux distribution was expressed as
(Ref. 11)
q = q e

r 2

q =



where q denotes the heat transferred to

the workpiece, E the voltage, I the current,
the efficiency factor, q the concentration factor, and r the radial distance from
the center of the heat source. This distribution was truncated in the radial direction,
at a cut-off limit of 5% of the maximal heat
input, as proposed by D. Radaj (Ref. 11).
The parameter q in the heat flux distribution was set to achieve a fusion zone fitting experimental data obtained by measuring the top side and root side widths of
cross sections of welds. Experimental trials were made on plane plates to find an
appropriate value of the dimensionless
parameter q. A value of 0.1 was selected,
which gave good agreement between predicted geometry of the fusion zone and
corresponding measured zone. This parameter fit was considered necessary because a semi-empirical approach such as

proposed by Ref. 15 was not possible due

to the short electrode distance (1.5 mm),
which made photographing of the welding

Table 1 SS 316L Physical Properties

(Refs. 1921)
Nomenclature Symbol
Latent heat
of fusion
Heat capacity




7.3106 kg/mm3





see Fig. 3


see Fig. 4


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Page 240


Fig. 5 Cross section and computational mesh of two-dimensional part.

Dimensions in mm.

Fig. 6 Cross section and computational mesh of the three-dimensional

part. Note the high mesh density along the weld path and close to the steps.

Fig. 7 Profile of the three-dimensional part. A Along the weld path; B perpendicular to the weld path. All dimensions in mm.

Fig. 8 Principle of optimization. Loop until > min.

arc not possible. The efficiency factor

was estimated experimentally using the
method proposed by Ref. 16. The electrode was kept still at a distance 1.5 mm
from the plate. A very high efficiency was
determined, = 0.90; the value higher
than other proposed efficiency values, 0.6
to 0.85 (Refs. 17, 18). The major reason

Fig. 9 Thermocouple- and IR-measured temperatures.

the contact surfaces between fixture and

plates. Figure 2 shows the applied boundary conditions. A flow of argon (Table 1),
was used to protect the root side of the
weld. The heat transfer coefficients were
set to 2105 W/m2 at the topside of the
plate (number 2 in Fig. 2B), and to 2104
W/m2 at the root side of the weld (number

for this high value might be the short electrode distance used. Both q and were
kept constant through all simulations.
This assumption was considered justifiable because the electrode distance and
current were kept constant. Convection
boundary conditions were applied to the
free surface dissipating energy as well as at

Table 2 Process Parameters Used

Table 3 Measured and Predicted Fusion Zones


(see Fig. 17)


100 A
10 V
Weld velocity
Optimized mm/s
Root gas flow rate (argon)
20 L/min
Shielding gas (argon)
17 L/min
Arc length
1.5 mm
Filler metal

240 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86


Welding Speed
(see Fig. 16)

Measured Wt



Measured Wr

Predicted Wt

Predicted Wr

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Fig. 10 Predicted temperature-time histories.

Fig. 11 Measured temperature-time histories.

Fig. 12 Predicted temperatures at the root side in the center of the weld.
The target temperature is 1700 K.

Fig. 13 Close up of predicted temperatures around 1700 K at the root

side at the center of the weld.

3 in Fig. 2B), because forced cooling by

argon was applied at the root side of the
plates. The contact surfaces between the
plates and the fixtures were assumed to
have a heat transfer coefficient of 103
W/m2 (number 1 in Fig. 2B). The location
of the arc is indicated with number 4 in
Fig. 2B.
The material properties used are given
in Table 1.
Temperature-dependent properties
such as thermal conductivity and specific
heat were used Figs. 3, 4. Phase change
was included in the analysis. Weld pool
convection has been shown to strongly affect the heat transfer in the weld pool. This
convection, however, has to be artificially
treated in a solid mechanical model by
multiplying the thermal conductivity by a

certain factor when the temperature exceeds the liquidus temperature. This
method has been commonly used (Refs.
2224). An intensive circulation was noted
and a factor of 10 was selected. The same
factor has also been used in earlier work
(Refs. 1214) Fig. 3.
The computational domain was discretized by a nonuniform mesh with
higher densities in regions close to the
weld path as well as where steep thickness
variations were present. Eight-node brick
elements were used Figs. 5, 6.
To verify the proposed optimization
method, two different geometries were
defined: a) a two dimensional plate (referred to as part A) with continuously
varying thickness according to Fig. 5, and
b) a three-dimensional plate (referred to

as part B) with stepwise varying thickness

Figs. 6, 7. Grid sensitivity trials were
made for part B. The final mesh for this
part consisted of 144,000 elements. A constant time step of 0.05 s was used.
Robot Speed Optimization

Once the robot path and the desired

root side temperature are chosen, the
robot speed can be optimized. The liquidus temperature was a natural choice
for input for the optimization because the
main purpose was to control penetration.
The following algorithm was used, starting
from a given robot speed s0 along the trajectory:
1) Compute the maximum temperature TMax along the trajectory by simulati


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Fig. 14 Calculated weld velocities for the first 11 iterations. The velocity
was set to 3 mm/s in the first iteration.

ing the weld using the speed si

2) Update the speed along the trajectory using the iteration


s = s 1+

i +1



Here is a relaxation parameter, Tmelt the

liquidus temperature, and Tmax the maximum temperature at each node. The iteration corresponds to increasing the robot
speed when the temperature becomes too
high. As the computational cost of one iteration is very low compared to the temperature calculation, each iteration is
cheap. It should, however, be noticed that
the proposed method is not an optimization method in the usual sense since it
does not always converge to a local or
global optimum. Iterations are therefore
performed until the error () no longer decreases. The principle of the overall optimization is given in Fig. 8. An initial robot
speed is defined in IGRIP and downloaded to Marc where the temperature
calculation is performed. The root side
temperatures are compared with the liquidus temperature and a new robot speed
vector is calculated. The calculations continue iteratively until an optimal velocity
vector is found, i.e., the velocity vector
that maximizes the speed while keeping
complete joint penetration. This velocity
vector is finally exported back to IGRIP
for final process simulation.

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was
performed on plane plates in order to validate the temperature predictions and to
be able to determine the concentration
242 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Fig. 15 Predicted temperatures at the root side in the center of the weld.
The target temperature is 1700K.

factor (q in Equation
1) using an in-house
robotized welding
cell. The torch used
was from Binzel AB
and was mounted
IRB1400 robot from
ABB. The power
source was a TIG
AC/DC from Migatronic AB. Throughout all experiments,
thoriated tungsten
electrodes were used.
The process parameters are shown in
Table 2.
Both thermocou- Fig. 16 Calculated weld velocities for the first ten iterations. The velocity
ples and high-resolu- was set to 3 mm/s in the first iteration.
tion infrared (IR)
emission measurements were used for
comparison between the IR results with
the temperature measurements. Six therthe thermocouple was made. The plates
mocouples were positioned perpendicuwere sooted before welding in order to
larly to the welding direction. The first
reduce the emissivity dependency in the
gauge was positioned as close as possible
IR measurements. A more detailed deto the melted zone at a distance of 4 mm
scription of the sooting technique and the
from the center of the weld. The rest of
IR measurement principle can be found
the thermocouples were positioned 0.5
in Ref. 25.
mm radially from the first gauge along
the radial direction. The sampling frequency was 270 Hz for each thermocouResults and Discussion
ple. The IR camera was a VARIOSCAN
high resolution, from JENOPTIK, Laser,
The thermocouple- and IR-measured
Optik, Systeme GmbH, that works in the
temperature histories in a point located
IR radiation spectrum of 812 m. The
7mm from the center of the weld are given
camera was used both in a line scan mode
in Fig. 9.
with a scanning frequency of 270 Hz, as
There is good agreement between the
well as in a full-frame mode with a fretwo techniques. The predicted and correquency of 1 Hz. The analysis of the IR
sponding IR- measured temperatures at
measurements was made using the IRBIS
location B, see Fig. 17, are given in Figs.
Plus software provided by JENOPTIK. A
10 and 11, respectively. Due to soot evap-

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Fig. 17 Cutting position on part B.

Fig. 18 Welded cross section.


Fig. 19 Predicted cross section.

oration close to the weld seam, reliable

temperature measurements could not be
made at 5.5 mm Fig. 11. The conclusion
from this comparison was that the model
was capable of predicting the thermal
cycle well.
The predicted temperatures and weld
velocities for the first ten iterations for
part A are given in Figs. 12 and 14, respectively. Figure 13 shows the temperature close to the target temperature. The
temperatures correspond to values predicted along the root side symmetry
curve, i.e., the weld centerline. The target
temperature for the simulation was set to
1700 K, which corresponds to a complete
joint penetration weld. The optimization
algorithm converges quickly. After five iterations, the temperature discrepancy
had already reached 100 K, and after
ten iterations this discrepancy went down
to 30 K. The weld velocity was initially
set to 3 mm/s and it varied between 0.7 to
above 3.5 mm/s after ten iterations. The
maximum difference in velocity between
iteration 10 and 11 is 0.0167 mm/s. Further optimization was not of interest because this velocity compares with the
robot accuracy.
The predicted temperatures and weld
velocities for the first ten iterations for
part B are given in Figs. 15 and 16, respectively. The temperatures correspond
to values predicted 0.1 mm radial to the
weld center-line at the root side. This offset was selected to guarantee complete
joint penetration. Also, in this case, the
target temperature was set to 1700 K. The
temperatures calculated at the first iteration are unrealistically high, but soon approach the target temperature. The convergence is slower in this case than for case
A. A temperature peak of about 2010 K

still exists in the tenth iteration. This peak

is due to the step change in thickness. The
weld velocity also shows a more dramatic
variation for this plate, with values in the
range 220 mm/s. The weld velocity was
initially set to 3.0 mm/s. The average difference in velocity between iteration 10
and 11 is 0.0815 mm/s.
It was not considered of interest to optimize the velocity further, i.e., to try to
eliminate the peaks in Figs. 15 and 16 because the case was selected mainly to
demonstrate the technique. The step
change in thickness would in practice demand a change in size of the melt pool.
Part B was welded using the parameters
given in Table 2. Figure 17 shows the IR
measuring position (B) and locations
where cross sections were evaluated.
There was a fairly good agreement between measured and predicted fusion,
(Table 3). Predicted values are in general
somewhat larger except for location E.
This might be due to the location of E
close to the end point of the weld joint.
Another possible explanation for this discrepancy was distortion, which increased
the electrode distance.
Figure 18 shows a welded cross section
of part B at location D Fig. 17. Corresponding cross section from the simulation is given in Fig. 19.
The overall conclusion from the optimization was that although simple, the
proposed optimization algorithm performed very well. Several extensions of
this method are possible. It would be of interest to include residual stresses or deformation, for instance. Different welding
sequences could also be automatically
evaluated. It would also be valuable to extend the process model to include welding
wire and pulsed current.

A simple yet effective method has been

successfully developed and implemented
to optimize the welding speed. The proposed method allows optimizing the heat
input to the component and thereby minimize component deformation for parts
with complex shapes. The process model
was initially validated comparing temperature predictions with experimental measurements, and a good agreement was
found. The optimization algorithm was
evaluated for two different test cases, a
two-dimensional plate with continuously
varying thickness and a three-dimensional
plate with stepwise varying thickness. The
temperature converged quickly for the
two-dimensional case and reached a variation of 30 K around the target temperature within ten iterations. For the second
test case, a temperature peak of about
2010 K still existed in the tenth iteration
due to the discrete variation in thickness.
The weld velocity also showed a more dramatic variation for this plate, with values
in the 220 mm/s range.
The proposed method to integrate
robot simulation, finite element analysis,
and numerical optimization provides a
promising and powerful tool for constructing and optimizing off-line robot
torch trajectories and process parameters.
The method can also be an efficient tool in
early product development to evaluate
different design concepts. The proposed
optimizing algorithm was shown computationally efficient, putting less demand on
computational power, thus making industrial usage possible.

The authors wish to acknowledge the

assistance in calculations by Benoit Ripaud of University West, the assistance in
the laboratory by Kjell Hurtig and Mats
Hgstrm of University West, and to Al
Henry of University West for linguistic revision. The work was funded by the Foundation for Knowledge and Competence
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21. Toselo, I., Tissot, F. X., and Barras, M.
Modelling of the weld behaviour for the control
of the GTA process by computer aided welding,
Commissariat a lEnergie atomique, Centre
dEtudes et de Recherche sur les Materiaux,
Gif sur Yvette.
22. Lindgren, L-E. 2001. Finite element
modeling and simulation of welding, Part 2: Improved material modeling. Journal of Thermal
Stresses 24: 195231.
23. Goldak, J., and Akhlaghi, M. 2005. Computational Welding Mechanics, Springer Science
+ Business Media, Inc.
24. Michaleris, P., and DeBiccari, A. 1997.
Prediction of welding distortion. Welding Journal 76(4): 172-s to 181-s.
25. Henrikson, P., and Ericsson, M. 2002.
Non-contact temperature measurements using
an infrared camera in aerospace welding research. Proc. 6th International Conference on
Trends in Welding Research, 930935.


AWS Detroit Section
International Sheet Metal Welding Conference XIII
May 1416, 2008
Detroit, Michigan
The International Sheet Metal Welding Conference Technical Committee is actively seeking abstracts related to joining
technologies for thin sheet fabrications. Typical categories include:
Resistance Welding Processes
Friction Joining Processes
Advanced High-Strength Steels
Application Studies

Arc Welding Processes

Hybrid Joining Processes
Thin and Lightweight Materials
Process Modeling

High-Energy Beam Processes

Innovative Joining Processes
Coated Materials
Process Monitoring and Control

A technical abstract in a format that is compatible with MS Word, along with a completed Author Application Form
must be submitted to the Technical Committee Chairman by September 21, 2007. Abstracts to be considered must be of
sufficient detail for a fair evaluation of the work to be presented. The paper must be related to sheet metal alloys and/or
joining processes used in manufacturing of commercial products. It is not a requirement that your presentation be an
original effort. Case histories, reviews, and papers that have been previously published or presented will be considered as
long as they are pertinent to the general interests of the conference attendees.
All abstracts will be considered by the Technical Committee. It is expected that the Committee's selections will be
announced by November 14, 2007. Authors must submit a manuscript to the Committee by March 19, 2008. The
Proceedings will be available to all attendees at the beginning of the Conference.
You may also download additional information and the Author Application Form at or
The completed Author Application Form and abstract should be sent to Menachem Kimchi, SMWC Technical Chairman,
EWI, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Dr., Columbus, OH 43221, (614) 688-5153, FAX: (614) 688-5001,
244 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

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Repair Techniques for Fusion

Reactor Applications
Weldability tests were conducted on fusion reactor materials

ABSTRACT. Fusion reactors, such as the

planned International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, will require repair of
irradiated components during their lifetime. Previous work has shown that welding on irradiated material causes cracking
in the weld heat-affected zone due to the
presence of helium. In the current study,
measurements of the effects of helium
(from tritium decay) on the weldability of
Types 304 and 316LN stainless steel were
made. Low-heat-input gas metal arc weld
overlays and a series of autogenous gas
tungsten arc stringer beads were made on
0.5-in.- (12.7-mm-) thick 304 and 316LN
plates that were tritium-charged, aged,
and outgassed in the same pressure vessel.
The helium concentrations of both plates,
as determined by helium mass spectroscopy, were approximately 90 appm.
Measurements from weld cross sections
revealed more extensive intergranular
cracking in the heat-affected zones of
welds on the 304 plate when compared to
those on the 316LN plate. Weld porosity
was also much greater in welds on the 304
plate. The large differences in the amount
of helium embrittlement cracking associated with the two types of stainless steel
may be related to differences in the hightemperature creep resistance of the alloys
and/or the helium bubble microstructures
present in the materials before welding.
Weld porosity differences were also observed and can be rationalized by using
weld convection arguments.

Work at the Savannah River Site (SRS)
has shown that the weldability of stainless
steel using conventional welding
processes is strongly affected by the presM. H. TOSTEN (
is principal scientist, S. L. WEST is senior fellow
engineer, and B. J. CROSS is manager, Nuclear
Energy Programs, Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Co., Aiken,
S.C. W. R. KANNE JR. recently retired from Savannah River National Laboratory.

ence of helium. This was evidenced initially in attempts to repair an irradiated reactor tank wall constructed of Type 304
stainless steel (Refs. 1, 2) Fig. 1. Helium
embrittlement cracking was observed in
the weld heat-affected zones (HAZs) in
the repaired areas. Subsequent research
led to the development of a low-heatinput gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
overlay technique suitable for welding on
stainless steels, both irradiated and tritium charged and aged, with a minimum of
underbead and toe cracking up to helium
levels of 220 appm (Ref. 3). This technique employed an oscillating torch to
produce a cladding of filler metal approximately 0.035 in. (0.9 mm) thick with a
depth of penetration into the base metal
of only 0.003 in. (0.08 mm).
Weldability with the overlay technique
was compared at SRS with conventional
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and
GMAW techniques. The welding methods
were also compared for irradiated vs. tritium-charged-and-aged 304 stainless steel
(Ref. 4). Results showed the overlay technique to be a significant improvement
over conventional welding methods. Surface toe cracking was eliminated with the
overlay technique. Furthermore, cracking,
both toe and underbead, was much less in
the tritium-charged-and-aged stainless
steel than in the irradiated 304 stainless
steel for a given helium concentration.
One material of choice for a next step
fusion device is Type 316LN stainless steel.
Limited data are available on the weldability of thick sections of this material in
the presence of entrapped helium from eiKEYWORDS
Stainless Steel
Overlay Welds
Helium Embrittlement

ther exposure to 1) neutron fluences and

the generation of 4He or 2) high-pressure
tritium gas and the subsequent decay to
3He. Investigations of the weldability of
thin sections of 316 stainless steel doped
with helium were carried out at the Oak
Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in
cooperation with Auburn University
(Refs. 5, 6). These investigations showed
that 316 stainless steel responds in a qualitatively similar way to 304L stainless steel
when welded after helium impregnation.
That is, both are embrittled by the helium
and the embrittlement is intergranular
due to the growth of helium bubbles on
the grain boundaries. The weldability investigations at ORNL/Auburn were carried out on very thin (0.030-in.) material.
Compressive stress applied during welding was shown to reduce or eliminate
cracking in these thin sections. A threshold of 1 appm helium was suggested below
which cracking would not occur for repair
welds in irradiated 316 stainless steel.
The weldability of irradiated 304 and
316 stainless steels has also been investigated in other countries, particularly
Japan. Results support the findings that
heat input is important to reduce cracking
(Ref. 7), that mechanical properties are
affected by the helium embrittlement
cracking (Ref. 8), and that the amount of
cracking is proportional to the helium
content. In another study (Ref. 9), a direct
comparison of neutron-irradiated 304 and
316LN seemed to show that 304 was less
susceptible to cracking in the weld HAZs
when compared to 316LN at similar helium levels.
In the current comparison study, a series of 316LN and 304 stainless steel test
plates were exposed to high-pressure tritium and aged to produce 3He. Gas metal
arc overlays were applied to the plates
along with a series of GTAW stringer
beads to accentuate embrittlement effects. This paper describes the results obtained from the analysis of helium embrittlement cracking observed at welds on
0.5-in. (12.7-mm) plates of both alloys.


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Fig.1 Sample removed from a reactor tank wall at the SRS showing toe
cracks and stress corrosion cracks near a gas tungsten arc weld.

Table 2 Welding Conditions, 0.5-in. Plates

Table 1 Alloy Composition (wt-%)

Type 304


Type 316LN-IG

Fig. 2 GMAW gun with oscillator. The test plate is located between the
run-on and run-off tabs.


Experimental Procedure
The welding substrate materials for
this study were obtained from a special,
high-carbon lot of Type 304 stainless steel
used in a previous welding study (Ref. 3)
and a special grade of 316LN (316LN-IG)
proposed for use in the fabrication of
ITER fusion reactor components. The
starting materials were received as large
plates in the solution annealed and
quenched condition. The alloy chemistries
are shown in Table 1. Pairs of identically
sized plates of each alloy were electrical
discharge machined from the as-received
materials to serve as the helium-bearing
substrate test matrix. These plates varied
in thickness from 0.030 in. (0.8 mm) to 0.5
in. (12.7 mm) and measured 4.04 in. (103.4
mm) in length by 1.25 in. (31.8 mm) in
width. The results presented in this paper
are restricted to a pair of 0.5-in. (12.7-mm)
plates. Run-on and run-off tabs to match
each test plate were also machined from
the as-received materials.
The two 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) plates analyzed in the current study were tritium
246 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86




Speed, S0

Speed, ST

















* O GMA overlay weld, S GTA stringer bead

+ A Side of plate with stringer beads, B underside of plate

charged and aged in the same vessel under

identical conditions. The plates were held
at 350C for two weeks at a tritium overpressure of approximately 5000 lb/in.2
(34.5 MPa). At the completion of the
charging run, the charging vessel was
cooled to room temperature and depressurized. The plates were subsequently
moved to a freezer for aging and stored at
23C to minimize tritium off-gassing.
Aging time for these plates was nine
months. Following aging, both plates were
vacuum outgassed for three weeks at
450C to remove as much of the residual
tritium as possible. Samples from 0.030in.- (0.8-mm-) thick test coupons included
in the charging run as well as samples from
each 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) plate were analyzed for helium content using vaporization mass spectroscopy. An acid dissolution and beta scintillation technique was
used to measure tritium levels in the test
coupons after outgassing.

All welding was performed in a tritium

fume hood using the experimental setup
shown in Fig. 2. Two different type welds
were used in this study oscillated
GMAW low-heat-input overlays and autogenous GTAW stringer beads. All welds
were made using a shielding gas of 92%
He, 7.5% Ar, 0.5% CO2 at a flow rate 40
ft3/h (18.9 L/min). Prior to welding, the
plates were ground with 600-grit silicon
carbide paper to provide a uniform surface finish and then clamped to a heat
sink to provide adequate heat transfer
and restraint. Overlay welds were made
with 308L and 316L welding wire on the
304 and 316LN plates, respectively. Welding wires measured 0.035 in. (0.9 mm)
in diameter.
GTAW stringer beads were made on
the plates using a variety of conditions in
an attempt to bracket any helium embrittlement effects. The conditions used
for these welds, as well as those used for

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Fig. 3 Typical weld/plate configuration. GMA overlay weld (center) with

GTA stringer beads. The lower plate is the run-on tab (start of welds), the
middle plate contains tritium/helium, and the upper plate is the run-off tab
(end of welds).

Fig. 4 Schematic diagram illustrating the parameters used for heat input
calculations for both GTA stringer beads and GMA overlays.

Fig. 5 TEM image from a grain interior of the 304 material. The black
dots are dislocation loops punched out by the formation of helium bubbles.
Dislocation loops (or bubbles) were not observed in the 316LN.

Fig. 6 TEM image of large helium bubbles on a grain boundary and

within the austenite matrix (e.g., at arrows) at about 0.010 in. (0.25 mm)
below the GMA overlay interface on the 316LN plate.

Fig. 7 Toe cracking in the HAZ of the highest heat input stringer bead
on the 304 base plate (Heat input: 136.6 kJ/in.2).

the overlays, are listed

in Table 2. Figure 3 is
an image showing the
series of welds made
on the 0.5-in.- (12.7mm-) thick 304 plate.
The tritium/heliumcontaining plate is located between the two,
uncharged run-on and
run-off tabs. Similar
plate and weld configurations were used for
the 316LN welds except that a second
overlay weld was applied to the underside
of this plate. Weld heat
inputs were calculated
using the parameters

illustrated in Fig. 4. This method allowed

for a more direct comparison of the overlay welds to the stringer beads.
Welds were examined visually using a
stereo microscope at 40X magnification to
determine the extent of toe cracking in the
HAZs. Additionally, metallographic cross
sections were prepared from each weld
using standard specimen preparation
methods. All specimens were etched using
a solution of 10% oxalic acid and water at
6 V DC to reveal microstructural features
and helium embrittlement cracking. A
montage of overlapping micrographs,
taken at 50X magnification, was constructed for each weld cross section.
Cracks and weld porosity were measured
and counted using these micrographs.
Transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) samples were prepared from be-


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neath the GMAW overlays on both plates.
Thin slices were cut from the weld HAZs
in an orientation parallel to the weld interface. Slices were centered at approximately 0.010 in. (0.25 mm) and 0.050 in.
(1.27 mm) from the interface. Control
samples were sectioned in a similar manner, but from a region of each plate far removed from any welds. Disc specimens,
measuring 3 mm in diameter, were
punched from the slices and ground to a
thickness of about 0.004 in. (0.1 mm).
Specimens were polished to perforation
with a twin jet electropolisher using a solution of 4 vol-% perchloric acid, 37 vol-%
butylcellosolve, and 59 vol-% methanol.
Polishing was accomplished using an applied potential of 35 V DC with the solution cooled to approximately 30C. All
specimens were examined in a JEOL 2010
operating at 200 kV.

Helium and Tritium Analyses

Fig. 8 GMA overlay welds on helium-bearing plates: A 304; B 316LN. Much more cracking is
observed in the 304 base metal. Some cracking in the weld metal can be seen at the arrow in Fig. 8A
(Heat input: A 23.4 kJ/in.2, B 21.5 kJ/in.2).

The helium concentration in both

steels was measured at various depths
below the surface of the plates. The average helium concentrations, measured at
approximately 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) below
the surfaces, were 89.1 6.8 appm and
87.6 0.3 appm for the 304 and 316LN,
respectively. Additional measurements
from regions of each plate to depths of approximately 0.140 in. (3.6 mm) approximate depth of the deepest weld root
yielded average helium concentrations of
89.7 6.0 appm He for the 304 plate and
94.1 3.0 appm for the 316LN plate.
Residual tritium concentrations (after
vacuum outgassing) measured from 0.030in.- (0.8-mm-) thick test coupons were approximately 2.2 appm for the 316LN and
3.0 appm for the 304.
TEM Examination

Control samples from about 0.015 in.

(0.4 mm) below the surface of the 316LN
and 304 plates were examined using TEM.
The microstructure of the 304 plate consisted of equiaxed grains containing a low
number density of dislocations, dislocation
loops, and stacking faults. Carbide precipitates were observed on some incoherent
twin boundaries and high angle grain
boundaries. Helium bubbles, measuring
12 nm in diameter were found in the matrix (homogeneously nucleated) and on dislocations in this material. Most of the matrix bubbles were associated with 1020
diameter dislocation loops Fig. 5. These
defects were observed previously (Ref. 10)
to form as a result of helium bubble nucleation and growth in the grain interiors. Helium bubbles were not observed on grain
boundaries or at the carbide/matrix inter248 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Fig. 9 Cross sections of stringer beads: A 304; B 316LN. Note the differences in the number of
underbead cracks, amount (and location) of porosity, and weld pool shape between the two welds. (Heat
input: A 28.7 kJ/in.2, B 28.2 kJ/in.2).

faces. The base microstructure of the

316LN plate resembled closely that of the
304 microstructure except that no carbide
precipitates were observed. Helium bubbles were not identified in this material;
however, a low number density of disloca-

tion loops were observed in the grain interiors. Contrast differences resembling bubbles were noted at some dislocations but
these were too indistinct to be identified as
bubbles. As in the 304 plate, bubbles were
not observed on the grai boundaries.

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Fig. 10 Cross-sections of stringer beads: A 304; B 316LN. These images further exemplify the differences in the GTA welds observed in the two steels.
(Heat input: A 84.5 kJ/in.2, B 91.3 kJ/in.2).

Examination of TEM specimens sectioned from approximately 0.050 in. (1.27

mm) beneath the weld overlay on the
316LN plate revealed an increase in dislocation density when compared to the control samples. An increase in dislocation
density is caused by weld shrinkage
stresses in the HAZ (Ref. 10). Additionally, small helium bubbles, 13 nm in diameter, were observed on some grain
boundaries. Similar to the control sample,
no obvious bubbles were observed in the
grain interiors. Figure 6 is an image from
0.010 in. (0.25 mm) below the overlay.
This image shows that large helium bubbles have formed on a grain boundary and
within the matrix at this distance from the
weld. Bubble growth occurred because of
localized heating during welding and the
diffusion of helium, tritium, and/or vacancies to preexisting grain boundary and matrix bubbles. Plastic deformation in the
HAZ has also been shown to assist bubble
growth via vacancy creation and dislocation/bubble interactions (Ref. 11).
Attempts to prepare thin foils from beneath the overlay weld on the 304 plate
were unsuccessful. Severe cracking along
grain boundaries and in regions of '
martensite, as determined by electron diffraction analysis, in the weld HAZ resulted in preferential thinning in these
areas revealing little of the base microstructure or helium bubble distribution. Because of this a thorough microstructural comparison was not
possible. However, the microstructure
(dislocation substructure, helium bubble
size, and distribution) that developed in
the HAZ of the overlay weld on the 316LN
plate was similar to that observed beneath
overlay welds on 0.250-in. (6.35-mm) 304
plate material investigated in a prior study
(Ref. 10).

Metallographic Examination

Analysis of the 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) plates

at 40X magnification revealed no conclusive evidence of toe cracking in the HAZs
of the GMAW overlays in either the 304 or
316LN material. However, extensive toe
cracking was observed in the HAZs of the
GTAW stringer beads. Figure 7 shows an
example of toe cracking along a stringer
bead in the 304 plate. These cracks were
observed in the HAZ of the weld made
using the highest heat parameters. Cracks,
like those shown, were visible along the
entire length of this weld in the heliumcontaining plate. In general, cracking was
much more pronounced in the 304 plate
than in the 316LN, with the amount of
cracking in both plates increasing with
weld heat input. Toe cracks were not observed in the HAZs of welds on the runon or run-off tabs of either test plate.
Microscopic examination of the polished and etched weld cross-sections
showed numerous intergranular cracks in
the HAZ of the GMAW overlay on the 304
plate as seen Fig. 8A. Generally, cracks extended into the base metal by only a few
grains. Infrequently, cracks also extended
into the weld (e.g., Fig. 8A). This observation demonstrates that cracking took place
after solidification of the weld pool and not
during weld production. Some cracking
was observed beneath the overlay on the
316LN plate but to a much lesser degree
when compared to the 304 material Fig.
8B. In contrast, cross sections made from
the GTAW stringer beads revealed extensive intragranular cracking. Similar to the
toe cracking, underbead cracking was
much more pronounced in the HAZs of
the GTA welds on the 304 plate when compared to the similar welds on the 316LN
plate. These differences are illustrated in

Figs. 9 and 10. Welds shown in each figure

were made using identical weld parameters. As can be seen, much more cracking
occurred in the HAZs of the 304 welds
(compare Figs. 9A and 10A with Figs. 9B
and 10B). Additionally, cracks extended
into the 304 HAZ to a greater extent than
in the 316LN, but crack lengths were still
on the order of a few grains long. (It should
be noted that underbead cracking did not
occur on the run-on or run-off tabs.) Also
evident from the welds in Figs. 9 and 10 are
the differences in depth of penetration (or
weld pool shape). The 304 welds tended to
be shallower and had a wider weld root
when compared to the welds on the 316LN
plate. Furthermore, as expected, the weld
pool size and depth of penetration increased with increasing heat input for all
Another obvious difference in the
welds was the amount, size, and location of
porosity. The 304 welds contained considerably more porosity than the 316LN
welds. Pores were generally much larger in
the 304 welds and tended to be concentrated at the fusion boundary. Porosity in
the 316LN appeared to be smaller and
more uniformly dispersed throughout the
weld pool. The large difference in porosity
would suggest a difference in helium/tritium content existed between the test
plates; however, helium levels were essentially the same (around 90 appm) for both
materials. In addition, both test plates had
been vacuum outgassed under identical
conditions to remove most of the residual
tritium available to contribute to
bubble/pore formation.
Crack and Porosity Measurements

Crack analysis for both the overlays

and the stringer beads was conducted by


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Fig. 11 Comparison of the normalized crack length (in./in. of weld interface)

for the GMA overlay welds and GTA stringer beads. Heat input values are the
average of the actual heat inputs for 304 and 316LN welds at each targeted heat
input level.

measuring the total number and length of

cracks visible in each metallographic cross
section. To facilitate comparison, these
measurements were normalized for differences in interface length (defined in Fig.
4). These data are summarized in Tables 3
and 4 and are shown graphically in Figs.
1113. Data in each of these figures are
also represented as a least squares fit
forced to a straight line. Figure 11 shows
the comparison of the normalized crack
length, i.e., total measured crack length
per unit length of interface for each heat
input (denoted as the average heat input
for each weld condition) for the overlays
and stringer beads. Data for the stringer
beads are further illustrated in Figs. 12
and 13, which show the total number of
cracks per unit length of interface and the
total crack length per unit length of interface vs. heat input, respectively.
Measurements taken from beneath the
GMAW overlays show that there was
about 12 times more cracking associated
with the overlay on the 304 plate than with
the overlay on the 316LN plate (Table 3).
From Fig. 11, it can be seen also that the
normalized crack length was about 33
times greater for the 304 when compared
to the 316LN. A similar trend also existed
for the GTAW stringer beads. Crack totals
for these welds were about two to four
times greater in the HAZs on the 304 plate
when compared to like welds (similar
welding conditions) on the 316LN plate
(Fig. 12). Also, Fig. 13 shows that the normalized crack lengths were three to six
times greater for the welds on the 304
Porosity measurements for both the
overlays and stringer beads were made
from micrographs of the weld cross sections. Porosity in these welds was arbitrarily defined as any pore greater than 20 m

250 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

Fig. 12 Total number of cracks per unit length of weld interface vs. heat input
for the stringer beads on both plates.

Table 3 Underbead Crack Analysis Summary, GMA Cladding Welds


(amps) (volts)








Number Cracks/
Total Crack
Conc. Weld Interface
Weld Interface



(a) -in.-thick plate, constrained during welding.

(b) A and B signify top (same side as GTA welds) and bottom of plate, respectively.
(c) Note: J/mm2 = kJ/in.2 * 1.55.

in diameter, since smaller pores were difficult to discriminate from other microstructural features in the images. Limited porosity was observed in the overlay
welds. In general, the overlay on the 304
plate contained slightly more pores (or inclusions) than the weld on the 316LN
plate; however, the distribution of pores in
both welds varied according to location in
the weld weave. Porosity was more prevalent in the weld toes (where the torch
changed direction) than at the center of
the welds. Figure 14 is a plot of weld
porosity vs. weld heat input for the stringer
beads. It is evident from this figure that
the amount of visible porosity, at any
given heat input, was greater in the welds
on the 304 plate than in the welds on the
316LN plate.

The results of this study as illustrated in
Figs. 1113 indicate that Type 316LN is
less susceptible to helium embrittlement
cracking than Type 304 at comparable helium levels. The reasons for this behavior
are not completely understood but may be
related to differences in 1) the high-

temperature creep properties of the two

alloys and/or 2) the initial (prior to welding) helium bubble microstructures existing in the steels. During exposures to temperatures (T 0.4 Tm) bubbles can grow in
size particularly in the presence of an
applied stress leading to premature intergranular failure. The loss in elevated
temperature tensile and creep ductility
properties and the tendency for weld
HAZ cracking have been attributed to the
growth and coalescence of microvoids nucleated at grain boundary helium bubbles.
The conditions exiting in the HAZs (e.g.,
high temperature and stress), during and
after welding, provide the necessary driving forces to promote bubble/microvoid
growth, coalescence, and subsequent intergranular failure. It is generally agreed
that intergranular cavity growth occurs by
either 1) a stress-induced cavity growth
process with grain boundary self-diffusion
as the rate controlling step (Ref. 12), 2)
creep of the matrix immediately surrounding the cavity (Ref. 13), or 3) a
process that couples grain boundary selfdiffusion to a steady-state creep process
(Ref. 14). In the present study, if one assumes that cavity growth is controlled by 2

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Fig. 13 Normalized crack length vs. weld heat input for the stringer beads on
both steels.

Fig. 14 Porosity in stringer beads vs. weld heat input. More porosity in the
304 welds may indicate a higher helium content than in the 316LN plate.

Table 4 Underbead Crack Analysis Summary, GTA Stringer Beads




(in./min) (kJ/in.2)


Number Cracks/ Total Crack

Weld Interace
Weld Interface

















(a) Note: J/mm2 = kJ/in.2 * 1.55

or 3 above, intergranular cracking in the

HAZs of 316LN welds could be suppressed since 316LN is inherently more
resistant to high-temperature creep than
304 because of the solid solution strengthening effect of ~ 2 wt-% Mo. Furthermore, although the starting microstructures of both alloys were very similar,
carbides were observed only in the 304
material. A previous study (Ref. 10) of this
material has shown that grain boundary
carbides are potent nucleation sites for helium bubbles. It seems feasible that the
presence of grain boundary carbides in the
304 plate could have led to an increase in
the number of bubbles on the grain
boundaries in that material. These bubbles would be available to act as additional
microvoid nucleation sites, thus further
reducing this alloys resistance to helium
embrittlement cracking.
Figure 14 (also see images in Figs. 9
and 10) shows that the 304 stringer beads
contained significantly more porosity than

the 316LN welds made using identical

welding parameters. Porosity in welds on
tritiated plates is associated with the trapping of helium (and tritium) in the solidified weld metal that was liberated during
welding from the fusion and heat-affected
zones. The results shown in Fig. 14 suggest
that the helium concentration in the 304
plate was significantly greater than in the
316LN plate; however, multiple helium
analyses on both plates indicates that this
was not the case since both plates had a helium concentration of approximately 90
appm and nearly identical residual tritium
levels (23 appm).
One possible explanation for the dramatic difference in the amount of trapped
porosity in the two steels may be related to
weld pool convective flow. Convection is
influenced by four forces: 1) buoyancy
force, 2) surface tension gradient force, 3)
electromagnetic force, and 4) impinging
force (Ref. 15). Variations in and combinations of these forces can have a great af-

fect on the shape of the weld pool (depth

of penetration) and the amount of retained
porosity. Heiple and Burgardt (Ref. 16)
have shown for GTA welds using the
same heat inputs and welding speeds
that weld penetration can be increased by
modifying the surface tension temperature
coefficient of the weld by adding surfaceactive agents. Additionally, Heiple and
Roper (Ref. 17) observed shallower penetration in weld pools exhibiting a radially
outward surface flow pattern, and deeper
penetration in welds exhibiting a radially
inward surface flow pattern. Through their
modeling work, Kou and Wang (Ref. 18)
have postulated that convective flow can
reduce weld porosity. In welds where the
convection pattern is radially outward
(shallow penetration), bubbles can be
caught in the solidification and become
pores. Conversely, when the convective
flow is radially inward (deeper penetration) bubbles can be swept out of the weld
pool before being caught up in the solidification front.
Examination of welds in the current
study seem to demonstrate, at least in principle, the two situations described by
Heiple and Roper (Ref. 17) and Kou and
Wang (Ref. 18). In all cases, the 304 welds
exhibited less penetration and much more
porosity when compared to the 316LN
welds. Additionally, pores in the 304 weld
were generally trapped near the bottom
of the weld while pores in the 316LN weld
were more uniformly dispersed in the weld
pool. If one assumes that all forces affecting weld pool convention were essentially the same for both steels (i.e., identical
weld parameters), these observations could
indicate that weld pool convective flow was
different for the two alloys radially outward for the 304 (bubble trapping, shallow
penetration) and radially inward for the
316LN (bubble removal, deeper penetration). However, based on the compositions


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Page 252

listed in Table 1, this explanation is counterintuitive since the higher S level in the
304 might be expected to produce deeper
penetration welds (radially inward flow)
and, hence, less bubble trapping when compared to the 316LN welds.
Porosity levels in the weld pools could
also be related to the availability of helium to reach the weld pool. If more helium was present on the grain boundaries
in the 304 stainless steel than in the 316LN
as a result of, e.g., an increased number of
carbides, then during the high-temperature excursion during the welding process
more helium would be expected to move
to the weld pool and eventually end up as
additional porosity after solidification. Of
course, if this were the case, then the number of nucleation sites for microvoids
would decrease thus, inhibiting the embrittlement process to some degree.

A weldability comparison study of tritium-charged-and-aged Types 304 and
316LN stainless steels was conducted. The
results of this research indicate that
316LN is less susceptible to heliumembrittlement cracking than the 304. This
conclusion is supported by the following
1. Extensive toe cracking was associated with the GTA welds with cracking
more pronounced on the 304 plate. Toe
cracking was not observed in the HAZs of
the GMAW overlays on either the 304 or
316LN plate.
2. There were about 10 times more underbead cracks/in. in the HAZs of the
overlay weld on the 304 plate compared to
the 316LN plate with cracks generally limited to a few grains in length.
3. Underbead cracking was significantly greater in the HAZs of the GTAW
stringer beads than the GMAW overlays
on both plates. The total number of cracks
was typically two to four times greater on
the 304 plate when compared to the
316LN over the range of welding conditions. Similarly, normalized crack lengths
were two to six times greater in the HAZs
of 304 GTA welds.
The increased resistance to cracking of
the 316LN can be rationalized in terms of
its better resistance to high-temperature
creep when compared to the 304. Differences in weld porosity and depth of penetration may be related to weld pool convection effects.

Further study is required to fully understand the fundamental reason(s) for
increased porosity in the 304 GTAW
stringer beads when compared to the
316LN welds at nearly the same helium
252 -s AUGUST 2007, VOL. 86

levels. Additionally, the apparent differences in weldability of tritium-chargedand-aged 304 and 316LN stainless steel vs.
irradiated 304 and 316LN (Ref. 9) needs
to be investigated.

The authors would like to acknowledge

Drs. M. J. Morgan, E. A. Clark, and M. R.
Louthan, Jr., for their technical input during the course of this work; G. K. Chapman for the experimental setup and welding; and D. Z. Nelson and C. N. Foreman
for the weld metallography.
This report is an account of work assigned to the U.S. Home Team under Task
Agreement No. G 15 TT 96-05-15 FU
within the Agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community, the
Government of Japan, the Government of
the Russian Federation, and the Government of the United States of America on
Cooperation in the Engineering Design
Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER
EDA Agreement) under the auspices of
the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA). The report has not been reviewed by the ITER Publications Office.
The information contained in this article was developed during the course of
work under Contract No. DE-AC0996SR18500 with the U.S. Department of
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