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The Illustrated Encyclopedia of A Guide to Composers and Recommended Recordings Lionel Salter iaaptefe 11 shed by .

Limited published in the United Kingdom 1978 by Salamander Books Limited First This book of may in not be sold outside the United States America and Canada © Salamander Books Ltd 1978 27 Old Gloucester Street London WClN 3AF United Kingdom The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Classical Music Contains over 130 entries arranged by composer and a recommended discography for the definitive collection of classical music 1. No part of this book may be utilised or reproduced in any form or by any means. without permission in writing from the Publisher. Inc. Harmony Books A division of Crown Publishers. Salter. Music— Discography. Credits Editor: Trisha Palmer Designers: Nick Buzzard and Roger Artwork: Fold-out: Hyde Rowlands and Michael Whittlesea (©Salamander Books Ltd) Text by Peter Gammond. Turnhout .A Salamander Book published 1978 in the United States by Harmony Books. New York. or any information storage and retrieval system.92'2 (B) ML105. Inc. 78-15434 780'. Music— Bio-bibliography. All rights reserved under the International Copyright Union by Harmony Books.14 ISBN 0-517-53476-2 All correspondence concerning the content of this volume should be addressed to Salamander Books Ltd. England Printed in Belgium by Henri Proost & Cie. New York 10016 Published in Canada by General Publishing Company. a division of Crown Publishers. electronic First or mechanical. Bruce Scott Filmsetting: Modern Text Typesetting. Lionel. I. including photocopying. England Tenreck Ltd. England Culvergraphics Ltd. One Park Avenue. illustrated by Olivia Beasley (©Salamander Books Ltd) Will Photography: Michael Stannard (jacket). England Colour reproduction: Silverscan Ltd. 2. recording.

sold over 70. American readers are advised to consult catalogues and their local record dealer for the latest information. However. London. and written three books. He has contributed to many symposia and encyclopedias in (including the Britannica and the new Grove). who years and is has been a critic with Gramophone for 30 a musician whose exceptional experience and range are widely recognised. he was also programme editor of the Edinburgh Festival in Scotland for five years Promenade Concerts and of the annual London's Albert Hall for eight. We would also like to thank the following record companies who gave their permission to use record sleeves as illustrations in this book: CBS CRD Lyrita Recorded Edition Records (Continental Record Decca Record Company Ltd Deutsche Grammophon EMI Records Ltd Publisher's Phonogram Ltd Pye Records Ltd Distributors Ltd) RCA Ltd Saga Records Ltd Selecta (London) Note The recommended recordings in this book have been compiled by the editorial team of Gramophone. A former editor of Britain's BBC Music Guides. a number of records and has performed in some 15 pianist countries. an asterisk denotes that this works are included in italics.and 18th-century works to his credit. The record listings show details of soloists (where appropriate). The US catalogue numbers and labels have been added by Salamander Books Ltd. . and conductor. information applies to both countries. of which Going to a Concert has He long ago lost count of the and programme notes he has written and of song translations he has made. where other on the same record.The Author The composers' biographies have been written by Lionel Salter. For many years he held a succession of senior posts in the BBC. and every care has been taken to make sure these numbers are up to date at the time of going to press. he has made frequent broadcasts. He also has a reputation as a musicologist. Head of Opera and finally Assistant Controller of Music. and to Boosey and Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd for their help in supplying manuscripts. with editions of several 17th.000 copies. date of review in Gramophone and label are followed where relevant by the US number and label. orchestra and conductor. number of record sleeve Acknowledgements The publishers would like to give special thanks to HMV Ltd of Oxford Street. A harpsichordist. who kindly supplied record sleeves for photography where these were unavailable from the record companies listed below. these are given The UK catalogue number. including those of Head of TV Music.

but apart from there being endless duplications. is dictated by what pleasure from some work are logical in (a surer and more musical method than following the same artist). and the purpose of the present book is to give an insight into the career. Listeners repertory in the most astonishingly haphazard fashion. though bewilderingly large. and their artists.Introduction Nearly all of us acquire a knowledge of the musical the record companies. These recommendations have been based on the opinions of the critics— some of the most experienced in the world— who write regularly in the monthly magazine Gramophone. The composers included are known . book. and to offer recommendations of recordings of their works. so as to savour them more fully at our leisure. It will at once be seen that this is a selective. the choice of works available. not a comprehensive. minimised. decide on. Where to branch out? Some guidance to the flood of new discs that pours forth every month can be found in record reviews. they were real people. and the elements of surprise and delight in such casual encounters are not to be wanting to sample others by the same composer picking When buying records. not just names in textbooks and catalogues) of 134 composers. we mostly begin with works that have already caught our fancy. who have gained up works by chance hearings. but after that there comes a time for more conscious or methodical explorations. either on radio or records or from live performances. output and personality (yes.

so the wisdom of attempting to establish a "best version" of all works (which often tells one as much about the critic as about the performance) is highly questionable. of the current position. which will keep readers abreast interest the majority of music lovers. and the reader's final choice must be a personal one: no significance should be attached to the order in which recommendations Gramophone . the disappearance of present versions. The appearance of new and better versions of listed works. accordingly. which obviously is several months before publication). but to forestall any outcry at omissions it must be explained that some composers who merited a place by their status had to be left out because they were not represented by altogether recommendable recordings in the current catalogue as at May 1978 (the date limit adopted here. several versions are frequently listed may be monitored by referring to Gramophone each month. or the addition of further recom- the very last thing any sensible reviewer wants— or expects— is to be taken as gospel. In this book. and when by general consent they are outstanding. Inevitably there are bound to be divergences of opinion over performances (and even over technical quality).

who had intended him for the law. titiously. usually sung in a weakened version of the original. Ranelagh and Marylebone. and Arne followed this up two years later with a fine masque to Congreve's Judgment of Paris. with his sister in the title-role. After the death of Handel > in 1759. with recitative instead of dialogue. This work. d. and his dramatic Judith was the first English oratorio in which a female chorus was employed. the early twenties Prince of Wales's residence. which has since become almost a second national anthem in England. to celebrate the anniversary of the accession of a Hanoverian monarch: this concluded with a patriotic air. which set him apart from other composers with honorary degrees. concertos and sonatashave a continuing freshness and grace. there 1778) For some reason people persist in speaking of "Dr Arne". had his first opera produced. 13/76) in D EMI/HMV HNH OVERTURES Academy DSL0503 1-8 of Ancient Music/Hogwood (11/74) L'Oiseau-Lyre* Arne's doctorate was an honorary one from Oxford. of Milton's Comus. Its melodic charm immediately attracted notice. who overshadowed him in London SYMPHONIES for the greater part of his 1-4 Bournemouth Sinfometta/ Montgomery/S. Artaxerxes. Other stage works quickly followed.THOMAS AUGUSTINE ARNE (b. At the same time the masque Alfred was performed in Clivedon. Right: Caricature of Bartolozzi. CSD3767 4041 life. I a l£ ^ 3 g $x a T MM nfl-r-^ \ &%-»:\ 10 j i " i m g ^m . His father. Arne's songs for revivals of Shakespeare's As You Like It and The Tempest have also become part of the English vocal heritage (though again often in corrupt forms). His comedy Thomas and Sally and the delightful ballad opera Love in a village were written for Covent Garden. though they are lightweight beside those of Handel. London 1710. the year when Arne received his doctorate. Rule Britannia. who took part in the premiere of Handel's Messiah). Meanwhile Arne had been busy as an associate of David Garrick in the management of Drury Lane and as the composer of innumerable elegant but trifling songs for the London pleasure gardens at Vauxhall. he turned for the first time to oratorio. achieved an enormous success which endured for over half a century. but between these he produced there an experiment — a serious opera in English after the Italian model. and in 1738 he was engaged to compose music for an adaptation at Drury Lane Theatre. Left: Below: Arne's 1745 arrangement of the National Anthem. was opposed to rather as if there were something special but he took violin lessons surreptaught singing to his sister Susanna (later to become celebrated as the tragic actress Mrs Cibber. which was far more ornate in style than his other music. Wesley: Sym. and by his his studying music. London. His instrumental works — overtures. from the Arne by National Portrait Gallery.


Ewald ZRG65S (11/70) Decca Argo* NO. who was his only teacher in composition and keyboard playing. and that he can be totally serious is evidenced by. His witty but caustic tongue earned him the displeasure of his master. although in his own style he reacted against learned counterpoint. d. in Leipzig. PHILIPP EMANUEL BACH CARL Hamburg Weimar 1788) 1714. On the death of his godfather Telemann > in 1767 he at last managed to get away from Potsdam and succeed him as director of music for the city of Hamburg — one of the plum appointments in the whole of Germany. His chief duty (rather as his father's had been who in 1740 succeeded to the throne history as Frederick the Great. own day second son of Johann Sebastian Bach > achieved a wider renown than his great father. may be heard in the overtures Beckus the Dandipratt (which first made his name) and Tarn O'Shanter. and Frederick was certainly aware of his talent. His overt dislike of pomposity has sometimes led to his being accused of jokiness.MALCOLM ARNOLD (b. which besides their financial return have brought him an Oscar for Bridge on the River Kwai and an Ivor Novello award for Inn of the Sixth Happiness. the Concerto for two violins. but he has also composed a very large number of concert works. but In his this then became cembalist to the Crown Prince of Prussia. and whom he venerated. 5 SYMPHONY CORNISH DANCES PETERLOO OVERTURE DCBSO/ Arnold ASD2878 (5/73) EMI/HMV GUITAR CONCERTO D Bream. he has devoted much of his energy to writing film scores. and in a different medium the Shanties for wind quintet and the brass quintet. He studied law for a time. though such themes as the "cream-puff tune" (as it has been called) in the Guitar Concerto's first movement are disarming. the English dances and Scottish dances. Left: 12 CPE Bach was the most original genius of the family. . Blessed with an enviable orchestras and also and a technical facility. (b. for example. and is known to The monarch was an enthusiastic flautist. and Carl Philipp had to accompany him in the same flute concertos several times a week for 27 years. Melos/Arnold/Giu/iani SB6826 (4/70) RCA 4 LSC-2487 3 RCA SHANTIES FOR WIND QUINTET (1952) London Wind Quintet SPA396 (8/751 Decca 5326 Argo Two Right: Arnold studies of Malcolm in rehearsal. The virtuosity of his instrumentation. combined with a sparkling wit. BRASS QUINTET (1961) Philip Jones Brass Quintet/Dodgson. Northampton 1921) The bluff. breezy personality of this composer — who had MA) CO! MARNU J> several years' invaluable practical experience as a trum- peter in the SYMPI IONY NU!> rni-KK k u ivikiuki <Ki>RNlSNIANOI-S London Philharmonic and BBC Symphony won the Cobbett Composition Prize Mendelssohn Scholarship which allowed him a year in Italy — is reflected in the exuberance and boisterous humour of much of his music. and his twenty years' activities there brought him much honour. where he had unsuccessfully applied to follow him) was to provide and direct the music in the city's principal churches and to give concerts for the municipality. a job made even more irksome by the king's poor sense of rhythm. Salzedo. many of which are characterised by a directness of utterance and an unaffected pleasure in providing entertainment. who did not care for his music either — though by this time two sets of keyboard sonatas and a brilliant treatise on keyboard playing had spread his fame. to which Bach's artistic conscience would not allow him to pander. though distinctly conservative and unadventurous in his tastes. but being left-handed he was hampered in playing the violin and concentrated instead on the harpsichord. From a very early age he showed remarkable talent.

W. W182 D2. it contains dramatic brilliance. CONCERTO W43/4 is the spirit of the improvisations with W58/b.Carl Philipp codified the foundations of piano technique and established the form of the three-movement sonata and symphony. VCM. Wol/4. D minor. F. C. Bach. F major. the CONCERTO IN E FLAT FOR HARPSICHORD. W59/5). D Malcolm. D Palmer. his music pointed forward not only to the "storm and stress" of Haydn > who. instrumental recitatives and disconcertingly abrupt contrasts of dynamics and mood that mirrored changing emotions in a Fantasies) (11/72) Decca Ace of Tonds 4 SYMPHONIES. Cambridge. FORTEPIANO AND STRINGS Leonhardt Consort. Leonhardt. IN C MINOR FOR HARPSICHORD AND STRINGS. ASMF/Ledger 6 SDD336 way no Watts. Telefunken 641210 Telefunken 2533 327 (1/77) DG Archiv IN D MINOR. ASMF/Marrmer strikingly. Dii (11/72) Decca nds Ace W215 Magnificat ZRG853 (3/77) Decca Argo* SYMPHONIES. W56/1: E major. declared an admiration for him. W55/1. /. expressive harmonies. bold and unexpected modulations. VltvJmum previous composer had ever attempted. Rondos: C major. capturing which he so impressed his hearers. original. Fantasias: E flat major. like Mozart > and Beethoven >. like that of his youngest brother Johann Christian >. W57/1. Dreyfus (fortepiano) MAGNIFICAT Bach AW6 41210 (6/67) even quirkily. Tear. H71180 (11/72) WEA Nonesuch 111 f 13 . but beyond that. of London/]. some of his music (e. D mine W57/4. W183 D 1-4.g. Far from being smoothly "galant". Roberts. Little Orch. Choi of King's College. ASMF/Marrmer SDD336 of KEYBOARD WORKS D (Sonatas: C major. but even to early romanticism.

3. for example. He popu- J. mellifluous style much influenced the boy.CAMBRIDGE . It was in Leipzig. The youngest son (b.5 SXL6638 2. Apart from visits to Mannheim and Paris for further operas. as in the two sets of preludes and fugues in all the major and minor keys known as the "48"). he was kept tied to posts at provincial courts and churches. consort of George III. an important series of concerts which ran for 17 years. and the success of three operas by him in Turin and Naples led to his being invited to London in 1762 as composer to the Italian Opera at the King's Theatre.' '^f'. as director of music to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen. that he created his monumental settings of the Passion. he never had an opportunity to travel further afield like his cosmopolitan contemporary Handel >. Johann Christian befriended him. A. 1-6 D ASMF/Marnner 6500 115 (7/72) Phonogram SYMPHONIES. where with incredible energy and industry he created a vast output to meet the practical needs of the moment. treated him with much kindness. piano sonatas by him as a basis for his own Italianate who first took piano concertos. When Mozart > visited London as a child of . he was appointed Cantor at St Thomas's Church in Leipzig he immediately set to and with astonishing application wrote five sets of cantatas for each Sunday and holy-day of the year. For the education of his family and pupils he supplied much harpsichord music (with which he furthered the equal-temperament system of tuning. of musical life. Then. Though he himself achieved a very considerable reputation in central Germany. When. so that his was apparently keyboard works were "such as ladies can execute with little described as "expressive". The greatest figure of this close-knit and indeed one of the greatest figures in the whole history of music. 5 6500 847 (4/75) Phonogram D4 6500 846 (7/75) Phonogram KEYBOARD SONATAS. was Johann Sebastian (of whose many children four became notable composers). where he had written church music and been appointed organist of Milan Cathedral. but in the main his music points orchestra in of the forward to Mozartian style. he composed church cantatas and the bulk of his numerous organ works. contain a wealth of expressive devotional music which amply repays exploration. 4. in 1723. according to St John clan. a chorus which nearly always provided a final Lutheran hymn. orchestral and instrumental pieces for his own concerts and for Vauxhall and the other pleasure gardens. 1782) Leipzig 1735. his playing was limited. Haebler (fortepiano) 6500 848 (5/75) Phonogram SYMPHONIES. But the call of the stage lured him away. he wrote orchestral suites. 17 Dl-4. and played duets with the child on his knee. (6/74) Decca 6/Telemann: Don Quixote SXL6755 (10/76) Decca Left: A Gainsborough portrait of Mozart's friend Johann Christian. 3 NOS. shared between solo voices. where he was a central figure in The Bach (b. but his technique some trouble". from nineteenth century. At the court of Weimar (1708-17). composing numerous songs. Vienna Capella f]gV OLUESTIM lARl'-fiNCHimM Academica/Melkus 1-3 6500 846 (4/75) Phonogram >l 6 6500 041 (1/74) Phonogram •• Br» " CONCERTI FOR KEYBOARD AND ORCHESTRA. OP. OP. is ii ii n - 6 1. the simply as "Bachs". Vienna Capella "Try Academica/Melkus ii h In' In ii ii rfV JT . and he was associated in the building of the Hanover Square Rooms (for long the capital's chief concert hall). OP. The first of his seven operas there greatly pleased the fashionable audience and ran for nearly three months. for charm and grace larised the then new pianoforte in London. as a result he was appointed music master to Queen Charlotte. these musical meditations on the text of the Gospel of the day. and a small orchestra of varying constitution. Bach's short symphonies and concertos are notable rather than profundity. with his friend Abel. 18 symphonies harks back to a previous generation. CONCERTI FOR KEYBOARD AND ORCHESTRA. OP. C. His elegant. in which his noble master was interested. among much else he founded.3. 18 D Stuttgart CO/Munchinger Dl.eight. 7 . He had been educated first by his father and then by his elder brother Carl Philipp Emanuel > after which he had gone to Italy. 13 D Haebler (fortepicmo). which flourished in Thuringia il HI J Haebler (fortepiano). Eisenach 1685. OP. included so many musicians that the name became a professional appellation. Leipzig 1750) family. concertos on the Italian model of Vivaldi * — the fifth of the set of six dedicated to the Margrave of Brandenburg is the earliest known concerto to feature a solo keyboard instrument — and secular instrumental works.CHRISTIAN BACH JOHANN London JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH Johann Sebastian Bach was often known as the "English Bach" because of his twenty years' residence in London. 6500 041 (1/74) Phonogram D2. His use of a double Op. both as a brilliant organist and as a composer. the 'English' Bach. too. and all musicians in that area were known late sixteenth to the early El KING'S COLLEGE CHOIR. d. he spent the rest of his life in London.

trait He is holding a six-part canon composed in the previous year for a learned music society in Leipzig.Right: Engraving after a por- of ] S Bach painted two years before his death. 15 .

*. "TT ff -4e. have eclipsed them: in particular his great and diverse development of the chorale prelude opened up new horizons. a staunch Lutheran. which was to reign supreme for the best and during that period Bach's music fell into an oblivion from which it began to be rescued only when. and whom he stubbornly resisted — as well as for being oldfashioned.:\'<. A* •'. long for liturgical use) is explained by the fact that it was offered to his Catholic sovereign. Mendelssohn » revived the St Matthew B agggg — w ^^tltzfc^ * was the s 9 ' of music — of which style Bach marks the peak — to part of a century. should have written a Latin Mass (albeit far too and St the form. and. in 1829. especially. candidates (one of The character the polyphonic 16 - - -X : a yf\ JyJ# r from Passion. some movements of which were drawn from earlier compositions. in its complete form dates from Bach's Leipzig years. In various fields he raised music to great heights by his combination of contrapuntal virtuosity (most conspicuously in the Musical Offering for Frederick the Great.t (./ insomniac patron. even in his lifetime his work was criticised as being far too complex — he was frequently at loggerheads with church or civic authorities who did not appreciate his innovations. In his early years Bach had been much influenced by Buxtehude > (to hear whom he had once walked 200 miles!) and other North German composers in his writing for organ. instrumental inventiveness. the Elector of Saxony. #f/ - fir. though it is a composite work. W&&$$£k Vk zrag: ? whom was Telemann »)had withdrawn. the Goldberg Variations written for his pupil Goldberg to play to his £?«. s'l-O^il^ ft r radically changing homophonic. one of the supreme masterpieces in the whole literature of music. emotional intensity and often amazingly daring harmony (as in the Chromatic Fantasia). Nevertheless. Indeed. That Bach. but his own achievements for that instrument.JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH Matthew. which now form the core of its repertoire. H j £±: . when he applied for the Leipzig post with which his name is chiefly associated. which gave a new dramatic dimension to The Mass in B Minor.- -2*. in the Art of Fugue) with rhythmic vitality. more forward-looking. the authorities accepted him reluctantly only after two other.

Vienna Boys' Choir. Double Cone. Toyoda/New Philh. Marrinei Davis Marrlner p747 10-4 10 75) Phonogram 6747 172 Philips IWurtembergChambei Faerbei 1 CONCERTO IN D MINOR FOR VIOLIN AND OBOE. . Goossens/Bath ASD500I11 10 72) Classics Foi 62) EMI I HMV Holliger/New Philh.IUCM Ml CI MOM f>Al Lubeck Kantorei. Wands orth Sche ORGAN WORKS (6/75) 10 ST JOHN PASSION Palmer. TOCCATA DM D. J. BWVlOoOO Menuhin.36804 15/74) EMI/HMV 211: D Rogg EXP2 (1/65) Peerle ss (12/70) Abbey hoch. Pears. Vivaldi ata 1 PARTITAS FOR SOLO VIOLIN. Howell. Watts. Double Cone. BWV1041 Michelucci/I Musici/Con. in min. F. C min. ICH HAB IN GOTTES HERZ UND SINN./ Waart/DouWe D Perlman. 82. FRENCH I fSIVicb SUITE NO. ASD346 (6/e0) EMI/HMV 60258 Seraphim Perlman/ECO/Barenboim/Vln. Fantasia and Fugu inC BWV542. 5 IN G. HMV nun Von Himmel nun. Sillito. Cone. Virtuosi ol England/Davison • I . VCM/ NO. in D minor. BWV903. Double Cone.S. Cone. CANTATA NO. Schreier. Vln.. Pye Vanguard min. Equiluz.. ITALIAN CONCERTO IN F. Cone. Amor 6500 214 (2/71) Phonogram Toccata and Fugue in D min Paste in F.r.i. ICH WILL DEN FRENCH SUITES NOS. ASMF/Willocks/Motets I. ( Fantasii ART OF FUGUE Fantasia and Fugi Festival Menuhin I 10121111112 HIS (8/76) Classics for Pleasure Melkus/Vienna Capella Academica/ Cone. a I MASS 6500 119 |0/71| Phonogram Pleasure CO/Munchingei No. BWV590 (8/72) Peerless Oryx Chamber Orch. Krause.) D Ameling. BWV812-7 Gilbert A in SET531-3|7/7:i Deci 13104 ondon Chorzempa 6709 500 (10/77) Phonogram KREUZSTAB GERNE TRAGEN CANTATA NO. BEI DEINEM t I. Schwarzkopf. D 138958 (7/65) DG Fantasia and Fugue in C min. Passacaglia in C n BWV582. \ etc. PLAUDERT NICHT (COFFEE) CANTATA NO. Virtuosi of England/ Davidson Vln Cones in A mi CFP40244 BRANDENBURG CONCERTliLpLi i D MINOR FOR . F min and B min. Leonhardt AW6 41198 Selecta/Telefunken. Pears. Reynolds. Equiluz. FK6 35022 (12/75) Selecta/Telefunker CHROMATIC FANTASIA AND FUGUE IN D MINOR. Watts Hampstead Church Choir/Philh.irt CO/ Munchinger SET477-8 (3/71) Decca ArtisChoialc \ . and D Ameling. Stuttgart Prelude and Fugue Baker. Drevlrrs 2708 032 (8/761 DG' SUITES (Cpte./ Munchinger SET288-91 (3/o5) Decca SONATAS FOR VIOLIN AND KEYBOARD 6 Melkus. it 1 Walcha Phonogram Orch.. (7 . Oryx in I I (o/75) in E. BWV816 D Malcolm ECS788 (10/76) Decca Eclipse 6197 London Left: ludes One of the chorale pre- from Bach's Orgel- biichlein. and In dulci jubilo: (8/76) Redillusion/Harmoni. Krause. D m. Chorus Viennensis/VCM/ i Prey. 1 CFP40010-1 IN VIOLINS.. in E. BWV971. Hill. Cones. Preludes and Fugues in E flat. vans udwig. Pasto Cambridge. BWV912. Shirley- Quirk. Blankenburg. Messthaler. 92. 2 I GrumiruSAL3472-4 (12/69) Phonogram IN B MINOR r i. HERR. ICH HABE in I B' ST (7 75) ENGLISH SUITES.. Watts Krenn. Chorale Pre Lamm Gottes. Trio Son ata No. Orch. Choir of King's College.. Cone. Esswood. Stuttgart Chamber Orch. in A minor. Shirley Quirk./Richter 2533 312 (7/76) tut HMV (2/72) I freut euch. S313/4 Vanguard Vln. Tobin. ASMF/Marriner (S/6S) L'Oiseau-Lyre O Souzay/Berlin Bach Soloists/ IVrnschermann SAL3767 (3/70) HMU438 GOLDBERG VARIATIONS. jd^^hH Malcolm. ch Co ch: Vln. Burgess. Brown. SONATAS FOR SOLO VIOLIN Ameling. Preludes Walcha WORT Archiv C 2565 002 (4/72) DG Heliodor Fantasia and Fugue in G min. in his own hand. Vienna Acad Stuttgart 18 76) D Crumiaux. Britten S-37076 Angel Harnoncourt AF6 41359 (5/73) Selecta/Telefunken 641079 Telefunken CHORALE PRELUDES and mich. . Nun 6)CI ii (11 I S„m. 1-6. Partridge. . Ich ruf zu dir: Herzlich Measure 3 MATTHEW PASSION Cnic Fisi hei Dieskau Berrj Gedda. Pears. Valet will ich BWV565 Rogg EXP51 SCHWEIGT STTLLE.. Krause. Double Cone. /Menuhin/ Bach: Vln. Krause. 212: MER HAHN EN NEUE OBERKEET (PEASANT) DHansmann. 6580 021 (3/72) Phonogr.o. 6747 166 (4/76) Phonogram. : ' i hromnrii Fantasia./ Waarl Vln and Oboe Con Vivaldi 6500 119 (9/71) Phonogram* Bean. & Ch. Passacaglia in D Dreyfus Fugues 2533 164-6 (9-76) DG Archiv* 56. BWVS26. Ameling. Menuhin ug Prelude and Fugue in HMV BWV CONCERTO and majoi 5155039(5/76) ITALIAN 1 I Mall olm SXLP30141 CONCERTO [ S-3766 Angel Dorr. Hodgson. CFP40244 Hurford (organ) PHB673 I EMI/HMV England/Davison/ Double Cone. 126. BWV806-11 ildi I FLO Toccata and Fugue D Leonhardt S-3787 Angel i 71190 Vanguard in EMI/HMV om I n \ Harper. ECO/Leppard 6500 067-8 (4/72) Phonogram 7750 035 Philips 6 SUITES FOR SOLO CELLO Tortelier r SLS798(3/71) HMV VIOLIN CONCERTO IN A MINOR. CANTATA NO. Rippon. BWV1043 Rogg (organ) SLS782 (10/69) HMV : in.. BWV537. VIOLIN CONCERTO IN E. minor ASD3076 Britten SLS828 I VSD711Q0 i BWV577. Wunderlich. van Bork. Watts. Pears. ECO/Leppard Vln. Fischer- DG CANTATA 147. Angel CANTATA P BWV532. Watts. CFP40244 (8/76) Classics for Pleasure Melkus/Vienna Academica/Conc. 2533 075 (11/71) DG Archiv in A H.. ASD346 (6/60) EMI/HMV Bean/Virtuosi of England/Davison/ Cone. rhompson. m B ISuk antata 1287 London Vivaldi Black.C | HARPSICHORD CONCERTOS 1-7. 2533 075 (11/71) DG Archiv. ASD3076 Cone. Menuhin/Masters Chaml £. Prelude and Fugue in G min. 10 SXLtvJOO (10/69) 26103 London Festival/ BV\ inn aftei CFP40241 I Handel. SOL280 : I V. Nimsgem. Egmond. ASMF/Marriner ZRG687-8 (9/71) Decca Argo. BWV656. ERHALT'UNS. BWV988 Mathis. Krenn. Sillito/Virtuosi of I CHRISTMAS ORATORIO (Cpte./Munchinger SET346-8 (12/67) Decca 1386 London Anon treble.- i in. HERZ UND MUND TAT UND LEBEN » HQS1254 S. Minton. CO. Chorus Ntutig./Klemperer SLS827 (6/72) Ameling. ECO/Barenboim/ A minor. Kraus. Vln and Oboe Cone. GENUG Leonhardt 6709 500 (10/77) Phonogram D Shirley-Quirk. Toccata and Fugu Dieskau/Munich Bach Ch. rear. in D SXL6774-5IS Tol Decca 2225 London DBath Festival CO/Mcnuhm ASD327-8 (5/60) EM1/HMV CANTATA NO.. BWV1042 Menuhin/Orch. ugue in erto No. minor. I I i 1 3 MAGNIFICAT I TV34044-5S 3 66) Decca Tumaboul DASMI-" Marriner 6700 045 (9 72) Phonogram* EMI/HMV (5/72) - Kynaslon 6197 London 2 IGrumiaux.

Mussorgsky >. sometimes for long periods. was obliged by financial pressures to give up much of his time the animator — in which his finicky and dictatorially didactic temperament found scope — and in 1862 became assistant director of the newly-founded Free School of Music in St Petersburg. themes and keys but constantly interfered in matters of detail. a brilliant and colourful showpiece for piano demanding great technical virtuosity. ECS642 & Left (6/72) Decca Eclipse right: who gave Mily Balakirev. his fine craftsmanship and mastery of structure. Cui and Mussorgsky. d. the first movement of which. to teaching His ceaseless. were dedicated to the cause of musical nationalism.BALAKIREV MILY Nijni-Novgorod 1837. Borodin. when he had a his heated he aroused much complete breakdown and became a religious fanatic). inspired by the example of Glinka >. combines fugue with sonata form. At various times he suffered from severe depressions (the worst in 1871. He also arranged a collection of Russian folksongs and composed a number of short piano pieces and his Lisztian piano sonata. His earlier symphonic poem Thamar is based on a barbaric legend by Lermontov. He was and mentor of a mid-nineteenth century group of Russian composers (Cui. by this time. ISLAMEY-ORIENTAL FANTASY Katchen/Rachmanitiov: Pno. C D RPO/Beecham/Borodm SXLP30171 (10/74) EMI/HMV S-60062 Seraphim THAMAR D SRO/Ansermel/G/azunot. the impetus and lead to the 'mighty handful' of Russian nationalist composers who included RimskyKorsakov. close supervision of his disciples' work not only suggested ideas. and sooner or later they all fell out with him. Cone (10/681 Decca Ace of SDD181 Diamonds STS-15086 London 1 IN SYMPHONY NO. GLAZUNOV: THE SEASONS Paris Conservatoire Orchestra L'Orchestre de 18 la Suisse • WOLFF POEM 'THAMAR' Romande ANSERMET BALAKIREV: SYMPHONIC • . so that work on his compositions was fitful. St Petersburg 1910) (b. one of the melodies in his Overture on three Russian themes also appears in the finale of the Fourth Symphony of Tchaikovsky ». most originally. Balakirev. completing the Symphony in C major he had begun 30 years earlier — which well exemplifies his powers of invention. as director of the Free School was often interrupted. the first results of this were some songs and the "oriental fantasy" lslamey. despite the hostility aroused by his tactlessness. he was appointed director of the Imperial Court Chapel. l |L°JH . altering or recomposing passages which dissatisfied him — became tyrannical. where he conducted orchestral concerts at which works by members of his group and such composers as Berlioz >. — he and by championship of musical nationalism opposition. who was a friend of his although not sharing his ideals. In that same year he spent some time in the Caucasus^ where he was much influenced by exotic Circassian and Georgian melodic idioms. Rimsky-Korsakov > and Borodin >) who became known as the "kuchka" or "mighty handful" and. on retiring from this post eleven years later he threw himself into writing. a talented pianist. In 1883. Schumann 3> and Liszt * were introduced. and his career as a conductor and.

BARTOKNew York BELA Nagyszentmiklos 1881. d. where he excelled as a pianist but remained unproductive as a composer until he was galvanised into activity by hearing a concert of works by Richard Strauss >. (b. As a result. and in company with Kodaly > collected and arranged a vast amount of this material. Rumanian and Bulgarian folk music (which had been neglected in favour of synthetic gipsy styles). who was a frequent visitor to Hungary at that time. welding them on to the classical tradition to forge an individual language which bridged idioms from Eastern and Western Europe. His all its intellectual virtuosity. in an unobvious way. 10 . Hungary's composer and one of the leading musical figures of greatest the first half of this century. is at the same time and intensely emotional. he was brought up by his mother. much great art does not easily yield up its music. Bartok followed Dohnanyi to Budapest. where he fell under the influence of his contemporary Dohnanyi >. whose irregular rhythms and (Bratislava). who to enable him to study music in Pozsony frail child. though his universality is deeply rooted in his nationalism. He was an eclectic who was able to absorb diverse new developments. a follower of Brahms >. 1945) Bartok's stature as one of the major figures in the music of the first half of the twentieth century transcends that which he earned as the greatest composer Hungary has produced. slightly older Below: Bela Bartok. and from 1905 he became immersed in research into genuine Hungarian. This allegiance however did not last long. for spiritual but like treasures at a A first scraped encounter.

such as for the Concerto for orchestra and a Viola Concerto he did not live to finish. his expressionist ballet The miraculous mandarin was widely banned because of its erotic and violent subject. from 1942 he lived in dire poverty on virtually nothing but his meagre royalties and non-diatonic melodies. Bartok's works written in America. dissonant concert works to the simplicities of his folkrepertoire classics. »F Scz-z^uJ< ~ CBS SXL6212 (12/65) Decca 6784 London Boston SO/Kubelik 2530 479 (6/75) DG* LPO/Pritchard CFP176 >• &f i*£2£ 76518 (9/76) M-34217 Columbia CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA D LSO/Solti/ Dance Suite ^i^W^^^i-S}. Highly charged emotionally. like all his orchestral music. the most masterly contributions to the medium between Beethoven ^ and Shostakovich >. as in the First Piano Concerto. with only a modest twoyear research grant from Columbia University and plus a few commissions. PERCUSSION AND CELESTA D BBC SO/Boulez/Srrauinsky: Firebird 72652 (9/68) CBS Classics MS-7206 Columbia D ASMF/Marriner/ Divertimento ZRG657 <-k- >**_ ^ V^ ^ _ <-< ^ V"- /^ (2/70) Decca Argo PIANO CONCERTOS NOS. =#?»-» (12/71) Classics for Pleasure DANCE SUITE LSO/Solti/Concerfo SXL6212 (12/65) Decca 6784 London DIVERTIMENTO FOR STRINGS O Moscow CO/Barshai/ Vivaldi SDD417 (7/74) Decca Ace STS 15364 London of Diamom D ASMF/Marriner/Music for strings. left a deep and lasting impression on his own creative style. is scored with great subtlety./Reinhardt/The Prince TV34086S (12/67) Decca Turnabout 34086 Turnabout LSO/Solti/Music for Strings SXL6111 (11/64) Decca 6783 London BBC SO/Dorati/Proko/ieu 6582 Oil (2/76) Phonogram ttffkpfffr D Suite: MIKROKOSMOS VOL. and extremely exacting to play. OUT OF DOORS. and Bartok himself declared that this marked a watershed in his development.^- **Arr+fe Berry/LSO/Kertesz SET311 (5/66) Decca 1158 London Troyanos. BLUEBEARD'S CASTLE D Ludwig. like the Third Piano Concerto. for in Hungary he was viewed askance politically. his Dance suite was commissioned to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the union of Buda with Pest. the most mental. Nimsgern/BBC SO/Boulez wpsjj -. where he received but grudging recognition. 4.VOLS.. percussion and celesta (in which Stravinsky's ^ influence is discernible and which. 1-3. for the USA.- /'X»£"A. His progression from Brahms. The strain of making ends meet there. and it was not until 1918. which he had already visited as a pianist. Debussy > and Strauss to a tough expressionism was now to be balanced by a movement through neo-classicism. even so. W-- . SONATINA Bishop 6500 013 (9/70) Phonogram MUSIC FOR STRINGS. RHAPSODY FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA '<*5W Anda/Berlin RSO/Fricsay 2726 005 (4/73) DG 2535 262 DG . are his most accessible and have become had been gradually moving mellower. to romanticism. contains one of Bartok's mysteriously beautiful "night music" movements) — most notably in the 2nd Violin Concerto and the highspirited Divertimento for strings which. more direct idiom after the impressionistic 1936 Music for strings. bitonal witty Concerto for orchestra and the engaging Third Piano Concerto. particularly the constant concert-giving to alleviate his financial straits.£„. t - » SMflfe»pS^ I ::•. are best been austere. uncompromising and experimore accessible works have left until his fully digested. 6. took toll of his never robust health. they illustrate Bartok's stylistic progress — but Nos 3 lection). 1 & 2. His music met with considerable opposition. Liszt >.BELA BARTOK which suggested dissonant or harmonies to him. percussion and celesta ZRG657 (2/70) Decca Argo* THE MIRACULOUS MANDARIN BALLET O Suits: SWDR Wooden Orch. with the success of his brooding but powerful opera Bluebeard's castle. His large output for piano runs the gamut from his percussive. The increasing Nazification of Hungary drove Bartok to leave his native country. but he towards a Mikrokosmos inspired children's pieces (as in the col- but without doubt his greatest legacy is the six string quartets. that he began to attract attention — though mostly abroad. Nevertheless.

Hungaroton/ 76) Selecta D Bishop.PIANO CONCERTO NO. Davis/ Con 9500 043 [7/7t 1 Phonogram QUARTETS 1-6 D Hungarian Quartet DG Pr CBS CI 2733 001 (10/74) SVBX-S93 Vox D luilhard Quartet 61118-20 (3 701 D3S-717 Columbia RUMANIAN FOLKDANCES D Music. LSO/C. 21 ./Reinhardt.Kovacev./ Mandarin TV34086S 1 12/671 Decca Turnaho Right: Bartok's researches shed a completely new true nature of light on the Hungarian folk music. SXL6802 (4/78) THE D WOODEN PRINCE. Far left: The beginning of the second movement (Marcia) of Bartok's 6th String Quartet (composed in 1939). Respighi: Ancient A Dances— Suite 3 6580 045 (6/73) Phonogram 1 SONATA FOR 2 PIANOS AND PERCUSSION D Eden. Holland. Fry/Poulenc Pno. Viola Cone SLPX11421 (3. 1 IN A D Bishop-Kovacevich/LSO/ Son. LSO/Previn ASD3014 (10 "41 EMI HMV S. SXL6357 IO/08) Decca 6583 London I VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. Britten: Simple St/n: Adagio.BALLET Suite: SWDR Orch. Da' 05OO 043 (7/76) Phonogram* 3 IN E Katchen/LSO/Kerti Decca SXL6209 (9/66) DK.37014 Angel Chung/LPO/Solt. Dfcle. 2 DPerlman.inki Budapest PO/Ferencsik PIANO CONCERTO NO. Tamir.

like the third of his four piano sonatas. Sonata No. which includes such undisputed masterpieces as the nonet and the sonata for viola and piano. Third ultimately achieves serenity the Fifth (perhaps his finest emerges triumphantly and most from the . particularly the seven symphonies. The tale the career knew and the Debussyan Tintagel. He wrote a quantity of short piano pieces besides the sonatas (which are more epic in character). The symphonies however differ widely in mood: the Second is imaginatively introspective. shadows. This complexity of decoration has in fact sometimes output in fields. though only rarely was this explicitly stated. he himself published literary works under an Irish pseudonym. others. B. Sleepy head. all written after 1920. the charming In the faery hills. ceptional who shunned the public private a quick thinker. he conversationalist. but his reputation nowadays rests more on his orchestral music. d. pine-trees best- Bax's splendid choral works. 1883. but its form is usually quite clear.ARNOLD BAX London (b. such as Mater ora filium and This worldes joie. and his first orchestral piece. when he was working on his Second Symphony. 22 fell ironically coincided with marked — deeply poetic and nostalgic. may be described as mood-pictures. by which I my music is the expression of emotional states". and his many distinguished songs have recently been much neglected. Cork 1953) The "Celtic twilight" atmosphere which pervades much of Bax's music has misled some people into thinking of him as an Irish composer. although he was strongly drawn to Ireland and its literature. his music often is fundamentally diatonic: appears to be impressionistically rhapsodic. there is frequent thematic inter-relationship between movements. all — proved a stumbling-block to his wider appreciation. A modest and diffident figure was limelight. his known work. such as November woods. May night in the Ukraine. was very large indeed ironically dwindled after his appointment as Master of the King's Music in 1942 (he had been knighted five years previously). as in The garden ofFand (a legend of the sea). as has his voluminous chamber music. Bax described himself as mean that "a brazen romantic. but this was not the case. but another facet of his abundant invention is to be seen in the luxuriant texture and sensuous colouring of his music. In these. and direct-speaking). Indeed. Behind many of his works lies a literary programme. Gopack. a witty in and brilliant pianist with a quite ex- sight-reading even the most complicated skill in orchestral score at the piano. The first of his three string quartets. Right: The honours which on Bax a decline in his hitherto voluminous output. the 'brazen romantic'. which he never attempted. Romance. where Bax's thought is at its most passionate and intense. Yeats. incidentally shows to what extent Bax could re-create the contours of Irish folksong. the after stress. 2 DLPO/ SRCS54 (6/71) Lyrita SYMPHONY NO. though beneath the rich chromatic arabesques his thinking similarly. His enormous facility — his except opera. 1. with occasional outbursts of almost aggressive energy. was based on a work by W. which though seemingly diffuse at a first hearing are firmly cast in a threemovement mould. and his idiom remained remarkably constant and recognisable throughout the forty years of his composing PIANO WORKS Burlesque. NORTHERN BALLAD NO. MINOR 5 IN C SHARP DLPO/Leppard SRCS58 (5/72) Lyrita TINTAGEL: THE GARDEN OF FAND. at the age of 40. MEDITERRANEAN D LPO/Boult SRCS62 (10/72) Lyrita Inset right: Arnold Bax. 4 in G major: Loveridge RCS26 (8/65) Lyrita SYMPHONY NO.

with an anguish that brought him close to suicide. he also should enter the Elector's employ. vocabulary and emotional range of music. and when his father died their introductions and support were invaluable to the young Beethoven when. Despite the high-minded tone he adopted (for example expressing abhorrence of the "frivolity" of Mozart's comic operas) he had no scruples about cheating his publishers. (b. d. unkempt. Two generations of his family. There were Though many striking contradictions in Beethoven. passionately affirmative works have won an unshakeable place. and lived alone in squalor even when financially most successful. • Vienna 1827) While the standing and popularity of most other com- wax or wane in successive generations. as harpsichordist. He realised. The sense of isolation and constriction. he moved to Vienna for good to study and to make his livelihood as pianist. but a powerful factor in his distrust of people and prickly self-reliance was the deafness which began to afflict him before the age of 30. he enjoyed the company of numerous noble families (to whom the bulk of his music is dedicated) and frustratedly fell in love with several young ladies far above him in station. had been in the service of the Elector of Cologne — his grandfather as kapellmeister. Bohm of Beethoven out walking. the gambolling of D. conspicuously lacking in the social graces. in whose hearts his stirring. teacher and comcrats. court organist. but his vitality and genius won him many ill-favoured. He was a poor manager. often impelled him to Missa Solemnis. His brilliance at keyboard improvisation attracted the attention of various aristo- who helped him in his struggles to maintain his younger brothers and drunken father (who had been dismissed). making his living as a freelance. 23 . and an ardent egalitarian. poser. ]. and subsequently viola- player in the opera orchestra. yet only a generous annuity from three noble patrons stopped him accepting the post of court kapellmeister to the French puppet kingdom in Westphalia. after his worthless father had attempted to exploit him as a child prodigy. devoted friends. chorus sopranos Right: An in the impress \n by . and epitomised the new age of liberal idealism after the French Revolution — and of the musical public. aggressively self-assured and proud. in 1792.VAN BEETHOVEN LUDWIG Bonn 1770. his father as a posers — tenor singer and it was therefore natural that. subjective. and detested Napoleon for betraying republican principles and accepting the crown as Emperor (which caused him to slash out the original dedication to Napoleon of the Eroica Symphony). but by 1819 he was totally deaf and could communicate with others only through a notepad. that this was incurable. He was quick-tempered. allied to his natural impatience and rebel- make demands on voices and instruments then (and sometimes even now) considered excessive — the high tessitura of the liousness against curbs. Beethoven's towering stature has always claimed the allegiance both of musicians — who have recognised in him a creative spirit of genius who vastly expanded the form. He rebelled against the old system of patronage. What is truly remarkable is that his greatest masterpieces all come from this period. blunt. and had to give up all thoughts of performing. which was of Flemish origin.

Centre: The Vienna memorial to Beethoven. friend of aristocrats but an ardent republican at heart. . showing the last pianoforte which belonged to him. Some of the many eartrumpets with which Beethoven vainly attempted to cope with Right: his total deafness.LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Top right: The interior of the Beethoven house in Bonn.

PIANO SONATA NO. 17 IN D MDMOR. 28 2530 253 (11/72) DG* Q Ashkenazy/Pathefique. Les Adieux SXL6706 (5/75) Decca 6921 London Brendel/Sonatas IS & 19 9500 077 (12/76) Phonogram. ZRG739 (5/74) Decca Argo. and the choral finale of the Ninth Symphony is a setting of Schiller's "Ode to Joy". Philh. is a of struggle against tyranny. SO and G MAJOR D Kempff/Berlin 6747 104 (10/75) Phonogram. OP. a theme associated with the heroic Prometheus in an early ballet of his reappears in a set of piano variations and again for the finale of the Eroica Symphony. 53 (WALDSTEIN) DGilels/ Sonata No. C FOR VIOLIN. 26 SXL6711 (11/75) Decca 6855 London Arrau/Concertgebouw/Haitink 6580 078 (6/76) Phonogram* A. Oistrakh the experience of his great predecessors whom Bishop-Kovacevich. jagged and desperately striving sonorities of the the Crosse Fuge for string quartet. OP. VPO/ 2707 080 (6/75) DG* lanowitz. Beethoven wrestled not only with concepts which lay far Price. (with 6500 315 (1/73) Phonogram Ashkenazy/Chicago SO/Solti/Son. SB6537 (6/63) RCA LSC-2654 RCA 25 . OP. 29 6580 104 (11/75) Phonogram 6833 145 Philips MDMOR. In some of their slow movements. but with his actual material: he was a slow worker. his only opera which underwent many vicissitudes is a broadside aginst political oppres- — — and sion. Altmeyer. Bishop-Kovacevich 6500 930 (1/76) Phonogram CONCERTO IN D FOR VIOLIN AND (3/71) EMI/HMV S-353 Vanguard D D. Keyte. 3 PIANO CONCERTO NO. Richter. Oistrakh/VSO/D. and significant. 6 2530 406 (5/74) DG* D Arrau/ Pathetique. Berlin PO/Karajan ASD2582 [9/70] EMI/HMV S-36727 Angel EROICA VARIATIONS D Curzon/ Schubert SXL6523 (1/72) Decca 6727 London D Brendel TV342S1DS (3/71) Decca Turnabout FIDELIO D Cpte. Tear. the A minor string quartet and the Op. NP Chorus. Berry/ Vienna Singverein/Berlin PO/Karajan 2726 048 (11/76) DG 2707 030 DG ORCHESTRA D Suk/NPO/Boult ASD2667 hymn DM. Talvela. Ludwig./ (Cpte. Hoffgen. Baker. College/ ASMF/Guest SLS922 (7/66) S-3679 Angel HMV St. he attained a transcendental tranquillity which lies at the bounds of human experience. Ludwig. emerged as something D SXLG6594-7 (9/73) Decca 2404 London D 6580 115 (2/76) Phonogram I. to which he wrote incidental music. 18 6500 392 (3/74) Phonogram. NP Chorus. it also made possible the metaphysical depths of his so-called "third period" late works. 2 SDD228 PO/Leitner DG (4/70) Decca Ace of Diamonds R. OP. PO/Leitner DG D 13 (PATHETIQUE) Rubinstein/Moonlight and Les Adieux Sons. The social idealism which informs much of his music is evident from his choice of subjects. PIANO SONATA NO. and his habit was to jot down ideas in sketchbooks he always carried with him. 23 DM F 57 (APPASSIONATA) DGilels/Sonata No./Kertesz CFP155 (12/73) Classics for Pleasure Katchen/LSO/Gamba/Chora/ D Ashkenazy. PIANO SONATA NO. DSerkin/ParJietique. 14 DM C SHARP MDMOR. 2 IN B FLAT D Curzon/VPO/Knappertsbuch SPA334 (7/74) Decca MAJOR D Lill/Scottish National/Gibson Kemptf/Berlin PO/Leitner/Conc. O Ashkenazy/Chicago D Krebbers/Concertgebouw/Haitink CONCERTO Haydn > he had as a youth taken some abortive lessons) and Mozart >. John's Fantasia 138776 (7/02) MINOR. Moonlight 6599 308 (5/74) Phonogram. Ochman.36775 Angel D Palmer. Appassionata 6599 308 (5/74) Phonogram.chter-Hasser/Philh. Hallstein. 21 DM C. Vienna State Opera Chorus. NPO/Klemperer MINOR D Kempff/Berlin Oistrakh. Talvela. BAGATELLES D 1-24. 8 IN C PIANO CONCERTO NO. 2 No. Rostropovich. Vickers. MISSA SOLEMNIS Chicago SO/Solti/ Leonore Overture No.the double-basses in the scherzo of the Fifth Symphony. Unger. such as those of the Ninth Symphony. Appassionata HQS1076 13/67) EMI/HMV Q Arrau/ Pathetique. OP. 27 NO. Ludwig. in C. 6854 London PIANO SONATA NO.) Oistrakh. OP. Les Adieux SXL6706 (5/75) Decca D Brendel/ Op. a celebration of Brendel TV34077S (2/67) Decca Turnabout. Crass. which seemed incomprehensible to most of his contemporaries. 3 SB6633 (6/66) RCA LSC 2812 RCA D Ashkenazy/Sonata No. Rintzler. and freedom. to mull them over in his mind. Wunderlich. PIANO QUINTET DM E FLAT. LSO/Davis AND ORCHESTRA Beaux Arts Trio/LPO/Haitink 9500 382 (4/78) Phonogram O D. 4 CFP40087 (10/74) Classics for Pleasure 138775 (9/62) DG Katchen/LSO/Gamba/Conc. SO/Solti RCA Gold (10/76) IN CELLO. Op. Orch. Pathetique Son. D Serkin/Moon/ig)if and Appassionata Sons. SXL665S (5/75) Decca 6500 975 (2/7o) Phonogram 6857 London D Ashkenazy/Chicago SO/Solti/Son. and constantly to reshape and polish them until the original thought. Kmentt. 2 (TEMPEST) D Bishop-Kovacevich/Sonata No. Chorus. 4 D Arrau/Concertgebouw/Haitink 6580 094 (12/74) Phonogram SDD228 (4/70) Decca Ace of Diamonds 6570 086 PhiUps Festivo STS-15212 London Bishop-Kovacevich/BBC SO/Davis/ D Ashkenazy/Chicago SO/Solti/Egmont Ov. 7 SXL6603 (10/73) Decca 6821 London PIANO SONATA NO. of man. 31 NO. NPO/Giulini ASD2661 (6/71) EMI/HMV S. which centre on the theme of liberty: Fidelio. D 1-24. OP. MAJOR D Kempff/Berlin 138774 (6/62) 1 IN C PO/Leitner/Conc. courageous wifely devotion. 2 SXLP30086 (10/67) EMI/HMV D Katchen/LSO/Gamba/Conc. 3 STS-15211 London SXL6654 (5/75) Decca SDD227 (4/70) Decca Ace of Diamonds 6856 London Ashkenazy/Chicago SO/Solti/ Sonata 8 D Pollini/VPO/Bohm 2530 791 (3/77) DG* SXL6651 (2/76) Decca PIANO CONCERTO NO. Frick./Klemperer SLS5006 (5/75) S-3625 Angel HMV MASS DM C D Ameling. Moonlight 72148 (2/64) CBS MDMOR. Watts. 110 6500 762 (11/75) Phonogram PIANO SONATA NO. often naive or banal. Brendel/LPO/Haitink 6767 002 (11/77) Phonogram* 138775 (9/62) DG DGilels/Philharmonia/Ludwig/Mozart: Vbl. Ill piano sonata. Philh. Berry. MS-6481 Columbia Rubinstein/Son. 3 DM C D Soderstrom. 5 DM E FLAT 6853 London MAJOR ('EMPEROR') Arrau/Concertgebouw/Haitink/ Sonata 6 D Kempff/Berlin PO/Leitner 138777 (5/02) DG 6580 122 (4/76) Phonogram PIANO CONCERTO NO./Cluytens GL25005 beyond Bohm PIANO CONCERTOS SXLP30168 (11/74) EMI/HMV D Grumiaux/ Concertgebouw/Davis 6500 775 (3/751 Phonogram* D to the brotherhood. 24 in F# 78 Arrau/Sonara No. 16 21 D Panhoffer/Vienna Octet SXL6652 (1/76) Decca SDD256 (10/70) Decca Ace of Diamond. a drama 72148(2/64) CBS MS-6481 Columbia Arrau/Moonlight. Appassionata 6599 308 (5/74) Phonogram* Ashkenazy/ Waldstein. PIANO Seal Bishop-Kovacevich/BBC striking BBC SO/Davis/ D D Fricsay/Mozart: Rondos Heliodor 4 DM 2548 238 (8/76) DG PIANO CONCERTO NO. Cone. the Olympian thunder of the Appassionata and Hammerklavier piano sonatas are examples. Fischer/Bavarian State Orch. Goethe's Egmont. 2 (MOONLIGHT) D Barenboim/ PafhetiqHt?.

26 IN E FLAT. OP. OP. 31 IN A FLAT. Ill Cone. 95 D Hungarian Quartet/Op. OP. his 16 string quartets and 32 piano sonatas. 3 IN C. Panenka/ Variations cello and piano MS1091-3 (1/73) Supraphon 110 6500 764 (6/75) Phonogram* PIANO TRIO NO. Ill 138 845 (3/68) DG Ashkenazy/Sonata No. his concertos (five for piano. 2 HQS1160 (8/68) EMI/HMV DQuartetto Italiano/Op. 131. OP. which shows the composer's delight in nature and includes a programmatic element. 59 NO. 18 NO. OP. 110 D Bishop. 18 NO. one — arguably the greatest in violin literature). Waldstein SXL6706 (5/75) 6500 764 (6/75) Phonogram* Brendel EMI/HMV (6/67) D Brendel/Piano PIANO SONATA NO. 59 NO. HQS1088 49 No. OP. 21 2530 253 (11/72) DG. 3 (5/68) Decca Turnabout Ashkenazy/Pathetique. 95 1- Vegh Quartet EX6 35041 (8/76) Selecta/Telefunken* STRING QUARTET IN F.) Ill Barenboim/Op. 59 NOS. 32 SXL6630 (8/74) Decca 6843 London D Arrau/Sonata from dark drama to blazing triumph. GROSSE FUGE D Vegh 130. 3 DQuartetto Italiano/Op. Op. 29 138 944 (3/68) DG Pollini/Sonata No. 74 SDD309 (1/72) Decca Ace of Diamonds STRING QUARTETS. 24 6580 104 (11/75) Phonogram 6833 145 Philips PIANO SONATA NO. 32 IN C C HQS1286 (2/73) EMI/HMV SONATAS FOR CELLO AND PIANO MINOR. 106 (HAMMERKLAVIER) a Brendel/ Sonata. 97 (ARCHDUKE) D Szeryng. (Cpte. Quartet FK6 35040 (10/74) Selecta/Telefunken. 25-26 2530 589 (12/75) DG* D Brendei/Sonatas 6 & 30 9500 076 (11/76) Phonogram* PIANO SONATA NO. 6. 74 HQS1161 (8/68) EMI/HMV STRING QUARTET IN E FLAT. 79 DG* PIANO SONATA NO. poetic lyricism (as in the slow movement of the Violin Concerto) and noble aspiration. OP. one of the world's loftiest works of art.LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN His nine symphonies. 131 and 132 quartets. OP. 3 6500 181 (2/73) Phonogram Gabrieli Quartet/Op. and the mighty No. 18 No. 18 NO. OP. Kempff 2530 147 (4/72) DG* for STRING QUARTETS DCpte. through the masterly mid-period "Rasumovsky" quartets and the "Archduke" piano trio (each named for its dedicatee).2I 6500 762 (11/75) Phonogram Pollini/Sonata No. 1 SDD478 (4/76) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15398 London STRING QUARTET IN D. Beethoven remains one his individual (as in his scherzos. No. 59. 2 6500 181 (2/73) Phonogram STRING QUARTET IN C MINOR. 132. D Hungarian Quartet/Op. No. 30 2530 645 (5/76) DG* PIANO SONATA NO. EMI/HMV Kempff/Op. 29 IN B FLAT. OP. OP. OP. IS No. 18 No. 25. 2 6500 646 (6/76) Phonogram STRING QUARTETS. 81a (LES ADIEUX) D Barenboim/Op. 3. No. OP. 30 IN E. 95 6500 180 (10/72) Phonogram D Weller Quartet/Op. a of the giants of music. 4 DQuartetto Italiano/Op. OP. Bishop-Kovacevich/ Op. SEPTET IN E FLAT. STRING QUARTET IN E FLAT. 110 Kempff/ Op. 25 IN D Gilels/Sonatas Nos. HQS1088 16/67) 1. OP. 74 DQuartetto Italiano/Op. 90 IN E Gilels/Sonatas Nos. 59 No. 18 No. 135. boisterous humour form he made very much his own). 95 SDD309 (1/72) Decca Ace of Diamonds STRING QUARTET IN F MINOR. 18 NO. 2 DQuartetto Italiano/Op. 3. Hungarian Quartet SLS857 (9/73) HMV D Amadeus Quartet 2733 002 (11/74) DG SXL6630 (8/74) Decca 6843 London of Dii STS-15361 London D Melos STRING QUARTETS. OP. Of the symphonies the most popular are No. 9. 5. 335 SAL3703 (4/69) Phonogram 26 . The chamber music ranges from the relaxed directness of the early Rondino for wind and the Septet. 18 No. OP. 2 SDD478 (4/76) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15398 London STRING QUARTET IN G. Op. OP. 31 2530 645 (5/76) DG* Brendel/Sonalas 6 & 27 9500 076 (11/76) Phonogram* PIANO SONATA NO. OP. 1 DQuartetto Italiano/Op. 27 2530 589 (12/75) DG* PIANO SONATA NO. With combination of heroism. 127. 78 Decca Gilels/Sonatas Nos. 74 6500 180 (10/72) Phonogram* D Weller Quartet/Op. the Pastoral. TV34112DS (1/70) Decca Turnabout 34392 Turnabout No. 27 MINOR. 2 D Hungarian HQS1160 Quartet (8/68) EMI/HMV STRING QUARTET NO. OP. SDD200 (8/69) Decca Ace Ens/Duo in DChuchro. although he insisted that it was "more the expression of feeling than depiction". OP. Fournier. Les Adi. OP. 110 138 945 (3/68) DG BrendelMppassionata 6500 138 (6/71) Phonogram* D Ashkenazy/Op. 127 DQuartetto Italiano/Op. the large-scale the Eroica.Kovacevich/Op. 28 IN A. and his ten sonatas for violin and five for cello form the core of their respective repertoires and are constantly being recorded.101 Gilels/Sonata No. 1 D Hungarian HQS1159 Quartet (8/68) EMI/HMV STRING QUARTET IN E MINOR. which progresses for violin PIANO SONATA NO. OP. 18 No. 49 No. to the profundities of the Op. TV34207S 1. 20 Vienna Octet 18 Privilege DJuilliard Quartet 77362 (12/76) CBS STRING QUARTET IN F. 109 D Kempff/Sonata No. 6 IN B FLAT OP. Ill 6500 764 (6/75) Phonogram Brendel/Sonata No. 4 6500 646 (6/76) Phonogram D Gabrieli Quartet/Op. already mentioned. 74. OP. 26-27 2530 589 (12/75) G.

PO/Maazel 2548 205 (11/75) DG Heliodor Right: Beethoven and short was swarthy in stature. Berlin PO/Cluytens 2531 003 (4/77) DG D VPO/Schmidt-Isserstedt Berlin Ov olan St. Guthrie. Op. 2 IN D Berlin PO/Karajan SXL6764 (6/76) Decca DVPO/Kleiber 1 IN C PO/Karajan/Sym. 135 (9/68) STRING QUARTET IN D Quartetto SAL3703 Italiano/Op. OP.. 7 3. Bavarian RSO/Jochum/Fide/io Ol>. 131 COLIN QMS R™. fax fa^"* . 5 Philh/Klemperer/Ouertures. van Dam.STRING QUARTET IN B FLAT. Chor. Meyer. NYPO/Bernstein 61902 (11/771 CBS D Concertgebouw/Jochum DVPO/C. 5 IN F.THREE VARIATIONS WALTZ OF DIABELLI SYMPHONY NO. O Sutherland. Talvela. Ashkenazy P Berlin PO/Karajan SYMPHONY NO. DG* 2530 437 (9/74) Chorus. Hedwig's Cath. OP. SLS788 (5/70) HMV SH-3619 Angel Chicago SO/Solti 11BB188-96 (9/75) Decca CS-P9 London SXLP20038 Berlin Gewandhaus/Masur 6747 135 (9/75) Phonogram D Berlin PO/Karajan 2740 172 (10/77) DG* SYMPHONIES NOS. OVERTURES D Philh/Klemperer D AND 1-9 SYMPHONY NO. 1-9 D VPO/Bohm Berlin D Berlin DG DG PO/Jochum/Sym. 2531 001 (4/77) 3300 456 DG Berlin 1 DG (5/72) Classics for Pleasure 1 6500 113 (5/72) Phonogram* AND SYMPHONIES NOS. 8 CFP40007 (12/72) Classics for Pie. Vienna Singverein.J H. 5 JB5 (9/77) Decca Jubilee D Berlin PO/Jochum/Sym. Baltsa. 2 PO/Karajan/Sym. 2548 255 (1/77) DG Heliodor 6 IN F (PASTORAL) VIOLIN SONATA NO. Chicago SO/Solti 6BB121-2 (11/72) Decca D Lorengar. Schreier. (KREUTZER) 9 IN A. 3 FLAT IN E (EROICA) D Berlin JB6 (1/78) Decca D BPO/Cluytens DG* 8 IN F PO/Karajan/Sym 2707 109 (3/77) DG D VPO/Abbado/Schubert SXL6418 (1/73) Decca PO/Cluytens/Syn CFP40007 (12/72) Classi D Berlin D VPO/Schmidt-Isserstedt/Sym. SLS873 (5/74) PO/Cluytens CFP40018 (3/73) Clas SYMPHONY NO. CFP40019 (8/72) Classics for Pleasure D VPO/Bohm King. SRO/Ansermet SPA328 (3/75) Decca THIRTY. Choir. 1-10 D92 D5 (3/78) Decca VIOLIN SONATA NO. 1 DG Heliodor 9 IN D MINOR (CHORAL) QTomova-Sintov. 8 DG Privilege ASMF/Marriner/Sym. Grosse Fuge HMV SYMPHONY NO.ilharmnr On. 5 ON A D Brendel VIOLIN of the House JB7 (1/78) Decca Jubilee CFP40001 (12/72) Van Mill. VPO/Schmidt-Isserstedt JB1 (9/77) Decca Jubilee Brouwenstein. 130 D Quartetto SAL3780 BEETHCVEN Italiano/Grosse Fuge Symphony Ni7 Phonogram (4/70) STRING QUARTET IN C SHARP MINOR. Gedda. Talvela. OP. 6580 137 (11/76) Phonogram 6570 088 Philips Festivo 2531 005 (4/78) (8/73) Classics for Pleasure S-60079 Seraphim Sutherland. OP. 4 IN B FLAT DVPO/Schmidt-Isserstedt/Consecrafio 2531 004 (4/78) DG Berlin PO/Cluytens/Ouerfures Classics for Pie IN C MINOR SAL3676 (1/69) Phonogram SONATAS NOS. St. Berlin PO/Karajan 2707 109 (3/77) DG Minton. 8 2548 224 (4/76) DG Heliodor SYMPHONY NO. 2531 001 (4/77) (6/62) S-37027 Angel D Leipzig 2740 115 (11/72) 7 IN DRPO/Davis DG* D Berlin PO/Cluytens/Sym.tT0 Quartetto Italiano SAL3790 Phonogram (4/70) STRING QUARTET IN A MINOR. V. 2530 706 (0/76) SYMPHONY NO. CFP193 D Berlin Berlin 6500 113 (5/72) Phonogram* D Bavarian RSO/Jochum/Sym. Procter. Bonaparte of the 'Eroica '.te. 127 Phonogram (4/69) SYMPHONIES NOS. PO/Karajan CFP203 cs for PI SO/Solti/Co 2548 224 (4/76) D ASMF/Marriner/Sym. No. Home. Burrows. Dermota. 24 (SPRING) DGrumiaux/Arrau/Sonata 1 9500 055 (5/76) Phonogram D Perlman/ Ashkenazy/Sonata PO/Karajan DG 4 SXL6736 (7/76) Decca 2501 London Kleiber 2530 516 (6/75) TV34139S (7/68) Decca Turnabout* Bishop-Kovacevich Perlman. 2 2538 074 (12/71) A EMI/HMV 2531 007 (4/78) DG VPO/Schmidt-Isserstedt/Leon JB4 (9/77) Decca Jubilee D Chicago SYMPHONY NO. 47 D Perlman/Ashkenazy/Sonara 2 SXL6632 (2/75) Decca 6845 London SYMPHONY NO. 132 D Quartetto SAL3638 Italiano Phonogram F. PO/Cluytens/Egmont On. OP. D VPO/Bohm 2530 142 (2/72) DG D NPO/Giulini ASD2535 (3/70) EMI/HMV S-36684 Angel Berlin Above right: Beethoven oblit- erated the dedication to PO/Cluytens CFP40017 (2/73) Classics Berlin for Pie. OP.

star call for. uncomplicated. his operas (he wrote little else) are by no means always languishing or devoid of drama. a quasi-historical opera. Yet in his one decade of production. H Bdlini D Pint* ortsemlCabalkBtniibi tin KaaeniRj dmaodi PtaroCappoedlll 7"t^ • *S>4to'~*V^L it *r* *Vi ^fc ~£fNE*l &\*^ ^x*^C_>5^ m CONCERTINO FOR OBOE STRINGS IN E FLAT AND Lord/ASMF/Marriner/Concerr SOL277 (4/65) L'Oiseau-Lyre Holliger. Monti. Raimo Rome RO/Gavazzeni SLS953 (9/71) HMV S-3772 Angel LA SONNAMBULA D Sutherland. for Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor of like his rival same the year. Donizetti 139152 (11/66) DG* NORMA Caballe. Paris 1835) Bellini's gentle. but behind them lies a Mozartian purity. the latter more weighty. An Italian nobleman paid for him to study at the Naples Conservatory. encountered on records than in the theatre. In particular his very high tenor parts. BELLINI Catania 1801. singers has economics being what they are. and while there he had the good fortune that his first opera. the former a sentimental. In 1831 his two masterpieces were both produced in Milan — La Sonnambula and Norma. Cossotto. The unrivalled opportunities works and offer meant that. but Bellini's orchestration has some deft touches. which were written for Rubini. manager of several opera-houses. Corena/Maggi< Musicals orentino/Bonynge SET239-41 (2/63) Decca A^ 1365 London Left: the Vincenzo Bellini. Ambrosian Op Chorus/LPO/Cillario SER5658-60 (11/75) RCA LSC-6202 RCA PIRATA D Caballe. . IL Cappuccilli. exquisitely lyrical music young Sicilian's nature. including the great San Carlo in Naples and La Scala in Milan. four or five of his ten operas became famous throughout Europe and were welcomed as x^ehicles by the greatest singers of the period. and when this made a good impression he was invited to write // Pirata for Milan: with its graceful and uncluttered writing for the voice (a reaction against over-florid the then style proved a great success and quickly made its way to other European cities. and certainly did not possess their rapidity and fluency of composition. The young composer was offered a commission for a work for Naples. nor is his was the exact counterpart of this sensitive as conventional as is sometimes imagined. they are more frequently fact that Bellini's to. nr. Domingo. and they were admired by Chopin > and of all unlikely people — harmony always — Wagner >. d. Though he lacked the ebullience and sparkle of his slightly older contemporaries Rossini > and Donizetti 3>. His melodies have a sensuously romantic cast. performed by fellow-students. Bamberg SO/Maag/ Salter Cimarosa.VINCENZO (b. contains a "mad scene" for the heroine). Marti. one of many composers whose developing careers were tragically and prematurely cut short. and the work's more extended scope suggests a development which was unfortunately nipped in the bud when he died at 33. Raimohdi. was heard by the very influential Barbaia. combining pathos with grandeur. On Rossini's recommendation he was prevailing) it invited to compose Paris: burdened by a poor libretto (which. idyllic showpiece for a lyric soprano. present a formidable challenge today. it is / Puritani.

then there was a long period of gestation until the completion in 1921 of Wozzeck. The works of the next few years — the String Quartet. Driscoll. Wunderlich. under the compulsion of a vivid sense of tragedy at the untimely death of an 18-year-old girl — the basic "row" contains consonant tonal elements which make possible the introduction of a Carinthian folksong and. make music. which reconciles dodecaphony with traditional tonality. 60 50804 (8/68) Reditfusion/Supraphon Menuhin/BBC SO/Boulez/Bnrtolc: Rhapsodies Lear.ALB AN BERG lb. Unpromising as all this may seem. reflected in its Its expressionist style interlude in the last act is firmly in D minor). almost which reveal his sensitivity to literary Schoenberg and enthusiastically following his comprehensively thorough and strict tuition for six years. and the Lyric suite for string quartet — both illustrating. Kohn/Berlin Alban Berg Qt/String Quartet Op/Bohm AS6 41301 2707 023 (12/65) STRING EMI/HMV WOZZECK 112/74) Selecta/TelefunkenQUARTET. basing a work on a "tone-row" of "twelve notes related only to each other". found expression for the first time only in 1923. one of the outstanding landmarks in neurotic. before meeting psychopathic subject is aptly and atonal idiom (it should be remembered that Schoenberg's theories of dodecaphony. and so on. After it he turned again to chamber music: the Chamber concerto for piano. Dicks. there 1935) most approachable. as had the orchestration of Wozzeck. A strong vein of romanticism is conspicuous almost throughout his music. d. OP. it the ideal work from which to approach Berg's . but it then caused a furore and made the composer world-famous. and it is this humanity which makes it more accessible to the ordinary listener. in fact is imbued with a deep compassion for the wretched and an imaginative lyric intensity which never fugue. which were influenced by Mahler >. QUARTET Melchert. 3 DG* n Alban AS6 Berg Qt/Lyric Suite 41301 12/74) Selecta/Telefunken1 Right: Alban Berg. songs quality. Fischer-Dieskau/Berhn 2709 029 (7/68) DG* Op/Bohm LYRIC SUITE FOR STRING ASD2449 (3/69) Lear. to overwhelming emotional effect. a Bach chorale. and far less austere than those of his fellowpupil Webern. so that Wozzeck is not a 12-tone work but freely atonal —although the powerful orchestral twentieth-century opera. and the Piano Sonata. the Altenberg songs and the Three Orchestral Pieces — reveal an increasingly dramatic content. The sheer beauty and rapt sense of poetry of this concerto. and structurally each of its fifteen scenes is cast in a definite formal mould — scherzo. VIOLIN Straus/Prague CE/Pesek/ Stravinsky: Symphonies of Wind 50679 (10/67) Reditfusion/Supraphon LULU CONCERTO O Suk/Czech PO/Ancerl/Bucli: Cantata No. mostly of broodingly melancholy mood. unusually for him. and possibly the most likely to endure. rondo. of all the music written by the pupils of Schoenberg > or even by their revered master himself Berg's (to is certainly the whom boy from Berg dedicated three of his best works). Fischer-Dieskau. His procedures however were less rigid and abstract than Schoenberg's. the 1935 Violin Concerto — written. very rapidly. his remarkable ear for sonorities. fantasia and CHAMBER CONCERTO D Kozina. violin and 13 wind instruments. Berg had to wait four years for Wozzeck to be produced on the stage (Berlin 1925). It utilises Schoenberg's Sprechstimme (speech-song) techniques. Johnson. and it was in part of the latter that for the first time he used the 12tone technique to which he was then always to adhere. Vienna 1885. As a a cultivated Viennese family he had already written a large quantity of highly emotional. the opera fail to move listeners. Stolze. He discarded his youthful efforts and acknowledged as his first mature compositions the Seven early songs. in his supreme masterpiece.

Gedda. McDonald/LPO/Del Mar/ PARTITA./Davis SOL60032-3 (7/61) L'Oiseau-Lyre (11/77) EMI/HMV Angel LES NUITS D'ETE-SONC CYCLE D Baker. which he speaks like a native.ROYAL HUNT AND STORM GRANDE MESSE DES MORTS QCBSO/Fremaux ASD3080 (8/75) EMI/HMV (Requiem) OVERTURES. Religious texts have called forth his deepest responses. SINFONIA CONCERT ANTE (Exc) LPO/Berkeley Symphony No. on the recommendation of Ravel >. First Symphony and Divertimento for chamber orchestra: these were followed by such chamber works as the Violin Sonatina. D Veasey.36123 Singers/LSO/Davis SOL256-7 HAROLD IN ITALY. LES DDowd. if the term "Gallic" is taken as short- hand for those qualities of lucidity. 18 DMenuhin/Philh. at Oxford. (10/74) Decca Argo SONATINA FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO D Bean. 1 SRCS80 (11/75) Lyrita 4017 HNH SRCS74 4 (0/75) Lyrita RONSARD SONNETS O Pears/London Below: Sir A recent picture of Lennox Berkeley. English festival choral tradition. to whose memory he later dedicated his Ronsard sonnets). Watts. Orch. Viola Sonata and Piano Sonata (he has always written graceful and polished music for this instrument. ROMAN CARNIVAL.37413 Garden Chorus & Orch/Davis 6707 019 (3/73) Phonogram LA DAMNATION DE FAUST Gedda. WAVERLEY. Goldsbrough Orch.LENNOX BERKELEY (b. Massard./ Eda-Pierre. BENVENUTO CELLINI. LENNOX BERKELEY (8/63) Angel Mclnnes/French Nat. Soyer. Oxford 1903) facile description of Berkeley's music as "Gallic" which has dogged him throughout his career has blinded many and prevented them seeing the serious core beneath The the elegant. Choir. L'ENFANCE DU CHRIST- ORATORIO D Pears. began his musical studies in Paris under Nadia Boulanger. Lutoslawski HEAD3 (5/74) Decca Headline SEXTET FOR CLARINET. Yet he is of partly French descent and studied the language. restraint and refinement which characterise the finest French composers. Bastin. Davis HMV FRANCS-JUGES. CONCERTO FOR 2 PIANOS AND ORCHESTRA Beckett. Mitchinson. Sinfonietta/Berkeley/ Bedford. Bush ZRG749 (10/74) Decca SYMPHONY NO. A. SERENADE FOR STRINGS. SIR ASD537 S. He was knighted in 1974. Ambrosian Wandsworth School Boys' LSO/Davis 6703 042 (1/74) Phonogram. fastidious surface. but his songs attain distinction. Bastin/Covent Singers. HAMLETFUNERAL MARCH. LES TROYENS. gave his work an initial slant which set it apart from that of most of his English contemporaries.OVERTURE. the later largescale Magnificat represents a rapprochement with the Above: Berlioz at the age of 57 (from an early photograph). The fact that Berkeley. Cuenod. the description is apt enough. LE CORSA1RE D LSO/Davis SAL3573 [10/66] 835367 Philips Thcnogram . Wandsworth School Boys' Choir. Fleet. Berkeley has been particularly prolific in the music field. absorbing from her a Stravinsky-flavoured piquancy (akin to that of Poulenc >. St. and the mystical Four poems of St Teresa of Avila and the finely-moulded Stabat Mater for six solo voices and 12 instruments are outstanding in this regard. OP. LSO and Chorus/Davis 6700 019 (9/70) Phonogram* DTear/CBSO and Chorus/Fremaux SLS982 (9/75) S-3814 Angel 30 EMI/HMV Bernstein Herincx. his operas have not held the stage. to chamber which he has made valuable contributions. NPO/Barbirolli/Raue/: Scheherazade ASD2444 [2/69) EMI/HMV S-36505 Angel ORCHESTRAL WORKS: ROMAN CARNIVAL OVERTURE. including two concertos and one for two pianos). Veasey. STRING QUARTET Music Group ZRG749 ot HORN AND London/Sonntmn. Rouleau Cameron. Anthony Singers. DAMNATION DE FAUST. He first attracted attention in the early 1940s with his transparent-textured Serenade for strings. ***Mt Frost. String Trio. Argo 1 LPO/Del Mar/Concerto SRCS80 (11/75) Decca Argo BEATRICE ET BENEDICT Cantelo.ORCHESTRAL PIECES. Cameron. LE ROI LEAR. with a sympathetic feeling for the voice and great sensibility towards the poetic stimuli. DIVERTIMENTO IN B FLAT. Parkhouse/Seitet./C. Shirley-Quirk/St Anthony (2/63) L'Oiseau-Lyre* BENVENUTO CELLINI ASD3389 S. Apart from the witty one-act farce A dinner engagement.

Les Troyens. Vickers. RO/Martinon GL25012 Tear. using to that device of an idee fixe. but effective. LSO/Previn ASD3212 S. and he eagerly identified himself with the picturesque Byronic central of the quasi viola concerto Harold in Italy commissioned by Paganini > and with the brooding Faust figure of his frenetic half-cantata. takes five hours to perform giving anti-Berliozians (conveniently forgetting the case of Wagner ^) an excuse for not attempting it. and the song-cycle Les Nuits d'ete shows him at his most exquisitely poetic. of which nearly all work can furnish examples of startling originality and beauty. Thau. BEATRICE ET BENEDICT. GIossop Bainbridge. las 31 . the whole oratorio L'Enfance du Christ is of a delicacy and transparency which led to the accusation that he had changed his style ("No". D Sydney D French LSO/Davis 6700 032 112/68) Phonogram ASD3263 (12/70) EMI/HMV SAL3788 S-36038 Angel O French Nat. Wandsworth School Choir. on whom he repeatedly drew (the opera Beatrice and Benedict. LE CORSAIRE. 14 D Tagliavini. said the King of Prussia amiably. /Bernstein ASD3397 (11/77) EMI/HMV D Concertgebouw/Davis 6500 774 (3/751 Phonogram- D Berlin PO/Karajan 2530 597 (3/76) DG- EMI/HMV (3/70) Mar. But all these were conceived for public ceremonies on a grand scale. "only the subject has changed"). On the strength of a handful of works. Yet side by Damnation de side with his desire for sensationalism was a passionate love of classicism in its broadest sense— the music of Gluck > and the works of Shakespeare. he seriously set out to shoot another girl who had jilted him. including eight sets of timpani.37170 (6/76) EMI/HMV Angel ROMEO AND JULIET SYMPHONY DKem. the Symphonie funebre et triomphale for massed military bands. He wrote a Traite d'instrumentation which is a classic textbook on the subject. Two contradictions lie at the heart of this eccentric and flamboyant personality (who not altogether surprisingly struck the genteel and correct Mendelssohn > as a talentless poseur). "I sometimes write for only 450". inspired by his love of Virgil and of Shakespeare. harmony and his often curiously loose structure — and had little instrumental talent (he could play only the guitar and the flute). He was the archetypal Romantic selfdramatising artist: the Symphonie fantastique was an attempt publicly to pillory a Shakespearian actress who had rejected his love (but with whom he was later to contract a disastrous marriage). 1 S-37138 Angel 839716/7 Philips Orch. Davis/Covent Garden Opera Choru & Orch. a revolutionary work in which for the first time a composer's fantasised private life was translated "They tell end the structural into orchestral terms. Lelio. his greatest opera. OP./Davis 6709 002 (5/70) Phonogram* Above: Berlioz conducting seen by Gustave Dore).HECTOR BERLIOZ lb. La Cote-St Andr. Phonogram 802913 Philips TEDEUM 6580 052 (1/73) Phonogram LSO/Boulez 72704 (2/69) CBS M-30587 Columbia 10/76) SYMPHONIE FUNEBRE ET TRIOMPHALE D LSO/Davis/Hnmlet Funeral a LSO/Davis SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE. the Te Deum for a triple chorus with orchestra. he was also a trenchant and witty music critic whose Memoirs and Evenings in the orchestra make compulsive reading. yet he had an unparallelled genius for orchestration. Shirley-Quirk. Paris 1869) me". the image of the composer who wrote monumentally for extravagant forces lives on: his Requiem calls for four brass bands besides a colossal orchestra. He had received a somewhat sketchy musical education — which helps to account for his unorthodox. half-opera La Faust. he often scored with restraint. Howells. Alldis Choir. Undeniably his leanings were towards the grandiose: his Symphonie fantastique. chorus and orchestra. quipped Berlioz. the last-named for open-air performance. was given a long and barely coherent sequel. the Romeo and Juliet "dramatic symphony". Grenoble. LES FRANCS-JUGES Above: Theme from Harold Berlioz's in Italy. sections only D Chicago SO/Giulini ASD2606 SO/Otterloo (10/76) RCA Gold Seal Nat. and a large chorus. BENVENUTO CELLINI. LSO and Chorus/Davis SAL3724 (7/69) 839790 Philips I ys Phonogram LES TROYENS DVeasey. d. "that you are the composer who writes for 500 musicians". "Your Majesty has been misinformed". On the other — hand. Orch. the King Lear overture and La mort d'Ophelie for voice and orchestra). Soyer. and though Berlioz could build up apocalyptic climaxes (for example in the Tuba minim and judex crederis of the Requiem). retorted Berlioz. Lindholm. for narrator. his «-> OVERTURES: LE CARNAVAL ROMAIN. 1803.

His rhythmic vivacity and orchestral virtuosity are even more to the fore in his entertainment music — the musicals sleeve. On Story of television and that his own music not only constantly crosses the tracks between the concerthall and the Broadway/Hollywood scene but has won brilliant mass-medium from the latter. in Hebrew. by his standing in for the indisposed Bruno Walter on a coast-to-coast broadcast). the full-scale sparkling theatre piece Candide. Berstein has not been without his detractors. whose last movement is an emotional setting. he is phenomenally successful as a conductor (an international career which was launched. and the Oscar-winning the town. and certainly he is apt to wear his heart very much on his but his natural self-assurance carries him through. Certainly his range is prodigious: apart from composing. in which the influence of Stravinsky 3> is dominant. Except for the last of these. Bernstein a conductor-composer. His first major work (contemporary with his leap to fame as a conductor) was his Jeremiah Symphony.DANCES. and technical brilliance as a composer are the results of a sound grounding and a naturally quick intelligence: as one huge acclaim. the one-act chamber opera CHICHESTER PSALMS King's College Choir. and served up with great vitality. There are times when his material only just bears the weight of the structure built upon it. .. ON THE WATERFRONT. 1918) Like most energetic individuals of abundantly varied gifts. bands and orchestra/ Bernstein 77256 (4/72) CBS SYMPHONY NO. for mezzo-soprano of a passage from the Lamentations: he was later to return to Jewish inspirations in his Third Symphony (in memory of President Kennedy). a Second Symphony (for piano and orchestra) based on Auden's "Age of Anxiety" a Serenade for violin and orchestra. Mass. rich financial rewards. "there seems to be nothing he cannot do". the Chichester Psalms.SYMPHONIC sunr DNYPO/Bernstein 61096 (9/69) CBS Classics MS-6251 Columbia 32 (a On the waterfront. Lawrence. besides being highly articulate as a "communicator" (both lecturer and writer). Britten: Cambridge/ Choral works ASD3035 (12/74) EMI/HMV S-37119 Angel MASS Tilus/choirs. who view his versatility with a suspicion not untinged with envy. pop). D Merriman/St 1 (JEREMIAH)) Louis SO/Bernstein/ Facsimile SMA7002 (12/75) RCA WEST SIDE STORY Original Broadway cast 31491 (4/74) CBS S-32603 Columbia Original film soundtrack 70006 CBS WEST SIDE STORY. popularisation he has undertaken has been through the Bottom: Like Mahler. in the Mass. and the 1974 Jerome Robbins ballet The Dybbuk. and The truth fellow-composer has somewhat wistfully put it. was for some years a university professor of music and has always been an excellent pianist. and a highly controversial theatrical Mass in more than questionable taste— is extremely eclectic in idiom. that Bernstein's facility is film Wonderful town and especially West Side smash hit with the most sophisticated and score in the entire genre). Conservative deepened by the distrusts are facts that much of the Trouble in Tahiti. is Below: Bernstein's conducting is characterised by fervour.LEONARD BERNSTEIN (b. in the best showbiz tradition. embracing Copland »-like American "outdoor" elements and jazz (even. Bernstein's "serious" music — which also includes the ballet Fancy free.

(In his European travels he may well have come across music of the composers just mentioned. and turned aside from music to design remedial medical appliances and to direct an orthopaedic institute for six years. but today his chamber music and symphonies charm by their unusual melodic contours. Stockholm 1796. their daring harmonies and modulations (sometimes recalling Schubert >). individuality and skill. hold an appointment as professor of composition at the Stockholm Conservatory. and neglected in his native country almost until the beginning of the present century. Not until 1864 did he receive the recognition of being elected a member of the Academy of Music. The early Septet shares with the vigorous Sinfonie Singuliere of 1845 a plan which has the scherzo enclosed within the slow movement. Paris and Salzburg. yet he is now recognised as Sweden's leading 19th-century composer. their Weberian romanticism. At the same time he was editing a musical journal and writing his first compositions. had to wait 60 years for performance. but receiving little encouragement he decided to seek his fortune abroad. 33 . contains a chromaticism which links Berwald with Spohr >. like some of his other works. the second dedicated to Liszt 3> who had praised it. for a brief period. applied unsuccessfully for various musical posts in Sweden.FRANZ BERWALD (b. In Berlin he could not get two operas he wrote there performed. A member of a large family of musicians. and this is carried further in the almost Chinese-box construction of the String Quartet in E flat. their unexpected instrumentation (rather akin to that of Berlioz >). and not least their unconventional form. the component sections divided only by changes of key signature. his best orchestral work. and twice abandoned music altogether to work in industry and com- merce. greatly disappointed. again left the musical scene for a decade to manage a glass factory and undertake other commercial enterprises (meanwhile writing numerous newspaper articles). and only in the very last year of his life did he. and. there 1868) Rarely heard in the concert-hall. and which his younger brother was later to lead). 1 IN C MINOR PIANO QUINTET NO. and he is now recognised not only as the outstanding Swedish composer of the nineteenth century and his country's first symphonist but as a writer of great freshness. d. It was undoubtedly the originality of his style that hindered his acceptance for so long — indeed. PIANO QUINTET NO. 4 IN E FLAT LSO/Ehrling SXL6374 (11/78) Decca Left: Berwald received almost nothing but discouragement for nearly 60 years. and both draw material from orchestral tone-poems which this unlucky but un-discouraged composer never had the chance to hear played. 3 IN D SYMPHONY NO. He then went to Vienna. their wit. 2 IN A D Vienna Philharmonic Quintet SDD448 (o/75| Decca Ace of Diamond SYMPHONY NO. writing operas and symphonies. His A minor Quartet. are each conceived as a whole. the Sinfonie Singuliere. where this slow-scherzo-slow sandwich is itself inserted into the first movement.) The two delightful piano quintets. Berwald's music has made its headway in the world principally through the medium of records. he followed the example of his father and uncle by becoming a violinist in the Royal Orchestra (of which a cousin was appointed conductor in succession to Franz's teacher.

was variously labelled colourless. D Scottish Merri Vienna State Opera Chorus./Beecham/L'Ar/esienne ) s HQS1108 21023 London (12/67) EMI/HMV CARMEN IEUX D'ENFANTS. enabling him to spend three happy years in the Roman his death. there 1875) (b. Freni. and then won the prestigious Prix de Rome. Le Docteur Miracle. particularly. written by Bizet's friend Guiraud. Patrie SYMPHONY ASD3277 (10/76) EMI/HMV . Yet Bizet's characterisation. He started to compose from the age of 12. Te Kanav Domingo. Corelli. and by the uncooperative attitude of the orchestra and chorus. If Fate has a from an trick than to withhold her favours throughout his career. was a total failure. With Bizet's usual ill fortune. Nevertheless he became a prey to self-questioning and doubts./Martinon/7bert. Saint- Saens ECS782 (8/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15093 London IN C D NYPO/Bernstein/Proko/ieiv Dukas 61071 (5/69) CBS Classics MS-7159 Columbia D ASMF/Marriner/Prolco/ieu ZRG719 (12/73) Decca/ Argo* D Paris Orch/Barenboim//o/ie fille. Bizet L'ARLESIENNE Suites 16 2 RPO/Beecham/Can HQS1108 (12/67) Suites EM1/HMV D Suite I. rapidly became an excellent pianist and scorereader. and Bizet probably had this in mind when he began work on Carmen./B SLSS021 (2/76) HMV S-3613 Angel Cpte. unbelievably. Djamileh. and the music critics ignored it. New. and a month after his 17th birthday completed a Symphony in C (much influenced by Rossini > and his teacher Gounod ») whose high spirits. attained less than twenty performances. he entered the Paris Conservatoire. undramatic and lacking in melody. left unconsidered in a pile of manuscripts after and first performed 80 years after its composition! The following year he was joint winner of a prize for a one-act operetta. There had been a Spanish vogue in Paris even before Napoleon III took a Spanish bride. offered by Offenbach >. (Carmen is usually performed today with the original spoken dialogue by recitatives. however. at the age of nine. but with a conventional plot. The Pearl Fishers. Price. His career. a lyrical opera set in the Orient. Radio Orch. and several other opera projects were started but left unfinished. ironic temperament which took reverses badly. story-line. met with little but disappointments. nr. melodic invention and orchestral skill are frequently striking. 1 &2. by the shocked objections of the directors of the Opera-Comique to the heroine's immorality and. Troyanos. Gedda. Chorus/French Nat: al Radio Orch. it is to make lavish his youth only to dash them in maturity. audiences and the literary set alike resented the music to the play. was coolly received. which is a model of its kind both dramatically and musically.SUITE D Cpte. to her murder on stage. van Dam/Alldii Choir/LPO/Solti D11D3 (10/76) Decca 13115 London D (6/75) Classics for Pleasure Paris Cons. and these qualities are even more in evidence in his of illness in the cast atmospheric incidental score to Daudet's L'Arlesienne. owing to a run and financial difficulties in the management. National/Gibson/Raue/: Mere. New Philh/Munch/Carn SDD492 (9/76) Decca Ace of Di. and won prizes in all directions. led to the while the music. Micheau. the production of Don Rodrigue was indefinitely shelved when the Paris Opera was burnt down. Bizet became obsessed with thoughts of death. Blanc. d. sparkling colouring and classical clarity are altogether delightful — it nevertheless was put aside by the young musician.GEORGES BIZET Paris 1838. and died of a throat infection three months after the premiere of Carmen without the slightest premonition that it was to prove one of the most beloved mainstays of replaced which weaken the the operatic repertoire throughout the world. by special dispensation. who declared parts of it impossible to perform. though much praised. and even when it was eventually produced the realism of this vivid reaction from the public management having masterpiece provoked a cold and to give the press. 34 Above: about the time of the composition of Carmen. Saint-Saens: Carnival SER5600-2 (11/71) LSC-6199 RCA Cpte. Philh. It was repeatedly held up by casting difficulties.) Acutely depressed by his lack of success. centred on the theatre. At more cruel artist promises in the outset Fate certainly smiled on Bizet: born into a musical family which encouraged his leanings. capital. /Munich/ UArlesienne SDD 492 (9/76 Decca Ace ot Diamonds D Suite 1. De Los Ma CFP40086 VPO/Karajan RCA Angeles. and was of an excitable. French Nat. away which tickets. Even The fair maid of Perth (ineptly based on Scott). and a later exotic subject.

the exquisite idyllic Pastoral for chorus and orchestra. openly romantic style (diatonic but with pungent sub-Stravinskian dissonances) in which a was apparent — a trait even more marked later in the Piano Concerto written for the 1939 New York World Fair. and produced some chamber works which were both certain grandiloquence and deeply poetic. In the same year his score for the film Things to come won wide popularity. Choir/RLPO/Groves SAN365 (3/75) EM1/HMV Angel MUSIC FOR STRINGS D LPO/Boult/Houie/k: Concerto ASD3020 PASTORAL (LIE STREWN THE WHITE FLOCKS) Michelow/London CO/Morris/ Knot of Riddles TPLS13036 (11/70) Pye/Virtuoso PRAYER TO THE INFANT JESUS DAmbrosian Singers/Ledger SRCS55 (8/71) Lyrita ROUT FOR SOPRANO AND ORCHESTRA O Woodland/LSO/Bliss SRCS55 (8/71) Lyrita SERENADE FOR BARITONE AND ORCHESTRA Shirley-Quirk/LSO/Bliss SRCS55 (THE) (8/71) Lyrita WORLD IS CHARGED WITH THE GRANDEUR OF GOD DAmbrosian Singers/LSO/Bliss SRCS5S (8/71) Lyrita Above: first Bliss at the made Left: Bliss his time he name. and a large-scale symphony for and orchestra. and two further ballets — Miracle in the Gorbals and Adam Zero. (A) COLOUR SYMPHONY LSO/BHss/E!sar: Falstaff ECS625 (7/71) Decca Eclipse HYMN TO APOLLO LSO/Bliss SRCS55 (8/71) Lyrita MORNING HEROES O Westbrook (orator) Liv. Morning heroes. in which he served with distinction. All these last three works selected texts drawn from a variety of orator. Phil. the piano concerto already mentioned. highly characteristic in its muscular. d. he first made his name with works of a vigorously experimental nature such as Madam Noy and Rout (in which a soprano voice is used as an instrument along with the other ten in the ensemble)— both of which featured in early festivals of the International Society for Contemporary Music — and with the satirical Conversations for quintet. there 1975) The not uncommon progression from enfant terrible to respected pillar of the Establishment could scarcely be better exemplified than by the case of Bliss. the Serenade for lively baritone and orchestra. In fact his early iconoclastic phase was short-lived. chorus sources. the dramatic Checkmate for the Vic-Wells Ballet. is the Music for strings (written for the 1935 Salzburg Festival). For the last 22 years of his life he held the post of Master of the Queen's Music. when Master of the Queen's Music. sturdy extroversion. 35 . notably the Oboe Quartet (1927) and Clarinet Quintet (1931).ARTHUR BLISS (b. Following the Colour Symphony he seemed to find pleasure in closer-knit construction. London 1891. He later wrote two operas— The Olympians for Covent Garden and Tobias and the Angel for BBC Television — though these proved too conservative in idiom to satisfy the younger generation which by then had overtaken him. which is in the line of descent from Elgar's » Introduction and Allegro. in 1950. By common consent Bliss's finest orchestral composition. having been knighted three years previously. which served to lay the ghosts of his war years. This was to mark the beginning of a series of compositions for specific ends: the Kenilivorth suite as a National Brass Band Festival test piece. for already by his 1922 Colour Symphony he had moved towards a broad. After an orthodox training which was cut short by the 1914-18 war.

aesthetics. the Israel symphony. Frankfurt and Munich. and finally in 1938. magnificently dark Piano Quintet. Portland. nearly all have been content to be assimilated into the culture of their country of residence: not so with Bloch. But Bloch's significance from being purely racial: which tends to be rhapsodic and colourful. as in the early opera Macbeth. the Baal Shem suite for violin. with visits to France and Italy. Though d. the very titles preoccupation: the Trois pieces juifs for orchestra. "It is the Jewish soul that I feel vibrating 36 throughout the Bible that naivete. Germany. studied in Brussels. visited the USA in as a ballet conductor and while there became successively a professor in New York. as war clouds gathered in Europe. settled in America and taught at Berkeley. and certainly not through any quotation of traditional Hebrew music (whose authenticity he questioned): in his own words. Oregon. interests me: the freshness and the savage love of justice. and in his chamber music (perhaps the summit of his achievement).SCHELOMO Rostropovich/French National Orch/ Bernstein/Schumann: Cello Cone. Bloch's music always retained its Jewish character. the violence. returned to Geneva and lectured on musical putting roots. returned to live in Switzerland. lived for a while in Paris. Geneva 1880. the orchestral pieces America and Helvetia. 1959) numerous Jewish composers. the sensuality". director of the Cleveland Institute of Music and director of the San Francisco Conservatory. France or the USA. The of his works bear witness to this deep-seated despair. as in the first Violin Sonata and the highly emotional Violin Concerto. which includes four string quartets and a is far the passionate intensity of his writing. the Sacred Service. ASD3334 (3/77) EMI/HMV S-372S6 Angel VIOLIN CONCERTO Menuhin/Philh/Kletzki SXLP30177 (3/75) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-36192 Angel Left: Whether in Switzerland. California. the sorrow and immensity. would be striking in any case. Belgium. . both where the idiom contains something of the Oriental. and elsewhere. whose restless life seems to have militated against him there have been down He was born Switzerland. the powerful Schelomo rhapsody for cello (his most frequently played work). For the most part his music is consciously Jewish in characternot just through the use of exotic-sounding intervals. and many more. ERNEST BLOCH (b.

which coloured his Left: music and led him to write for the guitar.NO. 4 IN NO. Yet the delicacy and melodiousness even of the favourite Minuet are quite representative of his elegantly expressive style. oratorios. 7 ASMF/Marriner/Mendelssolni: Octet ZRG569 (S/68) Decca Argo. and suggests only a rapidly made considerable reputation as a soloist. 47/1 DKehr. STRING QUINTET 47 NO. 13/5 TV34094S 15/67) Decca Turnabout- DKehr. and after eking out a precarious living writing and arranging for wealthy amateur guitarists. STRING QUINTET IN A MINOR. which resembles that of his contemporary Haydn » but without his depth. his fortunes also declined. besides operas. for example. 102 string quartets. when he was so enormously prolific that music seemed to pour out of him: he wrote. chamber composer to Frederick William II of Prussia. On the became. DYepes/Melos Qt 2530 069 (4/71) DC* STRING QUINTET IN E. 9 IN C D. Madrid 1805) ironical that to the general public Boccherini's name much-played Minuet (which in fact comes from his E major String Quintet. Sichermann. 7 IN E MINOR. BOCCHERINI Lucca 1743. 5 Bartels. but his health was deteriorating. NO. where he became all the rage and publishers vied with each other to issue his compositions. TV34094S (5/67) Decca Turnabout IN C. It is d. 37 NO. Luis. OP. much 37 . 1 Bartels. a bass player. and on the recommendation of the Spanish ambassador there he went to Spain (which strongly influenced his music. 5). Op. 20 symphonies and four cello concertos. OP. Op. Braunholz. 13 No. For over a quarter of a century Boccherini lived in Spain. 155 quintets. He was taught the cello by his father. Op. GUITAR QUINTETS. he died in utter poverty. 13 NO. It is again ironical that the Cello Concerto in B flat which is most frequently played is a grotesquely over-romanticised conflation of two different works. Braunholz. a particularly in Paris. for the next decade. and though he came for a time under the patronage of Lucien Bonaparte. 60 trios and much more chamber music. he V.LUIGI (b. Herbruch/Stritig Quintet. as it had influenced that of Domenico Scarlatti ») as composer and virtuoso di camera to the Infante Don only for his master. Sichermann. OP. church music. but we have yet to rediscover the full wealth of his chamber music. restricted to writing Infante's death twelve years later. Herbruch/Srrmg Quintet.

/Rostropovich/Mussorgsk! Borodin as a musician owed Glinka. Learning by the experience of hearing his work performed. the B minor Symphony was finished by 1875. and whom he eventually married. in the Medical Academy of St Petersburg. Like the Tartar music in Prince Igor and the Second Symphony. this has a strongly Oriental turn of phrase which was in his blood.ALEXANDER BORODIN (b. Nearly all his music is marked by original ideas and piquant harmony: the Second String Quartet from which comes the slightly over-sweet celebrated Nocturne is perhaps the least characteristic of his major works. 2 IN B SYMPHONY MINOR D Suisse Romande/Ansermet/Sym. C MINOR Vienna Octet/Mcnrfe/ssoIni: Sextet SDD410 13/74) Decca Ace of Diamonds PRINCE IGOR-POLOVSTIAN DANCES DRPO & DOrch. for his real father was a Georgian prince. in 1862.y: gfSB "'£ 3. d. is now a firm favourite. photographed in 1885. ore =H«S SAL3708 I (5/69) Phonogram Borodin Quartet/SIiostakouicrl ECS79S (3/77) Decca Eclipse STS-15046 London NO. . and though the fiery and exciting Polovtsian dances and other isolated numbers from Prince Igor were successfully performed at concerts by Rimsky-Korsakov ». later revised to lighten the orchestration. there 1887) the case with the other members of the "kuchka" gathered by Balakirev » under his tutelage. D Paris Orch. 6 . he was gifted in languages and showed a cultivated amateur's interest in music which was quickened when he fell in love with an excellent pianist who opened his eyes to Liszt > As was and Schumann >. with its vivid first movement and ebulliently syncopated scherzo. de Paris/Rozhdestvensky/ Mussorgsky. together with other operatic projects never completed. Rimsky-Korsakov 6580 053 (6/72) DG 2. interspersing his writing of this with bursts of energy devoted to an opera on the subject of the 12th-century Prince Igor. b (8/73) Classics for Pie CFP40041 DQuartetto Italiano/Dvwnk: Ql. Meanwhile Borodin's reputation as a musician was making headway in f 1*F7~/ *?-* western Europe through the championship of Liszt. including a piano quintet. Work on composition continued to be desultory. Both these. to whom he dedicated the programmatic orchestral piece In the steppes of Central Asia. ECS576 (3/71) Decca Eclipse STS-15149 London Left: J8 Alexander Borodin. LPO/Lloyd-Jones/Mtissorgsky. whose time was much taken up with his duties as professor of chemistry. Prince Igor Ov. he began work on a second symphony. D Suisse EMI/HMV A MINOR 3 IN Romande/Ansermet/Sym. St Petersburg 1833. several of which are of the first rank. but when. EMI/HMV 2 IN D Gabrieli Quartet/Dvorak: Qt. he met Balakirev he was fired to write a symphony and a number of songs. This symphony. THE STEPPES OF CENTRAL ASIA Above: A distinguished chemist. He had already composed a few chamber works. ^v. and later as an administrator./Beecham/ Balakirev: Sym. Rimsky-Korsakov much to the example and the ASD3421 EMI/HMV IN : (2/78) encouragement of S-37464 Angel PIANO QUARTET IN Liszt. ECSS76 (3/71) Decca Eclipse STS-1S149 London Bournemouth SO/Brusilow/Ba/akire Rimsky-Korsakov ASD3193 (7/76) SYMPHONY NO. Rimsky-Korsakov ESD7006 Ch. who constantly tried to urge and assist him. Prince Igor Ov. the opera still remained to be completed and edited after his death by Rimsky-Korsakov and his pupil Glazunov » — the brilliant overture was written by the former from recollections of hearing Borodin play it on the piano. music to Borodin was not his primary occupation: he was an analytical chemist of international experience and repute. Brought up privately by his mother. but when the promise of a performance suddenly materialised the two middle movements could not be found and had to be re-scored. the wife of a well-to-do doctor. 1 SXLP30171 (10/741 Concert Classics (9/76) EMI/HMV S-36889 Angel STRING QUARTET NO. often had to be left while Borodin got on with his hospital work.

A pupil of Messiaen >. McDaniel. despite his increasingly prolonged thought. Devos. /Boulez/ Livre 73213 12/74) CBS M-32160 Columbia PLI SELON PLI Lukomska. Boulez is also a tireless "animator" and himself a leading composer of today's avant garde. Left: Orchestras respect Boulez for his truly remarkable ear. in accordance with the ideas of the poet Mallarme.. whose lucid presentation of difficult contemporary works has materially contributed to their acceptance and understanding. Le Marteau sans maitre. Vi jy w t ^ m HK1 t •JWEstfr. hesitation and critical consideration before setting down even a few bars on paper. BBC Chorus & SO/Boulez ZRG7S6 (4/76) Decca Argo. it is alternately delicate and most fastidious ear for violent in expression. with the novel sonorities. This has already become a contemporary classic. and he has included in his structures an element of chance and choice which once taken. Below: Pierre Boulez conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra at a 1973 Promenade Concert in the Royal Albert Hall. Montbrison 1925) Most familiar to the public as an international conductor with a fantastically acute ear and a formidable intellect. yet at the same time. Stingl. for voice and chamber earliest Soleil des ensemble. Bergmann. six years later. tlk 'Nfe :•• . extensively altered some.. Apart from his first two piano sonatas. is thenceforth strictly controlled. the very complexity of his art leads to deliberate ambiguities. and the seductive quality of succeeded in comprehend idiom. Since glinting its fascinating either the that time reluctant to publish his metallic many stylised listeners sounds has unable to verse or the musical Boulez has been ever more works or even finalised version for them: to recognise a he has made some. susceptible to alternative readings. instrumentation etc. but his reputation was firmly established with another cantata. however.PIERRE BOULEZ (b. he adheres rigorously to serial techniques. d'Alton/ BBC SO/ Boulez 72770 (1/70) CBS M-30296 Columbia LE SOLEIL DES EAUX DNendick. who has dominated his thinking. such as the Third Piano Sonata. left others as "works in progress". LE MARTEAU SANS MAITRE OMinton. Nor is his music coldly objective and mathematical in effect: on the contrary. which he applies to every aspect of music — melody. MusiqueVivante Ens. harmony. the work to be representative of him is the cantata Le eaux (1948). the second of which stretches keyboard virtuosity to new limits. such as the large-scale Mallarme triptych and Pli selon pli. rhythm.

iu %ff(<m Right: life. NO. IN E FLAT. /x<u*t % (6/70) Peerless/Oryx* <?\ d T /ik Axuk ' UiJ- =) a] IX J <P m& Tut O titrC J\JVdf„\J>M lot itu. never known (in Charles Wesley's words) "to speak a vain or ill-natured word. c \ . Below: In his old age Boyce. s • ^§ 40 1-8 Wurttemberg CO/Faerber TV34133S (2/68) Decca Turnabout* iM^rrfr] 7* V* I . w 4& k/% »» The opening of the 4-part verse Te Deum in A major by William Boyce. A a . and for the last 24 years of his life was Master of the King's Music. famous three-volume collection of cathedral music by English composers of the previous two centuries. He was for many years a composer to the Chapel Royal and a conductor of the Three Choirs Festival. and during his career held various important organist posts in London churches. 12 IN D Larchem. twelve trio-sonatas which gained great popularity and were also pressed into service as theatre act-tunes. d. Lumsden ORYX1729 t:H .BOYCE WILLIAM London (b. where as a boy he had been a chorister. Cornhill. In this last capacity he composed a number of Odes for the king's birthday and for New Year. NO. including that of St Michael's. NO. either to exalt himself or depreciate another". Brown. and a number of secular choral works besides a large quantity of church music (including 60 anthems). 2 IN F. but he also wrote incidental music for a dozen or so stage plays (from which were drawn the eight attractive and ever-fresh symphonies). Ryan. V 1 f- fA t?t • 'z i. became extremely deaf.NO. 1710. published a SYMPHONIES NOS. there 1779) London was the central point of Boyce's entire life: he was born and died there. i TRIO SONATAS. 9 IN C. and was buried in St Paul's Cathedral. he was a serious scholar. n't. A man of gentle nature. Master of the King's Music._ \° <= \ 8 G . and towards when he was becoming very the end of his deaf.

Seeking for the grit within these pearls. is of a maturity which may make its greatest appeal to the thoughtful. 1833. do not need a connoisseur for their appreciation. but his rhythmic vigour and broad sweeping melodic lines. and one which every concert violinist needs to be able to play — "offers rare opportunities to a player who can cope with its difficulties". that in the edition of Grove's Dictionary published only 50 years ago a writer should worry that the finale of his Fourth Symphony might be too difficult to follow even by "students who are fairly familiar with the movement" and should comment that his Violin Concerto — one of the greatest and most profound ever written for the instrument.BRAHMS JOHANNES Hamburg lb. . sober in its orchestral colouring. when Brahms's symphonies and other works form part of the very core of the concert repertoire. He was born Above: Brahms about the time he composed into a gifts as a pianist: his German Requiem. d. humble family and quickly showed nevertheless he had to support himself r j Below: A photograph of Brahms taken in his sixties. it is undeniable that the spaciousness and seriousness of much of Brahms's music. and the warmth of his lyricism. Vienna 1897) seems barely credible today. Brahms is It recognised as particularly satisfying in that below the richly romantic emotional surface lie very solid classical foundations.

. Ov.) SB6845 (7/71) RCA LSC-3186 RCA DGilels/Farirasies. he became deeply devoted. After his energetic early piano works and first piano concerto (which incidentally reveal how big his hands were) he concentrated on large-ish chamber works — such as the two sextets. Strauss.JOHANNES BRAHMS — an experience which caused ACADEMIC FESTIVAL OVERTURE a disillusionment with women which coloured his whole concert tour with a Hungarian violinist led not life. Alto Rhapsody by playing in sailors' dives A merely to the composition of his popular Hungarian dances but. and to whose wife Clara. CFP40064 (10/74) Classics for DLPO/Boult/Sym. to whom. His orchestral music had so far been confined to two Serenades. 4 ASD2901 (6/73) EMI/HMV PI S-37034 Angel ALTO RHAPSODY D Baker/ Alldis Choir/LPO/Boult/Sj/m. ASD2746 (12/71) EMI/HMV D . who was to become a lifelong Through him Brahms had valuable introductions to Liszt > (whose admiration he did not reciprocate) and Schumann >. had undergone various changes of instrumentation) — and choral works. the piano quartets. written in the short period when he had held a part-time appointment as musical director to the court of Detmold. He was later friend. ASD3260 Wagner (9/76) EMI/HMV S-37199 Angel BALLADES. but with Schumann's death also in his mind) and the Alto Rhapsody— before feeling himself ready to tackle a symphony.. Halle/Loughran/ Haydn Var. CFP40046 (10/74) Classics for Pleasun Baker/ Alldis Choir/LPO/BouIt/ R. Below: As a young man Brahms was obliged to play in taverns as well as concert halls. Tragi. to a meeting with the eminent violinist Joachim. the Horn Trio and the Piano Quintet (which. . Piano Pieces (exc. including the German Requiem (written after his mother's death. Op. S-37032 Angel Greevey/Halle Choir/Halle/ Loughran/A cademic Festival Ov. 10 D Rubinstein/Rhapsodies.. Tragic Ov. Haydn Var. OP. 116 2530 655 (7/76) Right: This DG* memorial by Use Conrat was unveiled in the Vienna central cemetery in 1903. more importantly. as was often the case with him.

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the Violin Concerto (dedicated to Joachim) and the enormously expansive Second Piano Concerto. 115 6500 453 11/731 Phonogram QBoskovsky/ Vienna Oct.JOHANNES BRAHMS to be. 13. TV350685 Klein (4/67J Decca Turnabout 34068 Turnabout LIEBESLIEDER Gachinger Kantorei/Rilling/Ntw Liebeslieder TV34277S Decca Turnabout PIANO CONCERTO NO. 12./Giulini CFP40028 (5/74) Classics for Pleasure S-60264 Seraphim D Barenboim/New Philh. Cleveland/Szell/Duorafc (5/77) EMI/HMV S. 76 SXL6118 |9/t>4| Decca (5/76) Decca STS-15009 London HUNGARIAN DANCES (TWO-PIANO VERSION) DW. -^rV 5. Except for oratorio and opera./Barbirolli/ Cone. | DD. Francescatti. 120 D de Peyer. 7. Czech PO/Ancerl SUAST50573 (4/66) Supraphon Fournier/Columbia SO/ Walter/Alto Rhapsody. 1 IN D MINOR PCurzon/LSO/Szell SXL6023 (12/62) Decca 6329 London DArrau/Philh. The Third and Fourth symphonies. Katchen/Pimto Trio No. director of the Gesellschaf der Musikfreunde in Vienna. he in fact deliberated over his first symphony for nearly twenty years before completing it: right to the last minute he hesitated.36032 Angel Suk. Berhn Octet/DTJonjJc: Bagatelles - * A GERMAN REQUIEM 99 2 SXL6S89 (6/73) Decca 6814 London . OP. the First Symphony was quickly followed by the Second: then came various piano and smaller chamber works. conductor of a ladies' choir in Hamburg and then of the Singakademie in Vienna before becoming. His last fe'w works. 1 IN F MINOR. were written in quick succession: the Fourth is the epitome of Brahms's strength and nobility of style. surrounded by his books and music. Chorus. HMV S-3624 Angel HORN TRIO IN Stahr. 40 Tuckwell. CLARINET QUINTET Schwarzkopf. Brahms greatly enriched almost every genre of music. briefly. andB.35353 (9/75) 5 HUNGARIAN DANCES NOS. Philh. With the giant shadow of Beethoven » hanging over him. Fournier/Philh/ Galhera/Tragic Ov. Philh. Navarra. turning aside to compose the Variations on a theme of Haydn. like the First and Second. as the Double Concerto for violin and cello and the Four t make clear. Son. Fischer-Dieskau. OP. 2 IN E FLAT. Ashkenazy/ Fmnck: Vln. D Starker. breathe a mellow autumnal beauty. SXL6408 (5/69) Decca 6628 London D Perlman./Kletzki/ Ghtek: Iphigenie en Aulide Ov. 19. 21 D VPO/Reiner/Duomfc SPA377 S-60302 Seraphim DOUBLE CONCERTO ASD3312 E FLAT. Alto Rhapsody IN B MINOR. for three years. Oistrakh. EMI/HMV Angel FANTASIES. CELLO SONATA NO. 116 DKatchen/Op. Once completed. NO. like the masterly Clarinet Quintet./ Wagner SDD249 (o/70| Decca Ace of Diamon. SLS821 (8/72) OP. 2 SLS874 (5/74) HMV Below: To the end of his life Brahms lived a bachelor existence in furnished rooms. but between the intimacy of feeling of his late piano pieces and the extroversion of his youthful sonatas lies as large a gap as serious songs between the deeply expressive quality of his numerous lieder and the gruff exterior and caustic tongue he presented to the world. SXLP30185 S. into which a certain terseness was now creeping. Song of Destiny 61428 (3/74) CBS Classics DFerras. Barenboim ASD2362 (5/68) EMI/HMV IN A MINOR DD. OP. 2 IN F. Philh. CLARINET SONATAS NO. Tortelier./Klemperer/Tragrr Ov. CFP40081 Classics for Pleasure Oistrakh.. 6. OP. Rostropovich.

Starker/Cel/o Sonata SXL6589 3. TV34165S (2/69) Decca Turnabout. Berlin PO/Kempe VIOLIN 138 926 11/oSI DG Concertgebouw H. Tragic Ov. SDD322 (4/73) 138924 111/641 DG Halle/Loughran : STRING QUARTET NO. 51 NO. 2 6500 375 (7/751 Phonogram. OP. Piano Pieces (exc. Arrau/rhilh.. SYMPHONIES C MINOR. A MINOR.) SLS5009 (5/75) CCVS042 SB6845 17/71) RCA LSC-3186 London Halle/Loughran CFP40096/40219/40237/40084 17/501 VICS-1026 Camden Classics RCA STRING SEXTET NO. Melos Quartet/String Quartet No. 16 LSO/Kertesz/ Dvorak Wind Serenade SXL6368 (2/691 Decca 6594 London STRING QUARTET NO. 3 VARIATIONS ON A THEME OF HAYDN (ST. Berlin Berlin Philharmonic Ens. 8 DSuk. S Katchen/Scheno SXL6228(6/66) Decca 6482 London SXLP30186 Variations SB6877 14/751 RCA Halle/Loughran/Hung. SAL3763 S-60052 Seraphim 35 Katchen/ Variations on a theme by Handel SXL6218 (4/66) Decca HMV Gilels/Chicago SO/Reiner VARIATIONS ON A THEME BY PAGANINI. OP. Suk. 1 IN C MINOR. OP. HMV PO/Kara|an SYMPHONY 2 C MINOR EMI D Berlin PO/Bohm 2535 102 17/751 DG DG Weller Quartet/Quartet No. Alto Rhapsody 79 (exc. Starker/Piano D Berlin PO/Karajan/Sym 138 926 (1/65) DC- Trio 3 SXLc>387 15 69) Decca PIANO TRIO NO. 1 IN 2 IN 3 IN G A D MINOR. 1 LPO Berlin OMelos Quartet/String Quartet No. Ov.) Phonogram (12/69) Vazsonyi/ Piano Pieces TPLS13035 (11/70) Pye/Virtuoso Piano Pieces (exc). Dances.. Oistrakh.o8i EMI PIANO SONATA NO. Phonogram TRAGIC OVERTURE Philh. 2 IN 1 Boult ASD2871 1 s SXL6676 (2/75) Decca LPO/Boult/A Ito Rhapsody ASD2746 (12/71) EMI HMV S-37032 Angel Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling SB6876 (6/73) RCA 45 . 1 IN attitude at the piatw suggests breadth. Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling/ Sym. Katchen.. OP. DCiiels/Berlin PO/lochum 2530 258 112/731 DC- PIANO CONCERTO NO. CFP40046 (10/74) Classics for Plea. 2 SB6877 111/731 RCA OP. (3/701 Berlin Halle/Loughran/Haydn 1 Academic Festival Or. 2 SB6875|o/73l RCA Concertgeboim Haitink/Sym. ANTONI CHORALEI Eschenbach/ Amadeus Quartet 139 397 (8/69) DG3 IN F MINOR. 87 DSuk. 6814 London Above: Brahms's whole SERENADE NO. (6/75) Perlman/Chicago SO/Giulmi S. Tragic Ov. D 3 Concertgebouw/Haitink/Sym. ASD2901 (6/731 DG- EMI/HMV SB6879 12/741 ASD3385 ill 77 i EMI/HMV EMI/HMV D. 2 IN A. LSO/Monteux/E/gar SPA121 (6/71) Decca STS-15188 London Halle/LoughranM cademic Festival Ov. OP.. 101 Katchen/LSO/Monteux Ballade 3 SPA385 (7/75) Decca STS-15209 London 2 IN B SXL6387 15/691 Decca Bishop-Kovacevich/Piano Pieces DLPO & SAL3758 DG 2721 076 (7/741 2721 002 DG 1 6611 London FLAT RHAPSODIES. 35 2 IN G. PO/Kempe/ Tragic Overture Haydn CONCERTO IN D MAJOR Krebbers/Concertgebouw/Haitink 6580 087 (4/75) Phonogram Menuhin. Waltzes 16/73) Decca 1.Giulini CFP40034 (6/73) Classics For Pleasure D Barenboim/New Cone. STS-15150 London DG 3 IN F SXLP30100 (5/68) EMI/HMV Berlin PO/Karajan Var. SONATA NO. No. 2530 344 111/731 14/721 CFP40096 Philh. Amadeus Quartet 2530 133 ill 71i PIANO QUINTET DCIN F Berlin MINOR OP.nhnk/Tragic Ov. Suk. 34165 Turnabout rhilh /Klemperer SXLP30214 (8/76) VARIATIONS HANDEL. 2 2530 580 112/751 1° CFP40237 (7/761 Classics for Pleasure 4 IN E MINOR LPO/Boult/Academic Festival Ov. 11 LSO/Kertesz SXL6340 (5/681 Decca 6567 London D Concertgebouw/Haitink 9500 322 12/77) PhonogramSERENADE NO. DG Privilege RCA 7028 Quintessence 3 Decca Ace ot Diamor 2530 345 111/731 13/751 Classics tor Pleasu DLSO/Horenstein GL25001 (10/76) IN STS-15245 London 3 IN B FLAT. OP. SLS874 (5/74) HMV Cilels/BPO/Jochum 1 PO/Abbado 2530 125 110/711 SYMPHONY NO. Alto Rhapsody CFP40064 (10/741 Classics tor PL 2530 259 (6/74) PCAnda/Berlin PO/Fricsay 2538 256 (11 74) DC Privilege Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling/ Sym. OP. SYMPHONY NO. 1-4 PO/Karajan Berlin Katchen. lexc. OP. OP./Barbirolli/ PIANO QUARTET NO. D MAJOR. Starker/ riano Trio LSO/Boult/Academic Festival Rubinstein/Ballades. OP. 34 Curzon/2 Intermezzi SDD498 112/76) STS-15272 London 1 IN B. OP. EMI/HMV ON A THEME BY 24 Klien/Rliat-'soriy 2./Klemperer SXLP30217 12/76) i Berlin Gold Seal NO. SONATA NO. 2 IN C MAJOR.) PIANO TRIO NO. 3 6500 155 (3/711 Phonogram- OGilels. Exc. Piano Pieces lexc. OP. Katchen. LSO/Jochum/ Elgor: Enigma Vars. 51 NO.. PO Kempe/Sym. 2 EMI IN HMV D MAJOR TO/Karaian 138925 (11/64) DG O VPO/Kertes? 1 STRING QUARTET NO. Cleveland/Szell (0/73) EMI/HMV ASD2525 VIOLIN VIOLIN VIOLIN OP. PIANO TRIO NO. 3 IN OP. 39 KUen/Handel Vars. Katchen SXL6321 (1/681 Decca 6549 London S-37034 Angel Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling RCA WALTZES. 108 London SONATA NO. Alto Rhapsody.36033 SYMPHONY NO. 6500 155 12/711 Phonogram Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling/ HMV SXLP30100(5.) Halle/Loughran TV34165S CFP40084 (10/741 Classics VPO/Kertesz SXL6678 (1/76) Decca tor Pleasure 12/691 Decca Turnabout.

•'A-Wfl *lfc .

from his 1943 Serenade for tenor. a of his parents. a remarkable literary eclecticism in several languages and conspicuous technical virtuosity in his a already large output. LSO/Britten 8^ SET379-81 19/68) Decca 1390 London (The) BURNING FIERY FURNACE parable Pears. Aldeburgh 1976) Precociously gifted and immensely prolific. Pears. written in stylised form and drawing on elements from plainsong and Japanese Noh plays. the eerie Turn of the screw. for presentation by his life. Tear. Ens/Britten SET301 1/66) Decca 1156 London 1 HOLY SONNETS OF JOHN DONNE D Pears. designed for a chamber own English Opera Group: The Rape of Lucretia. It was the start of a long string of stage the remaining 30 years of his works during Several of these were orchestra. Drake. MS Left: A page of Britten's score of Pastoral. Billy Budd (in the full-scale opera of that name. Shirley-Quirk.- BENJAMIN BRITTEN lb. He returned with a grant from the Koussevitzky Music Foundation to write an opera. Britten/Songs and Proverbs SXL6391 (5/69) Decca 26099 London LES ILLUMINATIONS Pears. preferring to live BILLY BUDD D Glossop. Ledger/Sonnets of Michelangelo. Albert Herring. LSO/Britten SET338-40 (5/67) Decca 1385 London ON THIS ISLAND-song cycle DTear. where in 1948 he founded an annual Festival Britten held resort to teaching. no appointments and did not have to and work among a small entourage of friends in the little East Coast town of Aldeburgh. A Sinfonia da Requiem violin concerto. Cambridge/ G. Dean. 7c EMI. He had felt a strong pull towards word-setting. Drake. Shirley-Quirk. Children's Choirs. Blackburn. Lowestoft 1913. horn and strings. Harper. and for radio dramas. A recurrent theme in his operas is that of the flawed hero — Grimes. accompanist and conductor. based on Melville). Webb. Singers. both for chorus and for solo voice (particularly that of his lifelong companion. Brannigan. Winter Words HQS1310 (4/74) EMI/HMV Far left: Benjamin Britten was an excellent pianist. exhibiting. Langdon. 47 . S-36788 London I (A) HMV MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM Deller. his in memory first string quartet. D Ambrosia Kelly. ECO/Britten/Serenode SXL6449 19/70) Decca 26161 London D Harper/Northern Ser Sinfonia/Marriner/ ade SXLP30194 il. Harwood. and the ballet Prince of the pagodas (the first indication of his interest in Oriental music which was eventually to blossom in the church — parables). the choral Hymn to St Cecilia and A Ceremony of carols were written while he was in the USA at the start of the war. introducing several novel but simple sound effects. the tenor Peter Pears). which was produced in 1945 and promptly hailed as marking a new era in English opera. Hemsley. Pears. the children's opera The little sweep. the three church parables. Guest/Caro/s SPA/A164 (11/65) Decca CURLEW RIVER -parable D Pears. after which he set out to earn a living by writing music for the theatre. he won a and witty Variations on great success with the inventive theme of Frank Bridge (his first teacher). and the highly compressed Death in Venice. and established a world-wide reputation with Peter Grimes. Veasey. d. Walts. Brannigan. Two further operas should be mentioned — Cloriana and A Midsummer night's dream. John's College Choir. the Michelangelo sonnets. Shirley-Quirk. Called upon in a hurry to provide a new work for a string orchestra visiting the 1937 Salzburg Festival. Britten began to study composition while still a schoolboy and later worked with John Ireland > at the Royal College of Music in London. Owen Wingrave (the central character of an opera for TV). the comedy Albert Herring. then and later. EOG/Britten SET356 (12/67) Decca 1163 London CEREMONY OF CAROLS QSt. which catches the magic atmosphere of Shakespeare's play to an extraordinary degree as well as Noyes fludde for children. where documentary for his facility films attracted professional notice and the backing of a publisher.

Words '^V*i<^ Below: Britten at work in Aldeburgh (photo by Reg Wilson).Purcell Var. Shirley-Quirk. (8/71) Decca 6723 London P Friend/LPO/Pritchard/Serenarle CFP40250 (2/77) Classics for Pleasure WAR REQUIEM PVishnevskaya. THE PRODIGAL SON. Chorus. Gdn. Fischer-Dieskau Bach Choir. Bainbridge. Britten/Ho/y Sonnet SXL6391 (5/69) Decca 26099 London 7 SONNETS OF MICHELANGELO PTear.NO. the War Requiem (which movingly intermingles verse by war poets with the Requiem text) written for the opening of the new Coventry Cathedral.BENJAMIN BRITTEN which works by himself and his circle were performed and attracted devoted audiences. Orch. Drake. BENJAMIN BRITTEN QUIEM SXL6641 Robert Tear for Cello (7/74) Decca P LSO/Previn/Peter Crimes (exc. Orch. Melos Ens... Baker. in a Mahlerian symphonic mould). PETER GRIMES Pears. Civil/Northern Sinfonia/ Marriner/Les Illuminations s PIANO CONCERTO SXLP30194 PRichter/ECO/Britten/ Violin Conr. Sonnets EMI/HMV YOUNG PERSON'S GUIDE TO THE ORCHESTRA P Baker (narrator)/New Philh. 2 IN C. Purcell Pears. Gabrieli Quartet SDD497 (6/77) Decca Ace of Diamo SXL6449 (9/70) Decca 26161 London DTear. Ledger/On Winter this Island. Tuckwell/LSO/Britten/Les S-37142 Angel Illuminations PHANTASY QUARTET FOR OBOE. Pe e. Sym. Cov. the Spring Symphony (a verse anthology for solo voices./Britten SXL2264 (5/ol) Decca 25242 London STRING QUARTETS. HQS1310 (4/74) EMI/HMV SPRING SYMPHONY PVyvyan.»Vtoh MSTISLAYROSTROIWICH Delias. Pears.parable SXL6405 (6/69) Decca PRPO/Sargent/Britten. NO. and this undoubtedly added greatly to their wide dissemination.. Passacaglia. O Gdn. Shirley-Quirk. EOG/Britten & Tunnard SET438 (6/70) Decca 1164 London (1/76) SYMPHONY FOR STRINGS SIMPLE SONGS AND PROVERBS OF ySTivS^' SwnSonwtsoi WILLIAM BLAKE PFischer-Dieskau. Elgar. Luxon. OP. Walton. Pears. OP. Watson. Walton: Facade SXLP30114 (12/68) 48 EMI/HMV . Drake. Six months before his death Britten was awarded a life peerage./ Leppard/Proko/iev CFP185 (1/72) Classics tor Pleasure PPrevin (narrator). Orch. No other musician has ever had so many of his works recorded so shortly after their composition./Menuhin/Tipuett SXLP30157 (10/73) EMI/HMV P ASMF/Marriner/Buttericorth ZRG860 (11/76) Decca Argo VIOLIN CONCERTO P Lubotsky/ECO/Britten/ Piano SXL6512 Cone. VIOLA AND CELLO DCraxton./Britten SXL2150-2 (10/59) Decca 1305 London Four Sea Interludes./Britten/Sj/m. Nilss anigan. Tear. Highgate School Choir. 36 PAllegri Quartet SXL6564 (6/73) Decca STS-15303 London SYMPHONY FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA PRostropovich/ECO/Britten/Sin/onio da Requiem SXL6641 (7/74) VARIATIONS ON A THEME OF FRANK BRIDGE PECO/Britten/ Young Person's Guide SXL6450 (9/70) Decca 6671 London P Bath Fest. horn and strings. HORN AND STRINGS EMI/HMV Pears. A handful of them have at — the Serenade for tenor. LSO/Previn/ Prokofiev ASD2935 (12/73) EMI/HMV P LSO/Britten/Bridge Va. Pears. LSO Chorus.) ASD3154 (3/76) EMI/HMV S-37142 Angel Button w«it. chorus and orchestra. 1. 25. Facade (exc. unions SXL6450 (Q/70) Decca 6671 London PBBC SO/Sargent/Simp/e. and above all the Young person's achieved popularity special guide to the orchestra. VIOLIN. SXL6512 (8/71) Decca 6723 London S-36788 Angel EMI/HMV PECO/Britten/ Frank Bridge.. (The) RAPE OF LUCRETIA P Harper. LSO/Britten SET252-3 (5/63) Decca 1255 London WINTER WORDS PTear. a brilliant theme of Purcell composed for set of variations on a a film demonstrating the various instruments of the modern orchestra. Ledger/On of Michelangelo HQS1310 (4/74) this Island. Procter.) SXLP30114 (12/68) EMI/HMV SINFONIA DA REQUIEM PNew Philh. LSO/Previn/ Sinfonia de Requiem ASD3154 (3/74) ECO/Britten SET492-3 (6/71) Decca 1288 London SERENADE FOR TENOR.

2 IN D MINOR. 44 2548 170 (11/75) VIOLIN Max Bruch was no instrumentalist. he wrote brilliantly and gracefully for the violin and cello. though he wrote for all instruments with complete understanding. Oistrakh/LSO/Horenstein/ Hindemith: Vln. The far less known Second Violin Concerto again shows the melodic beauty which he was able to summon up so easily. he was not himself an instrumentalist. OP. FOR D. three symphonies. OP. but in all that Bruch wrote his touch was equally sure and his technique unobtrusively polished. and was a Below: Though successful conductor./ssolM. and that one of them— the G minor Violin Concerto. SUAST50546 (8/66) Supraphon Philadelphia/Ormandy/Lalo 72612 (5/68) CBS MS-7003 Columbia Perlman/LSO/Previn/Mende/sso/m: Vln. Its flow of warmly emotional SCOTTISH FANTASY. but this was not so. ASD2926 (1/74) EMI/HMV S-36963 Angel DKyung-Wha Chung/RPO/Kempe/ Scottish Fantasy SXL6573 (11/72) Decca 6795 London DMorini/Berlin RSO/Fricsay/ Glazunoo DG Heliodor CONCERTO NO./Lopez-Cobes/ effective writing for the Violin Cone. D Suk/ Czech 1 IN 26 PO/Ancer!/Me>id. dozen fact that his three itzhakPorliran chamber works and great quantities of choral music have disappeared into some consolation that three or four of ideas. If Bruch's shade d.. Perlman/New Philh. but he had a considerable reputation as a conductor. OP. Unusually. Berlin 1920) is saddened by the operas.MAX BRUCH (b. both in Germany and in England. G MINOR. and he several times drew on other kinds of traditional music — notably German and Welsh folksongs and. perhaps it is his concertante works have held a place in the repertoire. nr. where for three years he directed the Liverpool 46 VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA OChung/RPO/Kempe/ Violin Cone. — and its overall craftsmanship command both affection and respect. the first of three for that instrument remains a firm favourite with players and audiences alike./Lopez-Cobos/ Scorrisli Fantasy ASD3310 (o/77) S-37210 Angel EMI/HMV . in E minor a Stern. he is often thought of as a Jewish composer. 2 ASD3310 violin Philharmonic Society. On the strength of his overt romanticism and his impassioned free arrangement for cello and orchestra of Kol Nidrei (his second most popular work). its 1 SDD46S (6/76) Decca Ace of Diamon 6337 London OCampoli/LPO/Boult/Mendelssolin ECS775 (8/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15015 London Perlman/New Philh. Cologne 1838. in the brilliant Scottish Fantasy for violin and orchestra. Scots tunes. (6/77) EMI/HMV S-37210 Angel VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. SXL6S73 (11/72) Decca all limbo. Cone. Cone.

as they have been called. If Ansfelden. Netherlands Radio Ch. (These are fortunately less commonly played nowadays than the originals. and was himself deeply devout and almost incredibly gauche: his appearance. 7 IN E Concertgebouw/Haitink/Te Deum SAL3624-5 (9/67) Phonogram Berlin PO/Karajan/ Wagner: Siegfn Idyll DG 2707 142 (4/77) 2707 102 DG SYMPHONY NO. it is fascinating to speculate on what he would have said about the symphonies of Bruckner. to which he agreed in the hopes of making his works more acceptable but which only upset their proportions.) To appreciate Bruckner's music one needs to understand the man./Norrington ZRG710 (12/73) Decca 4 IN E Argo* SYMPHONY NO. but paradoxically their length is made to write of its Below: Bruckner at his piano. 8 IN C MINOR Concertgebouw/Haitink 6700 020 (10/70) Phonogram Berlin PO/Karajan 2707 085 (5/76) DG* D Berlin PO/Karajan SXDW3024 (5/76) EMI/HMV Cc Cla SYMPHONY NO. FLAT DPhilh. Upper Austria. He came from humble Catholic peasant stock. habitually wore the peasant costume seen here. The unhurried simple grandeur of his "cathedrals in sound". He to seem even greater in the cut versions urged upon him by well-meaning friends. 1824. which follow and greatly expand the Schubertian tradition in a peculiarly Austrian atmosphere of leisurely spaciousness. the year when his Seventh Symphony brought him his first real success. two years before his death.ANTON BRUCKNER (b. in baggy trousers deliberately too short for his legs (to have more freedom Right: Anton Bruckner in 1885. DG* 5 IN B FLAT D Concertgebouw/Haitink 6700 055 (6/72) Phonogram SYMPHONY NO. MASS NO. Schubert's Schumann > "Great" d./ Concertgebouw/Haitink/Sj/m. 9 IN D MINOR D Berlin PO/Karajan 139011 (6/69) DG* D Concertgebouw/Haitink SAL3575 (10/66) Phonogram D Chicago SO/Barenboim 2530 639 (4/76) DG* TE DEUM D Soloists. has been likened by nonBrucknerians to Lewis Carroll's "reeling. 2 DSchutz Choir/Philip Jones Brass Ens. 7 6700 038 (9/67) Phonogram 802759 Philips Soloists/Vienna Singverein/Berlin PO/Karajan/Mozart 2530 704 (2/77) DG* ANTON BRUCKNER Symphonie Ni4-RomantBChB' •Romantic Berliner 50 PhUtiamorrter Herbert \wi Korojan . C Vienna 1896) major Symphony moved "heavenly length". writhing and fainting in coils"./Klemperer SXLP30167 EMI/HMV (7/74) S-3624S Angel Concertgebouw/Haitink 6599 729 (12/74) Phonogram DVPO/Bohm 6BB171-2 Decca 2240 London D Berlin PO/Jochum DG 2S3S 111 (8/75) Privilege* DLSO/Kertesz SDD464 Decca Ace of Diam (3/76) STS-15289 London Berlin PO/Karajan 2530 674 (10/76) SYMPHONY NO.

represents the peak of his liturgical music. A took him from the monastery of St Florian to the post of and later to extensive concert With immense earnestness he studied strict methods of composition. He also felt an inner tug-of-war about his nationality. Unlike him. however. before seriously attempting the symphonic form at the age of just over 40 (like Brahms >). Yet at heart he considered himself Italian. 2 DGranat. sardonic humour. Busoni between his international career as one of the greatest pianists of his day (and as and composer. and Liszt >. Symphony. Above: Ferruccio Busoni PIANO CONCERTO New England Conservatory in Boston — by choice bitter revitalising musical Ogdon. the opera Doktor Faust. he tipped the distinguished conductor Hans Richter after rehearsing one of his symphonies. especially the Landler-like scherzos. he gave the rest of his life to composition. Empoii 1866. "No./Prausnitz/Da//apicco/a. proclaims his allegiance to the organ. 5. d. RPO/ Revenaugh/Dofctor Faust— two studies VIOLIN (1/681 HMV SONATA NO. and his brief and abortive directorship of the Liceo Filarmonico in Bologna where as a boy of 15 he had become the youngest member since Mozart hopes of >. and apart from later appointments as a professor at the Conservatory there as a Court organist and as a lecturer at the University. his Ninth was left organist at Linz Cathedral. The largescale Te Deum. Gorini (pianos) HM314 Rediffusion Alldis Choir. DSM1004 12/76) Rediffusion/Desma 51 . And as a result of his rustic upbringing he was extremely naive: for example. he declared. and would never sit in his presence. which emptied the hall at its premiere. apart from showing the influence of Beethoven's Ninth. Wotpe ZRG757 SLS776 (5/76) Decca Argo* FANTASIA CONTRAPPUNTISTICA Lorenzi. in Berlin. in German — the one-act Arlecchino and Turandot are both marked by quirky. slow developer. plus an early one he had himself called. His hero-worship of Wagner » (to whom he dedicated his Third Symphony. the his activities as a and then teaching in Helsingfors. composed about the time of the Seventh lation. yet his early compositions such as the Comedy overture and the violin sonatas are immediately attractive. tours. But special contributions of his to the symphony as a form were his introduction of extra subjects in the exposition and the merging of development and recapitu- and the building-up of the finale from elements in previous movements (as in Nos. Bruckner had started his adult life as a village schoolmaster-cum-organist. Busoni's music has appealed chiefly to connoisseurs. like that of Franck >. There were eventually eight symphonies. and the tremolando with which he often began a symphony. His orchestration. 7 and 8). the inspiration of his elaborate Fantasia contrappuntistica. The intellectual character of much of his work does make it something of an acquired taste.when playing the organ) and always in far too large a was bizarre. like his father. Gray/ Paderewski: Violin Son. showing an Italianate warmth (like his piano playing. in which for the first time he included Wagner tubas in his orchestra) was so extreme that he fell on his knees before him at their first collar. which was characterised by the classically-minded as "ultra-romantic" but which all agreed had at the same time a visionary grandeur and an interpretative perception all his own). completed after his death by a pupil. and he wrote the texts of all his own operas disappointment to his life in his own country. particularly in the art of improvisation. BERCEUSE ELEGIAQUE New Philh. He moved to Vienna. with a typical lack of self-confidence. meeting. and his first Mass. lends from which his themes emerge as from a romantic haze meditative it a communion with Nature. Berlin 1924) Like his younger contemporary suffered from a Rachmaninov tug-of-war in his life ». His country background influenced the cut of his melodies. but his gifts in the latter capacity. and wrote several works for chorus. is deeply impressive. FERRUCCIO BUSONI (b. and his greatest masterpiece. and he never expected otherwise: "all art is aristocratic". unfinished. and whose death inspired the Adagio of his Seventh Symphony. the obvious influence behind his huge piano concerto (which also calls for a male chorus). 0". proved a His great musical allegiances were to Bach >. after a cosmopolitan career — touring as a child prodigy in a conductor) Austria and Moscow and he settled Italy. His mother had been a pianist of German descent.

. Preludes and Fugues— A minor. ? of this Danish composer. B. each composer contributing half. Vater unser. d. but Lincoln Cathedral at the age of 20: nearly ten years later he went to London to share the post of organist to the Chapel Royal with his old master. Dure Adams Fall. chaconnes and fantasias. Nun lob mein Seel. Komm. esteem surrounding (Elsinore) for poser. mich armen. d. songs. Magnificat I tono. married his predecessor's daughter. like his Songs of sundrie natures (though this volume also contains seven penitential psalms treated metrically). He made Liibeck a Mecca for German musicians both by his own splendid playing (Bach * for example tramped 200 miles to hear him) and by the evening concerts for organ. . *& tfi-t- S~* * poem who fame and comcomposition: one the this sixteenth-century English excelled in all branches of declares that his "greater tyme and far skill and knowledge dothe to strange countries excelle abroade his skill at this all dothe shyne. Handel * and others withdrew their applications. heiliger Geist. particularly in the fields of cantatas and organ toccatas. D minor.-fe >T? t \l 2s /|((l£ WSl * > ©acrac Santioiidi Ctuntorrs in IcclfSia Dirciti'D b«i fflkljgri SouarO Wy%_^^^J rl /£ * r m $*z f * Pifw - "•«*. in taking in one of the conditions. G minor. are considered his masterpieces. Toccata and Fugue in D minor. Chapius EX6 35308 (5/77) Selecta Telefunken 642001 Telefunken meinem D Below: A cantata written by Buxtehude in tablature. were collections of Psalmes. the important post of organist at the Marienkirche in Liibeck. ^' M pX „- pi. both sacred and canons and rounds. As one of the principal North German composers. a quantity of music for virginals and for viols. which were madrigalian in style. Te deum laudamus. Ciacona in E minor. many of which also attest to his mastery of expressive polyphony. famous men be abroad and skilful in the arte in Ewroppe is none like to our Englishe man". which introduces personifications of righteous and wicked souls and three of the deadly sins. Buxtehude influenced many musicians beside Bach. D. of other printers. •*r 'we. dramatic songs for stage plays. G minor. Chorale Preludes-Gott der Vater. a number of English anthems. As was not uncommon those days. Au lieben Gott.V. Christ unser Preludes and Herr. Danby TPLS13041 (6/71) Pye-Virtuoso ORGAN MUSIC Fugues-A minor. Jesus Christus. Byrd continued to hold his Chapel Royal post. Ach Gott und Herr. Ein feste Burg. Together they held a licence from Queen Elizabeth giving them. a life who had been an organist in Helsingor many years. 1623) Numerous literary references bear witness to pupil of his father.# WILLIAM BYRD DIDERIK BUXTEHUDE (b. a virtual for 21 satisfied monopoly to the resentment for printing music years— though even this seems not to have them. and two further sets of Cantiones sacrae. in both of which fields he was a pioneer — his keyboard variations and his fantasias for viols are outstanding. unser Heiland. The first fruit of their licence was the collection of 34 Cantiones sacrae (Latin motets) dedicated to the Queen. but at the age of 31 he secured Lincolnshire 1543. willst du leben. chorus and orchestra he instituted and which took place each year on the five Sundays before Christmas. Mensch. A cultivated but austere and litigious man "naturally disposed to gravitie and pietie". with lute or viols.Ach Herr. F. he seems to have studied under Thomas Tallis ^ and was appointed organist of . Liibeck 1707) Little is known of the early (b. was designed to be spread over the five Abendmusiken in 1683. Sonets and Songs of Sadnes and Pietie. and indeed composed much music for the Reformed English Church. Nimm von uns Ciacona in C minor. Stondon. along with his Anglican Great Service. two sets of Gradualia containing over 100 motets. as ORGAN MUSIC Canzonettas — E minor. Canzona in C Canzonettas in E minor. His quasi-oratorio The Last Judgment. Essex. Remarkably. He was one of the first to demand a virtuoso technique on the pedals. solo and secular. although he himself was a practising Catholic and wrote three great Masses which. . r A/+3 — — I* - rt & ** M^7*. but when he sought to impose the same condition on his own successor. Among his other works. over the post he also. Es ist das Heil. 1 E sharp. C Chorale Preludes. Helsingor 1637.

wrote William Bx/rd. I wish all is so good men would learne to sing'.Above: 'Since singing a thing. 53 .

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which received only two performances in Brussels before the management there went bankrupt. Debussy ASD3008 (9/74) EMI/HMV D LSO/ Argenta/Rimsky-Korsakov. Gwendoline. Saint-Saens ASD3125 a poetic Concerto for the curious medium of violin. Under the spell of Wagner he produced an unsuccessful (incidentally building pictures tragic opera. SUITE PASTORALE. persuaded him to treat music as a hobby. Puy-de-Dome. Orch. piano and string quartet. like everything of Chabrier's.Macabre Saini-Saens Prelude a tapres-midi dun faunc I> ESPANA. Paris. Cranados.EMMANUEL CHABRIER (b. He dutifully studied law and became a civil servant./ Jacquillat/Canfe/oube: Songs of the Auvergne ASD2826 (3/73) EMI/HMV S-37897 Angel POEME FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA Milstein/Philh. Le Roi Arthus. Dukas. lB41. a typically sensuous which has endeared itself His career was prematurely cut short when he was killed in a bicycle accident on his own estate. malgre came /ui the delightful — which comedy Le Roi three-act met with equally bad luck. then./Fistoulari/ Saint Saens SXLP30159 (5/74) EMI/HMV S-36005 Angel DPerlman/Paris Orch/Martinon/ Ravel. Limay. the ebullient orchestral rhapsody Espana. But immediately afterwards. with typical French bourgeois prudence. to artists (1/76) EMI/HMV S-37118 Angel SYMPHONY IN D B FLAT Suisse Romande. A slow and meticulous writer. who showed early musical talent but whose parents. not beginning to study with Massenet > at the Paris Conservatoire until he was 25 and then becoming a private pupil of Franck >. and from the brisk and vivacious Marche joyeuse (scored. Ten charming Pieces pittoresques for piano were followed by the work which brought him immediate fame. Mantes. but from the snook he permitted himself to cock at his beloved Tristan in the shape of a Quadrille for piano duet on themes from the opera. Souvenirs de Munich. vivid but delicate colouring and impeccable artistic taste).d. and resigned his post to devote his life to music. in 1880. and an emotional but somewhat flaccid symphony modelled on that by his teacher Franck. but his extremely self-deprecating and sensitive nature prevented him from making use of this for the furtherance of his own works. but associated with poets. d. which to this day has rightly remained a popular favourite. which employs Franck's cyclical technique. which includes an opera. Paris 1855.RHAPSODY DCBSO/Fremaux/Rauel. acquiring valuable practical experience which was later to bear fruit in his enchanting Ode to Music for female voices and orchestra. His stage music. but such was the case with Chabrier. is not important. Lamoureux. His irrepressible high spirits are evident not only from some of his songs (written late in the single decade of his career as a professional composer). and the orchestral song-cycle Poeme de Vamour et de la mer. He became chorus-master to Lamoureux. he was fortunate enough to have private wealth. but many of his songs are among the most exquisite in the repertoire of the French melodie. MARCHE JOYEUSE. Samt-Saens. nr. Ambert. is heard less often than it deserves. Poulenc > and Milhaud >. he was overwhelmed by the experience of hearing Tristan at Bayreuth. musicians and painters up a collection of impressionist which included Manet's "Bar aux FoliesBergeres") and composed in his spare time— notably two operattas. A candid and revealing sketch by Left: one of his many i nn artist friends. with originality. theatre LOUIS FRE^UX Bolero ftftd The Sorcerers Apprentice Dukas Espana Chabrier Danse . POEME DE L' AMOUR ET DE LA MER D Angeles. LE ROI MALGRELUI(exc) DSRO/Ansermet JB10 (6/78) Decca Jubilee 6438 London 3 VALSES ROMANTIQUES Kyriakou. his natural comic vein re-asserting itself. heavily indebted to Wagner's Tristan and Isolde. Moszkowski (6/77) Decca Eclipse ECS797 6006 London ESPANA. Faure: Dolly. Scaramouche. 1899) Chausson came to music late. It is however by his instrumental works that Chausson is chiefly remembered. but Chausson is best represented by the Poeme for violin and and melancholy work and audiences alike. There is orchestra. Ravel: TV34234S Ma mere (11/70) Decca I'oye Turnabout Chabrier at the piano. L'Etoile and Une Education manquee. which have a drollery that was to influence Satie >. ERNEST CHAUSSON (b. Klien/ Milhaud. as the caught fire after the third performance. Ansermet/Franclc: Bolides SXL6310 (1/68) STS-15294 London 55 . 18^-i) One might not expect an ardent admirer of Wagner > — one who carried a score of Tristan and Isolde with him everywhere — to be notable for his gleeful wit and verve.

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62 NO. however.FRYDERYK CHOPIN lb. 54.FANTASIA. OP. and a vulnerable which were allowed an outlet only in sarcasm. Barenboim/Francfc: Cello Sonata ASD2851 (2773) S-36937 Angel 10 ETUDES. d. never robust. all his music was for piano (even the exceptions. 61 Ax ARL1 1569 (9/761 RCA- BALLADES(Cpte. where his Polish-flavoured works created an instant impression. like the young Mozart >. But his father. such as the early Piano Trio. gifts of Within the elegant. not merely by impressionable young ladies. Meetings with visiting celebrities. Perlemuter/ Nocturnes REB153 (1/74) BBC IMPROMPTUS (Cpte. broadened his musical horizons. began to cause some anxiety. OP. reserved dandy whose brilliant mimicry amused his friends. 57 . 1. after prolonged emotional upsets. feelings. Below: The house and garden at Zelazoiva Wola. include the keyboard).) D Ashkenazy/Noiu-eHes Etudes SXL6143 (3/65) Decca 6422 London D Frankl/Fanraisie TV34217S in F minor (7/69) Decca Turnabout 34271 Turnabout BARCAROLLE n Barenboim/Chopm: shorter piano u-orlcs ASD2963 (5/74) EMI/HMV CELLO SONATA DDu Pre. Ballades 2726 014 (3/74) DG Left: Chopin shortly before his death. During a more extended concert tour in 1830. devoting himself to composition and frequenting influential circles: the affaire with George Sand dragged on for ten years altogether. the songs and a cello sonata. but by Europe's leading musicians. he was everywhere the object of almost unqualified admiration. where Fryderyk Chopin was born in 1810. wisely saw that he received a solid musical grounding at the Warsaw Conservatoire. Warsaw fell to the Russians. he was a fatally sick and mentally exhausted man with only two years to live. near Warsaw. intolerance. distorted view of his cavalier treatment of his texts (on whose exactitude he set great store) by exhibitionist pianists. OP. Zelazovx VVola. With very few exceptions. lay strong. with whom he then formed a liaison (her accounts of their life are full of romantic inventions). of the style in which they should be performed. Paris 1849) For the universal recognition he commands as one of the supremely great writers for the piano. and Chopin decided to settle in Paris. SCHERZO IN E. and most of it was written for himself to play. yet he had been virtually self-taught.) Z Rubinstein SB6649 (3/66) RCA Vasary /Etudes. sensitivity ANDANTE SPIANATO AND GRANDE POLONAISE. It was not long before his health. in whose artistic life he quickly became a fashionable figure. NOCTURNE IN B. and for the imperishable affection of players and listeners. although they abounded. an instrument he invested with a new poetry. and as an improviser. 1810. even. Chopin has had to pay a high price —a personality and novelettishly life. and. a teacher of French. nr. 25 Pollini 2530 291 (11/72) DG* Ashkenazy SXL6710 (12/75) Decca 6844 London OExc. publishing his first little pieces at the age of seven. As a pianist. and a widespread misunderstanding both of their nature and. His principal teacher had felt that Chopin should be often violent. EMI/HMV AND OP. OP. had been made much of in aristocratic salons. He dropped out of public musicmaking. and by the time it broke up. Warsaw. numerous silly legends and nicknames attached to some of the works. POLONAISE. and on its account his betrothal to the daughter of family friends was broken off: it was further undermined by a sojourn in Majorca with the masterful woman novelist George Sand. He had shown a precocious aptitude for music. and concerts in Vienna.

/ Ormandy/Fatitasy on Polish Airs MAZURKAS SB6797 (8/69) (Cpte. 2 76242 (7/74) CBS M-32780 Columbia VALSE BRILLANTE DAshkenazy SXL6575 (11/72) Decca WALTZES P2-27. 1 IN G MINOR. 2 IN B FLAT MINOR. MAZURKA IN A MINOR. Perlemuter/ Etudes REB153 (1/74) PIANO CONCERTO NO. Rubinstein SB6600 (2/65) RCA D2-24. NOCTURNES Grande a (Cpte. VALSE BRILLIANTE nVasary/Wa/rzes 2726 029 (8/74) DG 2 IN B FLAT MINOR DPerahia/Son. and imaginative realisation of its poetic possibilities. ETUDE IN G FLAT. 4. SO/ and grace some art. the subtle part-writing (particularly in when his lifelong he knew by heart. IMPROMPTUS NOS. 1 AND 2. Scherzi. Philadelphia Orch. Polonai i Andar. PRELUDE NO. Vasary/ScJierzi 2726 029 (8/74) DG 1-14. polonaise. Barcarolle (4/74) Decca PIANO WORKS Michelangeli 2530 236 (6/72) RCA D Ashkenazy/LSO/Zinman/Ballade 3. but his instinctive understanding of the piano's textures. 45 SXL6334 (4/68) Decca SONATA NO. OP. Nouvelles Etudes. OP. 61. SLS5043 (4/76) HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. had been Bach the later works. D SB6702-4 (S-7/67) RCA LSC-6177 RCA (Cpte. SCHERZO NO. and the rhythms of his idealised Polish dances (in the Mazurkas and heroic Polonaises). (Ballades. DG* Mazurkas. OP. but of equal fascination to musicians are the romantic chromaticism of his PIANO CONCERTOS NOS. F 2 IN MINOR D Rubinstein. FANTAISIE IMPROMPTU IN C SHARP MINOR O Rubinstein SB6649 (3/66) RCA POLONAISES 1-16 DFrankl TV34254-5S (10/69) Decca Turnabout D 1-7. 2. MAZURKA. 2. the F minor Fantaisie and the Barcarolle. as in his Studies. (12 discs) (12/73) RCA POLONAISE FANTAISIE.) Fantaisie-Impromptu. 2 IN B FLAT MINOR. ANDANTE SPIANATO AND GRANDE POLONAISE IN E FLAT. Fantaisie in F Minor. 59 NO. E 1 Pollini. Berceuse. Prelude Op. 17 NO. . star Maksymmk Above: At the age of 20 Chopin settled in France for good.) Rubinstein whose a study of 2. Waltz 1 SXL6575 (11/72) Decca SONATA NO. Philh. and his individual and of form. POLISH AIRS music-lovers. S./Kletzki SXLP30160 (6/74) SER5692 IN MINOR EMI/HMV S-60066 Seraphim DArrau/LPO/Inbal 6500 255 (6/72) Phonogram* Impromptus. 3 IN B MINOR DPerahia/Son. Bolero. S3 Horowitz 72969 (9/72) CBS POLONAISE IN A FLAT. Perahia 76422 (1/76) CBS RECITALS: BALLADE NO. as in the Nocturnes were idiomatic to the instrument. 1-3. 3 76242 (7/74) CBS M-32780 Columbia Argerich/Andanre spinato. the rhapsodic sense of colour Ballades and Scherzos. Tarantelle Rubinstein Rubinstein SB6731-2 (2/681 RCA LSC-7050 RCA DExc. the sonatas in B flat minor and B minor. FANTASY ON and Mazurkas. 15. The notion (nurtured on the popularity of the Preludes and Waltzes) that he was only a miniaturist is exploded by such works as the concertos. POLONAISE IN A FLAT. Scherzo 3. GRANDE NOS. 5. His beautifully expressive melodies. 34 NO. OP. ato . Waltzes. Sonatas 2 and 3. Scherzo 2 SONATA NO. Cherubini's contrapuntal teachings).FRYDERYK CHOPIN writing operas: certainly the exquisitely embroidered bel D Gilels/Philadelphia/Ormandy 72338 (7/65) CBS Y-32369 Odyssey Askenase/The Hague PO/Otte loo/ Krako nak 2548 066 (10/75) DG/Heliodor canto melodic lines characteristic of his music show an affinity with the Italian operas current in Warsaw in his youth. it was lightness its that captivated them. SCHERZI 1-4 Ashkenazy/Barcaro»e in F. 1 AND KRAKOWIAK. NOCTURNES. Askenase 2548 146 (4/74) DG Heliodor 58 5. Pollini 2530 550 (12/75) DG* Q 1-24. the grandiose effects of performers are utterly alien to his Below: Memorial to Chopin in the DOhlsson/PoIish Radio Nat. 25 IN C SHARP MINOR. Pollini 2530 659 (12/76) DG* PRELUDES DArrau 6500 622 (6/751 Phonogram* Dl-24. OP. but though his playing frequently astonished his hearers by its intensity. exercise their spell on all harmony. 61. love of "48" fortified by 3>. 2530 530 (6/75) DG* Ashkenazy/Nocrurnes 4 and Mazurka 37. Barcarolle. OP. 10 NO. WALTZ IN A MINOR. OP.) Ronald Smith SLS5014 (5/75) HMV Nocturne SXL6693 17. Nocturnes. grounds of his birthplace. OP.

rca Victor RUBINSTEIN Mays Chopin Polonaises & Impromptus Below: Chopin's characteristically neat manuscript: a page from the finale of his Piano Sonata in B minor. 4 * M *\] fi^r\ >in i a mn \jj]rii ^m0 ^^ 59 .


festival organiser and musical administrator—in the course of which he has received very numerous honours. have a rare charm. He was the first has occupied a foremost place in musical activities in the USA — not only as composer but as conductor. and the highly evocative Spring. N. and the poetic Quiet city. ISO/Copland/Billy the Kid 72888(2/711 CBS M-30114 Columbia SYMPHONY NO. lecturer. and won an RCA Victor award for a Dance sym- hurriedly put together from a previous ballet. the 1925 Music for the theater and the Piano Concerto of the following year. Chief among these were works with an "open-air" flavour. to be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. has a touchingly tender atmosphere. but the vitality and rhythmic vigour which these displayed were soon to be deflected into other channels. and all his adult the age of 21 and worked for three years with Nadia Boulanger. and the folk opera in which Latin-American styles figured. Cowell. Copland was the first American composer of serious music in this century to make an impact on the world at large. which has made for immediate accessibility when they were intended for functional purposes: his film scores for Our town and The red pony.AARON COPLAND (b. cowboy Rodeo and songs. For the most part Copland's works are characterised by a striking economy and transparency of texture. sometimes making use of rural folk-music or Billy the Kid. who on his return was the soloist in his Symphony for organ and orchestra. Gershwin SXL6811 (9/76) Decca BILLY THE KID D NYPO/Bernstein/Rodeo 72411 (4/61) CBS MS-6175 Columbia DLSO/Copland/Rodeo 72888 12/711 CBS M-30114 Columbia Q Philadelphia/Appalachian LSB4018 (7/71) Spring RCA QUIET CITY ASMF/Marriner//l>es. Brooklyn. At other times (as in his Piano Sonata) he has favoured a harsh.. also derived from a film. Barber Creston ZRG845 (7/761 Decca Argo* RODEO ONYPCVBernstein/ Billy 72411 |4/oll the Kid CBS MS-6175 Columbia D4 Dances only. like the rhythmically ingenious El Salon Mexico (1936) and the Clarinet Concerto. such as the ballets Appalachian The tender land (1954).Y. 3 DNYPO/Bemstein/ Harris: Symphony 3 61681 16/76) CBS Classics MS-6594 Columbia Ol . he employed jazz idioms treated with a Stravinskian pungency. 1900) may have preceded him in establishing a American idiom. he went to France at in Though Ives > specifically life composer 1930 phony In this. works Left & above: Tioo portraits of Aaron Copl Harris "fiH Copland <=«= APPALACHIAN SPRING LSO/Copland/Lincoln Portrait 72872(6/721 CBS M-30649 Columbia QPhiladelphia/Ormandy/Billy LSB4018(7/71) RCA Los Angeles the Kid PO/Mehta/ Bernstein. author. and between the two lie such thoughtful but approachable works as his Third Symphony. austere idiom. After initial studies in New York. for example.

he was slighted by the King and returned. though he did direct performances by an orchestra of 150 players in the Roman palace of Christina of Sweden. then the operatic centre of Italy. His works were published in Antwerp.OKI I. Amsterdam. Dreyfus 2533 132-3 (10/75) Produktion DG Archiv supplanted him in the all this that he went into a decline. Born of a good family. When at long last he visited Naples. 1. names one of the greatest history of and virtual creator of the concerto grosso. Paris and London as well as in Italy: numerous violinists later to be famous came to study with him. but in the solo sonatas the melodic line of these adagios would have been expected to be embellished according to the conventions of the time. and he repeatedly refused invitations from other noble patrons to leave Rome and enter their service. was channelled into two forms: the baroque trio- sonata and solo sonata.M\RM\MN U FIELDS I II MMIIJ MUiKIXIK CONCERTI GROSSI. which featured sequential progressions and chains of suspensions.CORELLI ARCANGELO Rome (b. D Naples 9 (9/74) & 12 6 Decca Argo. in particular have a gentle Above: Title-page to the second edition of Corelli's violin sonatas one of the pillars of string literature. His slow movements beauty which relies on the singing quality of the violin that he himself cultivated in his playing. 1713) this courteous and cultured musician spent the greater part of his life in Rome. where for about twenty years he directed the regular Monday concerts at the palace of Cardinal Ottoboni which were a focal point of the musical life of the city. to play with Alessandro Scarlatti. .or five-movement concerto grosso (the forerunner of the modern concerto) which contrasted a small solo group of two violins and a cello with the full body of strings. to find that a (. OP. elegantly fashioned writing. He was buried in the Pantheon near Raphael — an apt choice since he had associated with the leading painters of his own day and had formed a valuable collection of by pictures. He influenced the young Handel and was the teacher of such virtuosi as Geminiani and in the the violin Locatelli. D ASMF/Marriner ZRG773-5 NOS. but his fame both as violinist and composer was widespread throughout Europe. d. Fusignano 1653. 62 Right: Details from a painting after Carlo Maratti of Corelli. and the four.I I unccttiGrasaOp6 K'AI*MtvTxT. Queen much newcomer seemed to have public's favour: he was so dejected mortified. ONLY Scarlatti/Gracis 2533 124 (5/73) DG Archiv Pr VIOLIN SONATAS. His dignified. OP. 8. 5 OMelkus. and where he was held in the highest esteem.


After the publication of two organ Masses (versets to alternate with the plainsong of the Ordinary. and. 18. 27 D Dreyfus toucher (harpsichord)/L'. after putting in Lalande as his deputy. which were published together under the significant title Les Gouts reunis. the post of organist at St Gervais. in 1693. following this up the next year by an appointment as harpsichord tutor to the of centuries. two years later ennobled him. d. but also in Les Nations. which included some of the finest instrumentalists of the day. 24). over the years. chaconnes and passacailles (such as the great B minor example in Ordre No. well over 200 harpsichord pieces. His music also blends flexible counterpoint and rich harmonic thinking. Book 2-Ordre 6.FRANCOIS COUPERIN (b. and In his capacity as motets. (Bach 3> for example studied his works and copied some out. APOTHEOSE DE LULLY Mcdc ECO/Leppard/ Charpent SOL300 (10/67) L'Oiseau-Lyre LIVRES DE CLAVECIN Book 1-Ordre 4. Couperin was much concerned to try to reconcile the divergent French and Italian styles then current. he took over six years later and held for nearly 40 years before passing it on to his cousin Nicolas (whence it was handed down in turn to two more generations of Couperins). urbanity. the considered the peak of his church music.) At the age of eleven he inherited from his father. there 1733) even in his own lifetime as "le Grand". a series of Concerts royaux for the court's Sunday concerts. pastorals and character portraits. satirical or burlesque pieces. melancholy and ironic wit are fascinatingly combined. 8 or L'Amphibie in No. over two were musicians. which. rondeaux. almost all of which have fanciful titles and which represent a great diversity of styles— dance forms. 26. Paris 1668. as in his own personality. But perhaps his chief legacy to posterity lies in his refined and charming harpsichord pieces. Book 4-Ordr 24. Louis XIV nominated him one of the directors of music of the royal chapel. An engraving of Francois Couperin. . composer to the king he wrote passionate Lecons de tenebres which are royal children. In this gallery.4rr de clavecin le EK6 35276 (1/76) Selecta/Telefunken MESSE PROPRE POUR LES COUVENTS MESSE SOLENNELLE POUR LES PAROISSES Weir (organ) 4BBA1011-2 (6/73)Decca LES NATIONS Jacobean Ens. Book 3-ordre 13. 'organiste de la Left: chapelle dn Roy'. plus an organ solo at the Offertory). the appellation serves not only to distinguish Francois from the rest of the numerous Couperin dynasty (some twelve Known whom. and at least four composers) but to indicate his renown and the general admiration in which he was held. employing emotional suspensions and inner chromaticisms. in the last decade of his life. and this found expression not only in L'Apotheose de Corelli and LApotheose de Lully. which consisted of French suites together with Italian trio-sonatas (a form he took over from Corelli >). which were published in 27 loosely-organised ordres or suites. OLS137-8 64 (1/72) L'Oi. who had himself inherited it from his brother Louis.

CLAUDE DEBUSSY (b. 2. In his twenties he had undergone a variety of musical influences — the Russians. One cause of his restlessness may have been that his current mistress. into a lyric drama whose quasinaturalistic word-setting and orchestral and emotional reticence make it a landmark in operatic development. painting. a pupil of Chopin >. leux 72533 (7/67) CBS D Philh. MASQUES. NOCTURNE. particularly Mussorgsky >. TARANTELLE STYRIENNE. although his self-indulgent temperament and dislike of routine impelled him to leave Rome after only two of the prescribed three years. Ravel 138 923 (3/65) DG* DNYPO/Boulez/Prefude dun a VApres-midi faune. was whom he dedicated his first set of Fetes Debussy's hedonistic and be responsible for a hectic lovelife which resulted in the attempted suicide of his first wife when he eloped with another woman. under whose spell he fell (like many of his compatriots). the play of light (eg Nocturnes. St. IMAGES. indeed.BOOKS 1 AND 2. and above all Wagner >. however. 65 . The adjective "impressionist". Verlaine (whose mother-in-law. the Javanese gamelang he heard at the 1889 Exposition Universale. his references to writing been uncommon of likened his to visual sensi- and his lifelong love of fluid orchestral colours. Iberia. ETUDES. Marche ecossaise 9500 359 (4/78) Phonogram NOCTURNES (1. LA PLUS QUE LENTE. flexible rhythm. when he published the three instrumental sonatas written in an unusually elliptical and finely-chiselled style. La Mer 72533 (6/67) CBS MS-7361 Columbia D SRO/Ansermet/Nocturnes./Boulez/Prmtemps./Giulini/Nocturnes SXLP30146 (8/72) EMI/HMV S-35977 Angel Concertgebouw/Haitink/Pre/ude VApres-midi dun faune. L'ISLE JOYEUSE Frankl TV37025S (7/72) Decca Turnabout IMAGES. It is. had been his first piano teacher) and Maeterlinck. he assertively described himself on their title-pages as "musicien franqais". Equally important. (7/72) Decca Turnabout Gigues. and even of piano tone which should create the illusion of an instrument "without hammers". the year of his string quartet and the sensual nature still in was later Paris: to CHILDREN'S CORNER SUITE DMichelangeli 2530 196 (12/71) DG* ESTAMPES. vague tonality. 3. As a student at the Paris Conservatoire he had rebelled against orthodox harmony teaching but had managed to bility. was the influence of literary symbolists such as Mallarme. LA BOITE A JOUJOUX D Frankl TV37026S IMAGES (1. win the Prix de Rome at his third attempt. was very much in accord with the impressionists' outlook. whose Pelleas et Melisande he turned. is d. only to shake himself free later: during the 1914-war. Clarinet Rhapsody. D'UN CAHIER DESQUISSES Q Frank! TV37023S ETUDES D Jacobs (7/72) Decca Turnabout 1-12 H71322 (9/76) WEA/Nonesuch./Giulini/La SXLP30146 (8/72) Mer EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-35977 Angel Chorus/New Philh. Nuages. Rondes de printemps) D Boston SO/Tilson Thomas/ Prelude 2530 145 (5/72) DG JEUX DNPO/Boulez/Pre/ude. his compositions in the twenty years between 1893. MAZURKA. 2. Baudelaire. DANSE BOHEMIENNE. to galantes. Dense ECS816 (4/78) Decca Eclipse STS-15022 London LA BOITE A JOUJOUX SRO/Ansermet/Dufcos (11/71) Decca Ace SDD293 of Diamonds LAMER Berlin PO/Karajan/ Prelude. which have scintillating orchestral Whistler's paintings) reveal an the art of Debussy's in music. after ten years' work.BOOKS AND 1 2. Germain-en-Laye 1862. Paris 1918) commonly borrowed from applied to Although he himself disliked the term. Clarinet Rhapsody 72785 (4/71) CBS Left: Debussy charted a quite new course in music. however. 3. a Sirenes) DChorus/Philh. Fetes.

Chorus/SRO/Ansermet//i>iu. SAGA5391 (3/75) Saga PRELUDE A L'APRES-MIDI D'UN FAUNE Berlin PO/Karajan/La Mer. Le Roi Lea styrienne D National ORTF/Martinon SLS893 (2/75) (5 discs) HMV S-37064 Angel PELLEAS ET MEL1SANDE DSoderstrom. Mclntyre. called for a new palette of keyboard colours. which. which despite its wonderfully impressionistic sound-painting has an underlying classical structure. BERCEUSE HEROIQUE. S Rhapsody. . SUITE LE PETIT NEGRE. POUR LE DFrankl TV37024S 66 AND HARP HQS1262 Ravel. Marche ecc Petite Suite. (1/76) RCA/Erato PRINTEMPS DNew Philh. VALSE ROMANTIQUE. Petite Suite. Ravel 138923 (3/65) DG* DNew Phil. Constable/ Berlioz. /Ravel HQS1231 (10/70) EMI/HMV 2103 Connoisseur Society SUITE BERGAMASQUE Adni/Reciral (5/72) EMI/HMV BERGAMASQUE. et profane. Ward. including a new pedal technique. CHILDREN'S CORNER SUITE. for which Debussy is best remembered and which so powerfully affected the course of music. Fantaisie fo orchestra.CLAUDE DEBUSSY evocative Prelude a YApres-midi d'un faune (there were originally to have been two other sections besides the Prelude to go with Mallarme's poem)./Boulez/ Nocturnes. Ravel SDD425 (9/74) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15356 London SRO/Ansermet/Ln Mer. etc. Clarinet Rhapsody. Jeux 72533 (7/67) CBS MS-7361 Columbia LSO/Monteux/Nocturnes. Covent Garden Op/Boulez 77324 (10/70) CBS MS-30119 Columbia PROSES LYRIQUES D Gomez. and the second orchestral Image entitled Iberia. Roussel STU70889 Britten/Britten. and 1913. HOMMAGE A HAYDN./ Ravel. like the piano La Puerta del Vino and Soiree dans Grenade. when he won the first Prix de Rome. Printemps 72785 (4/71) CBS SONATA FOR CELLO AND PIANO PRELUDES. His piano music. J< mer. captures an authentic Spanish atmosphere although he had spent only a single day across the Spanish border. Minton. when he wrote Jeux for Diaghilev's Russian Ballet. He loosened the hold of traditional harmony by employing "forbidden" progressions and unrelated chords./Boulez/ Nocturnes Clarinet Rhapsody 72785 (4/71) CBS D Melos £t\s. Son. SPA231 (6/72) Decca DConcertgebouw/Haitink/ La Mer. Bizet SAGA5388 (1/75) Saga RHAPSODY FOR CLARINET Ode Peyer. Rev. Isador/Foure.COMPLETE O Rostropovich. and making extensive use of the whole-tone and pentatonic scales and of the old church modes. DKars Schumann SXL2298 (1/62) Decca 6237 London SONATA FOR ECS816 (4/78) Decca Eclipse DNE Cons. Shirley. PIANO (7/72) Decca Turnabout Above: Debussy at 22. Chorus/Boston SO/Abbad Ra 2530 038 (12/70) DG* ORCHESTRAL WORKS D Berceuse heroiq Children's Corner Suit. Rauel 7174 (8/76) Selecta/French Decca IN G MINOR DQuartetto Italiano/Rauel STRING QUARTET SAL3643 (5/68) Phonogram 835361 Philips DParrenin Qt. 1 CFP40210 (6/75) Classics for Pleasure D Wallez/Rigutto/ Faun?. SOL60048 Roussel. New Philh. VIOLA 3BB107-8 (11/71) Decca D Boole 3 only./Boulez/La Mer. Dai. particularly the Estampes and the two books of Preludes (whose imaginative titles were added after they were composed) and of Images. his compositions for orchestra include two other masterpieces—the large-scale La Mer. La plus c a 1'Apres-midi d'un fa Clarinet Rhapsody. Apart from works already mentioned. Images. leaving dissonances unresolved. Ropartz (9/62) L'Oiseau-Lyre* SONATA FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO DHasson. Ma 9500 359 (4/78) Phonogram O Strasbourg PO/Lombard/Fm<r.



Germain du Va\ 1836;

d. Paris 1891)

So great an admirer of Delibes was Tchaikovsky > that he
declared his own Swan lake ballet music to be "poor stuff"
measured against the former's Sylvia: indeed, he went
further and wrote in a letter that the Frenchman was a
composer of talent with whom the "dry routinier"
contemporary Germans (presumably Brahms > and
Wagner >) were not to be compared. Delibes was in fact
the first to raise the standard of ballet music from the low
level into which it had sunk. He had been a pupil at the
Paris Conservatoire of Adolphe Adam, the composer of
the ballet Giselle and of several light operas, who secured


a job as repetiteur at the Theatre Lyrique at the age of

immediately spurred him to compose operettas, of
which he produced about fifteen in as many years.
17: this

In his late twenties he was appointed a repetiteur, then a
chorus-master, at the Opera, and started to write ballets.
The two acts he contributed to La Source were so
successful — they were later used on their own under the
that he was promptly invited to compose a
title Naila

complete ballet by himself. The result was the delightful
comedy Coppelia (1870), whose wealth of elegant melody
and delicately coloured orchestration made it an instant
popular favourite; and it has so remained with ballet
companies throughout the world ever since. The largerscale mythological ballet Sylvia, six years later, was
regarded by some ballet critics of the time as too
symphonic, but the suite extracted from it has certainly
kept its place in the concert repertoire. Delibes's operas
have not held the stage, except (in France) Lakme: this
followed the fashion of the time in choosing an exotic
setting, a faintly absurd India under English rule, and
contains much charming music but is remembered mainly
by the "Bell Song", a favourite with coloratura sopranos.

2535 189 (1/77)


D Sutherland,

DCpte. Minneapolis SO/Dorati
6780 253 (11/75) Phonogram
2-77004 Mercury
DExc. Berlin PO/Karajan/Chotmi


Vanzo. Clement. Sinclair.
Berbie/Monte Carlo Opera/Bonynge
SET387-9 (5/69) Decca
1391 London



SPA314 (7/74) Decca
6185 London


Right: Poster for the Paris
premiere of Sylvia, 2876.

Above: Delibes rescued


music from



g brum


g hearts



MERC RE Dl 14 JUIN 1876

Ballet en 3 actes et 5 tableaux.













tik luh.



Bradford 1862;


Crez-sur-loing 1934)

Delius presents the curious case of a composer whose
music is recognisably and essentially English "Shelley,
Wordsworth and Keats could not call forth the magic of
the English landscape with greater certitude", one musician

has declared — yet who left England at the age of 21 to
avoid going into his father's wool business, briefly
emigrated to Florida (where he neglected his orange
plantation for music), went to study desultorily in Leipzig
for a couple of years, and then spent the remaining 46
years of his

life in

seclusion in France, where his


remained, and still remains, almost unknown. Moreover,
most of his compositions received their first performance
not in his native England, which was slow to appreciate
them, but in Germany. Living aloof from the world as he
did, his music would not have made its way in England
without the indefatigable and redoubtable championship
of Sir Thomas Beecham, whose performances captured
their subtle and elusive character with astonishing
empathy; and fortunately several of his unrivalled
recordings are still current. Delius also owed much to the
devotion of a young musician, Eric Fenby, who was so
appalled to learn that the composer, though mentally
alert, had become blind and paralysed (in which condition
he spent the last decade of his life) that in 1928 he went to
live with him as his amanuensis and in impossibly difficult

conditions— Delius's sufferings intensified his egotism,
his impatience and his acid tongue — laboriously took
down several compositions from dictation.
By temperament, strengthened by his haphazard musical
education, Delius had no use for orthodox harmonic or
contrapuntal procedures. Intent largely on the expression
of poetic pantheistic meditations, he favoured a sensuously
impressionistic idiom, rich in texture, with fluid chromatic
harmonies (although essentially tonal), for which he
usually demanded a very large orchestra: there is little
rhythmic variety in his work, and for structural purposes
he frequently relied on more or less overt variation
form (as in the well-known Brigg Fair, and the nostalgic
Appalachia for chorus and orchestra, both based on
folksongs). In mood his music ranges from the gently


idyllic, as in




first cuckoo in Spring, to the
Concerto and Song of the high

hearing the

ecstatic, as in the Violin

imbued with

a sense of regretful yearning, as in

works A
and Requiem are vehicles for his rationalist
philosophy. His operas, though never successful on the
stage, are well suited to the gramophone, and the
rapturous Walk to the Paradise Garden, an interlude from
A Village Romeo and Juliet, is the perfect epitome of his
his masterpiece Sea-drift. His Nietzschean choral

Mass of


individual style.

Ambrosian Singers/Halle/Barbirolli/
Brigg Fair




S-367S6 Angel













DRPO/ Beecham

D Lindsey,

ASD357 (8/60) EMI/HMV

DDu Pre/RPO/Sargent/E/gar:



Erwen, Holmes,



Harper, Watts, Tear,





Herincx, Estes/Alldis Choir/Groves
SLS974 (6/74)




S-36588 Angel



RPO/Beecham/ Florida Suite; Over
hills and far away
HQS1126 (4/68) EMI/HMV


SLS958 (3/72)
S-3781 Angel

Luxon/LPO &


RLPO/Groves/Euenryr; Dance
Rhapsody No. 1




S-36870 Angel


Harwood, Tear, Shirley-Quirk, Luxon,
Mangin/AIldis Choir/RPO/Davis/
Talk by Fenby
SLS966 (2/73) HMV
S-3784X Angel



D Holmes,


Fenby /Talk by Fenby
(5/73) Unicorn

The blind and paralysed
Delius towards the end of
his life. Painting by Ernest
Procter, from the National
Portrait Gallery.



Pozsony 1877;



York 1960)

same generation as his compatriots
Bartok > and Kodaly 2, Dohnanyi took no part in their
quest for roots in genuine Hungarian folk music and had
little sympathy with their aims, giving his allegiance
firmly to the orthodox German tradition of Brahms >:


indeed, he even preferred to use the German version of his
name, which appears as Ernst von Dohnanyi on most of
his published compositions.

He was educated

musically in
called Bratislava, and in Budapest;

town, now
20 he won a prize for his first symphony and
made his debut as a pianist in Berlin and Vienna, being
hailed at once as a player of the first rank. He toured
extensively, with great success, in Europe, England and
his native

at the age of


USA, taught

in Berlin for

seven years, became director

and director of the
Hungarian Radio in 1931. After the Second World War he
found himself in bad political odour and left Hungary for
good, settling first in Argentina and then in the USA,
where he spent the final decade of his life.
of the Budapest Conservatory in 1919

His music, without being particularly distinctive, is
always notable for its fine craftsmanship and mellifluousness; and there is often — as in the Brahmsian Rhapsody in
C for piano and his most popular work, the Variations on
a nursery song for piano and orchestra, which contains
the most elaborate leg-pull and deliberate bathos in the
repertory — an element of somewhat Teutonic humour.
Among his other works which are heard from time to time
are a melodious orchestral Suite in F sharp minor, a short
orchestral suite entitled Symphonic minutes, a suite from
the ballet The Veil of Pierrette, a very Brahmsian violin
sonata and a Serenade for string trio. His few attempts to
create a nationalist Hungarian atmosphere, as in the
Ruralia Hungarica suite, are, for all their surface attraction,
pale beside the genuine article emanating from his

D Katchen. LPO/Bouh/Rachmaninov;


(10/74) Decca




D Ortiz/New


Rachmaninov; Rhapsody




S-37178 Angel
DSiki/Seattle SO/Katims/Suire



Decca Turnabout*

34623 Turnabout



(2/77) Decca Turnabout.


Left: Pianist,


composer, educationist and
radio administrator, Dohndin/i

was more German

in his

allegiances than Hungarian.



In 1830 he won European fame with Anna Bolena—a work of astonishingly mature design in Milan: its libretto presents rather less garbled history (and — geography) than do many of his romantic tragedies. to whom it offered superb opportunities for the vocal display demanded by the public. three years later. on a larger scale and in more serious style. and Orch. occupies a special place: 25 years of his active career he produced nearly 70 operas.) Q Sutherland. Benelli. Oncina. Basiola. and his technical fluency is illustrated by such examples as the masterly sextet in Lucia di Lammermoor. Merrill. but his melodic freshness and stage sense. his is the Below: Fantasias on Donizetti's operas abounded. Maria Stuarda and Lucia di Lammermoor. OSciutti./Bonynge D2D3 (6/76) Decca 13117 London DON PASQUALE m CORENA SCIUTTI KRAUSE ONCINA VIEWAOPIRA OKfHEsTRA.I GAETANO DONIZETTI lb.CHOKt S KERTESZ Covent Gdn/Pritchard 79210 (11/77) CBS LUCIA DI LAMMERMOOR (Cpte. Malas Covent Garden/Bonynge SET372-3 (11/68) Decca 1273 London D'AMORE (Cpte. d. Siepi/ Maggio Musicale Fiorentino/Pritchard GOS663-5 (1/76) Decca Ace of Di. as in Lucia di Lammermoor and Linda di Chamounix — a feature later to become the subject of parody. Pavarotti./Gracis 2705 039 (2/75) DG Privilege LA FILLE DU REGIMENT (Cpte. Pavarotti. are striking. there 1848) Even among composers renowned for speed Donizetti. Sinclair. The entertainingly in the // Campanello. Krause. Tourangeau. L'ELISIR Evans. Mercuriali. was written (libretto as well as music) in nine days. author of the play on which it was based./Kertesz SET280-1 (4/65) Decca 1260 London DMaccianti. and after a successful debut in Venice as an operatic composer at the age of 21 (actually with his fourth stage work) he It is was true that subtleties of by theatres in all the chief operatic centres compose for them. and produced 30 works invited Italy to in in twelve years. DON PASQUALE (Cpte. A particular vehicle for such pyrotechnics was the "mad scene" for the heroine. D Domingo.) Sutherland. Cotrubas. The ensuing five years brought forth several notable dramatic operas. Vienna State Opera Chorus and Orch. Bergamo \7 a 7. Don Pasquale. Mariotti/ Maggio Musicale Fiorentino Chorus and Orch. one masterpieces of the repertoire. Wixell. He had in fact received a sound musical training. Left: Donizetti's of the great comic romantic tragedies were far more numerous than comedies.>.) D Sutherland. particularly his dramatic irony. r inds 1327 London MARIA STUARDA |Hatt0c3forfe^ (Cpte. A brush with the Neapolitan censors caused him to transfer his activities to Vienna (where he was appointed a composer to the court.) D Sutherland.. Pavarotti. for which he wrote a Miserere and Ave Maria) and Paris. Corena. the scene of his triumphs with La Fille du regiment and La Favorite (both in 1840) and. Soyer/Bologna Teatre Con Ch. for example. a musician of their facility uncommon and amiability and modesty (unlike his rival Bellini»). often at the rate of three a year. as well as the delightful rustic comedy L'Elisir d'amore. Like all his principal works. it was tailored to the star singers of his time. later objected). his instrumentation is more original than is usually recognised. but the scene of the distracted Anne Boleyn in prison is of an altogether less conventional and superficial kind. Cioni. as is his structure. Milnes. Ghiaurov. but much his most popular opera today sparkling Don Pasquale. the last act of La farcical one-act operetta Favorite — one of his very finest — took only a few hours! harmony in his work are few. Covent Garden/Bonynge SET528-30 (5/72) Decca 13103 London 71 . including Lucrezia Borgia (to which Victor Hugo.

2134 C FINALE ON A BY RAMEAU Johannesen ASD3008 STGBY671 Decca Vox (9/74) EMI/HMV PAUL DUKAS Symphony in C Lrodon Philharmon ic EBO The &rarers Appren t Vtx51 r.PAUL DUKAS (b. He had been a fellow-student with Debussy > at the Paris Conservatoire. Debussy SRO/Ansermet/Hcmegger. worthy to be placed beside Debussy's Pelleas et Melisande. there 1935) To the musical world at large Dukas is a "one-work" composer. and The Sorcerer's apprentice started on its triumphant progress. In fact. it is equally satisfying on its own terms as music. Chabrier. including one to Corneille's Polyeucte: in 1897 his three-movement Symphony in C. All his life he was a very acute and perceptive professional critic for a number of musical periodicals. Dukas left a very small output to posterity. occupied a mere fifteen years of his life. with the exception of the 1911 La Peri (a concert work conceived for dancing). is __ . a romantic work of classical poise which proclaimed its roots in Franck ». and his intellectual integrity would not allow him to release any works of his own which did not meet his exacting and perfectionist standards: he preferred to act as a stimulating mentor to his pupils. Honegger: Pasto ASD2953 (7/74) EMI/HMV THEME (11/74) AND A monumental piano sonata of Beethovenian weight and and a more elegant piano Variations. and showed a predilection for dramatic subjects with some early overtures. not so much because he came late to music and because his published works. the work in question being his brilliant orchestral scherzo based on Goethe's ballad The Sorcerer's apprentice: although this hugely popular piece is essentially programmatic. have declared this darkly symbolic but luminous-textured and beautifully orchestrated work. plus a handful of songs and instrumental pieces. Musicians as unlike in their tastes as Sir Thomas Beecham and Bruno Walter. d. was performed. interlude on a theme by Rameau > (some of whose stage works he edited). Ravel SXL6065 (2/64) Decca 6367 London O LPO/Weller/Symphony SXL6770 (6/76) Decca 6995 London IN Paris ORTF/Mart Barbe-bleue. INTERLUDE Saint-Saens. for which Maeterlinck himself fashioned the libretto from his play. 110 1560 (7/76) Rediffusion/Supraphon (The) SORCERER'S APPRENTICE D Israel PO/Sohi/ Rossini: SPA374 Boutique (9/75) Decca D CBSO/Fremaux/Kaue/. make up the tally of his works except for his opera ancestry. Paris 1865. one of the finest lyric dramas of the early twentieth century. making its effect by its rhythmic vitality and vivid scoring. Right: A single work by Dukas hugely popular at the expense of others equally fine. Almeida/ Sorcerer's Apprentice. — LA PERI SYMPHONY D Czech PO. who included Albeniz > and Messiaen» and who held him in reverence and affection. among others. as because his extreme selfcriticism led him to destroy most of his compositions not just those of this youth but a large number from his maturity. Polyeucte Ov. et final Arianeet Barbe-bleue. i VHUXERWELLER JKW 72 MlKTI\0\ a C VARIATIONS.

1841. Prague 1904) Dvorak was one of the great "naturals" —a seemingly inexhaustible spring of melody and delightful invention bubbled out of him throughout his career: the fact that many of his most spontaneoussounding ideas were very carefully worked out and of music polished does not detract from the freshness of their Dvorak has always made an immediate appeal by reason of his uncomplicated sincerity. Prague. The rustic Bohemian landscape in which he had spent his impact. but what has assured his place in music-lovers' affections is the basic optimism of his works. Nelahozeves. After studying in a neighbouring small town and then in Prague. d. nr. childhood (he was one of the large family of a village innkeeper and butcher) was an ever-present element in his music. his charming orchestral colouring. and his sense of poetry and of the sunny open-air atmosphere of Nature. composing prolifically in his spare time but not showing Below: Dvorak about the time he wrote the Slavonic Dances. Like Schubert >. notwithstanding a strong vein of autumnal nostalgia.ANTONIN DVORAK (b. and it was indeed by this that he first caught the ear of the outside world. Dvorak earned his living for eleven years as a viola player in the Czech Provisional Theatre in Prague. his combination of abounding vitality with an innocent tenderness. *f> .

In 1891 he became a professor at the Prague Conservatory (and ten years later its director). Oxford/Preston ZRG781 (12/74) Decca Argo* PIANO QUARTETS. Iowa. Up till then there had been a recognisably Wagnerian tinge to his music. he absorbed certain characteristics of Indian and Negro themes. From the New World. Increasingly widespread success— the Slavonic dances created a furore throughout Europe— eventually brought a new serenity to Dvorak's music. whose great popularity is partly due to the accident of its having a title. Beaux Arts Trio 6500 452 (1/74) Phonogram PIANO QUINTET IN A. where Dvorak seems unable to tear himself away from his meditations. No.) D O silver moon: Streich. as well as the Ukrainian dumka form — a melancholy movement with quick interludes. OP. 81 DCurzon/VPO Quartet/Schubert SDD270 (4/71) Decca Ace of Diamond: PIANO TRIO NO. struck by his Moravian duets. used his good offices to find him a publisher and befriended him. Othello SXL6348 work to any but his closest associates./Sargent SXLP30018 (12/63) EMI/HMV Rostropovich/BPO/Karajan/ Tchaikovsky 139 044 (10/69) DG* Rostropovich/RPO/Boult SXLP30176 EMI/HMV (1/75) S-60136 Seraphim Harell/LSO/Levine ARL1 1155 (2/76) RCA* MASS IN D. the now so-called "American" String Quartet. notably in the Third and Fourth Symphonies (it should be explained that his the now current numbering of the symphonies follows their chronological order). In Nature's realm. String Serenade Brahms's influence is to be heard in his next symphony (No. but paradoxically his music also shows an intensified yearning for his native country. such as the unusually taut and virile Symphony No. Trio 111 1089 (11/74) Rediffusion/Suprapho Smetana Piano Trio/Suk. Elegy 111 0234 (7/75) Rediffusion/Supraphor Yuval Piano Trio/Smetaiia 2530 594 (3/76) DG* RUSALKA (Exc. highly conscious of his nationality. 74 Decca SERENADE IN D MINOR. 7 in D minor (almost certainly his finest) and the cantata The Spectre's bride.ANTONDV DVORAX CARNIVAL OVERTURE O LSO/Kertesz/ Scherzo c Nature's realm: Othello SXL6348 (7/68) Decca IN B CELLO CONCERTO MINOR Tortelier/Philh. (DUMKY) 4 IN E MINOR Czech Trio/Noualc: Pno. and to first performances there of the lyrical G major Symphony (No. but Dvorak. resisted his publisher's attempts to Germanise his first name and held firmly to Czech folk sources in such works as the piano-duet Slavonic dances. The innocently happy and the Fifth Symphony (whose pastoral atmosphere and woodwind birdsong— which was to become one of his fingerprints — still owe something to Wagnerian forest music) had helped to gain him a State grant.. OP. and the Cello Concerto (unquestionably the greatest work for that medium in the whole repertory of music). OP. but now Dvorak began to acknowledge the strength of his Bohemian heritage and to adopt national dance-forms such as the furiant and polka. where he also spent some time in the Czech colony in Spillville. 1 in D. the unexpected success in 1873 of a patriotic cantata caused him to give up his job and devote himself entirely to composition and teaching. Legends and the Hussite overture.No. Schubert 6500 163 (5/71) Phonogram the Requiem. on rather grisly Czech legends. and three further operas (taking his total up to ten). but the real change in his fortunes came when Brahms >. 44 D Netherlands Wind Ens/Waart/ Gounod. 6). the tragic fairy-tale Rusalka. In the USA. of numerous visits to England. the long sunset glow of whose coda. After his return home almost his only compositions were a series of symphonic poems. 86 Christ Church Cathedral Choir. 2 in E flat DTrampler. Berlin RIAS/ Gaebel/Recital 136011 (3/59) DG SCHERZO CAPRICCIOSO LSO/Kertesz/CartiiW Ov. is very typical. but after only a year he sought and obtained leave to take up the directorship of the National Conservatory of Music in New York. To that period belong his last symphony. In 1884 he made the first Above: Dvorak's manuscript title-page and opening of the Slavonic Dances. the splendid String Quintet in E flat. a country which enormously helped to spread his renown and strengthen his financial status: his Stabat Mater there led the way to several further commissions. However. 8) and (7/68) i^~ . including the only one to make any headway outside Czechoslovakia. marked by highly imaginative orchestration.

Serenade 2548 121 (4/75) DG Heliodor D ASMF/Marriner/Tchaifcooslcy: Serenade ZRG848 (7/76) Decca Argo* ECO/Leppard/Tchailcouslcy 9500 105 (3/77) Phonogram./ S-60045 Seraphim Berlin Smetana: Bartered Bride (exes) 78299 (8/76) CBS MS-7208 Columbia D 1-16: Czech PO/Neumann PFS4396 (12/77) Decca Phase 4 Dl-8: Bavarian RSO/Kubelik/Sclierzo 2530 466 (11/751 DG* D9-16: Bavarian RSO/Kubelik/My Home Ov. MINOR. No. Suite. 2530 593 (12/75) DG* D I.Mti 2538 313 (7/74) DG Vlastf Berlin ) 46 (1-8).D LSO/Kertesz/Brohms DVORAK SXL6368 (2/69) Decca 6594 London SERENADE FOR STRINGS IN E D ASMF/Marriner/Crieg: Holberg Sn ZRG670 (11/70) Decca Argo. 72 (9-16) D 1-16: PO/Karajan 138922 (1/64) Privilege SLAVONIC DANCES OP./Giulini/CarmW Ov. SPA87 (10/70) Decca STS 15101 London Czech PO/Neumann/Czech Wood Done. 10: Israel PO/Kertesz/ Smetana SPA202 (8/72) Decca I. SXLP30163 (7/74) EMI/HMV FT6 35075 (12/72) Selecta/Telefunken 1-16: Cleveland/Szell/Camiual Ov. . 9. Davis 9500 132 (2/77) Phonogram* SYMPHONY NO../Dorati PFS4128 (1/68) Decca Phase 21025 London Lesek. Op. 7 IN OP. 8 IN G. Supraphon SDD250 PO/Kubelik 2530 415 (9/74) DNewPhilh. 60 PO/Kubelik 2530 425 (12/74) DG* a RPO/Groves ASD3169 (5/76) SYMPHONY NO. 3. 95 world through Dvorak. OP. OP. 34 of Diamonds Gabrieli Quartet/Borodin CFP40041 (8/73) Classics for Pleasure Prague String Quartet/Qt. 10: VPO/Reiner/Brn/ims SPA377 (5/76) Decca SLAVONIC DANCES. Berlin 6 IN D. OP. 88 D LSO/Kertesz/Scherzo SXL6044 (7/63) Decca DVPO/Karajan SDD440 (2/75) Decca Ace of Diamonds 6443 London OBPO/Kubelik 139181 (3/67) DG* SYMPHONY NO. Right: Czech music reached STRING QUINTET IN E FLAT Vienna Octet/String Sextet SDD315 (3/72) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-1S242 London STRING QUARTET NO. QLSO/Davis/Symprionic Vars SAL3706 (2/69) Phonogram Hamburg RO/Schmidt-Isserstedt/ Tchaikovsky. 2 Phonogram Janacek Quartet/Qt. 7 2530 632 (4/76) DG STRING SEXTET IN A Vienna Octet/String Quintet SDD315 (3/72) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15242 London SYMPHONY NO. 9. PIANOS) (FOR 59 46 & LSO/Davis/Serenade 50026 |5/62) Rediffusion/Supraphon S-37069 Angel 72. LEGENDS. OP. 3. 76 DLSO/Kertesz/My Home SXL6273 (3/67) Decca SYMPHONY NO. 78 E minor D Suk/Czech PO/Ancerl/Rc TWO Ace in D Perlman/LPO/Barenboim/Romance ASD3120 (10/75) EMI/HMV the (5/69) 4 SAL3706 (2/69) Phonogram VIOLIN CONCERTO IN A MINOR 111 1301-2 (7/75) Rediffusion/ (2/71) Decca DG* SYMPHONIC VARIATIONS. 6 IN F (AMERICAN) DQuartetto Italiano/Borodin Qt. Leiskova SAL3708 DG* D VPO/Kertesz OP. EMI/HMV D MINOR. 8. 70 D LSO/Kertesz SXL6115 (10/64) Decca D Berlin PO/Kubelik 2530 127 (10/71) DG* DLSO/Monteux ECS779 (7/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15157 London DConcertgebouw/C. 8. 9 IN E D LSO/Kertesz/Othelfo SXL6291 (11/67) Decca OP. OP. OP. DECO/Kubelik/Smetana.Slav Rhapsodies DPhilh. 5 IN F.

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the frequent use of the direction nobilmente. opulent delicate Serenade for strings. at heart. but this by no means tells the whole story. also. in "occasional" works. but many of his ligntweight miniatures have an engaging wistful Left: Title-page of Elgar's score of a popular march. Against the broad. although two of his the Pomp and circumstance marches) must be set lyrical and intimate works like the elegiac Cello Concerto or the major works precede Edward VII's accession. Broadheath. 1857. still more. in fact. canvases of uninhibited emotionalism. Worcester 1934) The characterisation of Elgar's music as "epitomising the Edwardian era" is not inapposite. and banal charm.EDWARD ELGAR (b. the confidently expansive mood. and even his critics cannot gainsay his Below: Elgar always remained a status as the greatest English countryman century. the exuberance which could spill over into brashness (as in the Cockaigne overture and. and that his solo songs show little sensitivity to the quality or rhythm of words. He was. that Elgar was cannot be denied. Worcester. a more complex character than might appear. d. nr. It guilty of writing pot-boilers composer of the turn of the 77 .

at the age of 33. who were soon identified. when. at Worcester and elsewhere. Encouraged by his wife (his social superior) he turned his thoughts to more ambitious works. and began to compose.EDWARD ELGAR He received little formal musical education. he played in orchestras. before his first great triumph in 1899. museum. the Variations on an original theme (called "Enigma" not because each variation delineated one of his friends. but learned bassoon and violin and assimilated a good deal in his father's music shop and from local amateur activities. This led to a number of choral works. of rather conventional character. but because frustrations attracted attention Left: Elgar's own recordings of his works. now kept I w in the as a . though inevitably dated in sound quality. Worcestershire. Disappointed in his ambition to become a solo violinist. his romantic overture Froissart (which already showed the mastery of orchestral writing which was to be one of his strengths) was played at the Three Choirs Festival. picked up practical experience with diverse amateur organisations and as an organist at the local Roman Catholic church. are much to be Below: Elgar's work-desk study of his birthplace in treasured. including the oratorio Caractacus for Leeds. where he succeeded his father. and after some initial to play the organ.

Land of hope and glory). sparked off led to his being invited to write a Coronation ode (for which a tune in the The wider recognition first Pomp and words to this circumstance march was become the celebrated fitted out with major works — the tautly and Allegro symphonies (the first of which achieved about 100 performances in its first year). Watts. He followed this up immediately with the oratorio The Dream of Gerontius. (The) Grant. Meanwhile he had written two oratorios — The Apostles and The Kingdom — of a projected trilogy which was never completed: their contemplative. Luxon. Tear. and though the first performance in Birmingham was a disaster. Serenade by Boult SLS976 (11/74) HMV 2094 Connoisseur Society Illustrated talk QMenuhin/LSO/Elgar CONCERTO IN E MINOR FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRA (12/65) EMI/HMV DDu Pre/Philadelphia/Barenboim/ Enigma 76529 (11/76) CBS M-34530 Columbia . 1932) EMI/HMV OChung/LPO/Solti SXL6842 (10/77) Decca LPO/Boult/Introducrion (9/73) EMI/HMV S-37029 Angel Pre/LSO/Barbirolli/Sea Pictures D Du ASD6S5 76528 (11/76) CBS HLM7107 D Tortelier. Case/LPO and Choir/Bou ASD2906 DZukerman/LPO/Barenboim (4/77) (rec. and the brilliantly programmatic "symphonic study" Falstaff. the work aroused tremendous enthusiasm in Germany and called forth a tribute from Richard Strauss » to "the first English progressive musician". nature has impeded their general acceptance. APOSTLES O Armstrong. of Below: Elgar incisive Introduction vast-scale his orchestral scores. though the latter is considered by some to be at least the equal of the far more popular Gerontius. the The First two World War took knighthood in 1904. and Allegro.Elgar declared the theme to be a counter-melody to another whose identity he never divulged and which has provoked endless inconclusive speculation). based on Cardinal Newman's poem (a copy of which he had been given as a wedding present a decade earlier). rather than dramatic. but nothing further of any consequence came from his pen except the Severn Suite as produced little a test piece for a brass-band festival. With the death of his wife he lost all urge to compose: he was appointed Master of the King's Music in 1924. But this was the start of a phase in which he produced a whole series of work on one of gilt off the gingerbread of and after it he more than some chamber music and the touchingly beautiful Cello Concerto. the long and intensely heartfelt Violin Concerto. to a at the the militaristic swagger of his early works. for strings. and the following year to a chair music specially created for him in the University of Birmingham.

LPO Choir. Young. (b. CHANSON DE MATIN. Contrast. mauresque. In 1907 he went to Paris. Serenata Andaluza. where he organised a festival of the traditional canto jondo of Andalusia and wrote the highly concentrated concerto for harpsichord and five instruments whose slow movement is a quintessential expression of his religious mysticism. Torres/Spanish Nat Orch/Argenta/E/ Amor Bru. Froissart ASD2292 (12/66) EMI/HMV D RPO/Del Mar/Enigma 2535 217 (10/76) DG SEA PICTURES D Baker/LSO/Barbirolli/Ce/lo ASD655 (12/65) EMI/HMV 80 Cone. . Hoist. Davis/ Enigma Variations SRCS77 (9/75) Lyrita IN THE SOUTH — OVERTURE. SXL6820 (The) Ireland (5/77) Decca KINGDOM D Price. 1-5. on effect THEME (ENIGMA) DLSO/Jochum/Brahms: Haydn POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE MARCHES NOS. where he lived for seven years./Boult SLS987 (5/76) RCA (9/76) Mumm DNew vi. Serenade Romance for Sevillana. Serenade (8/73) EMI/HMV SYMPHONY NO./Fruhbeck de Burgos SXLP30187 Philadelphia/Ormandy/ (Fantasia Betica. Vaughan Williams ASD521 the nationalist of Madrid Academy of Fine Arts with his opera La Vida breve. and the work received its premiere eight years later— outside Spain. OVERTURE IN D MINOR (HANDEL ORCH. 1946) the cliche-ridden into falling S-36101 Angel DLPO/Boult/Ce//o Cone. Purcell SXL6405 (6/69) Decca 6618 London LPO/Boult/Cello Cone. Falla had by this time moved to Granada. 39 profound at his death. Shirley-Quirk/ and Choir/Boult SLS939 (4/69) HMV 2089 Connoisseur Society LPO MINIATURES D Minuet. in which the Andalusian side of his heredity gained from his association with impressionism but was balanced by a naturally concise and clean-cut HMV FALSTAFF in pupils awarded by D SNO/Gibson LRLl 5130 music music and S-37240 Angel DREAM OF GERONTIUS style movement's lesser lights. 6500 481 (3/75) Phonogram* S-36120 Angel its a of a study of the country's folk- VARIATIONS ON AN ORIGINAL DLPO/Haitink/R. Dukas * and Ravel >. a Paul Dukas. New Philh.SUITES NOS. Mina ESD7009 EMI/HMV (11/76) OVERTURES: COCKAIGNE. and was befriended by Debussy *. but no production followed. recita HAT (The) THREE CORNERED D Cpte. OVERTURE. Rosemary./Barbirolli/Enigma ASD548 (11/63) EMI/HMV who had advocacy the little opera Master Peter's puppet show (on an episode from Don Quixote).MANUEL DE FALLA EDWARD ELGAR Cadiz 1876. L'Atlantida. Incomparably the greatest of the Spanish composers of the early twentieth century. Don 2530 586 (12/75) DG« D RPO/Del Mar/ Pomp & 1-5 Ma ]uar MASTER 2535 217 (10/76) DG Var: Circumsta Privilege DLPO/Barenboim/Cel/o Cone. But then a marked change to a drier. Sospiri. and the spirited. Philh. bassoon and orch. Falla succeeded in stamping his music with an unmistakably Spanish character without D Pno. T$eT)ream gf %emntius SERENADE IN E MINOR D Sinfonia of London/Barbirolli/ Vaughan Introduction and Allegro. more incisive style came over his music with the Fantasia Betica for piano and S-36101 Angel ECO/Britten/Bridge. and his subtle sense of orchestral sonorities removes it altogether from their facile travelposter coloration.'o SDD134 (2/66) Decca Ace of Diamonds NIGHTS IN THE GARDENS OF SPAIN D Rubinstein. in 1940. Privilege early composers. Philh. Introduction and Allegro d. Williams ASD521 (5/63) EMI/HMV ASD2906 (8/73) EMI/HMV 1 IN A FLAT DLPO/Solti SXL6569 (8/72) Decca 6789 London DLPO/Boult ASD3266 (4/77) Watts. D (5/63) EMI/HMV Delius. The intensely atmospheric evocacion of his music following this period. Serenade lyrique. ASD2906 by style. IN THE SOUTH. OP. Disturbed by political developments in Spain in the early 1930s. to Argentina: in his last twenty years he worked desultorily on a largescalecantata./Barbirolli/Coclcaigne ASD548 (11/63) EMI/HMV Northern Sinfonia/Marriner Spain. Mazurka. the musician chiefly responsible for the belated renaissance of S-37029 Angel SYMPHONY NO./Giulii (8/72) EMI/HMV Concert Classics EMI/HMV Right: Manuel de Falla. He had always been so fastidious and self -critical a composer that his output remained small. 50 D Bournemouth SO/Silvestri/Vaughc Williams ESD7013 (10/76) EMI/HMV INTRODUCTION AND ALLEGRO FOR STRINGS D London Sinfonia/Barbirolli/E/gar. CHANSON DE NUIT. Vals Capricho) D Achucarro TRL1 7073 (12/76) RCA (2/76) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-36235 Angel D Suites 3 and Amor Brujo SXLP30140 2 only: Philh. Con SB6841 (12/70) RCA LSC-3165 RCA Soriano/Paris Cons. which however he left unfinished D Philh. ELGAR) D LPO/Boult ASD2822 (9/72) EMI/HMV D New Philh. Alldis Choir. amusing and ever-fresh ballet The Threecornered hat. the symphonic impressions for piano and orchestra called Nights in the gardens of Spain. OP./Barbirolli/E/egy. Berganza/SRO/Ansermet SDD321 Di. Gedda. He studied with Felipe Pedrell. May-Song. which reveals the influence of the neo-classic movement headed by Stravinsky ». Lloyd. BAVARIAN PETER'S PUPPET SHOW D Bermejo./Burgos/La vida breve (exc): El DANCES Turina DLPO/Boult ASD2356 (3/68) EMI/HMV SXLP30152 DBerganza. 1-2. De Los Angeles. •it-Su WAND OF YOUTH. but around the age of 50 his ascetic nature caused him increasingly to withdraw from society and virtually to cease writing. 2 IN E DLPO/Boult SRCS40 (10/68) Lyrita FLAT S-37218 Angel DLPO/Solti SXL6723 (6/75) Decca 6941 London S-37029 Angel DLPO/Boult ASD3266 (10/76) EMI/HMV SEVERN SUITE DGrimethorpe Colliery Band/Howarth/ Bliss. Munguia. Britten. In 1905 Falla the D De THE S-36403 Angel his EL 76529 (11/76) CBS M-34530 Columbia Ov./A.2 Philh. Minton. won a prize is evidenced in the 1915 ballet El Amor brujo PIANO WORKS AMOR BRUJO Homenaje HARPSICHORD CONCERTO SEVEN SPANISH POPULAR SONGS Los Angeles. (The) Argentina./Giulini/ Three-Cornered Hat SXLP30140 (8/72) EMI/HMV Concert Cla S-36120 Angel D LSO/Monteux/Brahms Kipnis/NYPO/Boulez/Three-Corncre Hat 76500 (8/76) CBS M-33970 Columbia SPA121 (6/71) Decca DLSO/Boult/ Vaughan Williams ASD2750 (11/71) EMI/HMV Strauss. Lavilla/Spanish song SDD324 (10/72) Decca Ace of Diamonds (11/72) Concert Classics amor (exc). Alta Gracia. • (4/72) Decca Ace of nds D Cpte. FROISSART. his ("Wedded by witchcraft"). he retired first to Majorca and then. COCKAIGNE D Philh. in which the colourful background is of more significance than the action. produced in its final form by Diaghilev in 1919.

j 1 .Il 1 41 « *-t it i i M M i 1I H i ra * -^»* » «' j-\ - -«#• u^V % j^ jft^^^Br^*' .

and though the influence of Schumann > is discernible in his early works. Le secret. Barcarolle. again rather curiously. His gentle good nature and kindliness had endeared him to his numerous pupils. C Arte Piano Quartet/Piano (8/66) L'Oi. before being invited to do the same for the London production of Maeterlinck's Pelleas et Melisande (four years before the appearance of Debussy's opera on that play). Op. Berne SO/Corboz STU70735 SXL6680 (11/74) Decca 50 D Edinburgh Festival Chorus. Impromptu or Nocturne. until 1920. CFP40120 82 1 (8/66) L'Oiseau-Lyre D Chilcott. Cinq melodies. Curiously enough. From these he moved into chamber music: his first violin sonata however — which might be thought reminiscent of Franck's > except that the latter's was written a decade later — found only a publisher not prepared to pay him either a fee or any royalties (a rapacious treatment also meted out — by another publisher — to his two piano quartets).PRELUDE Pelleas only: Strasbourg (3/76) En Apres un reve. he derived the classical outlook he maintained throughout his life. EMI/HMV (3/68) Huttenlocher. of EMI/HMV d'amour. mark with his a number of songs of exquisite sensibility. PENELOPE . Three songs. 58. deli- which regarded as typically French. unaffected either by Wagnerism or impressionism. 1 IN D MINOR. 39 No. Les roses d'Ispahan. who included Ravel > and many other leading composers. -Lyr La bonne chanson. lune SRO/Ansermet/ Debussy SDD388 (7/74) Decca Ace Diamonds 6227 London (1/76) 2 works SONGS: Chanson S-37077 Angel PIANO QUARTET NO. Only after that did he venture into the field of incidental music for opera. (7/75) Classics for Pleasure . priere. one without the terrors of the Last Judgment. to whom he acknowledged his indebtedness. Chorus. such as the warm-hearted Piano Quartet No. has an unmistakably individual texture. he took He first made little interest. NO. CAMBRIDGE NEW PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA John Carol Case & Robert Chilcott DAVID WILLCOCKS ASD2753 (2/72) 527 Klavier EMI/HMV SOL289 Case/NPO/Willcocks/ Pavane ASD2358 de Burgos/ D Clement. REQUIEM. even austerity. some of them assisted him in the orchestration of his works — a task in which. Pamiers. Paris/Barenboim/Requiem Q4ASD3065 (6/75) EMI/HMV ASD3153 PELLEAS ET MELISANDE— SUITE. IN G MINOR 6878 London PAVANE. 39 No 4 Palmer/Constable ZRG815 (8/76) Decca Argo D Souzay/Baldwin/Duparc HQS1258 (6/72) EMI/HMV VIOLIN SONATA NO. That same year he was appointed professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire. 48 AND FANTAISIE FOR PIANO ORCHESTRA O Larrocha/LPO/Fruhbeck DPro style. OP. Nell. I. and finally at the Madeleine (after nearly twenty years there as choirmaster) in 1896. it was transmuted and much refined. he wrote no organ music although for most of his life he was an organist — at Rennes. significantly taking his subjects from Hellenic mythology— Promethee and Penelope. Op. d. His later songs and such works as the second violin sonata. 23. cultivated. the two cello sonatas and the piano trio are marked by a greater sobriety. when the increasing deafness from which he had suffered for many years caused him to resign. Ravel SOL289 Quartet No. Op. Then Faure's thoughts began to turn towards to stage: he wrote two plays in Paris. Op. notable for the long-spun melodic and subtly daring harmonic progressions which were even such early examples as Apres un reve and Lydia are among the most elegant examples of French song-writing. MINOR RCA/Erato OTortelier/Heidsieck/ Cello and piano Quadraphonic STU70889 (6/73) SONATAS FOR CELLO AND PIANO: NO. 61. of BALLADE FOR PIANO AND PIANO TRIO IN D MINOR P Pro Arte Piano Quartet/Piano ORCHESTRA Ogdon/CBSO/Fremaux/Lirol/f: Scherzo: Saint-Saens: Carnival :CO I AURE REQUIEM KING'S COLLEGE CHOIR. MASQUES ET BERGAMASQUES. was written in 1887. began to appear in 1883 and. His piano lines to be characteristic of him: music. The lovely and serene Requiem. Fleur jetee. 2. of which institution he became director just under ten years later: he retained this post cately lyrical style is From his teacher Saint-Saens». albeit of classical and mostly labelled Barcarolle. 1 OHasson/Isador/ Debussy: Violin Son. 1845. Above: Gabriel Faure at the age of 50.GABRIEL FAURE (b. including Shylock. for all its evident structure. Clair de PO/ RCA/Erato IN Songs SHE524 Roussel 1 Partridge/J. Poeme d'un jour. Paris 1924) has been well said of Faure that the intimate spirit of chamber music permeates all his work: he was the very It personification of that coolly reticent.l. Ariege. roots in Chopin ». later as Widor's assistant at the important Paris church of St Sulpice. Ravel. Op. Partridge/Duparc: (2/76) Pavilion/Pearl SONGS: Lombard/ Debussy. sketched by Sargent. cast in small poetic forms. OP.

the public is beginning to understand me". Litolff SXL2173 (2/60) Decca Larrocha. and whose inclusion of a cor anglais deeply agitated the diehards. He was born of Flemish stock and studied in his native in Paris. Ashkenazy/Brahms: Horn Trio SXL6408 Decca 6628 London D Berlin RSO/Maazel 2535 150 (4/76) CESAR FRANCK (b. though it irked his pupils. to be helped over a barricade. D RCA DG Privilege Victor SO/Boult (10/76) RCA Gold Seal GL25004 Liege 1822. and the three organ chorales. and with his marriage he broke away altogether from paternal pressures. his natural bent showed itself in a biblical eclogue. Few composers' lives have been less eventful than that of deeply religious. when in order to reach the church he and his bride had. whose finale provides one of the best-known canons in musical literature. which he followed up with the romantic Variations symphoniques for the same combination. in with embarrassing success. which shows the influence of Liszt > (who was so overcome by the brilliance of his organ extemporisation that he compared him with Bach >). It is characteristic that when he won his first real success (at the age of 68!) with his String Quartet. almost the only disturbance this to his placid.SYMPHONIC VARIATIONS FOR 2 IN B MINOR PIECE HEROIQUE Simon Preston/ Messiaen. he mildly remarked. which like many of his works is in cyclic 83 . Philadelphia/Ormandy/ Symphony 61356 (10/73) CBS Classics DSL08 SYMPHONY (5/76) L'Oiseau-Lyre IN D MINOR PSYCHE Paris Orch. ARIA ET FINALE PRELUDE. Left: EMI/HMV S-36729 Angel O Philadelphia/Ormandy/Sym./Kara jan Czech PO/Foumet S0674 (9/67) Rediffusion/Supraphoi SONATA IN A FOR VIOLIN AND ASD2552 (9/70) PIANO Variations 61356 (10/73) CBS Classics Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling 2548 132 (10/75) DG Heliodor Perlman. These include the impassioned Prelude. LPO/Fruhbeck de Burgos/ Khachaturian SXL6599 (6/73) Decca 6818 London PRELUDE. "You see. Though he tried for a while to reach a compromise with his own desires to compose by writing showy piano fantasias. who was so beloved by his pupils: indeed. PIANO AND ORCH. He was organist at a couple of Liege him and then to Symphony. chorale et fugue for piano. Quartet SDD277 (10/71) Decca Ace of Diamonds CHORALE NO. Though Franck's output was uneven and included some banal and over-sentimental pieces. seemed not to worry him: in his modest way he was not even put out by poor performances on the rare occasions when his works were given at all. with the help of amused insurgents. the contemplative Psyche and the expansive 1872 he became organ professor at the Conservatoire. where he had previously been choir-master. the imaginative and mysterious Les Djinns for piano and orchestra. where his father was anxious for become a piano virtuoso. Widor ZRG5339 (3/63) Decca Argo PIANO QUINTET IN F MINOR DCurzon. hard-working existence was on his wedding day. d. OCurzon/LPO/Boult/Grieg.30 and writing for a couple of hours before becoming immersed in his teaching. Casadesus. the Violin Sonata. unworldly organist. He made a habit of rising every morning at 5. The devout Cesar Franck. during the 1848 revolution. where he upset his fellow professors not only by his naive candour but by helping his organ students in composition form. FUGUE ET VARIATION Crossley DR. The public's almost complete indifference to his music and the lack of official recognition. Paris 1890) smaller Paris churches before being appointed in 1858 to St Clotilde. but the political turmoil of the time was not conducive to such a life. his last ten years saw the creation of nearly all his best works. Vienna Philh.

after a false start in commercial life in Switzerland. A kaleidoscopic First Symphony intervened in a series of concertos. but the bulk of his work. relying often on a recognisable harmonic basis and always on a singularly acute ear and was highly It was typical of him that he should urge people to listen to music rather than look at it in a score or analyse it. coupled with a natural ebullience and sincerity of sentiment. piano and harpsichord. Whether or not it is true that his first reactions were to look up the word "concerto" in a musical dictionary and buy a book on orchestration (for Rhapsody in blue had been scored by one of Whiteman's arrangers). His chance came in 1924 when the bandleader Paul Whiteman commissioned Rhapsody in blue for piano (to be played by Gershwin himself. expanded from a concert suite into a ballet. interest in d. though still some uncertainty over large-scale construction. brilliantly craftsmanlike is used in conjunction with the orchestra. in Barcelona. a minority. A musician of penetrating literary and philosophical appreciated only and of cultivated he was for many years intellect tastes. The Spanish character shines through his use of Schoenbergian of his music dodecaphony (which theory he extended to rhythmic parameters. settled in self-imposed exile in Cambridge. his distinctive invention and inbuilt feeling for melodic contour. and the Concerto shows an advance in technique. but his employment of serialism personal. UlL . led to the Third Symphony and The Plague (based on Camus). 1896. It is not entirely without significance that his best extended works came when he finally severed his dependance on the piano as a participating instrument. particularly. He first attracted attention as a composer in pre-war original mind. with occasional lecturing visits to the USA. theatre and films. was appointed music Gerhard began to study librarian at the Biblioteca Central there. then his interest in which had been fanned by a number of and evocative incidental music scores for radio. Spanish dance-rhythms and atmospheric dodecaphony. Gershwin had piano Coming from a lessons for only three years before becoming. in the 1950s. and certainly the best of it. successively for violin. nr. Tarragona. later. In the early 1930s he taught at the Escola Normal in Barcelona. GEORGE GERSHWIN Hollywood (b. he started to write musical shows and songs (winning a huge commercial success with Swanee). edited much eighteenth-century Catalan music and took an active part in musical administration. On the defeat of the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War he first stayed in Paris and then. A final cycle of chamber works with zodiacal titles— Gemini. dates from his days in England. he reached a new level with the more symphonic American in Paris (whose splendid broad blues tune scandalised the earnestly progressive International Society for Contemporary Music) and. before becoming for five years a pupil of Schoenberg » in Vienna and Berlin.Y. He took piano lessons from Granados » and composition from Pedrell (who had taught Falla »). as in his Second Symphony). 1937) humble home and showing no special music until his teens. 1898. In these. Don Quixote. he certainly took some lessons in orchestration. as well as in the stream of immensely successful musical shows and. lishers. N. at the age of sixteen. a tirelessly self-indulgent pianist) and orchestra: its then novel crossing of jazz with diluted Liszt caused so much stir that he was promptly asked to write a "real" concerto for the New York Symphony Society. and the lighter-weight Andalusian ballet Alegrias were followed in 1948 by the opera The Duenna. Cambridge 1970) music seriously only at the age of 19. Leo and Libra— had autobiographical connotations. where tape electronics. but it can confidently be the only post-Falla Spanish composer by asserted that he is of the front rank. but hankered after more ambitious compositions. Brooklyn. Vails. a song-plugger for a firm of popular music pub- While thus employed. where he spent the last 30 years of his life quietly composing. lifted him far out of the class of his light 84 music contemporaries. a sparkling and eclectic score combining neo-classic pastiche.ROBERTO GERHARD (b. the 1935 Negro opera Porgy and Bess.. films he produced from the mid-1920s (many to his brother Ira's lyrics). d. meetings of the International Society for Contemporary Music. in 1939.

Rhapsody 76508 (9/76) in Blue CBS M-34221 Columbia PRELUDES NOS. I TV37082S (7/75) SVBX Decca Turnabout 5132 Vox D Gershwin/Columbia Jazz Band/ Thomas/American 76509 (2/77) CBS XM-34205 Columbia piano Watts (piano solo version)/ Preludes. LIBRA C London Sinfonietta/Atherton HEAD11 (8/77) Decca Headline CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA BBC SO/Del Mar/Rau-sthome: Sym. Left: Roberto Gerhard. Rhapsody in Blue ASD2754 NYPO/Thomas/ Rhapsody CBS PORGY AND XM-34205 Columbia Quivar/Cleveland Ch. the authentic voice of urban America. 4 3 BBC SO/C. 1 ZRG752 (10/74) Decca Argo. D Szidon. the most modern Spanish who spent the last 30 distinguished of composers. and Orch. RHAPSODY IN BLUE DKatchen/LSO/Kertesz/Profco/ieu.) White. D Frances Gershwin (with and Bess — Suite. LEO. SYMPHONY NO. Mitchell. A CBS M-34221 Columbia SONGBOOK D Watts/ Preludes. years of his exile in life in self-imposed Cambridge. Rhapsody 76508 (9/76) CBS M-34221 Columbia in Blue ASD2754 (11/71) EMI/HMV S-36810 Angel 85 . Ravel SXL6411 (5/70) Decca DPrevin/LSO/ Piano Cone. Louis SELECTION OF SONGS S-36810 Angel Louis SO/Slatkin/ Porgy P Siegel/St. Davis/ Violin Concerto ZRG701 (2/72) Decca Argo* VIOLIN CONCERTO GNeaman/BBC SO/C. -•** AMERICAN IN PARIS DSt. LPO/Downes/ Bernstein: Gershwin hit the jackpot early on with Swanee. American in Paris TV37080S (7/75) Decca Turnabout SVBX 5132 Vox West Side Story 2535 210 (8/77) DG Privilege SH208 (9/74) Rhapsody. Davis/Sym. Boatwright. ml Song book EMI/World Records 76508 (9/76) parui SO/SIatkin/Second got rhythm Siegel/St. Left: BESS (Cpte. 4 ZRG701 (2/72) Decca Argo.GEMINI./Maazel SET609-11 (4/76) Decca 13116 London 'FOR GEORGE AND IRA' — 76509(2/77) CONCERTO IN ORCHESTRA (11/71) EMI/HMV S-36810 Angel Angeles PO/Mehta/ Bernstein. ZRG553 (3/68) Decca Argo DON QUIXOTE.1-3 D Watts/Song book.A ASTROLOGICAL SERIES. Louis SO/Slatkin/Porgy and D Bess— Suite: Promenade TV37081S (7/75) Decca Turnabout SVBX 5132 Vox LSO/Previn/ Piano Cone. Blue (11/71) EMI/HMV Above: Gershwin. Copland SXL6811 (11/71) Decca 7031 London FOR PIANO AND DPrevin/LSOMmerican Rhapsody O Los F ASD2754 in in Paris. DBBC 1 SO/Dorati/Don Quixote (10/74) Decca Argo* ZRG752 SYMPHONY NO.DANCES BBC SO/Dorati/Sym.

V .

written in the last year of his life. he turned out to be "a Russian composer of music rather than a composer of Russian music". as it has been expressed. but much his most popular works are the attractive Violin Concerto of 1904 — which presents great technical challenges even to virtuoso players — and his ballet The Seasons. a romantic warmth (which can verge on the sentimental). opera Ivan Susanin at speed his librettist): after some initial resistance. he was fascinated by its folk music. It is true that all his life Glinka was something of a rich dilettante (though eventually with a very sound technique). whom he much admired. but he was much more than an interesting historical figure. When it was produced in 1842 it failed to please. In that city he was director of the Conservatoire for 22 years: this diverted a great deal of his energy from composition. from the Russian State Museum. returning his patriotic to St Petersburg. when he reorganised the Leningrad Conservatory. St Petersburg 1865. he had been entranced by the folk music of the peasants. its Persian. he started on a second opera. RAYMONDA DBolshoi Theatre Orch/Svetlanov SLS826 (8/72) HMV S-40172 Melodiya/ Angel THE SEASONS. but poor health and marital upsets delayed its completion. after desultory studies and a few years in cultivated St Petersburg society. d. based on a traditional Russian wedding superior. apart from aristocratic sneers at "coachmen's music". and virtually nothing more came from his pen until the Saxophone Concerto. He undertook in Berlin a short but concentrated course of study and then. Berlin 1857) (b. where he was consoled when Berlioz »./Hendl. Its freshness and its original combination of Italian lyrical grace with national-type Russian and Polish music (to point up the dramatic conflict between the two sides) won some general approval. and of its recommendable recordings of rare appearance in the concert- should not lead us to suppose that. These responsibilities became still more onerous after the Revolution. and when. which he subsequently turned to good use in A Night in Madrid and the Jota aragonesa. and accomplished craftsmanship of a very high order.- ALEXANDER GLAZUNOV (b. On the recommendation of Balakirev > he was accepted at the age of 15 as a private pupil by Rimsky-Korsakov ». Leningrad. d. 87 . though in fact it its was musically employment of and fantastic subject and and Tartar themes were to have a powerful influence on Balakirev > and his circle The disappointed composer went off on a visit to Paris. In the course of the further European wanderings with which he passed his time he wrote the popular Kamarinskaya. (far composed outpacing was produced imperial family (who it in 1836 in the presence of the persuaded him to change the title to A Life for the Tsar). of Glazunov's poem Stenka Razin . and his administrative duties greatly slowed down his production. had completed his course of composition. In his childhood. RCA SPA257 RCA argsky (7/73) Decca 6944 London Morini/Berlin RSO/Fricsay/ Bruch 2548 170 (11/75) DG Heliodor \kf JBrooh Glazunov • * Left: A portrait of Alexander . thanks to his natural talent. beyond its seminal influence both on the Russian nationalist school and on Tchaikovsky ». spent on his father's country estate. In denigrating his music as "academic" and "bourgeois". 67 — BALLET RUSLAN AND LUDMILA OVERTURE SUITE D PCO/Wolff/ Ba/akireu ECS642 (6/72) Decca Eclipse STS-15108 London VIOLIN CONCERTO IN A MINOR OHeiferz/RCA Orch. LSO/Solci/Borodin. At the age of 40 he became director of the St Petersburg Conservatory. Soviet authorities express their disapproval of his having left Russia in 1928 to live in Paris and their disappointment that. at least in the matter of musical form. when Balakirev conducted the 16-yearold boy's first symphony it was hailed as showing outstandingly precocious maturity. he travelled in hall. Travelling on to Spain. Italy for his delicate health and came into contact with its leading operatic composers. while he was choirmaster to the Imperial Chapel. MIKHAIL GLINKA Novospasskoye. where he had already been a professor. Turkish dance. During the next couple of years. Ruslan and Ludmila. Muss SXL6263 (2/67) Decca 6785 London Berlin PO/Solli/ Borodin. Some of his eight symphonies and the early symphonic are heard occasionally. Yet he had started off meteorically. the handful of his compositions that has remained in the repertoire is characterised by a broad and relaxed mellifluousness. Glazunov was drawn less towards the Russian nationalists than to the Germanic classical tradition. Smolensk. LSB4061 (6/72) The current dearth Glinka's music. and within eighteen months. it is lacking in intrinsic merit. Below: The monument to Glinka in Smolensk. ErioaMorW Glazunov by llya Repin. OP. the idea struck him of writing a truly national Russian opera. Paris 1936) Out abundant output. with the result that as time passed his works seemed increasingly conservative. aided by a phenomenal musical memory. But despite his training and his later occasional use of exotic material. /Bruch LSC4011 1804. praised his originality and turned his thoughts towards purely orchestral music.

without subplots. TO M A y t.e. His Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) was strikingly original in its straightforward presentation of the story. unusually. r n. S y r i> . where he met Rameau >. Right: Gluck.BALLET Spiagge amate. whose first scene is one of his finest. Oh. Verrett. Handel was critical. Le belle imagini. a revision of Alceste with extra choruses and ballets. Moffo. began himself to write operas after the traditional Italian model: in four years some ten were produced with fair success in Milan and other northern Italian cities. Iphigenie en Aulide. Stimulated by the imagination and superior powers of construction of French librettists. 1 1 - ""i A-v* 'V I G 1 V A >• -V N 1 i V. He followed this up with Alceste. . 1714. though not R T A MESS SXGXOBi: ? -i A with an itinerant \ u changed. of Gluck's lack of counterpoint. DON JUAN. Je cherche a vous faire) ASMF/Marriner SXL6339 (1/69) Decca STS-15169 London OPERATIC ARIAS Baker/ECO/Leppard (Alceste. influenced Mozart's » Abduction from the Seraglio): his ballet Don Juan also dates from this time. Armide — Le perfide Renaud. touring A • TAG I. was in thrall to Handel ». and to London. Raskin/Virtuosi di Roma/Fasano SERS539-41 (9/66) LSC-6169 RCA RCA esu DON JUAN COMPLETe BALLCT ACADCMY OF ' MAKTIN-lN-THe-FIGLDS iiKt'cieu by Neville naukincr ship. 88 T. declamation to harpsichord accompaniment). who brought about reforms in Italian opera. • Vienna 1787) of one of the Elector of Bavaria's foresters. whose overture depicts the storm about to engulf Orestes' Above: Gluck's Alceste changed the whole course of opera.Che puro ciel. in which he sought an even greater simplicity. Orfeo ed Euridice. The son nr. But under the influence of literary conventions and stock artificialities away from the li C L E N o p v ) u c 1) - 1. Orphee. Gluck successfully portrayed passion and sensuous charm. after all. Paride ed Elena. Erasbach. Di te scordarmi. which he supplemented only was taken to Italy as a There he heard much opera and. He then travelled to Paris. and his advice that he should adopt a more direct style did not After G T s JE at first received a sketchy musical education in Prague. and achieved a greater continuity and more homogeneous texture by doing away with secco recitative (i.UCK T A i % appointment as musical director to the court. where his former pupil Marie Antoinette was now Dauphine. del mio dolce ardor. Neumarkt. a revised version of Orfeo. D o \ S I V N A . Gluck married a wealthy banker's daughter in Vienna and became director of a nobleman's orchestra: he had the good fortune so to please the Emperor with one of collaborators Gluck . Adieu Conservez dans voire ame. MDCCLX/X stiff which had dominated opera. in which he developed his reformist theories of "dramatic truth" (for example. Iphigenie en Tauride. Paride ed Elena- 9500 023 (10/76) Phonogram* ORFEO ED EURIDICE Cpte. but now with a tenor hero instead of a castrato. he produced in rapid succession Iphigenie en Aulide.— CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD GLUCK (b. iL* in his mid-twenties when he member of a nobleman's orchestra. his stage pieces that this led to his was A. After a further work. where his skill as a performer on the glass harmonica met with more appreciation than did a couple of operas he hastily wrote there — London. Armide. was to serve the poetry. d. an enormously prolific and accomplished composer. he went in 1773 to Paris. which aimed at the nobility and grandeur of Greek classicism. IT. after studying for four years with Sammartini. then at the height of his powers. quality was to be typical of Gluck's new style. in which. Le Rencontre Imprevue Bel inconnu. even statuesque. the overture broke with tradition by setting the mood of the subsequent drama) and deliberately sought to do away with the florid ornamentation introduced to pander to the vanities of singers: the whole function of the music. La Rencontre imprevue. It JE CP.ISTO FOMO U unfairly or unkindly. and his masterpiece.i k A T T N 1. Gluck c A^. Gluck declared. Its static. and then. I C A 1 opera company.Vous essayez en vain.Divinites du Slyx. adroitly switched to light operas in French (one of which. For the Imperial Opera he wrote half a dozen formal Italian works. Che faro senza Euridice. It? SUA E T R O I S I C I A R C II) L G R extensively V E L T E Z Z p D E M (9 1 A go unheeded. when the fashion trying to turn C A R E A U E.

89 .

and FAUST Cpte. He was born into an artistic family. he was called to study for the priesthood. Schubert 6500 163 (5/71) Phonogram Left: The organ here looming over Gounod symbolizes the sacred works (now mostly forgotten) to which he devoted so much of his 90 energies. particularly in his grateful. Suthe. and his next success was the pastoral Mireille. The shows his lightness of touch. it obscures Gounod's natural gift for lightweight music of real charm. of elegant melody.BALLET MUSIC DCovent Garden/Soiti SPA373 (11/61) Decca D Berlin PO/Karajan/Offe> bach: Ga'tte Parisienne DG* PETITE SYMPHONIE IN B FLAT FOR WIND INSTRUMENTS D Netherlands Wind Ens. for example. and. appeared gentle lyricism of his Philemon et Baucis could not compensate for its feeble libretto. thanks largely to the succession of star singers who made it a vehicle for their art had two consequences: it eventually — produced an inevitable reaction. Paris 1818. Offenbach: GaTie Parisienne (Excerpts) Gounod: Ballet Music and Waltz from Faust BERLIN PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTR \ I Ilium HI vc>\ K \h. emasculated Shakespeare's passionate drama. The Petite symphonie for wind. not to be judged Maria obbligato to Bach's C by his saccharine major Prelude./De Waarl/ 2530 199 (5/72) Dvorak. n Singers/LSO/ Ghiarov/Ai Bonynge SET327-30 (1/67) Decca 1433 London FAUST. studied at the Paris Conservatoire. which embodiment of outdated sentimentalism. Drama was never his strong point. though graceful. Ave his vocal numerous songs. St 1893) The phenomenal popularity of Faust for the first 70 years or so of its existence— it was far and away the most frequently performed opera in the repertory. a much diluted treatment of Goethe. The following year composer was the opera. d. In France at that time the only real field of activity for a after two unsuccessful attempts at the grandiose style associated with Meyerbeer. . Returning home. is always and he had a sure and delicate hand in orchestration. Gounod found his true level in 1858 with the delightful and amusing Le Medecin malgre lui.GOUNOD CHARLESCloud (b. viewed in conjunction with his heavily effortful oratorios and his Romeo vast quantities of dull religious music. and only at the last moment did he decide not to be ordained but to devote himself to music. and was hailed as an important development in opera comique (only ten years later was it turned into a "grand opera" by removing the dialogue and adding a ballet). but he possessed a natural vein stretched his talents unduly. is an enchanting and surprising work to come from a 70year-old composer absorbed in religious mysticism. so occasions when the work is now that given on it the few seems the Faust. and Gounod's remaining operas et Juliette. He writing.vian gained valuable experience as conductor for eight years of the Orpheon choral society (and during his later five-year residence in London he founded a choir which ultimately became the Royal Choral Society). and while in Italy as a result of winning the Prix de Rome became deeply interested in the music of Palestrina ».

full of individual ideas piano. Knight and Shepherd's Daughter. at the age of ten he gave a series of concerts in Melbourne which enabled him to study first in Frankfurt and then with Busoni > in Berlin. as an exponent of Grieg's > piano concerto. Cibbs.PERCY GRAINGER (b. Lisbon. The Duke of Marlborough -fanfare. Ambrosian Singers/ECO/Britten and Tunnard SXL6410 (107691 Decca Left: A throughly practical musician. Over the Hills and Far Away. Sailor's Song. or "chippy" for staccato): his tireless athleticism. Characteristic of his sturdy independence of mind was his determined use. although he was entirely self-taught in this regard. The man I love (Gershwin. with "titbits" such as Mock Morris.. There was a pig went out to dig. New York. ) HANDEL -— ^ CZ W fa • ' . Toye TW0295 (4/70) PIANO WORKS EMI/Studio 2 Country Gardens. Nordic Princess. expression in the heartiness of some of his treatments. ON THE IN THE STRAND: MOLLY SHORE: COUNTRY GARDENS: SHEPHERD'S HEY: IRISH TUNE FROM COUNTY DERRY: MOCK MORRIS D Light Music Soc. despite of English indications of speed and dynamics (eg "louden lots" instead of crescendo molto. Shallow Brown. The lost lady found. In 1919 he became an American citizen. Molly on the Shore. Eastern Intermezzo/Nell i - (Faure). Adni HQS1363 (11/76) EM1/HMV VOCAL AND CHAMBER WORKS Bold William Taylor. Scotch Strathspey and Reel. Irish tune from County Derry. His meeting with Grieg was of significance in that it set him to the energetic collection of folksongs. Melbourne. which however are always notable for their imaginative craftsmanship. The sprig of thyme. found musical some ridicule. Let's dance gay in green meadow. 1882. first in England and then in various parts of the globe (it was he who drew the attention of his friend Delius > to the tune "Brigg Fair"): it also started him composing. Orch/Dunn/ Gardiner. 1961) The unpretentious good humour. Grainger readily 'dished up' his folk settings as 'twosomes'. making a great reputation as a recitalist and. Quitter. and when America war enlisted in the army. J Love walked in. A piano prodigy first taught by his mother. quickly being made an instructor in the Army Music School. Shirley-Quirk. Lullaby. and among other things invented a footoperated device for turning pages on the music-stand of a talker. In 1900 he settled in England. subsequently. and later was for several years head of the music department in the Washington Square College of New York University. such as in his trick of throwing a ball high over a house and rushing through the building to catch it on the other side. Shepherd's Hey. 'room music' or for other combinations. d. Lord Maxwell's goodnight. Handel in the Strand. I'm seventeen come Sunday. The pretty maid milkin' her cow. My Robin is to thegreenwood gone. 01 . Willow. 1914 Grainger went to the USA. willow Pears. He was a good In entered the and not afraid of being thought a crank. Walking Tune. Shepherd's Hey. verve and rhythmic vitality of Grainger's music — nearly of folksongs or pieces owing much typical of the man all of it arrangements to folk influences— was himself.

d. but the piano texture is markedly less cluttered than that of Albeniz. the first nationalist composer in Scandinavia. d. returned to Barcelona. 1907) by Debussy > as "like a pink bonbon filled with snow". Maria del Carmen. at the turn of the century he founded the Society of Classical Concerts. while returning GOYESCAS Miranda/So/e SAGA5343-4 (3/74) Saga Rajna CRD1001-2 (5/74) CRD LA MAJA DOLOROSA NOS. songs "in the old style". was produced in Madrid. which he conducted during its short existence. and after further piano lessons in Paris. he fell under the influence of Rikard Nordraak (writer of the Norwegian tradition national anthem). there is often a tendency to diff useness.ENRIQUE GRANADOS (b. He expanded the Goyescas an opera which was accepted for production in Paris 1914 but which. but initial overwork brought on severe pleurisy. who turned his thoughts to nationalism it should perhaps be explained that from — 1814 Left: to 1905 Norway was under Swedish rule — and more Troldhaugen. the Canciones amatorias. He studied composition in Barcelona with Pedrell (as Falla > was later to do). and. but he was the first to make an impact on a wide European audience. as is sometimes claimed. The modest technical demands of his short piano pieces have helped to popularise his chromatic harmonic idiom. and rapidly gained a considerable reputation as a pianist in Spain and France. the two books of Goyescas. He was certainly not. based on Goya's paintings and tapestries depicting eighteenth-century life in Madrid. Granados was primarily a pianist. though intended as a sneer. was first played in 1911. more importantly. at sea 1916) Like his slightly older contemporary and fellow-Catalan. and though he wrote seven operas and some orchestral music. there. Edzwrd Grieg's home near Bergen. a piano school which he directed until his death and which produced a number of distinguished artists. are notable for their poetic quality and a mannered elegance which does not exclude passionate haunting Maiden and the nightingale. are however entirely romantic in conception. as in the best-known of eighteenth-century spirit is also seen in his pithy and often highly emotional Tonadillas. instead received its premiere in New York two years later. The description of Grieg's music which He reflects the folk styles of his native land. Urida 1867. Bergen. His first opera. owing to war conditions. damaging his left lung and leaving him for the rest of his life in frail health. Shortly afterwards he presented his Spanish dances to the public. where the Mendelssohn > was still powerful. These seven pieces. His masterpiece. Granados's absorption in the feeling. and he did combine romantic sweetness with a pronounced Nordic quality. 1843. studied in Leipzig. it is principally by his piano music that his is remembered. the the set. It was into in home from this that Granados was drowned when the ship in which he was travelling was torpedoed by a German submarine. contains more than a grain of truth: Grieg was essentially a lyrical miniaturist. . where he made his debut in 1890. Albeniz >. a late set of songs. 1-3 Berganza/Lavilla 2530 598 (12/75) DG TWELVE SPANISH DANCES Rajna CRD1021 (7/76) CRD TONADILLAS AL ESTILO ANTIGUO D Gomez/Constable SAGA5409 (2/76) Saga EDVARD GRIEG (b. After graduation and a period in Copenhagen in which he received helpful advice from the Danish composer Gade. with its fondness for open fifths and falling leading-notes.

Northern Sinfonia/Tortelier/ Elegiac Melodies. Leipzig. and popularised its He wrote a number of sensitive songs (including the popular J love thee) for his future wife. This work. Grieg was enabled to give up his teaching and conducting (he had meanwhile founded another society to give choral works) and concentrate on Dances 9500 106 (11/76) Phonogram. OP. more indebted Norwegian folksong.INCIDENTAL MUSIC Armstrong/Ambrosian Singers/Halle/ TW0269 (9/69) EMI/Studi S-36531 Angel D Stolte. interesting.CONCERTO IN A MINOR FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA Lupu. 40 D ASMF/Marriner/Duorafc ZRG670 (11/701 Decca Argo./Zinman/ Tcr. planned a Norwegian Academy of Music.24 DKlien TV34365S (8/72) Decca Turnabout LYRIC PIECES Cpte. Among his later compositions. SXLP30105 Dances (7/68) Decca D ECO/Leppard/Noru>eg. and composed his piano concerto. Above: As and composer Grieg put Norway on the musical map. He was then in his early thirties: the rest of his life was a story of European concert tours and accumulating honours from the most all sides. — 03 . In 1874. aroused the enthusiasm of Liszt ». 1 AND 2 Berlin PO/Karajan/Sigurd lorsalfar 2530 243 (11/73) DG LPO/Pritchard/P. were the Sid tter (peasant fiddle-tunes) for piano and the Haugtussa song-cycle./Susskind/Symphonic specifically to turns of phrase Grieg's music than is whose melodic fact. 43 HOLBERG SUITE BALLADE.ano Cone. OP. Eranck: Symphonic Variations SXL2173 (2/60) Decca HOLBERG SUITE. 40 LYRIC PIECES. He had set poems by Norwegian writers. New Philh. was appointed conductor of the Christiania (Oslo) Philharmonic Society. is. CFP160 (8/71) Classics for Pleasure D Philh. Gewandhai s/ N 6580 056 (6/72) Phonogram 657 0017 Philips Festivo PEER GYNT-SUITES NOS. thanks to a government grant. but his incidental music to PeerCynt in 1876 — for all that it is purely picturesque and captures nothing of Ibsen's bitter satire spread his fame worldwide. Tchaikovsky ASD2954 (2/74) EMI/HMV D Netherlands Chbr. Gilels DC* 2530 476 (3/75) NORWEGIAN DANCES: SUITE: LYRIC SIGURD JORSALFAR (MARCH): PEER GYNT (EXCERPTS) Halle/Barbirolli SXLP30254 (9/77) EMI/HMV Concert Classics PEER GYNT. LSO/Previn/ Schumann SXL6624 (2/74) Decca 6840 London Katin/LPO/Pritchard/Peer Cynt CFP160 18/71) Classics for Pleasur Bishop/BBC SO/Davis/Schumami 6500 166 (3/72) Phonogram./A. particularly Bjornson.ailcor. as pointing the way to possible future developments. Daniel Adni SLS898 (12/74) HMV LYRIC PIECES Exc.slcy 6580 102 (4/75) Phonogram. Orch. OP. who had pianist folk idiom. Solomon/Philh/Menges/Schumam CFP4025S (12/76) Classics for Pie O Curzon/LSO/Fjelstad/ Ufolff: Scherzo. OP. in to generally realised. for whose Sigurd Jorsalfar he wrote incidental music. which was to make his reputation. Davis/Songs 76527 (2/77) CBS frulTortetier Northern SnfoniaOrctestna 1 \onPascalT6rtdfc already sent him a letter of encouragement on his First Violin Sonata. gave concerts entirely of Norwegian music.

Partridge/King's College Choir/ ASMF/Willcocks/Lord is my light ZRG541 (7/68) Decca Argo CONCERTI GROSSI. OPP. Koelman. where Bach set only German and Latin texts. Halle. 1759) The mere accident that Handel and J. then with another company. Heynis. and abandoned his law studies to become a violinist. although they were totally unlike in background. as the legend has it. upbringing. and they never met. was produced when he was twenty. Handel had taken up music against his father's wishes. Handel set little but Italian and English. Handel. Almira. 1685. van Dolder. written in a fortnight and sumptuously produced. when he found wealthy patrons and was granted a pension by Queen Anne. first Academy for the so-called Royal of Music. After a year in the service of the (who had amassed enormous Duke of Chandos riches as an unscrupulous Paymaster-General). Giulio Cesare. enjoyed a European reputation and royal favour. =£#==! ^S =g= t* ^=9- 3^ —^— -r1 ^-» ^¥=t^ » r : j_ . d. a widely travelled man. rival singers' tantrums. All these works of where his first stage work. later a harpsichordist. He then spent five years in Italy. exacerbated by the triumph of the iconoclastic Beggar's Opera. personality. Rodelinda. Italian cantatas and operas were well received and he was made ALCINA (OVERTURE: BALLET MUSIC) ASMF/Ma ZRG686 (6/72) Decca Argo AS PANTS THE HEART D Cantelo. and on English musical life generally. Handel was never employed by the church. where his Rinaldo. made the recently introduced Italian opera all the rage. including Haydn > and Beethoven ». S. in 1720 Handel became a director of an operatic venture to which all fashionable Society flocked after the impact of his Radamisto. to which Bach devoted most of his life. and unlike Bach's. 1-6 Mainz CO/Kehr TV34103S (5/68) Decca Turnabout* D ASMF/Ma ZRG5400 (9/64) Decca Argo* CONCERTI GROSSI. Over the next two decades he wrote a string of 27 operas (including Ottone. Ariodante. }\ 8^ ^ ~ \± 1 ' ~ —# •. Alcina and Berenice). in the Hamburg opera this led to his appointment as kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover. with next to nothing in German. and he returned the following year. He had long overstayed his leave from Hanover. 94 shall inditing. through the Water music he wrote to accompany a Thames water-party of the king's. London. and in 1726 changed his nationality to British. ^ the Priest. his music continued to be treasured and performed in the generations after his death— with almost incalculable effects on numerous other composers. and within 100 miles. for St Cecilia's Right: Thomas Hudson of Handel in 1749. Except for a single year while at the University of Halle. but when by an irony of fate his master became King George I of England it was not long before they were reconciled — though almost certainly not. during which he composed the "Chandos anthems". after a stormy history of intrigues. house. Bach » were born within a month. of each other has often misled people into mentally bracketing these two much of by influential cardinals and nobles: musical giants together. audiences' fickleness and financial difficulties. NOS 3. but centred his whole career on opera (a genre Bach had no opportunity to attempt). My heart The King is Thy gg a *r r •' • D King's College Choir/English Chamber Orch.— GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL (b. where some church music (including a Dixit Dominus). OP. Hollestelle/NCVR Vocal Ens/ Amsterdam CO/Voorberg 6580 135 (3/77) Phonogram Left: Copy of Handel's Ode Day (1 739). career and style. But first he went to London. Let hand be strengthened 's portrait . D Dart/ ASMF/Ma SDDB294-7 3 AND 6 (9/71) CORONATION ANTHEMS FOR GEORGE II: Zadok rejoice./Willcocks ZRG5369 (12/63) Decca Argo DIXIT DOMINUS DDonath.

L M 5te .

Sutherland. Davis 6833 050 (11/71) Phonogram LUCREZIA LORD Palmer. 4/5. He was Westminster Abbey. 1 Tear. he did so with gusto. Shirley-Quirk. GIULIO CESARE O Cpte. Esth Orlando. his unfailing melodic invention. Young. Left: Handel bequeathed this harpsichord to his amanuensis./Menuhin SLS824 (6/72) HMV Preston. Reynolds. in Dublin. his dramatic expressiveness and. LSO/Da DVaughan. His numerous worries made him severely ill. 4 AND 7. 1-3 SC71-AX300 Philips Cpte. ECO and Chorus/Leppard STU70921-3 (2/76) RCA/Erato RL3-1426 RCA QAmeling. Langridge. Partridge/King's College Choir/ASMF/Willcocks/As pants the EMI/HMV (4/71) Exc. Harper. Watts. ORGAN CONCERTOS-OPP. and during his convalescence an idea came to his energetic entrepreneurial mind. 4 (0/76) Decca* and 7 only. very often. Robinson/King's College Choir/ ASMF/Willcocks/O Howell/ ASMF & Chorus/Marriner D18D3 (11/76) Decca* Exc. Diamonds LET GOD ARISE DVaughan. buried in . Cone. his striking sense of instrumental colour. Otto D ECO/Leppard 6599 053 (11/72) Phonogram* SONATAS FOR FLUTE AND HARPSICHORD DGraf/Daehler ORYX1712-3 (3/731 Peerless/Oryx. as in the Fireworks music to celebrate the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. WATER MUSIC DPhilomusica of London/Dart/Hnrp and Lute Cone. Home. Admeto. Davis.GEORGE FR1DERIC HANDEL Handel's were cast in the rigid mould of opera seria. Solomon and (his last) Jephtha. as the public had wearied of operatic artificialities and singers' squabbles. Judas Maccabaeus. to strike out in a new direction. Mackerras HQS1244 praise the Lord ZRG5490 (1/66) Decca Argo Baker/ECO/Leppard/Operatic arias 6500 523 (10/74) Phonogram IS MUSIC FOR THE ROYAL FIREWORKS D ECO/Leppard MY LIGHT Canlelo. Between the acts Handel would often play an organ concerto. Robinson/King's 6703 001 (11/66) Pho God arise ZRG5490 (1/66) Decca Argo OBOE CONCERTOS NOS. SDD470-2 Diamonds (11/75) Decca CO Ace of OVERTURES DLotario. Paillard CO/Paillard STU71097 (5/78) RCA/Erato Malcolm/ ASMF/Marriner D3D4 Opp. 'SET 2' NOS. in which subjects from history or classical mythology were arranged in a sequence of static arias. Op. Sinclair/New SCVBonynge SDD213 (4/70) Decca Ace of Quirk.. linked by recitative. ECO/Ma SLS774 (3/67) HMV Angel College Choir/ ASMF/Willcocks/Let D Holliger/ECO/Leppard 6500 240 (11/721 Phonogram. Cross in C DPA597-8 (4/781 D ECO/Leppard 6500 047 (1/71) Phonogram* DBPO/Kubelik 2535 137 (3/76) 138799 DG DG Privilege D Suite: Schola Cantorum Basiliensis/ Wenzinger/ Fireworks 2548 164 (11/75) DG Heliodor Right: Handel's /^M^^^€<r//^?^/. (It is worth remembering. In 1739 he produced the intensely dramatic Saul and the monumental Israel in Egypt (nothing like whose succession of massive choruses had ever been heard): in 1742. Young. Harwood. In 1732 the Bishop of London's ban on acted performances of sacred subjects in a theatre had obliged him to present a revival of his earlier masque Esther as an oratorio: now he decided. Shirley- 6500 369 (1/73) Phonogram* (augmented)/Mackerras/Concertos D LSO ASD3395 (11/77) EMI/HMV S-37404 Angel heart ZRG541 (7/68) Decca Argo O PRAISE THE LORD WITH ONE CONSENT MESSIAH Cpte. in view of the grandiose massedchoir performances of that much-mauled work. Elkins. His combination of German contrapuntal fluency with Italian vocal grace and the English choral tradition derived from Purcell * was unique. will. C. that the original forces numbered about 30 in the choir and the same in the orchestra — though when Handel could call upon large orchestral forces. DEccs. in which he would improvise much of his solo part. Baker. 4 6. Alain. Walts. but to present-day listeners the appeal of Handel lies in his nobility.) Later oratorios included Samson. Richter. Harp Cone. Alcina Partenope. Herincx. Poi . designed for star singers (the hero always being a castrato). Wakefield. Op. 7-10 Menuhin Fest. he performed Messiah — not so much an oratorio as a sacred cantata — which after a rather cool initial reception in London the following year was upon rapturously fallen and performed almost as a sacred rite from then on.

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his importance in the formation and development of both can scarcely be exaggerated. The ordinary listener. with his master's full 98 encouragement. who took Haydn on as assistant kapellmeister in 1761 when the Count was and scraped a famous singing living as teacher. and there have been complete recordings of his symphonies and quartets. d. When he was 27 he was invited to direct the small private orchestra of a Bohemian Count. 44. and supple contrapuntal skill. had been published in and an even smaller part was performed. and two years later he became a scholars. development sections were enor- (including a vast quantity of pieces for the Prince's favourite instrument. Vienna. From all this a new perspective has been gained. he had learned how to write quartets. During Haydn's works went through a more dramatic and overtly emotional phase — his "Storm and stress" period: to this belong the "Trauer". for the next 24 years occupied composing orchestral He was able to experiment to his heart's content with instrumentation and form. (Mozart > declared that it was from Haydn's example that himself said. however. religious music for his chapel and operas for his theatre. After this his works achieved greater grace and nobility. he treated it with astonishing diversity and adventurousness: movements were frequently constructed from a single theme without lack of variety.HAYDN JOSEPH Lower (b. its total effect being to heighten still more the stature of this great musical figure. 1809) Only 50 years ago could fairly label a distinguished University professor Haydn "the inaccessible" because only a reliable editions. prankster. 1732. Rohrau. and was succeeded by an enthusiast for the arts with a taste the Prince died his brother Nicolaus.) Though in Haydn's hands the symphony acquired shape and depth. E. concerned more with the enjoyment and satisfaction to be derived from a composer's music than with his historical influence. along with deeply expressive or dramatic movements. as shown in the Op. He was the son of a wheelwright in an Austrian border village where Croatian and Hungarian elements were strong. he built a sumptuous palace across the Hungarian border on the model of Versailles where Haydn. and an inexhaustible fount of original ideas for treating his material. P. "compelled to be original". accompanist and servant to a assisted him in the composition studies he was assiduously undertaking on his own. the bulk of his music has chorister in St Stephen's Cathedral. nor of the string quartet (seeing that a few composers had previously written works of these sorts). obliged. honoured and held in affection by all. and in the 50 or so quartets of this period he enormously developed the importance and independence of the lower parts and deepened the significance of the medium as a whole. He began to write piano sonatas in the C. as well as all kinds of mously strengthened. 33 quartets in orchestral soloists) . Largely isolated as he was from the outside world (although his fame quickly spread far and wide). Haydn was thrown upon his own resources and. for reasons of The following year who economy. Vienna. Today. he was an unaffected and modest man with a positive attitude to life which gave his work a unique quality. Respected. re-edited and republished. to dismiss his musicians. many more works have been discovered. thanks to fraction of . can find in Haydn a wealth of spontaneous melody. as he has been called. he was dismissed at 17 when An incorrigible his voice broke. Although not literally the "father of the symphony". 20 ("Sun") quartets. the baryton). At the age of six he was sent off to live with a stern relative who gave him musical instruction. which earned him the title of "the Magnificent". special celebrations to entertain the constant stream of the early 1770s royal and noble guests. a buoyant rhythmic vitality in which cheerfulness abounds. with the operas now being added to the catalogue. and in return Haydn was powerfully impressed by the work of his great junior. as he there was much humour (particularly which frequently call on in the Trios of the minuets. and the folksongs he heard in his childhood often seem to find an echo in his later music. for which he wrote his first symphonies: these attracted the notice of Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy. Austria. a lucidity.his extensive output the enthusiastic efforts of Haydn been carefully studied. Bach > mould and string quartets for a minor nobleman's music parties. "Farewell" and "Passione" symphonies (Nos. the slow introduction appeared. 45 and 49) and the Op. now in charge of for luxury his musical establishment (which included many first-rate was kept busily and chamber music players and singers).

Watts. Tear. Munchinger SET362-3 (4/68) Decca 1271 London (Nos. John's College D Tuckwell/ASMF/Marriner/Trumpet St. Haydn was freer to move about. He paid two long visits to England. 94. King's College Choir. Choir. and which he played on his deathbed. 3 contains variations on his Emperor's Hymn which became the Austrian national anthem. He had meanwhile written a series of six great Masses for the new Prince Esterhazy. 64 (of which No. & Orch. of which No./ (4/70) Kubelik 2548 229 (4/76) DG Heliodor 99 . No. ASMF/Willcocks SLS971 (6/74) HMV DCantelo. 4 is the "Lark") and particularly. Watts. Cone: Organ Cone. six After the death of his sympathetic and appreciative master. 76. MASS NO. MISSA IN TEMPORE BELLI (PAUKENMESSE) ZRG634 Choir/ASMF/ Decca Argo* D Morison. and the symphonies (Nos. the "Clock" DAmeling. 11 IN B FLAT (SCHOPFUNGSMESSE) Quirk. 1 IN John's College D DCantelo. 1 ZK6 (1/77) Decca Argo LIRA CONCERTOS Guest (No. O Rostropovich/English Chamber Orch. Harper. SXL6138 (12/64) Decca 6419 London Rostropovich/ASMF/Ccmcerto at the age of sixty. on each occasion writing six brilliant symphonies for performance in London. and among other masterpieces in the final flowering of his talent were the quartets of Op. Krenn. which the minuets give way to scherzos. 1 in C. Krause./ Britten: Cello Cone. Op. Witsch. 82-87) written for Paris. which spurred him to compose The Creation and The Seasons. Kohn. and was stunned by the revelation of Handel's > oratorios. No. Ens TV340SSS Decca Turnabout* Choir/ASMF/Guest ZRG598 (3/69) Decca Argo. Robinson/St HARPSICHORD CONCERTO MAJOR D Malcolm/ ASMF/Marriner IN D SXL6385 (10/69) Decca HORN CONCERTO NO. Janacek/Bavarian Radio Ch. McDaniel. Thomas. including such ASD3255 (9/76) in D in C EMI/HMV 37193 Angel CELLO CONCERTO IN D DRostropovich/ASMF/Concerto ASD32S5 (9/76) EMI/HMV 37193 Angel THE CREATION VPO/ favourites as the "Surprise". 5 in F) DRuf.Above: Haydn's harpsichord Above right: Joseph Haydn is preserved in CELLO CONCERTO IN C Vienna. 3 in G. Shirley- and the "London" and 104): he was feted and honoured everywhere. 101 Dfrn English). Tear. Tear.

NO. 18. STRING QUARTET NO.HAYDN JOSEPH DNos. 86 IN D DPhilh. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. 28 6500 401 (3/73) Phonogram* HDNH35-40 D Nos. 24. 75-80. 83 SDD482 (8/76) Decca Ace of Diamonds SYMPHONY NO. 26. 44-49. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. 7. LSO/Willcocks ZRG5325 (12/62) Decca Argo. 74 77. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. Mazzieri. Trimarchi. C 63-68. 6500 023 (6/71) Phonogram. 85 SDD483 (8/7o) Decca Ace of Diamonds SYMPHONY NO. Krause. «L«ktL<^ <*» -2L -3L "*<* . 32 6500 522 (11/73) Phonogram* DNos. 14. 20. Ozim. 58/Capriccio in 100 in 19. 82 SDD482 (8/76) Decca Ace of Diamonds 84 IN E FLAT DPhilh. D Nos. 21. DJanowitz. > a 93-104 Philharmonia Hungariea/Dorati D Tokyo Quartet 2530 440 (7/74) OP. King's College Choir. 54. ANGUSTIIS) Singverein. OP. STRING QUARTETS NOS. OP. 84 SDD483 (8/76) Decca Ace of Diamonds NO. Quirk. PIANO SONATAS McCabe DNos. HDN106-8 (9/76) Decca DNos. 48. OP. Shirley D Aeolian (10/75) Decca STS-15343 London DNos. 10. DNos. 1 STRING QUARTETS NOS. NOS. Brown. 11. 82 IN C (BEAR) DPhilh. CFP40021 (2/74) Classics for Pleasure DPhilh. 42. 18. English). 5. 43. 52. 27. NO. 1-19 HDNA1-6 F (HEN) Quartet HDNP57-60 NOS. 49-56 HDND19-22 9500 327 (2/78) Phonogram* DNos. Baranyai. Ahnsjo. 82. D Nos. 9. 15 22 18. 43. NOS. 34. DG D Aeolian 60-62. OP. 76 Berg Quartet AS641302 (l/75)Selecla STRING QUARTETS NOS. 85 IN B FLAT SYMPHONY NO. 13. 55 Quartet HDNS67-9 HMV D Nos. 77. Dav 6703 023 (4/69) Phonogram 839719-21 Philips SINFONIA CONCERTANTE IN B(. DNos. 87 SDD484 (8/7e| Decca Ace of Diamonds SYMPHONY . 50 NOS. 33. 19. 33. 8. 42. D Nos. 65-72 HDN27-30 (9/70) Decca STS-15135 London 9500 034 (11/76) Phonogram* DNos. 19. A HDN109-11 (4/77) PIANO TRIOS Beaux Arts Trio Decca 31-36. Shirley. 9. Davies. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. BBC SO and Chorus/C. 17. 6500 521 (6/74) Phonogram* 20. Hung. IN D LPO/Pritchard (11/75) Decca STRING QUARTET NO. SYMPHONIES D Nos. of (5/71) Decca Diamonds Weller Quartet SDD279 Ace (11/761 Decca Weller Quartet SDD278 Ace AND (6/71) Decca Diamonds SLS5065 (10/76) 44-5. Variations in HDN100-2 54-6Mrietrn con Variazioni (5/76) Decca Adagio Variations in F. 5. Vienna ORLANDO PALADINO D fin D Cpte. Watts. 51. 2 DAlban HDN|41-6(9/74) Decca STS-15319 London 57-59. 23. 11 7. 76. Decca 57-64 HDNE23-6 (1/71) Decca STS-15131 London 13. 82-92. HDN103-5 DNos. SHARP 83. HDNT70-5 (5/76) Decca STRING QUARTETS NOS. (9/72) Decca STS-15249 London (QUEEN) DPhilh. STRING QUARTETS NOS. THE SEASONS DSeahlmann. F (3/721 Dei 82-87 ECO/Barenboim 29-31 6500 400 (3/73) Phonogram. 83 IN G MINOR 36-48 HDNC13-18 DPhilh. Harper. 39. 38. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym.f*»v 3L ^ 'if fe «L w. 40. Hung. SYMPHONY NO. OP. 49. 3. 34. Killebrew. 60/Fanfasia in C. OP. (10/73) Decca 20-35 HDNB7-12 (4/73) Decca STS-15257 London D Nos. NO. OP. 50 49/ C in 44. 17 9500 053 (2/77) Phonogram. 16. Carelli/Lausanne CO/ Dorati 6707 029 (9/77| Phonogram. 3 OP. (5/71) STS-15127 London 12 9500 327 (8/77) Phonogram* DNos. Ameling. 2. OP. 10. 44. 45. NELSON MISSA (MISS A 73-81 HDNG31-4 DNos. 46. 31./Dorati/MoMrt K3b4 SDD445 Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15229/34 London Auger. 47. •£M * 31/3L «fc •*> -3. VSO/B6hm DG* 2709 026 (11/67) OP. IN (3/71) Decca STS-15182 London D Nos. OP. 2 Philharmonia Hungariea/Dorati D Aeolian D 37-39. NOS. Talvela. 6. NOS. 64 Quartet Quartet HDNU76-81 of D 40-42. Racz/Philh. 103 D Aeolian 81. Luxon. DEngl. 36. 50. Sinfonia Concertante STS-15229 London 25-27 DNos. 42 SDD414 (7/74) Decca Ace of Diamonds SYMPHONY NO./Dorati/Sym. 16. 45 MINOR (FAREWELL) NO. Schreier. (9/74) Decca 1-104 D Nos. D Nos. 37-42.

T^M i «—t *=s trf ' IV-fr ^'M MlS ES . 96 SDD501 (11/76) Decca Ace of PO Karajan Sym. «4 SDD500 (11/761 Decca Act ol STS-15178 London CFP40269 (12/771 DLPO/Iochum/Sym. 86 [8/76] Decca Ace ol SDD484 | Diamonds SYMPHONY D Berlin NO. 88 IN G PO/)ochum/Sym <*» 2548 241 1 I 93 IN D QPhilh. stage. Stringer. SYMPHONY NO. worked as a repetiteur. which became the centre of an anti-Nazi demonstration and stung Henze to issue a declaration on the "importance of world revolution". as in the very concentrated Fifth Symphony. was specifically inscribed as "anti-bourgeois music" and quoted revolutionary songs. au-Lyr KAMMERMUSIK D Langridge. 104 SDD362 15/731 Decca Ace \ of Diamonds Mi' lochum/Sym. The lyricism of his opera King Stag was paralleled by the vocal warmth of his Five Neapolitan Songs and the instrumental allure of his Kammenmisik.ic. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. El Cimarron (whose central character is a runaway slave) and The tedious journey to Natascha Ungeheuer's apartment (a fable of disillusion with political ideals). Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. FLAT (MILITARY) DCIeveland/Szell/Sym. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym 97 r76) Decca Ace ol SDD502 Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. 1 Decca Argo VERA COSTANZA OCpte. His highly extrovert early symphonies. and Muses of Sicily (described as a "concerto for choir. Henze has since then devoted his considerable talents and fluency of invention to Marxist causes— which has caused some uncertainty in his very eclectic style and an evident barrier to his general The seeds of revolt were laid at an early however. SYMPHONY NO. shows a similar romanticism. 1926) Hailed in the 1950s and early 60s as the leading German opera composer of his day. Political music-theatrebecame Henze's main interest. -TV 101 . Rolte-)ohnson/Lausanne CO/Dorati 6703 077 (6/77) Phonogram. No S3 ASD2817 (1/73) EMI HMV Pleasure SYMPHONY NO. 100 2530 459 (8/741 PL. SYMPHONY NO. 1/77 I Co. written in Cuba. Diamonds Diamonds IN 1 I SYMPHONY NO. as well as his actual ballets Ondine and The Emperor's nightingale. SDD500 (11/76) Decca Ace ol D LPO/Jochum/Sym. reveal this pull towards the Mediterranean (especially the Apollonian No. the Double Concerto for oboe and harp. Elegy for young lovers. Bielefeld. an opera to an English libretto. 97 IN C DPhilh. Bedford Mozart Clarinet Cone. 87 IN A D Berlin PO/)ochum/Sym. 98 SDD502 111/761 Decca Ace of 104 IN D. 2 DLangbein/London Sinfonietta/He Composes HEAD5 (11/74) Decca Headline. Walker/London Sinfonietta/Henze//N Memoriam DSL05 111/75) L'Oiseau-Lyre. 3=£ . 3. SYMPHONY NO. CFP40269 12/77) DRPO/Schonzeler/Sym. STS-15320 London 95 IN 96 G nLPO/Jochum/Sym 99 2530 459 (8/741 DGSYMPHONY NO. Norman. which ends with percussion hammering out the chant "Ho. two pianos. from Haydn's Creation. Below: Sketch for the chorus 'The heavens are telling'. and became artistic director of the Wiesbaden Opera ballet. and the Sixth Symphony. 99 G D 96 IN P LPO/Pritchard/Sym. 100 IN IW S-36868 Angel 101 2530 628 (7/76) DGPhilh. 88 2548 241 10/76) L>G Heliodor DPhilh. Karajan Schubert Left: Title-page of three of Haydn's symphonies published 1787 in Vienna. 2530 420 (12/741 DG* OPhilh. and on Stravinsky >. /-f I . with The Raft of the Medusa (a protest against inhumanity. his first opera Boulevard Solitude (an up-dating of the Manon Lescaut story) and his Third Symphony. (LONDON) tJVPO/Karajan/Sym. which had been formed on Schoenberg >. SYMPHONY "JPhilh SYMPHONY NO.-X Classics (or i I Pleas °4 Classic. ho. ASD3203 EMI (9/76) HMV S-37058 Angel TRUMPET CONCERTO IN E FLAT Si lames Orch.. dancing left its influence on such works as his First Piano Concerto. where lengthy residence mellowed the original asperities of his style. and it later formed the basis for his Fourth Symphony.HANS WERNER HENZE (b. for Pleasur. but after that Henze's style became tauter and more acceptability. VIOLIN CONCERTO NO.-«C (11/741 Decca Headline. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. Classics (or MS-7006 Columbia PO lochum/Sym. with its beautifully grave slow movement).r Concerto I HEADS IN 1 —. He was increasingly drawn to Italy. ASMF/Marrmer/Honi Cone. 101 IN D (CLOCKI OBPO/Karajan/Sym. Organ ZK6 1 I. *c £ it y~r\~c I A 1 £ 1 m 1 Guterstoh. 93 61052 (4/o9| CBS Classics 1 IN E SYMPHONY NO. He returned after the war. COMPASES PARA PREGUNTAS ENSIMISMADAS a London Sinfonietta/Henze/Viof. and were followed by the Second Piano Concerto. Ho-Chi-Minh!"). though without the strictness of his followers. which display a virtuoso technique. 103 SDD362 15/731 Decca Ace Diamonds a LPO/ lochum/Sym f03 STS-15321 London of 2530 525 17/751 DG* Berlin PO. 102 CFP40073 \. Donath. CFP40046 (3/731 Classics tor Pleasur. NO. MEMORIAM London Sinfonietta/Henze/ Kan DSL05 (11/751 L'Oi. when as a boy in the Nazi era he was conscripted into the army. Hungarica Dorati Sum. Hungarica/Dorati/Sym. Howarth 1 . (DRUM ROLL) QLPO/lochum/Sym. Lovaas. C MINOR 103 IN E FLAT. Heliodor (SURPRISE) O LPO/Pritchard/Sym. Ahnsjo. SYMPHONY NO. nr. 05 SDD501 ill 76) Decca Ace ol 10/76) DC. The opera The young lord had already bitterly satirised German bourgeois pretensions. "4 DG- SYMPHONY NO. A double-bass concerto. wind instruments and timpani") were all prodLiced in 1966. Trimarchi. FLAT 98 IN B -b \{f vf incisive. Ganzarolh. 94 1 Diamonds STS-15321 ondon DPhilh. 104 2530 525 (7/75) DG- Diamonds STS-15320 London SYMPHONY NO./S. 2530 628 (7/76) 9J! FLAT 102 IN B CIRPO/Schonzeler/Sym "o Diamonds CFP40073 (7/741 Classics tor Pleasur.

mostly in a linear neo-classical idiom. several operas. in the case of so extremely prolific a composer). with the artist's position in society almost certainly arose in the period of German demoralisation and febrile gaiety following the 1914-18 war. various concertos (including six with chamber orchestra. and a series of works for different combinations entitled Konzertmusik. throughout his life. making a established HORN CONCERTO swiftly D Brain/Philh. Oistrakh/LSO/Hindemith/Bruch SDD465 (6/76) Decca Ace of Diamonds 61367 (1/74) ZRG663 (3/71) Decca Argo* STRING QUARTET NO. Strauss (8/73) Unicorn 71307 Nonesuch NOS. Frankfurt 1963) As a result of the eventual sweeping victories of the thinking of Schoenberg 3> and his followers. such as his masterpiece the MathisderMaler symphony. which centred on the problem of the artist's role in society and which as a result was not produced until 1938. in Zurich) he acted for some time as music adviser to the Turkish government before quitting Europe in 1939 for the USA. was a basic tenet. Hindemith's stock as an influence on 20th-century musical developments. AW6 42077 Selecta/Telefunken SYMPHONIC METAMORPHOSES ON THEMES OF WEBER D LSO/Abbado/ Jandcek: 1-3 Cleveland/SzeIl//andcek CBS Classics CONCERTO IN D FLAT DD. each entitled Kammermusik). in other cases.HINDEMITH PAUL Hanau (b. and to composition. 2 IN C PKreuzberger Quartet/String Quartet 3 Selecta/Telefunken VIOLIN 6337 London of discussion. Besides works already mentioned. adopted new style notable not only for its increased a textural clarity but for its deeper expressiveness. either expressionist or studiedly "objective" and astringent (like the first version MATHIS DER MALER. has declined. He completed a treatise expounding his own theory of tonality based on harmonic tensions (exemplified in the piano preludes and fugues called Ludus tonalis) and became head of the music department at Yale. those that have bear witness to his extraordinary contrapuntal skill and lithe rhythmic energy. it is the sheer intellectual exuberance that is so stimulating. but in 1946 returned to Zurich to teach composition.SYMPHONY growing reputation at festivals of contemporary music. he had become leader of the opera-house orchestra there. when he was first making his way in the world. designed for practical ends and for amateurs./Hindemith/R. eight sonatas for wind instruments. are also powerfully emotional under their athletic exterior. 102 Sinfonietta (5/69) Decca 6620 London Preston AW6 42077 practic- STRING QUARTET NO. Strauss HLS7001 (3/72) EMI/HMV LUDUS TONALIS His early compositions included. He also became famous as a solo violist. of Cardillac and the jape Hin und when he became Berlin. his main contributions to the repertoire were the ballets Nobilissima visione and The four temperaments. He had left home at the age of 11 because of parental opposition to a musical career and played in cafes and cinemas to earn enough to enable him to study in Frankfurt — to such purpose that before he was twenty. This aroused a good deal DRoggenkamp GSGC14150 (12/74) Pye Collector OPhiladelphia/Ormandy/Rachmaninoti 61347 (3/73) CBS Classics QLSO/Horenstein/R. When the Nazis banned his music (objecting especially to the opera Mathis der Maler. Some. once considered of major importance. but in the early 1930s Hindemith. His deep moral concern. which toured widely. Music High School in he sought to justify the composer's profession by Gebrauchsmnsik — "functional" declaring a policy of music. He acquired at least a competence on a very large number of instruments. which enabled him later to write with understanding for many that are not well catered for (even uncommon instruments like the heckelphone and trautonium). 1895. but though only relatively few of his works have firmly themselves (inevitably. while retaining his desire to serve the community. d. He left the Frankfurt Opera in 1923 to devote his time to playing viola in the Amar Quartet. but in 1927. ality STREICHQUARTETTE OE16&OE22 String Quartets Quatuors a cordes Kreuzberger Streichquartett . a professor at the zuriick). 3 IN C D Kreuzberger/Strmg Quartet 2 SXL6398 RHS312 ORGAN SONATAS Above: To Hindemith. besides a number of instrumental works. as in the virtuosic Symphonic metamorphoses on themes of Weber.

Londoi More a "musician's musician" than his close friend Yaughan Williams >. The Planets (which uses a large orchestra with vivid colours. at Morley College and the Royal College of Music. and was an entirely unassuming and understanding human being. Yet he had infinitely more practical experience. and later in the USA) endeared himself to under Stanford more at the intellectually enquiring several generations of pupils. Below: A portrait of Hoist at work by Millicent Woodforde. the and genuinely original of the two. and with a keen sense of humour. never enjoyed the popularity of his contemporary.GUSTAV HOLST (b. Hoist. His eminently practical sense enabled two successful suites for military folksong. who was a fellow-student with him Royal College of Music. Like was able to shake himself free of Yaughan Williams. intolerant only of sloppiness and pretension. Cheltenham lS~4. but his strong vein of mysticism emerged in his most popular work. in English His was an unusual mind. the of which were the sets of choral Hymns from first fruits the Rig-Veda and the exquisite chamber opera Savitri him to write band and the St Paul's Suite for the strings of the girls' school where he taught for nearly 30 years. who in a lifetime of teaching (at two famous London schools. and even more in the dazzling vision of the choral Hymn of Jesus and in the (1908). 103 .ii. which prompted him even while a trombonist and repetiteur to the Carl Rosa Opera company and then organist at Covent Garden to learn Sanskrit so as to study Eastern poetry and philosophy. he Germanic though without being so completely immersed traditions. nor did he possess his common touch. and in which the terror of Mars and the awesome remoteness of Saturn and Neptune quite outweigh the heartiness of Jupiter).

The bleakness of the orchestral Egdon Heath. 104 Right: Hoist playing through the score of his opera The Perfect Fool at Covent Garden in 1923. though it coincided with a fall he suffered from a platform while conducting. in vocal settings. was certainly the outcome of his search for an even greater clarity and precision of thought. the concentration of the HOLST CHORAL MUSIC THE BACCHOLIAN SINGERS OF LONDON English Hammersmith scherzo have never caught the public fancy. A change to a more neo-classical. It Chamber Orchestra Philip Jones Brass EiuentMe . including A Dirge for Two Veterans. which however went hand in hand with a trenchant clarity of thought. the distant gaze of the song Betelgeiise. he had followed the rhythms of English words had led him to favour irregular patterns and unusual metrical units of five and seven. Swansea Town Above: Throughout Hoist's work ran a strong vein of mysticism. polytonal style in his works from the Choral Symphony onwards. The elasticity with which. the mordancy of the two-violin concerto.GUSTAV HOLST Ode to death. was conducted hy Eugene Goossens (left). as well as in the boisterous ballet music to his very funny parodistic opera The perfect fool. The Song of the Blacksmith. but they may represent the true core of Hoist's individual utterance. and these are apparent in the three major works just mentioned.

Perfect Fool— ballet music ASD30°7 [9 75) EMI IIMV THE PLANETS DNPO/Boult ASD2301 |3/o7l EMI/HMV DLSO/Prev.11 truth. LYRIC MOVEMENT FOR VIOLA AND STRINGS. Five choral folksongs. Truth ol . The homecoming.SO/Previn/Tale of the Wandering Scholar. OBOE AND STRINGS. Rippon.BROOK GREEN SUITE.PRELUDE AND SCHERZO (1933-4) BENI-MORA PLPO/Boult SRCS56 (5/72) (The) Baccholian Singers SCHOLAR CSD3764 (7/751 EMI/HMV EGDON HEATH Pl. Dirge tor two veterans. ST PAUL'S SUITE PECO/I. Hoist SRCS34 (5/67) CHORAL PIECES 1 P Philadelphia/Ormandy RL1797 (4/77) RCA ARL1-1797 RCA SAVITRI P Baker. David's lament for lonathan. Hoist/ Rig Veda ZNF6 yrit. Langdon/ ECO/Bedtord/Egdoii Heath. FUGAL CONCERTO FOR FLUTE.n ASD3002 (7/741 EMI IIMV S-36991 Angel D Bournemouth CN2020 *P^ SO/Hurst |0/7ol Pickwick/Contour Lyrita TALE OF THE WANDERING Manas) PBurrowes. Tear. Perfect Fool-Ballet music ASD3097 (9/75) EMI/HMV WELSH FOLKSONGSPARTSONGS PBBC Northern Singers/Wilkinson/ 12 Piano music LPB736 (5/76) Abbey . Hemsley/ECO/I.i iThe Fields <>t sorrow. NOCTURNE FOR STRINGS. Tear. Hymn to (6/66) Decca Argot A SOMERSET RHAPSODY HAMMERSMITH..

. 1 110 0604 Rediffusion/Supraphon CONCERTO DA CAMERA Solum. This was not to be read. Montmollin. he never together is dozen operas and even more ballets. After making his debut at the age of nine at one of Mozart's concerts. *£^V~ HUMMEL JOHAN NEPOMUKA Weimar (b. Little received his musical education in Zurich and Paris. lolivet: Flute Cone. a tour-de-force of orchestral writing. d. and player enjoyed a brilliant reputation Liszt ». attracted to the music-hall and street fair but was intent on "chamber and symphonic music of the most serious kind". taking lessons from Clementi) and Holland. but some of his abundant piano and chamber musicnotable for its decorative elegance. and his earliest compositions show his absorption with Debussy > and Strauss >— although all his life he revered Bach » as his inspiration. Camden/English Sinfonia/ Dilkes//berr: Flute Cone. facility and polish rather than depth of thought — survives and makes agreeable listening. in the years immediately following the First World War. In 1916 he was associated with his recent fellow-pupil Milhaud > in a group called "Les Nouveaux Jeunes" which was afterwards to form the basis of the so-called "Les Six". like the others. as the charming 1920 Pastorale d'ete revealed. Ariane et Barbe-bleu Paris ASD2953 (7/74) EMI/HMV ROI DAVID Right: (LE) Danco. but he later felt impressionism to be out of tune with the spirit of the times. but was held label). CELLO CONCERTO He heard of his composers of by little more than a journalist's Bright Young Things' irreverent jokiness. 3 2530 068 (7/73) To name of Honegger is indelibly associated with his study Pacific 231. DG SYMPHONY NO. once Mozart's pupil. Sufis: Gymnopedies ASD2989 (5/74) EMI/HMV PASTORALE D'ETE ORTF/Martinon/Dukas: Symphony. however. EMD5526 EMI (5/76) PACIFIC 231 D CBSO/Fremaux//bert: Divertissement. Hamel. Le Havre 1892. Poulene: Les Biehes. and the group known of his writing. finally returning to Vienna. a theatre conductor. which its title. where he studied composition with Haydn ». In all his chamber works except his string quartets there is a piano part. Joan of Arc at the stake. but Honegger was at pains to stress that he was not. whose whenever one to as "Les Six" (which actually of his concertos or there are always suspicions shared. but by the late 1930s a submerged vein of romanticism came to the surface to show wheels. spending two years at the Conservatoire in each. Suh Romande/Ansermet/RaiW: Sheherazade. Pacific 231. 1837) In the history of the piano who Hummel holds a unique place. Hummel was taken by his father. a throughout Europe and whose powers of improvisation were considered even greater than those of his fellow-pupil and friend Beethoven ». so that inevitably some enterprising the care not to number of gave the work the 2 DG "music of machines" was the latest fad — though Honegger was anxious for this to be heard not merely programmatically but as music in its own right. The robustness of his style was seen again in \he symphonic impression Rugby.ARTHUR HONEGGER (b. Denmark. Sadlo/Czech PO/Neumann/ Shostakovich: Cello Cone. in whose house he lived for two years as a young pupil. England (where he stayed for a year. whose teacher was Hummel's pupil Czerny. which often has the lion's share (as in the virtuosic and enjoyable D minor Septet). Paris 1955) Attempts to assess Honegger's position in the musical world have often been undermined by two accidents — his birth and education in France. created a sensation — that symphonies is played Honegger has been undervalued. although his parents were Swiss and his mind was traditions. d. as in his other German for occasional re-screenings of the film Pygmalion). which had a wildfire success and brought him fame — were marked by a tensile strength very characteristic of him. In 1923 his impression of a railway locomotive. and his vast quantity of incidental music is likely to remain unknown (except much more attuned his friendship with the other modify the sinewy quality great success. but the two works of the following year— the "mime symphony" Horace victorieux and the "dramatic psalm" Le Roi David. he forms a link between Mozart ». His four operas and six ballets have long since been forgotten. In 1804 he became one of Left: The pianist and composer Hummel. who had heard him play in London. 2530 068 (7/73) — taking 3 O Berlin PO/Karajan/Sym. the public at large photographer posed him on the footplate of an express 2 Berlin PO/Karajan/Sj/m. on a lengthy concert tour in Germany. as a declaration of austerity. Pozsony 1778. Melodies Hebraiqut GOS602-3 Decca STS-15155-6 London SYMPHONY NO.

also making extensive visits to St and London. where he was. Vivaldi— Trumpet Cones. Paris conductor at the man German Opera.Clarinet Quintet DSLOS01 (11/74) L'Oiseau-Lyre. Telemann. but was dismissed after seven years for neglecting He later took up similar appointments in his duties. D Piano Concertino TV34348S Decca Turnabout 34348 Turnabout CLARINET QUARTET IN E FLAT D Music Party/Cruse!/. where he was instrumental in commissioning Beethoven's Mass in C. An of kindly disposition. he visited untidy. corpulent Beethoven (who had taken offence at the reception of his work in Esterhaza) on and valuably contributed to the dissemination of his symphonies by making piano-duet arrangements of them. Mozart.Haydn's successors as kapellmeister at Esterhaza.. TV34348S Decca Turnabout 34348 Turnabout DSLO530 F SHARP (8/77) L'Oiseau-Lyre* QUINTET IN FLAT E DMelos Ens/Septet SOL290 (5/66) L'Oiseau-Lyre SEPTET IN D MINOR D Melos Ens/Quintet (5/66) L'Oiseau-Lyre SOL290 TRUMPET CONCERTO IN E FLAT O Andre/Berlin PO/Karajan/L. Petersburg. ASD3044 (6/75) EMI/HMV S-37063 Angel 107 . in 1833. Stuttgart and Weimar. his deathbed BASSOON CONCERTO PIANO SONATAS: MINOR. DBinns IN F Zukerman/Wurtemberg CO/Faerber/ PIANO CONCERTINO IN G D Calling/ Wurtemberg CO/Faerber/ Bassoon Cone.

a and resonant body of sound. In earlier works the cellos often played the and basses same part. With their strings tuned a fifth lower. while the deep foundation of the orchestral sound is provided by the large double-basses. which add a rich. The top part is taken by the violins — the sopranos of the orchestra — usually divided into two groups (though sometimes rich more) — the first violins. A string orchestra can provide a full and satisfying sound without frequently leading the the added coloration of the orchestra.1 (arco) but are often . while a is sometimes achieved with the use of mutes. the slightly larger violas span the gap between the violins and the bow plucked (pizzicato). but now they are invariably independent. softer tone Double bass Violin . infinitely variable in tone and covering a wide range from the lowest to the highest pitch. mellow tone to the string cellos section.scrj Piccolo tr^r-mr utZ^JS^^^^ta 2S 5 Flute ^ Bassoon Strings The the form the basis of strings symphony orchestra. the second violins other sections. The strings are generally played with generally playing a contrasting part.

A deeper tenor oboe.1 variety of colours of a reedy or piping nature. while the single-reeded clarinet smoother and more is agile.Woodwind The woodwind add . the cor anglais. and there is also a deeper-tone double or contra-bassoon. is often to be found the wind section. The double-reeded oboe has the most distinctive tone. and the higherpitched piccolo are able to stand out clearly above the most massive orchestral sound. in The deepest reed tone comes from the bassoon. a natural comic though capable of a beautiful tone. The breathy tones of the flute. its notes produced by blowing over an aperture. which can either be plaintive or hard. . Occasionally the mongrel saxophones (brass instruments with reeds) are added to 20th century music.

even romantic — especially colourful and unusual effects: quality for example. percussion section The may also contain a number of melodic instruments like the xylophone. the Spanish incisive. the trombone — whose mechanism makes of a true glissando. also capable of a is softer. the eastern tones. effect for they not only supply but a brass ensemble has a fine rhythm but are in also involved basic harmonies. Especially used for gong. glockenspiel and bells. a when required. rich quality of its own. cutting notes effect of the rhythms of the castanets. the startling thunder of the bass drum. slide it capable The brass equivalent to the double-bass and the contra-bassoon is the elephantine tuba. This is to mention only the most obvious effects. the clash or important French horns sustained shimmer cymbals. but martial tone they are also used but symphony in the orchestra for a biting quality to the orchestra. for each is capable of a variety of sounds according to how it is struck. instruments in the orchestra. . the military tones of the snaredrum. stroked or shaken. The tuned timpani are the most important percussion is its the trumpet. and for various national musics variants like tubular the mid-European cimbalom are frequently to be seen amongst the infinitely variable display in the back row of the orchestra.Percussion Brass The percussion instruments The brass adds are naturally much concerned with enhancing rhythm. A good orchestrator will use his brass sparingly to gain when maximum they are needed. the brass tones mixing in delightfully with those of the woodwind. and for its fullblooded assault on the lower range of brassy sounds. the of the bell-like tinkle the which composers frequently exploit for their mysterious of the triangle.


STRAU$S 1864-1949 NIELSEN j 1865-1931 GLAZUNQV 1865-1936 ROU$SEL 1869-1937 SCRIABIN IVES 1872-1915 1874-1954 JHOLST 1874-1934 WOLF-FERRARI RESPIGHI orchestra 1876-1948 1879-1938 GRAINGER 1882-1961 STRAVINSKY 1882-1971 WAR|.OCK I 1894-1930 1900 1950 Festival hall opens .1 1900 1850 jnds a music-publishing firm C1850 Growing in 1851 > Erotca composed Fideho first performed louse built in New Orleans Emperor concerto written servatory opens jrmonic Society founded of r Barber ol Freischutz of 1875 the Royal College of Music] Gilbert and Sullivan wnle Trial Bizet's 1877 production First Music established opens in New York ol 1891 Carnegie Hall 1893 Humperdinck'sHanse/undGre/e/ performed 1875 larmonic Orchestra founded in writes incidental music lor A MOERAN KODALY 18821967 SZYMANOWSKI 1882 night s first .an opera.913-1976 J906-1975 HUMPERDINCK 1854 1921 MAHLER 1860-1911 DEBUSSY 1862 1918 R. IRELAND in's Elijah School Juilliard Music founded ol in New 1951 Royal York 1927 New York Philharmonic founded 1930 BBC Symphony Orchestra founded 1931 Rachmanmovs music banned in Russia 1932 London Philharmonic Orchestra founded 1934 Glyndebourne Festival Theatre opens 1936 Prokofiev s Peter and the wolf performed 1945 Philharmoma Orchestra founded 1946 Royal Philharmonic Orchestra founded by/ury 1881 Boston Symphony Orchestra founded 1882 Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra founded nt and Fugue published nances of Wagner's Rienzi ar\d ucco dream he flying Dutchman first Carmen produced 1883 Royal College 1950 1900 Philadelphia Orchestra founded 1902 Caruso makes his first recordings 1903 First opera recording -Verdi's Ernam 1904 London Symphony Orchestra's first concert 1905 Sir Thomas Beecham makes first conducting appearance in London 1908 Elgar s First Symphony performed 1910 Stravinsky's The Firebird performed 1911 Strauss s Der Rosenkavalier performed 1916 Hoist completes The Planets 1924 Gershwin s Rhapsody in Blue performed England 1 865 Wagner's Tristan and Isolde first performed 1867 New England Conservatory opens in Boston 1871 Royal Albert Hall opens 1873 National Training College ol Music lounded (later in - r in produced Boosey established Seville first performed first performed in Berlin Music founded if home written by Sir Henry Bishop > Choral symphony written illiam Tell performed in Paris Elisir dAmore performed uciadi Lam mermoor and Cherubini's te emy band 1853 Firm ot Stemway founded in New York 1855 First Crystal Palace concerts 1856 Firm of Bechstein founded in Berlin 1858 Offenbach's Orpheus in the Underworld . Leonora by performed W H Swan Lake Tchaikovsky's ot Fry. ouse popularity of the brass Verdi's Rigolello first performed 1894-1950 1937 1879-1962| performed FALLA 1876-1946 SCHOENBERG 1874-1951 RACHMANINOV 1873-1943 VAUGHAN WILLIAMS 187211958 GRANflDOS DUKAS DELIUS WOLF GRIEG 1860 1909 1854-1928 1844-1908 ARNOLD 1842-1912 HINDEMITH 1836-1891 SAINT-SAENS BRAHMS 1862-1934 1843-1907 MASSENET DELIBES 1865-1957 1860-1903 ALBENIZ JANACEK RIMSKY-KORSAKOV 1867-1916 1865-1935 SIBELIUS 1835-1921 WALTON 1833 1897 II AGNER WEILL ORFF LEONCAVALLO TCHAIKOVSKY BIZET GERHARD 1840-1893 VILLA-LOBOS HENZE b1926 1896 BARTOK 1887-1959 1881-1945 1838-1920 ELGAR 848 GOUNOD POULENC 1818-1893 DOHNANYI IT b1925 1875-1937 1839-1881 1838-1875 BRUCH BOULEZ 1866-1924 RAVEL MUSSORGSKY b1895 1858-1919 BUSONI i04-1857 b1903 1900-1950 1891-1975 BLISS 18131883 1810-1849 1828 b1902 BERKELEY 1825-1899 STRAUSS BRUCKNER 1824-1896 FRANC K 1822-1890 'IN 1 CHABRIER MILHAbD 1892-1974 COPLAND b1900 1841-1894 CHAUSSON TIRPETT 1855-1899 SATIE b1905 {1866-1925 BLOCH J03-186S 1ELSSOHN ERDI mumm 1899-1963 877-1 960! 1811-^886 UMANN b1921 1895-1963 PUCCINI ' 1858 1924 MASCAGNI |1810-1856 1863-1945 LALO M908 MESSIAEN 181J3-1901 OFFENBACH AX 1819-1880 1883-1953 GERSHWIN 1823-1892 SMETANA PROKOFJIEV 1824-1884 BORODIN 1891-1953 HONEGGER 1833J1887 BERG WIENIAWSKI 1835-1880 BALAKIREV 1837-1910 DVORAI^ 1841-1904 1898-1937 1892-1955 1885-1935 BERNSTEIN j SUI LIVAN 1842-1900 FAURE 1845-1924 BRITTEN SHOSTAKOVICH b1918 -1.

er forms. but he found general appreciation with the song Sea fever (1913). London pieces! Parkin SRCS87 (12/75) Lyrita PIANO MUSIC (Sonata. and a care for craftsmanship which is apparent in everything he wrote. 1879. Prelude. For Remembrance. Month's mine ys. and the Second Violin Sonata. A DOWNLAND SUITE OParkin/LPO/Boull/These Things SRCS31 (9/66) Lyrita ORCHESTRAL WORKS (Mai-Dun. but excelled in shor. MINOR: NO. His first acknowledged compositions were chamber works. was that of the neo-classic Stravinsky ». A thanksgiving. He never essayed an opera or symphony. the orchestral Forgotten rite and the piano Island spell and Sarnia. It is perhaps a pity that his more ebullient compositions. February's Child. where he spent much time) which found expression in. Amberley wild brooks. Another influence he was able successfully to absorb. should have overshadowed gentler works such as the Concertino an informed pastorale. Soliloquy. 2 IN 1 IN D A MINOR DNeaman. The towing path. Report song. Friendship Theoi e hope. lb. Parkin SRCS64 (10/72)Lyrita Left: It is by his piano music and songs that John Ireland is chiefly remembered today. Blow out you bugle Garde If there 1 : were dreams to sell. April. When I am dearest. often achieve distinction. Cheshire. May. the closest Ireland's style ever came to that of Ravel's ». The Fo Parkin/LPO/Boult SRCS32 (9/661 Lyrita PIANO MUSIC (Decorations. Aubade. which persisted to some extent even after 1908. The Holy boy. several of his pupils becoming famous): from him he derived a Brahmsian tradition. Spring sorrow. Love andfr ?ndship. The undertone. Hymn tor a Child. for example. A LONDON OVERTURE. many of a lyrical character with Nature as their subject. Rhapsody. 109 . Rowlands SRCS6S (S/7S) Lyrita SONGS Tr\st: During music. Vagabond. When lights Hope the go hornblower. We'll to the sfortur i DLuxon. like the London Overture. Obsession. when he destroyed all his previous works. 5 poems. Legend for piano and chestra. he scapegoat. An aside. In particular his style. though his breadth of phrase and powers of construction were by no means merely those of a numerous songs. frequently highly concentrated in thought. Satyr . His idiom was individual. d. with richlytextured bitter-sweet harmony and a general atmosphere of poignant meditation: to this was added a vein of pagan mysticism (closely associated with the Channel Islands. he could command a more vigorous manner. THE HOLY BOY. Tutto e sciolto DLuxon. On a birthday Q Parkin SRCS88 (4/77) Lyrita PIANO MUSIC (Sonatina. round rolling the sky. The merry month dead of my things. Besides his nostalgic literary taste. Rowlands SRCS66 (7/75) Lyrita THESE THINGS SHALL BE DCase/LPO/Boult/ Piano Cone. as in the Sonatina for piano. which rapidly became a popular favourite. The bells of San Marie. CONCERTINO PASTORALE. I have twelve oxen. Summer evening. The Advent. Equinox.IRELAND JOHN Bowden. My fair. The Sally Soldi. Bergomask. Ireland studied composition under Stanford at the Royal College of Music (where he himself was later to be a professor for many years. a romantic work written during the First World War. Darkened Valley. Merry Andrew.NO. The sweet season. EPIC MARCH. Sussex 1962) miniaturist. which shows some kinship with that of his nearcontemporary Bax ». All in a garden green. which show and piano pieces. SRCS36 (10/68) Lyrita VIOLIN SONATAS. Santa Chiara. Ballade. Great we must If part. The fire of Spring. as in his 1920 piano sonata: the two moods are seen cheek by jowl in the attractive Piano Concerto of 1930. Sea fever. The journey. P Parkin SRCS89 (6/78) Lyrita SONGS (Songs of a wayfarer.

The Indians. In his works. 4t. he was imbued with the Nature mysticism of the Transcendentalist philosophers: the "Concord" Sonata and The unanswered question express these strivings.NEW ENGLAND HOLIDAYS: ORCHESTRAL SET NO. polyrhythms. The Cage. all of which date from before 1920. Thoreau. reveal the simpler. until about 1939 when his vast and enormously difficult Second Piano Sonata ("Concord") was at last performed a quarter of a century after it was written — 36 years elapsed between the creation of his Third Symphony and its being awarded a Pulitzer Prize — he was belatedly hailed as a founding father of American music and a pioneer of modernism. In the mornm'. chord clusters. Like a sick eagle Majority. but diffuse and crude as his work frequently is. STOKOWSKI L'ASCENSION WWM Charles Ives ORCHESTRAL SET Number 2 the London Symphony Orchestra ORCHESTRAL SET NO. The short Central Park in the dark and some of the songs. or at the most derided. 1*. polytonality. plus the vehement scorn he poured on conservatives in his letters and other writings. spatial presentation. IVES Conn. Serenity. Ives certainly anticipated many internationally famous composers in the experimental techniques with which they are usually associated: harmonies in fourths or whole tones. Virtually unknown. STRING QUARTET NO. in divergent rhythms and keys. iconoclast and innovator 2 Concord Quartet/Quartet I H71306 (8/76) WEA/Nonesuch 71306 Nonesuch SYMPHONY NO. SYMPHONIES NOS. improvised pas- sages. THE UNANSWERED QUESTION: CENTRAL PARK: VARIATIONS ON AMERICA* D NYPO/Bernstein/'Philadelphia/ Ormandy/tAmerican SO/Stokowsk 77424 (9/74) CBS MS-7015 Columbia . lyrical. From Paracelsus. SYMPHONY. The Housatonic at Stockbridge. (8/70) 71306 Nonesui WEA/Nonesuch h Angeles PO/Mehta/Elgar SXL6592 (9/73) Decca 6816 London SYMPHONY NO. quarter-tones. Ives went into insurance and indulged energetically in music as a — sideline. 2-3. 1 Concord Quartet/Quartef 2 H71306 Above: Charles 110 Ives. side of Ives. such as Evening and Soliloquy. Over and above this. (b. He himself was a good violinist and organist whose radical outlook was due to his father's insistence that he "stretch his ears" in various ways. eccentric. The circus band. A farewell to land. Ann Street. 1*. in which words like "dissonance" or "noise" have no precise significance. serialism. 1874. 1 D Los (At (he river. d. A Christmas carol.CHARLES Danbury. fathers loved) The things our DDeGaetani/Kahsh H71325 (11/76) WE A/Nonesuch 71325 Nonesuch STRING QUARTET NO. He made extensive use of the music he knew from his childhood — chapel hymns. has often led to his being considered merely a cranky amateur. atonality. it is full of conviction. New York 1954) After studying with his father — a highly unorthodox and imaginative local band-master and at Yale. Washington's "Holidays" Symphony) and the Fourth Symphony. 2 DLSO and Chorus/Stokowski/Messim UAscension PFS4203 (4/72) Decca Phase 21060 London 4 SONGS The Innate.. SYMPHONY NO. and the indiscipline of much of his music arose from his empirical attitude to the organisation of sounds. town band banalities — and delighted in representing the complex jumble of sounds heard simultaneously from different sources. The deliberate chaos of much of his music. as in Putnam's places in New England). and dare one say the more intrinsically camp (from Three birthday (in the musical. traditional American tunes.

Our birch tree. Biggar. RSO/Kubelik/Tnras Bitlba 2530 075 (9/71) DG« STRING QUARTETS NOS. East Moravia. Vonasek. Leave-taking. The evening witch. mosaic in construction. 70 when he started maturing artist produce his most characteristic masterpieces. So indeed is all his music. and this changed his life completely. his father having died) before returning to Brno as conductor of its Philharmonic Orchestra. Below: A scene from the English National Opera Production of The Makropoulos Affair. the operas Cunning little vixen (a tender work of the animal world) and House of the dead. over 60 before he received more than local recognition. Creffield. and only after that did he even begin to write. Czech Legion. Partly was due to his unsettled start: he had acquired the basis of a musical education as a choirboy at the Augustinian monastery in Brno. In support of this one need look no further than those works of his which appeared in 1926 — the strange opera The Makropoulos affair. which can be heard in his Lachian dances and an early opera. formed the contours of his extremely individual melodic language.-Symplio. I854. Schoolmaster Halfar. where he was to teach for nearly forty years. Zidek. Theatre/ SUAST50811-2 (8/72) Supraphon MALE CHORUSES (The soldiers lot. more especially. 1 AND 2 Janacek Quartet SUAST505S6 (7/72) Supraphon TARAS BULBA D Bav. Prague Nat.iic Metamorphoses SXL6398 (5/6°) Decca 6620 London DBav. His intense pantheism and human compassion found expression in the song-cycle Diary of a young man who disappeared and. Striska. was produced in Prague and Vienna in 1916. Tattermuschova. RPO/Kempe SXL6600 (2/74) Decca 26338 London MAKROPOULOS (The) AFFAIR D Cpte. Beginning of a romance. and the brilliantly exciting and utterly unorthodox Glagolitic Mass. Ledger ZRG692 (11/71) Decca Argo* FROM THE HOUSE OF THE DEAD D Cpfe. at the age of 25 he then spent a year at the Leipzig Conservatory and another in Vienna. the Capriccio for piano left hand and seven wind instruments. the musical idiom of his opera's are entirely unconventional and original. then had managed a year's study in Prague (living in dire poverty. The wandering madman. the multi-trumpet Sinfonietta which exudes an aura of exultation. based on Dostoyevsky — the subjects and. Bainbridge. with his native short ostinato figures repeated with slight variations. (The) CUNNING LITTLE VIXEN Cpte. extremely distinctive in its orchestration. which had been heard in Brno in 1904. Prylova. Theatre/Gregor SUASTS0705-6 (2/73) Supraphon GLAGOLITIC MASS DKubiak. Prochazkova. Prague Nat. RSO/Kubelik/Sinfontetta 2530 075(9/71) DG* DLPO/Huybrechts/ Lachian Dances SXL6507 (10/71) Decca 6718 London 111 . Jedlicka. Brighton Festival Chorus. which is instantly recognisable — individual in its harmony (based on an involved theory of his own). Hlavsa. together with the sounds of Nature. thanks to pressure from a chance champion. return he founded his in Left: Leos Janacek. Schone. Collins. He had always had a deep feeling for the folk music of Moravia. Vonasek. Heriban.LEOS JANACEK (b. Seventy thousand) Moravian Teachers' Chorus/Tucapsky 112 0878 (5/72) Rediffusion/ Supraphon SINFONIETTA LSO/Abbado/HiWemirh. Prague Nat. He remained an obscure provincial composer until his opera Jenufa. Tear. Theatre/Gregor MS1181-2 (12/72) Rediftusion/ Supraphon DIARY OF A YOUNG MAN WHO DISAPPEARED D fin English) Gale. Marycka Magdonova. Tattermuschova. Ostrava 1928) It would be hard to find a more striking example of a late- than Janacek: he was 40 before he wrote his first work of any significance. Hukvaldy. Blachut.d. but feeling his knowledge to this inadequate. Tear. own music school On his Brno. later. but of even more influence were the rhythms and intonations of Moravian speech which. Kroupa. Bednar.

But not the least of his work was in the sphere of the choral chanson. in Planxit . ranging from the deeply emotional (as in Cueurs desolez and the lament on the death of his former teacher Okeghem) to the humorous. choirmaster at Cambrai. in the service first of Louis XII of France and then of Duke Hercules I of Ferrara (the vowels of whose title he turned into notes to form the theme of a Mass dedicated to his patron) before ending his days as provost at Conde. Guillaume sa va. To motet he brought grandeur and expressive autem David (David's lament over Saul). as in his Mater patris). Motets: De profundis. Hainault. OKEGHEM DMusica Reservata/Morrow ZRG793 (2/761 Decca Argo- CHANSONS AND MOTETS: LA DEFLORATION SUR LA MORT DE ).Left: Josquin. it is his expressive treatment of words — then something novel — and his masterly construction and texture that chiefly impress us. since the evidence is clear that he would not allow himself to be hurried — some twenty 112 Masses. Masses on traditional tunes such as L'homme arme.but the peaks of his achievement in this field were the Beata Virgine. During all this time he wrote — at his pleasure. more than 100 motets and a large number of chansons (many of which became immensely popular) excelling in a wide range of both religious and secular styles. then successively a member of the Pope's Sistine Chapel. OKEGHEM Purcell Consort/Burgess/Diinstab/e ZRG681 (7/71) Decca Argo JOSQUIN DES PRES JOHN DUNSTABLE JOSQUIN DES PRES (b. El grillo. La Bernadina. as grillo. Benedicta es caelorum Regina. c. Cred De D Early Music Consort/Munrow/ Early Renaissance Music SLSS049 (11/76) HMV CHANSONS AND FROTTOLAS: LA DEFLORATION SUR LA MORT DE J. d. the Renaissance 'prince of musicians'. integra nt: et casta es. Conde. De tous biens plaine. which he also treated expressively and polyphonically. and parody works (i.e. Vive le roy: La Spagna. quoting themes from other composers. often with satirical overtones. Specially notable is his imitative treatment and equal distribution of voices in his Masses. Ave Maria and Ave verum. a form in which the tenor had traditionally been predominant: there are early Masses in complex mensural techniques. skill led to his natural facility for canon and his ability to encompass both old and new traditions. but although we today can appreciate his remarkable generation. Inviolata. JOSQUIN DES PRES MUSICA RESERVATA Director Michael Morrow ART OF THE NETHERLANDS Chansons: Allegez moy. Pange lingua and Da pacem Masses. The pre-eminent 1445. Adieu mes amours. How keen the competition was for his services may be gathered from the extraordinary list of his appointments: having been a singer in Milan Cathedral. there 1521) position Josquin enjoyed as a central figure in Renaissance music own was recognised even in his when admiration for his great technical being described as "princeps musicorum". before the age of 30 he was in the employ of the Sforza family in Milan and Rome. Instrumental: Fortuna desperata. as in El the power.

Menuetto serio SXL6713 (8/76) Decca D Philh.) SXL6136(l/65) Decca 6417 London Philh. 1905. Bende.i>II\^. Concerto for Orchestn Theatre Ov. Hodgson. Coming from a family of keen amateur chamber-music players. Laszlo. Hungarica/Dorati/Dances of Marosszek. . I. Komlassy.»). taught himself the cello. a truly remarkable tour de force. and started writing church music Bartok ». SXL6712 (12/75) Decca P^^Nh^ DANCES OF MAROSSZEK D Philh. Ustinov (narrator) . Kodaly won even greater general success three years later with the brilliantly colourful comedy Hdry ]dnos. as distinct from passed as such wartime Missa the language problem./LSO/Kertesz SXL6631 (11/74) Decca HARY JANOS. * PSALMUS HUNGARICUS Kozma. which however included the sonata for solo cello. Concerto for Orchestra. i SXL6497 (4/71) Decca 26186 London SONATA FOR CELLO AND PIANO Isaacs. the orchestral suite from real own well as inside his DANCES OF GALANTA O SO/ Kertesz/ Hary Janos 1 Below: Kodaly. Rippon. and devoted far more of his time to musicology and musical education (in which spheres his importance can scarcely be exaggerated) than to composition./Heltay/Pange Lingua SXL6803 (12/76) Decca iv. The early influences on his own music of Brahms > and Debussy > were overshadowed by those of folk music. d. (exc. Barlok's partner in his folk-music researches. lones/Hindemilh: C«?//o Son.SUITE D Netherlands Radio PO/Dorati/ Prokofiev PFS4355 (5/76) Decca Phase 4 21146 London Hungarica/Dorati/ Symphony in C.I\\()Sm. he threw in a body vast of GrvinKmea what folksong his all energies for the next decade into research. w \ \A 1 ? ^m^- /r 1 1 ^^mm a a PEACOCK VARIATIONS LSO/Kertesz/Psa/mus Hungaricus (4/71) Decca Hungarica/Dorati/Concerl SXL6714 (12/76) Decca SXL6497 O Philh. Melis. I4/7S) Decca Argo ZRG762 SONATA FOR SOLO CELLO Starker/Duo for violin and SAGA5386 (10/74) Saga cello *& \ . written in 1923 for the fiftieth anniversary of the union of Buda and Pest: it is one of the choral masterpieces of its period.„«». SXL6712 (12/75) Decca 6862 London HARY JANOS a Exc. was the passionately patriotic Psalmus Hungaricus. Theatre Ov. his great which has become immensely popular thanks to its picturesque melodiousness and piquant orchestration. Budapest 1967) Although the most noteworthy Hungarian composer of the early twentieth century except for his close friend Kodaly was never as experimental in his work as contemporary. Kecskemet 1882. he learnt the violin in his youth. IMP . Chorus/LSO/ Kertesz/Peacoc/c Vars. Caley. Francis. Recognition of the outstanding quality of of Kodaly's abundant choral music has been much hampered.ZOLTAN KODALY fir. He produced some — early chamber works. outside as country. by his Te Deum and (the result of singing in a provincial cathedral choir) before entering the Budapest Conservatory where he was later to be a professor from 1907. Le Sage. ^^ mt i Hungarica/Doratl' Dances of Galanta. Polocz Ch. deeply interested in authentic Hungarian folk music. and (from 1906 in collaboration with Bartok). In these. Szonyi. though until the end of the First World War he wrote little but songs and chamber works. Brighton Festival Ch. What brought him fame in the music world. jj ^^8w\ MISSA BREVIS Gale. but in the outside world. as in the later orchestral works of his which continue to be played — dances from different parts of Hungary and the "Peacock" Variations — the folk character is all-important. Brighton Fest. apart from brevis. collecting publishing EHD k.

and left home at 16 to go to Paris. he return to writing. Lille 1823. with a ballet first and works for the violin. Not until he was nearly 50 did a living. in 1875./ Faure: Elegie 2530 793 (2/77) DP. which was coldly received as a whole (except by a few. the freshness of its lyricism and its colourful orchestration making an immediate appeal. under the title Divertissement. Tortelier. Suisse/Ansermet/Rapsodl'e SXL6302 (9/67) Decc. CELLO CONCERTO DSchiff. thanks to Lalo's graceful invention and musicianly orchestral writing. for the Spanish virtuoso Sarasate he wrote in rapid succession a violin concerto and then. He had great difficulty in making and disappointment at the lack of response to his early songs (which are indeed remarkably fine and quite unjustly neglected today) led him to put aside all thought of serious composition and to become a professional violinist in a string quartet. ASD3209 16/76) EMI/HMV EDOUARD LALO (b. but when after preliminary studies in Lille he announced that he wanted to make music his career he was forced to break with his family. including Debussy. Espagnole ASD3209 (6/76) EMI/HMV NAMOUNA. which was an instant hit and has been a favourite showpiece for star fiddlers ever since. for the army. fired by the unexpected success of some ballet music. Of Spanish descent himself./Kondrashm/ Tchaikovsky: Serenade melancolique.BALLET Etc.Left: Early discouragements were responsible for Lalo giving up composition to earn his living by playing Not a string quartet.ic.P. A Symphony in G minor shows that beneath LeRoi his Gallic lucidity lay a foundation of Brahms >. who had been a harmony City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestral \^)UIS|REMAUX . Tortelier/CBSO/Fremaux/Ce/lo Co. d'Ys. Meditation CFP40040 14/75) Classics for Pleasure D Y. drawn from an unproduced opera he had entered for a competition./Mackerras/SamJSaens: Cello Cone. one of Napoleon's officers. as and he saw the production of his ballet Namoima. he composed a cello concerto and a Rapsodie norvegienne and orchestra. of . favour. was finally produced in 1888. probably inspired by the Breton origins of his wife.. who was ejected from the hall for his vociferous enthusiasm) but the suites from which quickly found for orchestra (originally for solo violin some 114 of the high violin parts still reveal!). d. which he had made several revisions. DG* CBSO/Fremaux/Sym. in until he was 50 did he gain his successes. pupil of his. Paris 1892) Lalo had been intended by his father. In the next few years he began work on the opera Le Roi ci'Ys (on the same Breton legend as in Debussy's * Cathedrale engloutie). his light-footed Symphonie espagnole (a concerto in all but name).i STS-15293 London SYMPHONIE ESPAGNOLE FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA Ko s an/Philh./. New Philh.

including Charles IX of France. deeply religious works of grandeur are found cheek by jowl with humorous secular and one of the most striking things about Lassus is enormous range of mastery. Ch. than) those of his great contemporary Palestrina >./Preston ZRG73S (8/74) Decca Argo* PENITENTIAL PSALM V: MOTETS: OMNES DE SABA VENIENT: SALVE REGINA. his works in this field are outshone by (and are more chordal.i.STON MISSA 'BELL' AMFITRIT 'ALTERA': PENITENTIAL PSALM VIII.1. he was much sought after by noble patrons everywhere. villanelle.e.. nobleman to England and France. [i. Where Lassus was unrivalled was in his motets. but stayed only a year before style. at the age of 12. 1532. of the sixteenth — finds justification in his fundamentally Italianate though he spent a good half of his life in of this cosmopolitan Flemish composer — one of the greatest. At 21 he was choirmaster at St John Lateran in Rome.i.. expressive of the emotional content of the text.i. 1-16 Christ Church Cath. such as Salve regina and Tui sunt coeli. NOS. of a third attempted abductor.i" Kit jS PrnitminJPulmVIl hoirol hriui Lurch 1 ( 1 . LASSUS tiSWr'^^tfTdft ' Miia "B. French chansons and Latin motets.e. well imagination.i'AI. his then current German — including Magnificats.!. Orlando di Lasso. like the Lessons from the Book of Job and the later Lamentations. which. TUI SUNT COELI Christ Church Cath. d. So sweet was his voice as a choirboy in his native town of Mons that he was twice carried off before his parents agreed to him entering the service. embracing every style pieces. . Roland de Lassus (or Orlando di Lasso) has been compared for his strength and Left: grandeur to Michelangelo. whom he followed to Palermo and Milan.\.r. It was at this stage that he first showed his extraordinary versatility by publishing one book of Italian madrigals and another of madrigals. a Among his first important works in Munich was a volume of Penitential psalms. . becoming kapellmeister some time after 1560. Passion settings. and then settled for two years in Antwerp. The common Munich 1594) Italianised name.1 Oifbcd dincixlb) IfegPl SIMON PRI.. however.. and despite pressing invitations from other aristocratic patrons. less polyphonic. the Viceroy of Sicily.DE LASSUS ROLAND Mons (b. chorale motets./Preston ZRG79S (9/76) Decca Argo. He then entered the chapel of the Duke of Bavaria. ALMA REDEMPTORIS. well illustrate his particular strength in meditative and elegiac works in the style known as "musica reservata". Ch. French chansons and Italian Of his Masses some 40 were "parody" works based on a composition by someone else): with the exception of his Requiem. Yet in various publications of his. 115 . One of the outstanding figures in 16th-century music. and certainly century among the most prolific. of which he wrote over 500: although showing great variety and some of the finest are those with poignant harmonies. he remained in his Munich post until accompanying his death..

wandering for England. but at the last moment the impresario decamped with the money. When he graduated from the Naples Conservatory at the age of 18 his first opera. a much cruder work from the Sonzogno stable brought out two years previously. produce the spent ten penniless years in Europe and Egypt before success in 1892.) DCarlyle. for whom he wrote Pagliacci. his two earlier stage pieces were then brought out. France. Naples 1858. left penniless. Even Pagliacci has suffered from being. Germany and Egypt. Chatterton. Despite his limitations. was reduced to eking out a living as a cafe pianist about ten years in and singing teacher. he vainly waited three years for the publishing house of Ricordi to honour its agreement to I PAGLIACCI Domingo. Panerai/La Scala/Karajan/Mascagm 2709 020 (10/66) DG* Caballe. seemingly inescapably. Alldis ChV LSO/SantiM rias SERS635-6 (6/72) LSC-7090 RCA Above: Known only for his who wrote more than a dozen other operas. as for all his operas. Leoncavallo in fact first part of his Renaissance trilogy. it is impossible not to feel that fate was against him. (Cpte. but from then on it was downhill all the way. which had appeared the previous year: Puccini had taken the idea from Leoncavallo but had beaten him to production. paired with Mascagni's » Cavalleria rusticana. Returning to Italy.) As a result. Bergonzi. his RCSI DOMINGO . it is scored with surprising finesse. / Medici — for which. d. Pagliacci.RUGGIERO LEONCAVALLO (b. His La Boheme was quite favourably received but was completely swamped by Puccini's » version of the same story. Montecatini 1919) huge number of performances given of his vastly popular Pagliacci — a short but very effective work Not even the at the core of the "realistic" school of opera— reconciled Leoncavallo to the all but total failure of another dozen operas and the very moderate success of two more. but both failed. which proved an instant triumph in 1892. (For all its obviously stagey passion. of which La Bohemc can bear comparison with Puccini's first version. Benelli. 116 RCA Right: Ruggiero Leoncavallo. was accepted for production in Bologna. His Zaza had a brief life. he was his own librettist — and then went over to Ricordi's rival Sonzogno. Holland. and Leoncavallo. Milnes. Taddei.


V 118 H » .

who invented the symphonic poem. a steward on the Esterhazy estate. and then to Paris. the instrument an immensely prolific composer for who enormously extended its textural possibilities and technical demands. preferring French. The adulation he received often tempted him. for there he absorbed the ideas and music of Paganini >. The twelve years he spent in France were of the utmost importance in his formation. Raiding 1811. where an operetta of his was produced (he then being 14 years old). a Hungarian who could barely speak his native language.FERENCZ LISZT (b. d. and many more. Berlioz » and his contemporary Chopin >. Bayreuth 1886) An incomparable virtuoso pianist who dazzled all Europe and held it in thrall. where his playing (and particularly his extemporisation) caused much excitement. Paganini Below: Liszt's religious music has been much neglected. 119 . and with the support of some rich noblemen had gone to study with Czerny in Vienna. to indulge in shallow and his sensationally Left: Liszt playing. and embarked on triumphal career as a virtuoso. in composing. a one-time Freemason who became an abbe. with ami Rossini beside him. an energetic and generous champion of other composers. but whose upbringing was largely Germanic. had given his first concert at the age of nine. At the age of 24 he eloped to Switzerland with the Comtesse dAgoult (their second daughter Cosima was later to marry Wagner >). a man whose father on his deathbed had expressed concern about his weakness for women but whose many amours until the very end of his life became as legendary as his playing — all these. He had originally been taught the piano by his father. giving recitals of his own music. were facets of the complex personality of Liszt. who has been well described as "among the most striking figures of the whole Romantic epoch". and whose harmonically audacious late works foreshadowed elements in the music of Debussy > and Bartok >.

has a choral finale on the Goethe text. MffedWendel liszt Tiano Concertos ftos. living for some years in Rome.FERENCZ LISZT flamboyant works pieces. which made history by giving a rhythmic theme to a solo triangle. Saint-Saens in the centre of the front row. the Dante Symphony and the Faust Symphony which. like the Eighth Symphony of Mahler > 45 years later. many of eminent. while the Studies after Paganini and Transcendental studies bear witness to the lengths to which he was developing keyboard technique. while on a concert tour of Russia. Piano 120 ALFRED BRENDEL . His adventurous artistic policies in Weimar led to disagreements. always ingenious. but he also excelled in passionate of great power. Below right: Weimar was musician Halting ' » in Liszt's a house in magnet for every Europe. In 1847. such as the Dante sonata. With immense vigour and vision he threw himself into restoring Weimar to former glories as a pre-eminent centre of the encouraging "progressive" composers everywhere (among them Wagner. where he was persuaded to head a National Academy of Music. The effect of his music on come was whom many later became generations to incalculable.landl 1 ' 'Bernard Left: Liszt with admirers. Gounod sits behind him. where he held appointments as musical director and conductor to the court. where he took minor orders— which did not however call for celibacy — and composed two oratorios. which combines rhetoric and violent intensity with fundamentally classical form. he formed a liaison with the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein. the organ Prelude and fugue on the name BACH. its teaching. To this period belong many of his finest works — the large-scale piano sonata. Hungarian rhapsodies. f///sm/ LISZT «Anmex(k'I'('lcriiKH)c-. and himself composing a series of orchestral symphonic poems (employing the principle of thematic transformation in accordance with their poetic or dramatic "programme") and of piano arts. the First Piano Concerto. and he finally resigned. Right: Liszt at a fashionable Paris salon. or of imaginative delicacy. His numerous transcriptions and fantasias on other composers' works. but he also spent much time in Budapest. like the Annees de pelerinage. whose themes however were gipsy rather than authentically Hungarian. to which flooded a large number of piano pupils. St Elizabeth and the vast-scale Christus. Berlioz and Verdi >) by performing their works. with whom he settled in Weimar.J LISZT thmt Sonata Alfred Brcndd. also frequently shed new light on them.

TRANSCENDENTAL STUDIES a Cpte. MISSA CHORALIS St. Harmonies poetiques et religieuses Nos. 4 pieces G. Etude de concert No. Valse a capriccio: En reve. 1-31 7. Adagio. Hungarian Fantasia 139 037 (6/69) DC* Berlin RSO/Fricsay/Piano Cone. 1. Sentas Ballad: Lohengrin. Benediction de Dieu. Kentner TV34266-8DS (4/71) Decca 2. 3 and Liebestraume Nos. Rigoletto paraphrase Gillespie ZK9 (4/77) Decca Argo PIANO WORKS Harmonies poetiques.LES PRELUDES LPO/Haitink/Orpheus. KLAGEN. 3: Ich liebe dich. 19. Brendel 6500 420 111/73) Phonogram FAUST SYMPHONY O Young. Rakoczy March: Isoldens Liebstod. 145/2 SXL6076 (11/631 Decca I. SORGEN. 5. Berman 2709 076 112/771 DG« ANNEES DE PELERINAGE (2ND YEAR) DNos. 1-7. Trauerode ZRG784 (9/76) Decca Argo* ZRG503 ANNEES DE PELERINACE DCpfe. Hungarian Rhapsody 11 TV34232DS (7/701 Decca Turnabout Arrau/ Harmonies poetiques et religieuses 6500 043 (5/72) Phonogram* Roge/Liebestraum 3. ad salutarem undam ZRG503 (3/67) Decca Argo. Bagatelle. Guest ZRG760 (10/73) Decca Argo* PIANO CONCERTOS NO. ZAGEN Preston/ Prelude on BACH (3/67) Decca Argo Planyavsky/Ange/us. 2 IN Brendel/LPO/Haitink/Torentanz 6500 374 (10/73) Phonogram Richter. AND FUGUE ON THE NAME BACH m '^#4Nir Preston/Ad nos. 9. 1.192. PIANO WORKS Mephisto Waltz No. Cambridge/G. Apparitions No 1 Louis Kentner TV34310S PRELUDE (0/71) Decca Turnabout. Valse Oubliee No. 3. A 1 IN E FLAT.Elsas Bellini: bridal procession) David Wilde SAGA5437 (5/77) Saga WEINEN. Reminiscences de Norma Wagner: Tristan und Isolde— Liebestod. LSO/Kondrashin 6580 071 (2/75) Phonogram Berman/ VSO/Ciulim 2530 770 (11/76) DG* PIANO SONATA IN B MINOR Brendel/ A miees (2nd Year-exc). Etudes d'execution SXL6485 (12/70) Decca Curzon/Liebestrcmm 3. Hungarian folksongs. Lazar Berman *r ' SLS5040 (2/76) HMV TRANSCRIPTIONS FWNZUS7T Lhgaiscre Ftepsratai Hn^wi Rrepsodes I Ftaberto Szcfcr\ Pteno Donizetti: Reminiscences de Lucia. Annees (1st yearexc). Concert Study C. Ohlsson HQS1361 (9/76) EMI/HMV PIANO WORKS liebestraum No. Danse macabre. Flying Dutchman — Spinning Chorus. Hungarian Rhapsody 2 2548 235 (11/76) DG Heliodor D 1. 10. Sonnetto 123 del Petrarca. IS. Valse oubliee Berceuse. Beecham Chora] Sooetv/RPO/ Beecham SXDW3022 (12/75) EMI/HMV HUNGARIAN RHAPSODIES Cpte. NO. 2530 441 (7/74) SVBX 5452 Vov Turnabout Szidon DC* 121 . John's College Choir. Tasso SAL3750 Phonogram (12/69) 839788 Philips Berlin PO/Karajan/Hungurian Rhapsody 2. Kirchliche Festouverture.

1860. d. he hurled himself into his work as a conductor and opera-house director with a perfectionist concern over the smallest obstacle and frequently left detail him which brooked no nervous in a state of . Bohemia. Vienna 1911) Mahler's two most quoted sayings. which he had once thought of calling the 'Tragic'. Highly strung to the Right: Gustav Mahler in 1892.- >^^r««pf$j f -. it must contain everything". furnish clues both to his personal and his artistic credo. By this time he had become the allpowerful artistic director of the Imperial Opera in Vienna (which he ruled with a rod of iron) and had written three more symphonies. Bottom: The first page of Mahler's autograph score of his Sixth Symphony. Unusually for him. the year after his appointment to the Hamburg Opera..•5r* classically built. Below: Mahler nine years later. "Tradition is just slovenliness" and "The symphony should be like the world. M' - - * t'§% p>» }> l< 122 ' - ' ij% • • - - -^. and is more 't 5!£ •"'•' •". At that period he had written little more than the Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen and the First Symphony.GUSTAV MAHLER (b. it included no vocal parts.N-IJ^thfl. Kaliit. point of neurosis.

DLSO/Solti SXL6113 (9/64) Decca 6401 London a LSO/Levine ARL1 0894 (5/75) RCA* Chicago SO/Giulini D Chicago SO/Solti/Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen SET469-70 (12/70) Decca 2227 London NYPO/Bernstein/ Talk 77215 (2/68) CBS SYMPHONY NO. Philh. Ludwig. Ch. Kollo/Berlin PO/Karajan/ Ruckert Lieder 2707 082 (12/75) DG* King/Concertgebouw/Haitink 6500 831 (10/76] Phonogram* D Baker. but in the pursuit of his ideals his impatiently dictatorial methods caused much friction. Rossl-Majdan/Philh. The most potent influence in his formative years had been Bruckner >. who had been impressed by him in Budapest. was in the sphere of the symphony — whose form. Horne/Chicago SO & Ch. whose lectures he had attended while a student in Vienna. Kollo. MINOR Minton/Chicago SO/Solti/ Des Knaben Wunderhorn (exc./ SYMPHONY NO. Cooke) 6700 067 13/741 Phonogram./Levine ARL2 1757 (3/77) RCA* SYMPHONY NO. including among others Cassel. which. but despite his initial enthusiasm he found conditions there irksome. Chorus. Among the peaks of his vocal output are the deeply-felt early (1883) cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen and the moving. and Das Lied von der Erde. Dickie. Taking his cue from Berlioz > and Liszt >. his use of deliberately banal material (especially quasi-military marches) and of rather sinister distortions. SDD-R327 Diamonds (7/62) Decca DES KNABEN Ace WUNDERHORN Concertgebouvv/Haitink 9500 316 (11/77) Phonogram Schwarzkopf. 7 IN B MINOR D Concertgebouw/Haitink 6700 036 (3/71) Phonogram. and his penchant for inflated length and for enormous resources — Symphony and. D Chicago SO/Solti 7BB178-22 (8/75) Decca 2231 London SYMPHONY NO. however.» The theatre provided his main livelihood. DAS KLAGENDE Boston SO/Ozawa 2530 993(5/78) DG 2 IN C MINOR Schwarzkopf. /Morris /realised D./Klemperer ASD2799 Baker/Israel PO/Bernstein/Svm. be his last. before becoming director of the Budapest Opera. Vienna State Op. Mahler's essentially pessimistic nature and the selfpitying emotionalism of his music. Concertgebouw Amsterdam/ H 6700 037 (2/67) Phonogram of Norman./ Kletzki SXLP30165 Abbado LIED Reynolds. D fahrenden Gesellen 61369-70 (12/73) CBS Classics O New Philh. LIED VON DER ERDE DMinton. Prague and Leipzig. particularly in the number of its movements. VPO/Mehta SXL6744-5 (12/75) Decca 2242 London Neblett. To earn a worked as a conductor in a succession of operahouses. and for whom he had the highest admiration: from him he derived a love of Wagner > and the conception of vast-scale piano reduction of Bruckner's massive Third). Fischer-Dieskau. however. apart from some songs collapse../Barbirolli/Ruckerr Lieder SLS785 (12/69) S. Singverein Chorus. Chicago SO/Solti S-36047 Angel* ^m kuumuj* C SHARP Philh. Shirley-Quirk. In 1897. Columbia SO/Walter/Lieder eines SYMPHONY NO. Fischer-Dieskau. Under his brilliant and uncompromisingly meticulous direction the Vienna Opera attained the highest peak of its artistic fame. a large-scale orchestral song-cycle on texts from the Chinese. 4 IN G D Raskin/Cleveland Orch. LSO/ Szell (1/69) EMI/HMV Angel S-36547 Angel Baker. as in the case of Beethoven. The death of his elder daughter at this time moved him to write Das Lied von der Erde. 8). Chicago SO/Solti SETSSS (11/72) Decca 26292 London DAS a D (8/74| Decca S-60260 Seraphim DLudwig. if sentimental. like much of his work. 10 6700 048 (4/721 Phonogram* RUCKERT LIEDER D Baker/New Philh. he introduced voices into four of his nine symphonies (his unfinished Tenth has been conjecturally completed by a brilliant Mahler scholar). /Szell 61056 (4/68) CBS Classics KINDERTOTENLIEDER ASD2722 3 Netherlands Radio Chorus.) SXL6679 (10/74) Decca Fischer-Dieskau/Bavarian Martin 2530 630 (9/761 DG RSO/ D New Angel Ludwig/Berlin PO/Karajan/Dus Lied uort der Erde 2707 082 (12/75) DG* SYMPHONY NO. 123 . was not called a symphony only because of Mahler's superstitious dread that his Ninth (which it would have been) would. 1 IN D Concertgebouw/Haitink 6500 342 (2/73) Phonogram. more "Symphony of a thousand" (No. but except tor some early unpublished attempts at opera he did not write tor the stage. and after only two years went to Hamburg as a staff conductor. and after a decade he had to leave. 30- (4/73) EMI/HMV S-35829 Angel O Price/LPO/Horenstein Adagio 76475 (4/76) CBS M-33532 Columbia LIEDER EINES FAHRENDEN CFP159 (5/71) Classics for Pleasure S-2141 Monitor DBlegen/Chicago SO/Levine GESELLEN ARL1 0895 RCA* SYMPHONY NO. Evans. LPO/Morris SDD-R326 (6/72) Decca Ace of SAN218 MS-6833 Columbia Diamonds Schwarzkopf. six years later. Beside his tempestuous works like the Fifth Symphony. Vienna Boys' EMI/HMV — ^^ J^^ m Ww i\ ^Tw ^^mi* HMV SYMPHONY NO. SYMPHONY NO. but he is now generally accepted as the last of the great Viennese symphonists. was breaking down. & Chorus/Klemperer SLS806(8/71) EMI S-3634 Angel D Cotrubas. 1902 cycle Kindertotenlieder. and song-cycles./Barbirolli/E/gar ASD2721 (8/71) EMI/HMV B itink 802711 Philips DLipton. double chorus and a boys' choir in addition to a very large orchestra — have provoked some opposition. and his entire output. He conducted at the Metropolitan Opera in New York for a brief period. D Forrester. which was the expression of an intensely personal philosophy. the so-called which requires eight solo voices. Zylis-Gara./Klemperer SXDW3021 (1/76) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-3708 Angel D Chicago SO/Giulini 2707 097 (4/77) DG« SYMPHONY NO. never robust. and made annual visits to the USA to work with the New York Philharmonic Society. composition being an obsessive sideline to which he devoted all his spare time and his holidays.36796 (8/71) 5 IN DConcertgebouw/Haitink/Sym. Philh. he moved to Vienna. as in the Second "Resurrection" especially. Vienna State Opera Chorus. Ware. largely on the recommendation of Brahms >. D DG* 2707 094 (6/77) Kaposy/NPO/ Morris symphonies (he made the living he a --_ SET534-5 (10/72) Decca 1295 London 9 IN D Concertgebouw/Haitink 6700 021 (7/70) Phonogram. 10 IN F (unfinished draft) New SHARP Philh. is imbued with the theme of the transitoriness of life. but by this time his health. like the Fourth or the Knaben Wunderhorn songs. he greatly expanded. NYPO/Bernstein 77206 (6/74) CBS M25-675 Columbia a Horne/Chicago SO & Ch. 8 Soloists. 6 Chorus. and whose whole nature he transformed. must be set those which breathe an idyllic atmosphere of the Austrian countryside.

after which he was reduced to scraping a living as a provincial piano teacher. he hoped to gain Mussolini's favour with his opera Nerone. a setting of Schiller's "Ode to joy" which so impressed a local aristocrat that he paid for him to study in Milan. Martino. of which five received it Left: Mascagni — one big lucky hill all strike. despite crude orchestration and commonplace melodies. but out of the fourteen stage works which followed Cavalleria rusticana only this and the brutal Japanese opera Iris (1898) gained even modest success the rest were abject failures. served with a garnish of religiosity. then the down- way. gazing at a score— glumly wondering what went wrong? . but the boy took lessons by stealth and eventually proved himself by composing. his appointment as director of the Pesaro Conservatory was terminated because of his protracted absences on conducting tours. Its triumph was unbounded throughout Europe. and he was ostracised by Toscanini and other prominent musicians. Bergonzi. in his enthusiasm for Fascism. the violent passions it offered depicted. which had won a prize by a publishing house. Guelfi. Le Maschere winning — distinction of a premiere in kind by being given a simultaneous seven Italian cities. two years later. More refinement was shown in the sentimental L'Amico Fritz the following year. d. Allegri. Rome 1945) Mascagni's father was opposed to him becoming a musician. totally discredited.PIETRO MASCAGNI Livomo (Leghorn) 1863. Mascagni repaid this generosity by abandoning his studies and running away to conduct a touring opera company. Cossotto. and when. In 1890 he suddenly found himself famous overnight after the production of the oneact opera Cavalleria rusticana. Below: Mascagni later in life. (b. at the age of 18. were hailed as marking a new era in the melodramatically effective portrayal of low-class life with hisses and whistles and a sixth would not even allow to be played to the end. He died. it was paired with Leoncavallo's * Pagliacci the two short works became the most frequently played in the whole operatic repertory. Mascagni's poverty of invention and lack of technique stood no chance once Puccini > it appeared on the scene. this too failed. in a hotel just after the end of World War II. CAVALLERIA RUSTICANA OCpte. and though. La Scala/Karajan/ Leoncavallo: Pagliacci 2709 020 (10/66) DC' known as "verismo" or realism.

d. Borthayre/Paris Opera-Comique f Chorus and Orch. limited in range and technical achievement. New York Op. Ingram.Montaud./Monteux SLS5119 (6/78) HMV however absent from his masterpiece Manon (1884).BALLET MUSIC D CBSO/Fremaux/Scenes pittoresques. 79300 (3/77) CBS M3-34211 Columbia CID. particularly when in religious garb. His younger contemporary d'Indy (who.JULES MASSENET (b. 125 . the oratorios Marie Magdeleine and Eve. Orch. were backgrounds. for whom he wrote graceful melodic lines. Meyerbeer SXL6812 (11/76) Decca 7032 London ESCLARMONDE DCpte. Sutherland. and includes dialogue Above: The young Massenet about tlie time that he won the Prix de Ronte. had been an orchestral drummer) spoke of his "discreet and quasi-religious In an earlier generation eroticism". Le Roi de Lahore and Herodiade./Nat. but mostly of an elegantly sentimental nature. 1842. This was a feature of his first real it exotic settings of his first operatic successes. Domingo. Legay. in which a monk is tempted by a courtesan. LE La Vierge—Last steep of the virgin ESD7040 was one which he later made the most of in the operas Herodiade (on the Salome story) and Thai's. Hodges. Paris 1912) one might have said that Massenet was the musical equivalent of the popular woman novelist: he poured out a series of 25 operas. Bumbry. Alldis Ch. Gardner. is most the distinguished. Davies. like Massenet. Le Jongleur de Notre- Dame. R. de les Angeles. LECID OCpte. nr. Massenet had won the Prix de Rome at the age of 21 after studying at the Paris Conservatoire (where he became a professor fifteen years later). St Etienne./Queler Bergquist. Dens. Right: come Though to 35. after the Wagner > example. i. \%* )1 c L PO/Bonynge SET612 (11/76) Decca 13118 London MANON Cpte. Massenet was Navarraise: of his later operas. which was titillated and gratified by the voluptuous character of many of his subjects. Voketaitis. whose delicate score employs a form of leading-motive. some song-cycles (among the earliest in the French repertory) and a good The soft orchestral successes. and with a bourgeois public of no great musical discernment. and initially had written a couple of comic operas. and deal of orchestral music. spoken over better suited to the quiet sentimentality of Werther than to the heroics of Le Cid or the attempted realism of La (9/77) EMI/HMV 522 Klavier National PO/Bonynge/Ariane. These attained a considerable success with star singers. Tourangeau. Aragall. he then his success did not Massenet many made until he was a fortune from operas. based on a mediaeval legend.

Worn out with a multiplicity of administrative and social. Mozart and other classics which at that time were largely neglected: indeed. at 16 the string Octet. His delicate romantic style he was never to show the darkly passionate face of Romanticism. Above: Highly cultivated Mendelssohn was in alt the arts. at the age of 20 he created a sensation by conducting the first performance since the composer's own time of Bach's St Matthew Passion. excessively developed sense of public responsibility. rather academic craftsman. the most brilliant creative fields brought about by an who of delightful freshness. Born with the proverbial silver spoon in his mouth to a well-to-do. as did Berlioz 3> or Liszt * — was nevertheless based on a — deep knowledge of Bach >. To a large extent this was the result of overwork in noncentury. whose astonishing instru- Sunday concerts with his own orchestra. to a talented. Above: The flowing lines of Mendelssohn's signature. particularly skilful at water- colours and sketches. including private By 12 he had written. besides being prodigiously precocious as a musician. as Schumann > called him. a urged his son to ever greater industry and to "more profound" subjects. Left: gifts as a . As a boy he composed voluminously from an early age. close-knit family ended by hampering young Mendelssohn's emotional development. ^^^^(JffiZ^A. skill and at served an original conception 17 the magical overture to A Midsummer night's dream. writer and linguist. several lively symphonies for strings. Mendelssohn (like those other geniuses Schubert > and Mozart >) died while still in his thirties. This view of Amalfi was painted when he was 22. yet as a composer he diminished from "the Mozart of the nineteenth among musicians". intellectually distinguished family. the friendship of royalty (especially Queen Victoria) and the consistent admiration of the German and English publics. inculcated benevolent despot mental and contrapuntal by his father. as well as professional. He undertook a Grand Tour to broaden his knowledge. he enjoyed success.FELIX (b. many of which survive. and whose cult of domestic virtues in his happy. among much else. d. which "brought the fairies into the orchestra" and reveals a remarkable ear for limpid and imaginative scoring. obligations. he was gifted as an artist. Leipzig 1847) Those who hold that some measure of adversity is necessary in the making of a great artist are fond of quoting the example of Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn's prodigious youth rivalled those of Mozart. receiving every encouragement at home. Hamburg MENDELSSOHN 1809.

Adni/3 Studies HQS1394 (8/77) EMI/HMV 802718 Philips D Berlin PO/Karajan/Sym.10. EMI/HMV S-36963 Angel DMenuhin/LSO/Fruhbeck de Burgos/ D minor Cone. and in which his dramatic instincts for once were fully roused: in too many works his ideas and their treatment were lacking in freshness. written for his "second home". Mendelssohn certainly excelled all his life at elfin scherzos. 12. 2530 416 (9/74) DG* 2740 104 (12/74) 4 IN E ZK7 MINOR DVPO/Dohnanyi/Sym. NP Choir & Orch./ Klemperer SXLP30196 akoi': Quintet SDD389 Diamonds (10/77) Decca STS-15091 London D Berlin PO/Karajan/Sym. at the age of only 26. 2 IN D MINOR Ogdon/LSO/Ceccato ASD2546 (7/70) Klavier EMI/HMV 127 . Concertgebouw/Haitink SAL3458 Burgos SLS935 (10/68) HMV HEBRIDES OVERTURE (FINGAL'S CAVE) DLSO/Maag/Sym. the year of the "Italian" Symphony. was appointed conductor of the famous Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig. 3 (12/73) Decca Ace of STS-15308 London D ASMF/ Boccherini ZRG569 6 CFP40270 10/77) DW. Quartet/4 pieces SDD469 (4/75) Decca Ace STRING SYMPHONIES 9. /Sawallisch/Sym./Atzmon ESD7003 (7/76) EMI/HMV PIANO CONCERTOS NO. Hebrides. though mellifluous. while his experiences in Rome and Naples inspired his Fourth Symphony (the "Italian"). England. Athal Classics A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM OVERTURE AND INCIDENTAL MUSIC Harper. OVERTURES 16/76) EM1/HMV Concert nd prosperous and Stranger. Chorus. 2530 126 (5/72) DG* DLSO/Maag/Hebrides Ov. The familiarity of this most popular concerto. and in particular his refined ear and unerring instinct for orchestration. is such that the originality of its form is no longer remarked. but two years later. 4 SXLP30178 (2/75) EMI/HMV Concert 4 1 SXL6818 (2/77) Decca 7038 London VIOLIN S-37412 Angel Classics D MINOR DNPO/Sawallisch/Sym 4 SAL 3727 (9/69) Phonogram OCpte. 20 D Vienna Octet/Rimsky-Ko SPA503 D BPO/Karajan/Nicolai. 3 Dallman ORYX1813-4 (5/73) Oryx. like the Andante of the Violin Concerto of the following year. energetically introducing new music and works by great historical figures: he was also instrumental in drawing up plans for a new Conservatory there in 1843. Perahia/ ASMF/Marriner 76376 (7/75) CBS M-33207 Columbia SAL3727 PRELUDES AND FUGUES D Cpte. With the exception of works like the Variations serieuses and the E minor Prelude and Fugue. to whose style the finale of the violin concerto and the piano Rondo capriccioso are very akin./Klemperer/Schumtmn: Sym. is very unpretentious: of far greater distinction is his chamber music. 3 SXL6363 (9/68) Decca 6587 London DPhilh./d( Q Woodland. Fischer-Dieskau./Muti/Schumann: Sym. Barenboim/Gondelh'ed. Gedda. which he made the most important musical centre in Germany. LSO/Fruhbeck de Burgos E minor Cone. Wolff. (2/76) Classics S-35881 Angel EMI/HMV Concert Ruy Bias DNewPhilh. CHORAL WORKS D Vyvyan LSO/Maag (Hor mein Bitten. (5/77) of Diamonds ASMF/Marriner Decca Argo 5467 Argo SYMPHONY NO. In 1833. NO. Klavierstucke. OP. Mendelssohn settled in Dusseldorf as general musical director. Philh. the "Scottish" Symphony (No. 4 ASD3365 (7/77) EMI/HMV CONCERTO D MINOR 9500 154 (3/77) Phonogram. But what he never lost was the sheer elegance and finish of his workmanship.making drawings and musical sketches on his journeys. 4 IN A (ITALIAN) DNew Philh. Jones. DMenuhin. 1 IN G MINOR. Classics for Pleasure Wagner. 6 a Gabrieli (9/69) 802718 Philips (7/72) EMI/HMV Campoli/LPO/Boult/Bruch: Scottish Fantasy ECS775 (8/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15015 London D Milstein/Philh. SPA503 (10/77) Decca STS-15091 London LSO/Abbado/Sym. 5 IN (REFORMATION) SONGS WITHOUT WORDS DNos. Veni D DNew Philh. still insufficiently known. 3 IN A MINOR (SCOTTISH) Berlin PO/Karajan/ Hebrides Ov. and writing entertaining letters: an enjoyable visit to the ciryo Scottish Highlands resulted in the brilliantly evocative Hebrides overture and. In his last years a certain blandness and tameness are evident in Mendelssohn's music — save in the oratorio Elijah. 5 Phonogram SYMPHONY NO. Chorus. Calr voyage. DSuk/Czech PO/Ancerl/ Bruch SUAST50546 (8/65) Supraphon Ricci/LSO/Gamba/ Bruch SPA88 (10/70) Decca D Perlman/LSO/Previn/Bruch: Co ASD2926 (1/74) Vin. Both symphonies show a transparently-coloured lyricism and rhythmic vitality that have ensured their lasting popularity. disproves the assertion sometimes heard that his slow movements are less outstanding than his scherzos. 6 Anthe mortui. In that year too he composed the remainder of his Midsummer night's dream music for a stage production. much of the piano music however. Albumblatt DG STRING QUARTET NO. Baker. matching up the style of his youthful overture of 17 years earlier: its beautiful Nocturne. ASD2809 S-36850 Angel S-35629 Angel IN D Accardo/LPO/Dutoit/E minor Con LSO/Abbado/Sym. ASD2809 (7/72) EMI/HMV VIOLIN CONCERTO IN E MINOR Accardo/LPO/Dutoit/D minor Cor 9500 154 (3/77) Phonogram. and became its virtual director./Barzin/Bruch SXLP3024S 110/77) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-35730 Angel Gdn e/Co SPA451 (9/76) Decca STS 15084 London Ma Watson. 3 2530 126 (5/72) DG* Weber SXLP30210 Phonogram OCTET IN E FLAT. Baker. Wallis/LSO/Previr Palmer/Schutz Choir/Norrington ZRG716 (11/72) Decca Argo ASD3377 ELIJAH (9/77) EMI/HMV S-37268 Angel Cpte. later. (5/66) 6570 021 Philips Festivo S-3738 Angel 1 Watts. 3). incidentally. 4 SXL6363 (9/68) Decca 6587 London D SNO/Gibson/Hebrides CFP40270 (10/77) Classics for Pleasure SYMPHONY NO. Psalm 22. (5/o8) Decca Argo ORGAN SONATAS SNO/Gibson/Sym.

percussion instruments and rhythms. Messiaen's entire output is avowedly dedicated to "the service of the dogmas of Catholic theology". though that of Satie's > quasireligious music was closer in time. he has made extensive use of Gregorian chant and. As a teacher his own influence has been enormous. Serkin/Ln VISIONS DE L'AMEN 2BBA1005-7 (4/73) Decca LES CORPS GLORIEUX ZRG633 NATIVITE DOgdon (11/71) Decca Argo built musical language: in addition to Indian scales. Among his major organ works are the early Le Banquet celeste. harmonic and rhythmic principles on which he has own Right: Olivier Messiaen as a young man./. which draw heavily on elements from Oriental music. Les Corps glorieux and the Messe de la Pentecote: his only important chamber work is the Quatuor pour la fin du temps written while he was a prisoner of war. and in 1936 was appointed to teaching posts at both the Ecole Normale and the Schola Cantorum in Paris. Called up in the French forces.- Koechlin: Bandar-log ZRG7S6 (4/76) Decca Argo» CATALOGUE D'OISEAUX ZRG665 D Preston/Le banquet celeste (10/70) Decca Argo DU SEIGNEUR Preston ZRG5447 (3/66) Decca Argo* OISEAUX EXOTIQUES D Loriod. such as the ecstatic Vingt regards sur Venfant Jesus for piano. VINGT REGARDS SUR L'ENFANT L'ASCENSION D Preston/ Franck ZRG5339 JESUS (3/63) Decca Argo* CHRONOCHROMIE BBC SO/Dorati/ Boulez: Le sole. and is permeated by a voluptuous mysticism all but hypnotic in effect. as in the overtly sensual Turangalila symphony. but was repatriated in 1941 and became a professor at the Conservatoire. This owes much to the highly personal techniques he has evolved. consciousness. P. from whom he derived a certain influence from Franck 3> which was noted in his earliest works. Czech PO/Neumann SUAST50749 (2/69) Supraphon 31002 Candide POEMES POUR MI D Barker/Johnson ZRG699 (11/72) Decca QUATUOR POUR LA Argo FIN DStoltzman. even more. He was a foundermember of the group of avant-garde composers known as Jeune France. which underline the almost stiflingly luscious character of some of his harmony. Aquino. his most famous pupil was Boulez ». with a fondness for sonorities such as the Ondes Martenot. a post he held for the greater part of his life. are immensely long. Messiaen studied composition with Dukas >. his . Messiaen has expounded at length the melodic.OLIVIER MESSIAEN (b. Kavafi DU TEMPS rry. La Nativite du Seigneur (1935). Washingto SO/Dorati HEAD1-2 (5/74) Decca Headline 128 ARL3 0759 (9/76) CRL3-0759 RCA Di RCA DOgdo Sherlaw Johnson D Simon ZRG650-1 (10/69) DP. At the age of 22 he became organist at the Eglise de la Trinite in Paris. Serkii RL11S67 (7/77) RCA TRANSFIGURATION DE NOTRE SEIGNEUR JESUS-CHRIST D Sylvester. of birdsongs (which are regarded as symbols of divinity)— carefully notated bird-calls form the main substance of the piano Catalogue d'oiseaux and the Oiseaux exotiques for piano and orchestra. Chorus. Avignon 1908) Accepted as a pupil at the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 11 and subsequently winning numerous prizes there. His orchestration is often extremely original as well as complex. he was taken prisoner. Left: Messiaen s influence as a teacher has been widespread. including obsessional kaleidoscopic nearostinatos and the suspension of normal Western time- Many of his works.

in his last years he was confined to a wheelchair. Orch. Bolivar and David. and this gave him a zest for Brazilian rhythms. to its many from making more than the most cursory acquaintance with any of it. SUITE CISALPINE FOR CELLO AND ORCHESTRAt. Orch. of which he and Honegger > were the most technically accomplished. the choral Cantique du Rhone and the woodwind quintet Cheminee du Roi Rene. where he taught at Mills College and composed the charming Chansons de Ronsard. including two large-scale operas. four symphonies and other orchestral and chamber works.37442 (2/78) Brasil texes. Ait-en-Provence 1892. and much else. the orchestral Suite Provencale. As with volume all of d. tBlees/Radio Luxemburg Orch. which can be heard in many of his works — not only the Saudades do Brasil. As early as 1915. 1 Apolin. He returned to Paris in 1947. to the former the heartfelt emotion of the Poemes juifs and numerous liturgical and Biblical choral works. Saudades do Brasil (exes ASD3444 S. and the 14th and 15th of his eighteen string quartets were playable either separately or together. when he was barely out of his studies at the Paris Conservatoire (where Dukas 2> had been one of his teachers). the latter to celebrate Israel's 3000th anniversary. Yet among much that is merely flippant. he resumed his collaboration with Claudel in a number and concert works. half-a-dozen concertos.) EMI/HMV Angel PIANO CONCERTO NO. tangy works as the Camaval d'Aix for piano and orchestra (a re-working of one of his many ballets). Two sources which almost unfailingly drew the best from him were his Jewish faith and his Provencal origins: to the latter we owe such luminous.DARIUS MILHAUD lb. ASD3444 S. In 1940 he SAUDADES DO BRASIL BOEUF SUR LE TOIT French Nat. 110 1120 (11/73) Rediffusic Supraphon . of gaiety and of delicacy which it is to be hoped will not be lost as time goes by. A quality which Milhaud never lacked however wasadventurousness — he was in fact reproached for too great a readiness to follow different styles and to experiment. was one of the most successful fusions of the new jazz idiom with "straight" forms such as fugue. the maxixe of the Camaval d'Aix. taking up a teaching post at the Conservatoire and pouring out music in still greater profusion. the most prolific and experimental composer of the French group called 'Les Six'. LA MUSE MENAGERE* *]ohannesen./Bernstein/Boe./Mester/ Symphony 6 GL2S020 (11/76) RCA Gold Seal S-744 Louisville CREATION DU MONDE. or pretentiously overblown. /Bernstein/ Creation du Monde. (1/76) WEA None CONCERTO NO. until the middle went to California. Geneva 1974) composers of enormous Milhaud's output. the two-piano Scaramouche. Prague SO/Smeta. In Paris he was drawn into the group of "Les Six". of stage 1930s. he experimented with symphonies and operas of extreme brevity. At the age of 25 Milhaud spent nearly two years in Rio de Janeiro with the poet Paul Claudel. but the jiggy ballet Le Boeuf sur le toit he wrote on returning to Paris. things as of setting a extracts from an by such agricultural catalogue).37442 (2/78) EMI/HMV Angel CELLO CONCERTOS NOS. he was among the first to diversity of style as well as of standard. his incidental music for Oresteia broke new ground in employing choral groans and cries and solo percussion./Kontarsky TV34496S William Bolcom/Rag caprii s/ Spring H71316 VIOLIN ) (7/7S) Decca Turnabout* Below: Milhaud. his vast-scale opera Christophe Colomb called for cinematography. in his case. added the sheer bewildering facility. 2*.BALLET D French Nat. his 1923 negro ballet La Creation du monde.i/" sur Saudades do le toit. who had been appointed French Minister there. 2 DGertler. Cone. Delicate in health even as a child. there are works of poetry. simultaneous dual action and much symbolism. or drily intellectual. Malipiero: Wit. Brno PO/Waldhans SUAST50864 (11/72) AND 2 Supraphon CHANSONS DE RONSARD DSeibel. deters feature bitonality in his music. and another eight concertos. but quickly tiring of its chic superficiality (exemplified. beautifully scored for chamber ensemble. besides more symphonies and choral and chamber music. Louisville Orch.

Prelude and berceuse.SONG CYCLE D Shirley Quirk/Isepp/ Purcell. before tackling for the first time a large-scale form: his G minor Symphony of 1937. Middlesex. represents him at the peak of his powers. It was a work of genius.ERNEST JOHN (b. but astonishingly enough he went on to write five more operas for Venetian commercial theatres. Toccata White mountain. Humfrey. Hoist: Fugal Ov. 1950) Moeran.) *Coetmore/Parkin SRCS42 (10/72) Lyrita LONELY WATERS English Sinf. 2 Legends. some of the madrigals have a continuo part. the First World War broke out and Moeran at once volunteered. open-air mcxmn charm. Monteverdi was already over 70. the year after his death in Venice. and there produced a great quantity of religious music. and was overtly inspired by the scenery of Co. which produced the novel string effects of tremolo and pizzicato./Boult ASD2913 New SRCS70 4014 (7/75) Lyrita HNH MONTEVERDI CLAUDIO Cremona (b. The year 1931 saw the production of a vivacious string trio and the poignant Lonely waters for small orchestra. Butterworth SACA5260 (10/66) Saga SINFONIETTA LPO/Boult/Bnj. November Woods. 1894.) After performances of his two orchestral Rhapsodies in 1924 Moeran widened his horizons. at particularly emotional moments. and a choral Nocturne on Delius's death. and this was produced in 1607 with all the considerable instrumental resources the court could muster: it is now the earliest opera in the repertory. (Moeran had indeed himself collected a number of Norfolk folksongs. By this time he had published five books of madrigals which show his increasing harmonic daring and his use of dissonance as a means of expressive verbal treatment. Of these only two survive — // Ritorno d'Ulisse and his masterpiece L'Incoronazione de Poppea. Songs of Springtime. Kerry and of East Norfolk. In 1612 the new Duke of Mantua dismissed Monteverdi. Kerry. sacred madrigals and canzonets written at the ages of 15. he had been active for so long. the first opera on a historical. and he has gone down in history as the first great writer of operas and as a technical In the course of his 60-year career decisive part in the The staging of his works in recent years has made abundantly clear his gift for expressive dramatic innovator./Dilkes/Leigfi. the next year. duets and trios with accompaniment. Not to be outdone. Even after taking holy orders in 1632 he was irresistibly drawn to theatrical styles: his eighth book of madrigals ("Warlike and amorous") contains the dramatic narrative with orchestra // Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda. Right: Portrait of Monteverdi. his Sinfonietta is by a theme common to all three of its movements. who however was appointed maestro di cappella at St Mark's. with a background of little more than hymns. even further elaborated instrumentally. 130 where . This was followed up a year later with Arianna. 1567. Heston. Venice 1643) Monteverdi played a change from the older style of unaccompanied vocal polyphony to the new harmonic style supporting a solo voice. An altogether jollier Irish flavour permeates the Violin Concerto of five years later. d. Save to those who affect to scorn what has been called the "English pastoral school". and this unusual feature was to be further developed in successive publications. after a woodcut on the title-page of a collection published in 1644. in which the basic expressive declamation of the text. wrote his own Favola d'Orfeo on the same subject. now made musical director. to which Monteverdi accorded supremacy. Ireland. Moeran's music appeals to all knit together by gg its fresh. composition. serving in the army throughout the four years and being badly wounded. and also from 1608 dates the satirical Ballo dell'ingrate The magnificent Vespers of 1610 combine the orthodox polyphonic style with Monteverdi's new passionate declamation and rich orchestral coloration. subject. . CELLO SONATA IN A MINOR*: PRELUDE FOR CELLO AND PIANO* PIANO WORKS (Bank holiday. which ends with an unaccompanied voice singing the folksong on which it is based. which owes something to the example of Sibelius >. a political journey in Flanders and. On demobilisation he decided to devote himself to composition. a visit to Florence for the wedding of Maria de'Medici to Henri IV of France in 1600: there Peri's Euridice (almost the very first opera) was performed for the first time. as opposed to a mythical. additionally. Butlerworth. the music of which has unfortunately been lost except for Ariadne's lament. was expanded at times into melodic arioso or. But at about the age of 23 he entered the service of the Duke of Mantua as a viol player and singer. through whom he fell under the spell of Delius >. however. violin playing and school music when he entered the Royal College in London. so that by the seventh book madrigals give way to solos. at the Duke's urging Monteverdi. d. a late starter in his musical career. His first publications (collections of motets. MOERAN Kenmare. After only 18 months. most significantly of all. In the fifth book. and learnt something of musical currents elsewhere when he accompanied his master on a military campaign in Hungary. Stalham River. making friends with Warlock >. whose pantheistic ideas accorded well with his own intense love of Nature: this new stylistic departure marks his setting of poems by Joyce (to whom he was drawn by being Irish on his mother's side). SRCS37 (10/68) Lyrita 4038 HNH SYMPHONY IN G MINOR English Sinfonia/Dilkes (8/73) EMI/HMV Philh. in the orthodox style he had inherited from his teacher in Cremona. was the son of a Norfolk clergyman. as might be expected. With increasing sureness of technique he wrote a choral suite on Elizabethan verses. which enjoyed an immense success and was sung throughout Italy. Warlock CSD3705 (4/72) EMI/HMV LUDLOW TOWN. but Ireland was careful not to inhibit the folksong-like lyricism (as in his String Quartet) which came naturally to his pupil from his regional upbringing. and Moeran's late marriage to a cellist led to a poetically lyrical concerto and a sonata for cello. and for three years studied with Ireland >. Venice. the influence of whose harmonic style can be seen in his songcycle Ludlow town. 16 and 17 respectively!) were. Co.

Damigella. Dean. Ambrosian Singers ECO/Leppard 6500 457 (7/73) Phonogram FAVOLA DORFEO D Cpte. La piaga. ch'./Schneidt 2723 043 (11/75) DG Soloists. Dean.) : 0* 1 <& ' £±«Jl: -^ D Glyndebourne VIII) che'l ciel. Dio. Non d'oro. Bowman. Scherzi muskali: Dolce miei sospiri. Alva. Book VIII: Hamburg Monteverdi Ch. Qui Amor che deggio Altri canti d'amor./Leppard 6500 663 (1/75) Phonogram VESPERS (VESPRO DELLA BEATA VIRGINE) D Soloists. Sod Esswood. Eccomi ai baci./Leonhardt Consort/ Jurgens AW6 41182 (5/67) Selecta Teletunken MADRIGALI CUERRIERI (BOOK (Sinfonia./ Eliot Gardiner SET593-4 (4/74) Decca Regensburger Domspatzen and instrumental ens. belle. dolente partita. e guerrier. Ch. pronta Chiome tar. Watson. Salisbury Cathedral Boys' Choir. Howells. Petrescu. Har MCA/ i. VI: Presso un fiume Florida bella.o vorrei morire. Monteverdi Choir and Orch. Ogni amante Ardo awampo./Camerata Accademica/Jurgens 2723 018 (11/74) DG L'INCORONAZIONE DI POPPEA DCpte ~ ath. Altri d'amor.) DPurcell Consort/ Burgess ZRG668 (4/71) Decca Argo MADRIGALS (Boole V: Questi vaghi concenti. rise.IL E IL COMBATTIMENTO DI TANCREDI CLORINDA BALLO DELLE INGRATE D Harper. (La) Reynolds. Wakefield. vedro mai O come sei gentile. II ballo. Sfogava con Ie stelle. **s 131 . Ah. Book far. VCM/Harnoncourt 6-35247 (3/75) Teletunken* MADRIGALS (Book TV: Si. Hamburg Monteverdi Ch. Al lume delle stelle. Gira il Hor nemico. Rogers. O Tirse. Luccardi. Se vittorie si Armato il cor. Partridge. Boole VIII: Lamento dell ninfa. Amor Book VII: che deggio Ie stelle.) VII: Book A tranquillo.

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Ludvvig./ in /" on the world's ability to >.. Andante for Flute. made him outspoken compromise with the slower-witted and those of more superficial tastes. K505. DANCES (Contredanses Nos. Steffek. (7/77) DG- Bohm SLS5028 (10/75) D Cpte. K490. Caballe. 12-14. 28. . o o o o o'0V0V0 o'oV« Concert Classics S-60193 Seraphim CHAMBER WORKS FOR WIND Serenades Nos. i K498 coglio. K334 DIVERTIMENTO NO. Left: The monument in the to Mozart Burggarten. Wixell. Ch'io me di . Taddei. Ch'io mi scordi di te. and because of his feckless way of life at a time when free-lance composing without the support of di -v its brilliance S 5 reflects genius IN A... ARIAS I piu.. LPO/Lockhart LRU 5077 (10/751 RCA BASSOON CONCERTO IN SDDL405-9 Diamonds Quintet. ORCHESTRA. K315 6500 378 (8/741 Phonogram. KS81 Quartet/ Trio K498 6500 073 (2/71) Phonogram. scordi D Brendel. DIVERTIMENTO NO. Rose 76381 (8/75) CBS M-33266 Columbia D Stern. Divertimenti Nos. 4. DM. Kanawa. OAmeling.. Chorus/Philh. K191 Chapman. K63.. Sciutti. 12-17.. dde Peyer/Amadeus Quartet/Oboe Qt 2530 720 DG* D de Peyer/Melos Ensemble/ Weber DIVERTIMENTO NO./Leppard/Ni'e/sen UNS239 (11/71) Transatlantic/Un De Peyer/LSO/Maag/Sj/m. Cosi i accommodate Mozart's natural and impatient of arose because midst. K449 TV34064S (1/67) Decca Turnabout 34064 Turnabout DEmil and Elena Gilels/VPO/Bohm/ Klien. Frick. . Bella mia Hamma.. utte- fa chi sa. Freni. Schwarzkopf. 77-82. 10 IN F FOR 2 K247 STS-15071 London liituts Gdn Davies.WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Salzburg 1756. dm K582. Gedda Van Allen. Cotrubas. ECO/Waart 6500 544 (10/74) Phonogram. Cov. This melancholy state of affairs. German dances Nos. Mi Brymer/Ireland/Bishop/C/arinet Vedr batti. STS-15304 London DON GIOVANNI D Cpte. Adagios K410 and K411. Cov. Al desio. DECO/C. C. Anh227. Arroyo. Gdn. Gdn. NO. K622 D McCaw/New Philh. Berganza. K251 (4/61) L'Oiseau Lyre 17 IN D FOR 2 HORNS AND STRING QUARTET../. Vado ma dove. which ['AHTK'I r (ill'SKITR t . 62-71. Waechter. Cov. Vorrei spiegarvi. 16. \ a HQS1395 (9/77) EMI/HMV CLARINET TRIO IN E FLAT MAJOR. K577. RPO/Beecham/C/ariner Cone. vi< Nc atti./Boskovsky (10/72) Decca Ace SDDH347-51 Dm rids DIVERTIMENTO IN E FLAT. ASMF/Marriner/C/arinef Cone.1 (Non IV. ./Giulini SLS5083 (7/77) HMV S-3605 Angel Top: Six quartets were dedicated to Haydn by 'his friend Mozart'. K100 Ens.. 73. Vienna. Taddei.„. 38 SDD331 (12/72) Decca Ace of ASMF/Marriner/Bassoon Cone./Davis 6707 022 (11/73) Phonogram- 133 . Kraus. Cappuccilli/Philh. Lorengar. K.. Ch.) London Wind Soloists/Brymer I (9/73) Decca Ace of CLARINET CONCERTO IN A. <>. Nehmt meinen Dank. Berbie. Czako SAL3664 (8/68) of K563 Phonogram 802803 Philips Zukerman. by universally loved and revered who as a child prodigy was shown off through- out Europe by his father (a violinist in the Archbishop of Salzburg's service) and feted everywhere. 27 2530 456 (11/741 COSI FAN TUTTE Schwarzkopf. Landler Nos. K383. K136-8 D ASMF/Marriner/Serenade 6 ZRG554 (2/68) Decca Argo. Berry. TWO VSO/Angerer/Sonata for two pianos. and who later achieved many resounding successes (such as the sensational triumph of his opera The Marriage of Figaro in both o^^ToV^^^^^^S^^ Vienna and Prague). Andante for Flute.. Vienna Octet/ Dmei-fimento KI36 SDD251 (12/70) Decca Ace of Diamonds Far left: Mozart as seen by a Salzburg sculptor in 1789. Vado ma dove./LPO/SoIti D56D4 (8/77) Decca 1442 London HORNS AND STRING QUARTET. Decca CLARINET QUINTET 3 Brymer/ Allegri HMV S-3631 Angel D Cpte. D Grumiaux.. K528. 43-60.% . 8.1 D Vienna Mozart Ens. 3. SXLP30246 (9/77) EMI/HMV Di. Cpfe. K583. lb. Van Allen. 9. Burrows. was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave at the age of 35. 72. K365 K505. tutto ascoltai./ Ganzarolli. Chi K3o9. 84-9. HAYDN ' Figaro -Deh che sapete. Bacquier./Boskovsky Vienna Mozart SXL6500I7/71) Decca STS-15302 London CASSATIONS: NO. Ganzarolli. 1. 92-9.. Vienna 1701) The composer most musicians. Davis 6707 025 (2/75) Phonogram. Price.>. 1 IN G. K418. K581 6500 073 (2/71) Phonogram* CONCERTO IN E FLAT FOR PIANOS. DIVERTIMENTI FOR STRING ands D Brymer. K315 6500 378 (8/74) Phonogram S-60193 Seraphim Prinz/VPO/Munchinger/ Flute & Harp Cone. 10-12. D Cpte. SPA495 Cone. Q Brooke. 61. d. I Musici/Serenade 6 6500 536 (8/74) Phonogram. Janzer./ B FLAT. Krause. Sutherland. Baker. Davis SOL60029 11 IN D. 27. KS83. Roni.) te. Alva. 2 IN B FLAT.

) Fischer-Dieskau/Barenboim ASD2824 LIEDER (2/73) Abendempfindung. as those in but his triumphs outside Salzburg Idomeneo at Munich. Tear. An die Hoffnung.•muj ultimo ufi|l 4J-. piano trios and quartets and the irked his master. (4/73) if * FfcM "inoiicrflinniiirirr flininuuiim-. £A V?V-Js\. Gesellenreise.! P (V? r V*o JF . decorated by the Pope. EMI/HMV Als Luise die Briefe.jivti .. BBC SO/Davis SAL3649 (3/68) Phonogram 802862 Philips Karajan 2530 705 (12/76) Siepi. NO.. Eine kleine deutsche Kantata. Harper. ntQijmo ". Gomez/Constable SAGA5441 (6/77) Saga MASONIC MUSIC (O heiliges Band. 1 IN D.")' . Shirley-Quirk. giving concerts. K315 CFP40072 (7/74) Classics for Pleasure FLUTE QUARTETS: NO. K484. Poell/Vienna State Op Ch. Jellinek/VPO/Munchinger/ Clarinet Cone. K477. and with a large number of successful performances of his compositions to his credit (including his fourth and sixth operas. Evans. Davies. Blegen. and his great operas. ASMF/Marriner/Rondo. Fischei Dieskau.'. 417. Fischer- 1 SXL6499(2/71) Decca STS-15301 London LE NOZZE DI FIGARO DCpte: della Casa. Moll. Die grossmutige Gelassenheit. Der Zauberer. ASMF/ Marriner ZRG677 (9/72) Decca Argot MASS IN C MINOR. Watts. ECO/Leppard/-4ndanre. iiOjrriiimniuJrnuiitte > iiaoiiurmtomrii / t) „ r . K623.. which was famous for its orchestra. Ihr unsre neuen Leiter. Baltsa. Das Lied der Trennung. fimitr aiiiniiurr «. BBC SO/Davis 6707 014 (11/71) Phonogram* DTomova-Sintov. 1-4. si tous les ans. Kleiber GOS585-7 (4/70) Decca Ace of Diamonds 1402 London aCple.. Die Zufriedenheit.n n li nn nit tufltuimr Hf v Ji pOuarmir-poraa»-rr % J| ^F Jnuuiimta *t' r I imrmnnmi finim smnbus Imu ou 'W&^ j* > ftmiio ii'F-OoinettriabJ' miinirjiinjm irlju/rfVrr" tro rr jutnn touuiis annua tout V dnnjr itunmnair Tt6j* fli$ ifu|f)iiifioui(r n. Die Zufriedenheit im niedrigen Stande. Dresden Staatskapelle/ Bohm/impresario 2740 102 (10/74) DG FLUTE CONCERTOS NO. Baker. vW 19/73) <&) i EMI/HMV cJ. SPA495 (7/77) Decca HORN CONCERTOS NOS. Freni. 2 IN G.' umemiammttirarmaf n' GitG-tilUl Ll im Tualrar ' •f.[ _ (tmunilh ronroTujieutS vrnimdiii rrrrt* •. K148./Boskovsky/ Serenade Krenn. {{.'rafl <4 ™" OlCftnrt ilffrflii ranarvuirn»ii(irr EMI/HMV (2/76) vili j*. Dir. Geheime Liebe.i*nir 'fl anir oiMirn/rtufli.OM'i'Trrtf y'i IJ j:. K285b.droit miuninimuiatri ft (jauo. Edinburgh Fest Ch. Dans un bois solitaire.\ efli " ZttOinuaCM a. Norman. McCue. BBC Chorus. Minton. Das Lied der Trennung. Krause. Das Veilchen. Neukirch. torn Tuckwell/LSO/Maag SDD364 t rmmrjamtftTCiuidtD n> inundi ftrfla mmiainr "> mo wga nljjimawor i nbnoratiim mirlmin at looniosu'ifroiimcsilh fun f min urr m ro ii ojrfptn ptnntsm- initiiiwtr-ibHimf' T3rs mrrVfiitrturW. Fragment EMI/HMV S-36840 Angel D Civil. An die Einsamkeit. .) Krenn.trra)jlaji i>. two days who opera (like that of the after his 25th birthday) 1781 literally kicked him out./Waart/R. NO. Ellis/ ASMF/Marriner/ Sinfonia Concertante. ^" mnmntn-tMitoi Brain/Philharmonia/Karajan ASD1140 q mrtojuniopwrtr i-o 6403 London (4/72) mi im nimr.fe5. Laut verkunde unsre Freude. 4 IN A.Dieskau Sheila • John Alldis Choir • & English Chamber Orchestra conducted by Daniel Barenboim Trio 6500 034 (6/71) Phonogram* FLUTE AND HARP CONCERTO K299 DMonteux.rtnrriimi! LIEDER frliotrgio -Otlluti IHiTiri touncmt. Auger. Impresario.lUu. Die D betrogene Welt. n. 2 IN D. K314 OBOE CONCERTO Holliger/New Philh. K429. Nor. for which he wrote some of his finest piano concertos. Berganza. miscellaneous chamber music (including violin sonatas. 3 IN C.[ylJf . Die Entfuhrung aus dem La finta giardincra. K297 6500 380 (12/74) Phonogram. K295 D Bennett. Niensredt. K314 1 IN D. K285a. least of all under an overbearing Archbishop unsympathetic to music. Alldis Choir/ECO/Barenboim SLS995 (7/77) HMV IN C. Seele des Weltalls. and continuing to pour out works of every kind — symphonies. Alldis Choir. Sehen wie dem starren Forscherauge. van Dam/Vienna Singverein/Berlin PO/ DG' MUSICAL JOKE. K371. string quintets.) J. his admiration for whom (Die) was warmly reciprocated) and with leading players such Mannheim.i-Hi-o'v*" ami mnntrptoe vut ft .~ toirffnjfitmitittMK uiiitioaniratniiti Brm-6>rtinnnoV nstunnefllaqttr nttttui quoit out artflrtn tiifrnrri.troiiuoTantnplii-l-fc. K471. NO. ECO/Barenboii ASD2788 (7/721 EMI/HMV S-36842 Angel DDonath. i. Strauss 6500 174 (1/72) Phonogram OVERTURES Idomeneo. K285. nobility and musical connoisseurs. K626 D Armstrong. Die kleine Spinnerin.• WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART was unknown.iotriiiiilmuAjnu no rotfrnito gtlinum "c nrnrtibijiii'iiaanoCT Decca Ace of Diamonds D Tuckwell/ ASMF/Marriner/Rondo ASD2780 _ j/niiauMaugrnm nlii *\£rvy ?Ti$ ' i mo mi Inu inmuru oni iiiji[itrftnrin. Die grossmutige Gelassenheit.i 6ir \0 J V OniiicotraWjmiicor* rtnntrdm»ffftma«»«r Tauftm T&>^ i~ /L. 134 7 . Abendempfindung. Grumiaux Armstrong. Serail. NO. despite continued efforts. S-60257 Seraphim REQUIEM MASS IN D MINOR. K468. Ich wurd auf meinem Pfad. An die Freundschaft. Ridente la calma. to provide which he held the only court appointment that came his way. -^g. Wie unglucklich bin ich. K313.' Jiftof »'!»«> i«n»" (jfA -./ LSO/Kertesz SXL6409 (10/69) Decca 26111 London MASS C MAJOR. Die Zufriedenheit. was he able to secure a permanent appointment in any of the centres which had hailed him as a visiting keyboard player. K317 (CORONATION) LITANIAE LAURETANAE. Corena. wind serenades. An Chloe. K619. mozart: Requiem DAdeney. Or mine iumw i I u i' Concert i uuin auulD S-35689 Angel K a. Alldis Choir. u..)niitmoin> itiitliu a. K427 D Cotrubas. Le nozze di Figaro. string quartets. Die Zaubertlole. K412.n9 ' *"' wu nnw iBirami miis-ilmjnnrmir Classics (ff'Kl /v-!lL/if\* x i'W L kRrsS^f/-. Dane. Mozart spent in his superlative Clarinet Quintet). Gedda. Gesellenreise. IN C. Schreier./Klemperer SXLP30207 fe^sift^. Wixell. His travels of course broadened his experience by bringing him into contact with other composers (including Haydn >. Alldis Ch. Lasst uns mit geschlungnen Handea K623a. ASD2959 (6/74) EMI/HMV Dieskau. K522 D Vienna Mozart Ens. teaching. Oxford Schola Cantorum. . Sehnsucht nach dem Fruhlinge. K371 6500 325 (5/74) Phonogram* DD. ( D V ' Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls. OJimrr immumroK --i (Mum tmt i'oi hnr (Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls. written at the age of 14 and 16) — did not make it easy for him to settle down in provincial Salzburg. Krenn. Oiseaux.lanet Baker Nicolai Gedda Dietrich Fischer. Grist. -M iifotirrruytioam fmimftcrBQjiiiir gt»oi!tti»-<cm.»)k irams-aaiitntw .^i /STl] $> ctn-iflmrwnmfttf ikUtfadJbtni if tmiiOHiiiifHrfqi r% {£j*1. all dance music. An die Freundschaft. remaining ten years in Vienna. Minton. K483. Gueden. liunmairtMrlinoJ. a patron — His dazzling early life made much of by royalty. Zerfliesset heut. He became interested in ENTFUHRUNG AUS DEM SERAIL Cpte.aKimnwawaui ^VtdlfOJOIUIS-irup) •\* ptutmrmmaroru DCivil/Philh. NPO/Leppard Sotin. 447 AND 495 O Tripp.ifftu a ttmtatbtawi oikttsbt f ro. Das Traumbild. Ganzarolli. Lied der Freiheit./VPO/E. Maurerische Trauermusik. Die ihr einem neuen Grade. violinist and composer. K195 IN D Cotrubas. Kiri Te Kanawa. mro.

13 IN D Barenboim/ECO/Conc. E FLAT. S-60037 Seraphim PIANO CONCERTOS right: his father before the ress Clemenz Do RPO/Dav. 14 IN K415 C. 9 ASD2434 MS-6534 Columbia D Annie K449 Barenboim/ECO/Conc./Sawallisch/ R. K271 D Barenboim/ECO Concert Classics 15 6500 140 (2/74) Phonogram Maria Theresa. ASMF/Marriner/Coiic. 20 61136 (7/70) CBS Classics MS-6534 Columbia Brendel/ ASMF/Marriner/Conc. 16 ASD2999 18 IN B (10/71) Brendel/ ASMF/Marriner/Rondos K456 Barenboim/ECO/Conc. 21 2530 548 (11/75) DG* Richter/Warsaw National PSO/ 2548 106 (10/75) Cone. D Ashkenazy/LSO/Kertesz 11-27 SXL6259 HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. it is little wonder that he ranks among the supreme musical geniuses of all time. 29 6500 283 (11/72) Phonogram. K451 D Lupu/ECO/Segal/Conc. sometimes passionately subjective. K450 D Barenboim/ECO/Conc. K413 (9/74) EMI/HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. was a Requiem (commissioned by a mysterious stranger) which Mozart. 9 IN 1-9. 16 IN D. 23 ASD2318 (7/67) EMI/HMV 135 . (10/68) Solisti di Fischer/Philh. 23 SXLP30148 E FLAT. La the infant PIANO CONCERTO NO. 23 IN A. for commensurate mastery in the then still new field of the solo concerto and in symphonic construction./Boult/Conc. became convinced was intended for himself. K238 DAshkenazy/LSO/Schmidt-Isserstedt/ Cone. 19 2530 716 (1/77) DG* D Barenboim/ECO/Conc. K453 PFS4340 (12/75) Decca Phase 4 21138 London Q Brendel/Volksoper Orch. EMI/HMV Zagreb/Janigro/ (9/72) HM30SD (o/73) Pye/Vanguard PIANO CONCERTO NO. With his gifts for beauty of sound. Cone. PIANO CONCERTO NO. Vered/LPO/Segal/Conc 2 2 PFS4340 (12/75) Decca Phase 4 21138 London Kempff/Bamberg SO/Leitner/Conc. O Curzon/LSO/Kertesz/Conc. left incomplete when he died. 19 PIANO CONCERTO NO. feelings under an elegant exterior. 15 n Ashkenazy/LSO/Schmidt-Is: Cone. 24 PIANO CONCERTO NO. Cleveland/Szell/ 17 Cc Annie Fischer/Philh. K414 K382 14 EMI/HMV & K386 9500 145 (10/77) Phonogram* PIANO CONCERTO NO. 23 PIANO CONCERTO NO. 11 IN F. K466 Barenboim/ECO/Conc. TV34080S (8/67) Decca Turnabout* Anda/Salzburg Mozarteum/Conc. i fan tutte. 20 IN D D Serkin. 12 SXL6698 (3/75) Decca D Barenboim/ECO/Conc. whose thoughts frequently dwelt on death. K488 FLAT.s CFP40033 Top by that D Annie Fischer/Philh. for warm and profound. iii 38 ml IN 6894 London =i PIANO CONCERTO NO. 6 SXL6353 (10/68) Decca 6579 London Serkin. Cleveland/Szell/ 61348 (3/73) CBS Classics MS-7245 Columbia prodigy being shown off Salzburg attracts thousands K482 Brendel/ ASMF/Marriner/Conc. 14 (10/68) EMI/HMV Concert Classics Gulda VPO/Abbado/Com. Emp- 8 IN C. CBS Heliodor 21 IN C. for melodic distinction. 21 SXL6698 (3/75) Decca n ij Lriwlri. 23 2530 716 (1/77) DG* PIANO CONCERTO NO. 17 138783 (9/62) DG D Barenboim/ECO/ K595 ASD2465 (2/69) EMI/HMV EMI/HMV Casadesus. ASD2887 (7/73) EMI/HMV 12 IN A. Columbia SO/Szell/Conc./Sawallisch/ R. 27 ASD2357 (4/68) EMI/HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. which is imbued with its symbolism: it was largely due to financial help from a fellow-Mason that in his last years he managed to survive at all. harmonic subtlety and an unerring ear for instrumentation. for a dramatic sense encompassing the whole range of styles from opera seria and buffa to German comic or solemn Smgspiel (incidentally developing to a new high level both characterisation and the art of the operatic finale). K467 Anda/Salzburg Mozarteum/Conc. His ability to think out a work. 27 6500 140 (2/74) Phonogram 6599054 Philips Lupu/ECO/Segal/Conc. 23 6500 283 (11/72) Phonogram* n Pollini/VPO/Bohm/Conc. 14 di Zagreb/Janigro/ HM30SD (6/73) Pye/Vanguard. MINOR. Columbia SO/Szell/Conc. 20 K459 ASD2318 (7/67) EMI/HMV 19 IN F. 19 66136 (7/70) Phonogram Cone. His last work. Solisti Cone. 15 IN B Wislocki/Beerfiouen FLAT. 6 IN B FLAT. 25 (3/73) Classics for Pleasure SLS5031 (1/76| Mozart PIANO CONCERTO NO. ASD3033 (1/75) EMI/HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. 24 2535 204 (12/76) DG D Pollini/VPO/Bohm/Conc.Freemasonry and wrote several Masonic works as well as the opera The magic flute. the sheer perfection of his s2s X hi s 'BlflP Mm i 81 j -\*t— -^r*» -^j?* DBrendel. 24 SXL6354 (11/68) Decca 6580 London D Barenboim/ECO/Conc. 17 IN G. 21 138783 (9/62) DG Above: Mozart birthplace in s of pilgrims to the town never appreciated him. but one of his most awesome was characteristics ^V technique in whatever he touched. 22 IN E FLAT. ASD2434 D Brendel. 61348 (3/73) DG PIANO CONCERTO NO. 20 SXL6353 (10/68) Decca 6579 London Decca (1/67) DBrendel. Casadesus. K246 Barenboim/ECO/Conc. in his head in advance explains such feats as his writing in a mere fortnight his last three great symphonies (the finale of the so-called "Jupiter" in C being a most astonishing piece of contrapuntal virtuosity)./Angerer/ Cone. complete in every detail. 12 ASD2999 (9/74) EMI/HMV Vered/LPO/Segal/Conc. 22 SXLP30124 Classics MS-7245 Columbia (10/71) EMI/HMV Concert Classics PIANO CONCERTO NO. 21 SXLP30124 Co D Brendel/ ASMF/Marriner/Conc.

TV341295 (3/68) K365 2530 456 (11/74) DG* Brendel/ASMF/Marriner/Conc. Sym. ECO/Barenboim/Syms 29 & 30 ASD2806 (7/72) EMI/HMV SYMPHONIES NOS. 38 6580 023 (2/72) Phonogram SYMPHONY NO. Goldberg. 11 IN E FLAT. K388 Ens. 5 6833 102 (12/73) Phonogram SYMPHONY NO. Orch. 4 6500 036 (1/72) Phonogram VIOLIN 32 Phonogram ASMF/Marriner/Sym. 8 ASD3033 (1/75) EMI/HMV Brendel/VPM/Angerer/Conc. Adagio and Fugue in C minor. Howell. 35 EMI/HMV Grumiaux. 5. K590 Decca Ace ot Diamonds SDDS09 11/76) Decca Ace of Diamond: STRING QUINTETS 1-6 Amadeus Quartet. STRING QUARTET IN SDD330 (7/72) STS-15291 London Kuchl Quartet/Quartet 21 31 ASD2379 (9/69) EMI/HMV Sinfonia of London/Collins/Sym. K333 DBrendel/ Adagio. 39 6580 029 (1171) Phonogram 6500 559 Philips LSO/Davis/ Beethoven: Sym. 38-41 ECO/Barenboim/Sym. 8 2530 357 (4/74) DG* Weller Quartet STRING QUARTETS (HUNT) Amadeus Quartet/Haydn: DPhilh. K136-8 ZRGS54 (2/68) Decca Argo* D ECO/Britten/Sym. WIND. Frick. Berry. STRING QUARTET IN Op Ch. KS03 D Kempff/Bamberg D Barenboim/ECO/Conc. Philharmonia/Klemperer SLS912 (11/64) HMV Cpte. 39 IN E 8 FLAT ECO/Barenboim/Sym. Simoneau. 39 |8/o8) EMI/HMV 1 Krebbers/Netherlands Chbr. K452 SERENADE NO. 28 76581 (6/77) CBS SYMPHONY NO. Crass. NO. Davis/Concert Vienna Philharmonic Quartet SDD291 (7/71) Decca Aceot Diamonds STS-15116 London SYMPHONY NO. Chorus. 4 IN D. Gedda. K375 Netherlands Wind Ens. LSO and Ch. K499 Vienna Philharmonic Quartet/ Quartet 22 SDD291 (7/72) Decca Ace ot D. Sym. Quartetto Italiano 6747 097 (9/74) Phonogram STRING QUARTET IN E FLAT. Lupu ZAUBERFLOTE Cpte. 41 EMI/HMV 34 IN C 35 IN S./de Waart/ D Brendel/VPM/Angerer/Conc. 18 6500 948 (4/75) Phonogram* DR. 16 2530 800 (5/77) DG* STRING QUARTET IN D. 9 IN D. K428 MelosQuartet/Qr. K216 Szeryng/New Philh. 36 CFP40079 (9/74) ECO/Britten/Schubert: Sym. 12 D R. 38 CFP40079 (9/74) Concertgebouw/Jochum/Sym. 29 ZRG706 (4/72) Decca Argo* SYMPHONY NO. 32 ZRG679 VPO/Bohm/Saint-Saens D Pro DG SINFONIA CONCERTANTE PIANO SONATAS NOS. 1 IN 2 IN E FLAT./Beerhouen Pno. 25 IN C. 2530 731 (12/76) Balsam OLS177-181 (6-7/63) L'Oiseau-Lyre PIANO SONATAS: NO. Oistrakh/Philh. New London Wind CFP40211 (11/75) Ens. 32-34. 6580 009 (10/72) Phonogram LSO/Maag/Clnrinet Cone. 38 EMI/HMV C (9/67) 38 IN D (PRAGUE) 32. DG G MINOR 25 IN CONFESSORE IN C. Aceot Diamonds Quartetto Italiano/Qunrlet 20 6500 241 (7/72) Phonogram Alban Berg Quartet/Quartet 20 AW6 41999 (9/76) Selecta/Telefunken Kuchl Quartet/Quartet 23 SYMPHONY NO. SONATA. laresch. 3 IN G. Putz. K364. K533/494 Ashkenazy/London Wind Soloists/ Beethoven: Piano and Wind Quintet SXL6252 (11/66) Decca 6494 London 6 IN D (SERENATA NOTTURNA) SXLP20019 (1/62) EMI/HMV Concert Classics DI Musici/Dmertimenti. "CORONATION" Ser./de Waart/ PIANO CONCERTO NO. Schwarzkopf.36512 (9/67) STS-15116 London Quartetto Xlahano/ Quartet 21 6500 241 (7/72) P'honogram Alban Berg Quartet/Quartet 21 AW6 41999 19/76) Selecta/Telefunken. ASD2379 (9/69) SYMPHONY NO. 32. 31 IN D (PARIS) ECO/Barenboim/Sym. 12 Classics for Pleasure 12 IN Wind C MINOR. II 6580 069 (12/73) Phonogram SO/Leitner/Conc. STRING QUARTET IN B FLAT./C. LSO/Davis/Couc. K364 1-17.c. CFP127 LSO/Davis/Sym. EMI/HMV 13BB207-12 (11/75) Decca (LINZ) LPO/Mackerras/Sym. 11 6500 627 (4/75) Phonogram* SERENADE NO. Cone. 36. 26 61597 (2/75) CBS Classics MS-6403 Columbia PIANO QUARTET NO. 40 ASD2424 (8/68) EMI/HMV VPO/Kertesz/Sym. 40 6580 029 (11/71) Phonogram 6500 559 Philips SYMPHONY NO. 25 Decca Turnabout* Cilels/VPO/Bohm/Coi. K546 6500 537 (8/73) Phonogram* ASMF/Marriner/Smfomct Concerfante. 13 IN B FLAT. Quartet 77 Cone. K339 Kanawa. SAL3502 (5/65) 25. 35. Unger. Lipp. 4 Columbia SO/Walter HCpte. K211 ASMF/Marriner/Sym. Davis/Concert SXLP20019 (1/62) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-60057 Angel I Musici/ Violin Cone. 13 IN G FOR STRINGS (EINE KLEINE NACHTMUSIK) Philh. Aronowitz ASD2424 136 F. Oistrakh/Moscow PO/ Kondrashin/Haydn SDD445 (4/75) Decca Ace of Diamonds I. 27 (3/68) Decca Turnabout* Bishop-Kovacevich/LSO/Davis/ TV34129S 6500 431 (4/74) Phonogram* Moravec/Czech PO/Vlach/Fantasia. 40 CFP127 (1/72) Classics for Pleasure VESPERAE SOLENNES DE 1 2740 122 (12/75) NO. Pelliccia/LSO/Davis/ Vln. SXL6539 (6/72) Decca 6741 London SYMPHONY NO. Sym. MAJOR 17-28.WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART PIANO CONCERTO NO. 23 SXL6354 (11/68) Decca 6580 London EMI/HMV Haebler/LSO/Davis/Conc. 17 2530 800 (5/77) DG* STRING QUARTET IN B FLAT. K575 Weller Quartet/Quartet 23 SYMPHONY 802 907LY (5/72) Phonogram* Casadesus/Columbia SO/Szell/ Cone. 27 IN B FLAT. 2 SAL3492 SDD509 (22/76)D'ecca Ace of Diamond. (10/67) Concert Classics Loveday. K331. K478 PIANO QUARTET NO. IN E FLAT. 27 61597 (2/75) CBS Classics MS-6403 Columbia PIANO CONCERTO NO. VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. (1/72) Classics for Pleasure ECO/Barenboim/Sym. 40 IN G MINOR ECO/Barenboim/Sym./C. 2 6580 120 (6/76) Phonogram F SONATAS NOS. 40 SXL6372 (10/68) Decca 6598 London D LSO/Maag/Conceil ECS740 13/75) Decca Eclipse (4/65) Phonogram 835256 Philips Oistrakh. Bohme. 4 A 29 IN 6580 120 (6/76) Phonogram CONCERTO NO. D./de Waart 839 734 (12/72) Philips* SERENADE NO. Netherlands Ens. 11 Classics for Pleasure SERENADE NO. K320. 3 6500 036 (1/721 Phonogram DIE 36 IN ASD2327 Diamonds SXLP30086 VIOLIN D (HAFFNER) Angel ECO/Barenboim/Sym./Ser./Gibson/Conc. Davies. New London Wind CFP40211 (11/75) SERENADE NO. K361 London Wind Soloists SXL6409 (11/63) Decca Netherlands Wind Ens. K491 24 IN C Barenboim/ECO/Conc. Schoeffler/ Vienna State GOS501-3 Diamonds S-36512 Angel Di. K250 (HAFFNER) Curzon/LSO/Kertesz/Conc. 18 ASD2887 (7/73) SERENADE NO. K475 110 1559 (4/761 Rediffusion/Supraphon 26 IN D. Berry. 33 SXL6056 (9/63) Decca STS-15274 London LSO/Davis/Sym./VPO/B6hm (2/67) Decca Ace of . K589 ASD2327 Grumiaux. 7 IN D./ Zinman/Conc. Loose. SDD331(12/72) Decca Ace of ands LPO/Mackerras/Sym. Bainbridge. Gueden. "POSTHORN" D Dresden Staatskapelle/De Waart/ Marches 10. G MINOR. 41 IN C (JUPITER) Boston SO/Jochum/Schubert: Sym. K249 6500 966 (6/76) Phonogram* SERENADE NO. K458 138886 (4/64) DG MelosQuartet/Qt. 25 ZRG706 (4/72) Decca Argo* ECO/Barenboim/Syms. /Gibson/Cone. Janowitz. ASMF/Marriner/ Concertone ZRG729 (1/73) Decca Argo. 10 IN B FLAT FOR 13 WIND INSTRUMENTS./ Zinman/Conc. 23 2535 204 (12/76) DG Privilege* PIANO CONCERTO NO. 41 D. LSO/Davis/Syms. K218 Szeryng/New Philh. 30 6 34 ASD2806 (7/72) EMI/HMV Vienna CO/Entremont/Sym. K136-8 6500 S36 (8/741 Phonogram* ASMF/Marriner/Divertimenfi. KS37. Ludwig. Casadesus/Columbia SO/Szell/ Cone. II 802 907LY (5/72) Phonogram* K595 ECO/Britten/Serenata notturna SXL6372 (10/68) Decca 6598 London Sinfonia of London/Collins/Sym./Ser. Popp. Krebbers/Netherlands Chbr. Vienna Mozart Ens/Boskovsky SXL6614 (3/74) Decca D Bavarian RSO/Kubelik 2535 139 (4/76) DG Privilege Dresden Staatskapelle/de Waart/ March. MINOR. K540 9500 025 (6/76) Phonogram* QUINTET IN E FLAT FOR PIANO AND (7/72) Decca 77308 (12/74) CBS MS-6493 Columbia (1/71) Decca Argo* K493 Arte Piano Quartet SOL285 (1/66) L'Oiseau-Lyre SDD325 835262 Philips Ser./Davis 6500 271 (4/73) Phonogram* VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. for 2 pianos. 2 IN D. Orch. 11 IN A.


Karevo, Govt, of Pskov, 183°;

d. St

Petersburg 1881)

one respect Mussorgsky is almost unique — that until
quite recently practically none of his music was heard as
he wrote it, without touching-up by other hands. Any
indignation or censure, however, would be misplaced,
since he left everything in such a state of chaos that
without their well-meant intervention it would probably
never have been heard at all; and though today we would
prefer to have the music, warts and all, as this most
original and individual composer conceived it, to his
contemporaries his bare harmonies, elliptical modulations
and unorthodox orchestration seemed intolerably crude.
The son of landed gentry, he went into the Guards'
cadet school at 12 and joined the regiment when he was
17: the hard-drinking habits he acquired there were to
have a disastrous effect on his future. He was at that time
merely a piano-playing dilettante, according to a contemporary; but meetings with Dargomizhky and Balakirev >
turned his mind to music, and in 1858 he resigned his
commission to study with the latter (though he was an
unsystematic worker). The emancipation of the serfs in
1861, with which he was heartily in sympathy, left him in
unaccustomed poverty, and he was obliged to take minor


posts in the civil service, being constantly in

because of his heavy drinking and mental
instability; for a couple of years he lived as a kind of
"drop-out" in a commune. He finally drank himself to

its own; the latter contains a version, heavily revised by
Rimsky-Korsakov, of Night on the bare mountain, which
had previously been included in the ballet-opera Mlada
jointly planned with Borodin > and others of the "kuchka",
and had before that been a separate orchestral piece.
Mussorgsky's one major instrumental work, the Pictures
from an exhibition, whose finale stretches piano sonorities
is more usually heard in the brilliantly
imaginative orchestration by Ravel >. His three songcycles— The Nursery, Sunless and the fantastic and
dramatic Songs and dances of Death — are remarkable

to their limits,

examples of his utterly original style, following in
naturalistic declamation the inflections of Russian speech.

human sympathy

with the peasants was

shown in his one completed opera, Bon's Godunov, in
which the Russian people are as much a focal point as is
the powerfully-drawn figure of the Tsar. The work
suffered many vicissitudes and revisions, the most
generally encountered version being by his friend Rimsky Korsakov >, who, in addition to "correcting" the harmony
and orchestration, also changed the sequence of the final
scenes. Two other operas, the historical drama The
Khovansky plot and the rustic comedy Sorochintsy Fair,
had to be completed by others: the Prelude to the former,
depicting dawn over the Kremlin, is sometimes played on



Talvela. Vishnevskaya. Spiess, K(


Vienna State Op. Chorus/VFO/
SET514-7 111/71) Decca
1439 London

n Cpte.

Borodin; Rimsky Korsakov

|0 771


VSD71188 (12/74) Pye/Vanguard
Z LSO Solti/Borodin; Glinka

D Ashkenazy /Orch.




D Chicago

SO/Reiner/ Night on the bare

(7/73) Decca

6944 London





D Berlin PO/Karajan/Rai'ef
139010 (11/66) DG'
New Philh./Mackerras/Khoranscnma
— Prelude

Rimsky-Korsakov unless stated)
LPO/Lloyd- Jones/
Borodin; Rimsky
6580 053 (6/72) Phonogram
LPO/Mackerras/ Glinka; Russian and

(Orig. version)


Ludmila Ov.; Tchaikovsky: 1812 Ov.;
Wagner: Lohengrin: — Prelude to Act 3




SXL6328 (12/67) Decca


PO/Solti/ Borodin; Glinka





SXL6263 (2/671 Decca
6785 London


Slobodskaya. Newton
5357 (5/74



D Berlin


PO/Maazel/Respighi; Rimsky
2S48 267 (7/77) DG Heliodor
138033 DC


SX-3844 Angel



S- 36889

(original version) Talvela.


Berlin PO/SoIti/ Borodin; Glinka
SPA257 (7/73) Decca
6944 London
Orch. de Paris/Rozhdestvensky/


Mroz, Kinasz, Haugland, Lukomska,
Polish Radio Chorus and Orch./


His profound


Q (Rimsky-Korsakov



Los Angeles PO/Mehta/Piano uersion

SXL6328 (12/67) Decca
Chicago SO/Giulini/Proko/Vez>
2530 783 (4/77) DG-

(4/71) Classics for Pleasure

LSO/SoIti/Borodin; Glinka

Q Arkhipova/Wustman/Tcnaikot'sky;

SXL6263 (2/67) Decca
6785 London

Left: llya


s portrait





the battered Mussorgsky.


Respighi: Pines of Rome

Rimsky Korsakov:
Oipnccio e^)a»
.sorgsky: Night on the bare







OP. 51 — NOS.

2-6, 8-13, 15, 16, 18, 21-23,



Jorgen Hansen



Decca Turnabout

OP. 12
Schultz, Gobel, Landy, Norup,

Johansen, Andersen, Danish Radio Ch./

Copenhagen Boys' Choir/Danish




O Tivoli



Concert SO/Garaguly/Sy»i. 21

at a


(4/68) Decca Tur: about

(Festival Prelude;

Piano mus

old. Op. 53 — Books
Symphonic Suite, Op. 8;
Op. 3; Three pieces. Op.




1 ai




Decca Ace of Diamo

(Humoresque-Bagatelles; Suite, Op.
45; Chaconne; Dance of the Lady's
Maids; Theme with variations,




(1/76) Decca




Cpte. (Sung in English) Christoff,

Harrmann, Soderstrom, Young,
Langdon, Alldis Ch./Danish RO
RHS343-5 (7/76) Unicorn




until well after his

death did Nielsen's individual
style make a wider impact.

(lakob Eberst)





Cologne 1819;


Paris 1880)

as something of a surprise that Offenbach,

put opera-bouffe on the

map and whose music



the very


of the frivolity of the French Second Empire,
should have been German by birth (he was the son of the
cantor in the Cologne synagogue); but he went to Paris at
the age of 14 and there spent the rest of his life, except for
visits to England and, later, the USA. He studied the cello
for a year, played in the orchestra of the Opera-Comique,
and became conductor at the Comedie Francaise. With the
composition of operettas for the Bouffes-Parisiens, of
which he became manager in 1855, he found his true
vocation: he stayed in management only six years (with
another two-year spell at the Theatre de la Gaiete twelve
years later), but in 25 years he turned out 90 high-spirited
theatre pieces (plus occasional extras such as the ballet Le
Papillon for the Opera), and their verve, wit and sparkling


\ -1








Itltl in






Above: The impudent wit of Offenbach's Orpheus
world in 1858 became the rage of Paris.






tunes and orchestration became the rage of Paris.
Audiences were delighted by the flippant social and
political satire of these pieces; and though, inevitably,
some of their topical point is lost today, many of them are
still extremely amusing, while their music has become a
happy-hunting-ground for arrangers making up other
works (e.g. the ballet Gaiete Parisienne). Some of
Offenbach's greatest successes were Orpheus in the
Underworld (1858) and La Belle Helene, both skits on
classical legends; La Vie Parisienne, dealing satirically
with visitors to the Exposition Universelle and the ways of
servants and masters; La Grande Duchesse de Gerolstein,


Lyndelse, Odense, 18o5;



Copenhagen 1931)

with him. He began to conduct his own
works — his now popular Second Symphony ("The Four
Temperaments") in 1901, his opera Saul and David the
following year. (All Nielsen's six symphonies except the
First and Fifth carry sub-titles, but he was insistent that,
save in the Second, they should not be regarded as in any

Great as were the dissimilarities in temperament and
musical style between the two men, Nielsen's stature in the
music of his native Denmark is akin to that of his exact
counterpart Sibelius > in Finland's; but where the latter
seemed primarily concerned with reflecting the bleak face
of Nature in his homeland, Nielsen's interest lay rather in


beings — it was typical that his delightful Wind
Quintet should depict the divergent personalities of the
players for whom he wrote it. A further difference was
that his works did not begin to impinge on the world
outside Denmark until twenty years after his death.
The son of a humble artisan, Nielsen was enabled by the
help of friends to study at the Copenhagen Conservatory
under Mendelssohn's > friend Gade; and from his midtwenties he was for fifteen years a second violin in the
Royal Orchestra, which introduced his First Symphony in
1892. This was to some extent influenced by Brahms > but
was nevertheless already a very personal work, embodying
a tug-of-war between two keys which was to become

sense programmatic.)





Soloists/Danish RSO/Blomstedt

Tivoli Concert Ens./Sym. 2/Little Suite

TV34049S (4/68) Decca Turnabout
D Danish RO and Ch./Woldike/Hymmis
ASD3358 (0/77) EMI/HMV


2 IN F


3 IN E




OP. 14
D Copenhagen Quartet
TV34187S (6/68) Decca Turnabout

SLSS027 (10/75) HMV
S-6097 Seraphim
4, OP. 29


Royal Danish Orch./Markevich

2548 240 (11/76) DG Helidor
34050 Turnabout
5, OP. 50


D Bournemouth SO/Berglund
ASD3063 (6/75) EMI/HMV
D LSO/Schmidt/Humoresques


RHS329(l/75) Unicorn

He wrote incidental music for
comedy opera Maskarade

various theatre plays, and the

(still popular in Denmark); and in 1908 he was appointed
conductor of the Royal Orchestra — a post to which he
was not altogether suited but which he held until 1914.
It was only after this that he was able to give himself
more fully to composition (although he conducted the
Copenhagen Music Society's yearly half-dozen concerts
from 1915, and taught at the Conservatory). "Music, like
life, is inextinguishable", he declared, and this characteristically vigorous and positive attitude, besides giving the
Fourth Symphony its title, imbues most of his work, in
which a quirky sense of the grotesque is often to be found.
In the Flute Concerto, for example, the soloist is teased by
vulgar intrusions by the bass trombone; the sterner
Clarinet Concerto is all but disrupted by a freely aggressive
side-drum. This gratuitous introduction of an element of
struggle is seen at its most violent in the Fourth Symphony,
in whose finale two sets of timpani fight out a duel, and the
two-movement Fifth, whose very existence at one point
seems threatened by a militant side-drum; but another
aspect of it is the "progressive tonality" (an initial key
being overcome by another) which Nielsen favoured. One
of his very last works, the Commotio for organ (on the
plan of a Bach Toccata), is also one of his greatest.

which mocked the complacent incompetence of the
army's upper crust; and La Fille du Tambour-major, his
last operetta to be produced in his lifetime.
In his final years he stepped outside his usual sphere to
write the more ambitious Tales of Hoffmann, which
had to be put in shape and its orchestration completed
after his death by Guiraud (who had added the recitatives
to Bizet's > Carmen). The overplayed Barcarolle from this
opera gives no idea of its striking atmosphere of fantasy.
Cpte. Crespin, Vanzo, Buries, Melo
Massard, Toulouse Capitol Ch. ant

79207 (4/77) CBS

M2-34576 Columbia

D Exc. in English. Sadler's Wells/Faris
CSD1316 (9/60) EMI/HMV

in the Underworld; La grande
duchesse de Gerolstein; La belle Helene;
Barbe-Bleu;La vie Parisienne



517 Klavier



SXL6588 (5/73) Decca
6812 London

Domingo, Bacquier,
Ambrosian Singers/LSO/Bonynge
SET454-7 (11/72) Decca
Cpte. Sutherland,


Cpte. Crespin, Mesple, Lublin, Chateau,

Masson, Senechal, Toulouse Capitol
Ch. and Orch./Plasson
SLS5073 (5/77)
SX-3829 Angel










extreme of reaction against the

and techniques of Wagner > and Strauss >,
and was a pioneer in Minimal Art long before the term
was invented. Whether in his folk-tale operas Der Mond
and the musically slightly more interesting Die Kluge, in
his scenic cantatas, of which the 1937 Carmina Burana
(based on songs in low Latin and low German from the
Bavarian monastery of Benediktbeuren) is far and away
the most successful, or in his Greek tragedies, he has
adopted a limited style which is deliberately simplistic,
relying on plain rhythmic declamation, usually against a
percussive rhythmic background, with an irreducible
minimum of harmonic thought and no counterpoint at all.
This new anti-intellectual primitivism, which in his
weaker works attains a vacuous repetitiousness and lack
of invention that produce only exasperation in the
listener, nevertheless makes an evident "gut-appeal" to a
pop-orientated world, judging by the existence of a dozen
current recorded versions of Carmina Burana, the work
which first made his name. Orff has gained considerable
fame as a music educationist, using a system of his own
operatic ideals

that calls for specially designed instruments.

Carl Orff

Andre Previn

Popp, Linger, Wolansky, Noble,
Chorus, NPO/Fruhbeck de Burgos

SAN162 (6/66) EMI/HMV Angel
DMandac, Kolk, Milnes, Chorus, Boston
LSB4006 (11/70)


LSC-3161 RCA
D Armstrong, English,

Allen, Choruses/





S-37117 An;
QJanowitz, Stolze, Fischer-Dieskau.


139362 (7/68) DG*
Auger, Ochman/Berlin Op.Ch./Jochu
2530 074 (10/71) DG*

DMai, Buchner/Leipzig Radio Ch. and
Orch./ Kegel
6500 815 (1/76) Phonogram*



OCpte. Teschler, Lunow,


Terzibaschian, Schall, Suss, Leipzig
Radio Ch. and Orch., Kegel
6700 083 111/75) Phonogram




Nice 1840)

>, no virtuoso ever caught the
imagination both of the general public and of musicians
to the same extent as Paganini, whose wizardry on the
violin created the utmost sensation wherever he went
and led the superstitious to believe that he must be in
league with the devil. The effect he created was intensified
by his tall, thin, cadaverous appearance, waxen features
and long black hair; and he played little but his own
music, which was conceived only in terms of maximum
showmanship and hence was frequently very shallow in
character. He was also very careful to safeguard the
secrets of his pyrotechnics, not publishing in his lifetime
more than his 24 Caprices — which inspired other composers such as Schumann ^, Brahms », Liszt and Rachmaninov > — and some of his guitar works.
As a child he had been made to work hard at the violin

Apart from

by his father and had studied in Genoa and Parma,
making his first concert tour at the age of 13 and
beginning to compose at about the same time. When he
threw off parental discipline he plunged into a life of
gambling and dissipation, and at the age of 19 virtually
withdrew from the world for three years to live with a

O Accardo/LPO/Dutoit/Viola 2530 629 (5/76) DGVIOLIN CONCERTO NO. though granted frequent leave of absence to give concerts. 3 IN E Son. but the favourite is No. OP. OP. D Accardo/LPO/Dutoit VIOLIN 2740 121 11/751 1 VIOLIN 1-6 DC- CONCERTO NO. whose finale is La Campanella. CAPRICES. 2530 900 (10/77) DG VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. Paganini's technical innovations of every kind brought about a revolution in violin playing and offer a perpetual challenge to present-day virtuosos. He continued to lead an irregular life. OP. OP. CELLO AND GUITAR. 3 Prunnbauer Terebesi. 2 IN B MINOR. 6 D) Perlman/RPO/Foster/Sarasate: (usually transcribed D in Carmen Fantasy ASD2782 (5/731 EMI/HMV S-36836 Angel D Szeryng/LSO/Gibson/Co?icerlo 4 9500 069 (10/76) Phonogram. Prunnbauer AS6 41936 (3/77) Selecta/Telefunken6 SONATAS FOR VIOLIN AND GUITAR. Cenerentola Vars. 68 D Williams. but an extensive tour in 1828 had audiences in Vienna. OP. TRIO FOR VIOLIN. He commissioned from Berlioz » a concerto for viola (an instrument he also played). Paris and Britain in frenzies of enthusiasm and excitement. Germany. I 2535 207 (12/76) 139424 DG DG Privilege Accardo/LPO/Dutoil/Prnmuvra. Loveday.Tuscan lady: during this time he took up the guitar. which played havoc with his health. 1 Right: Paganini's playing DRicci enthralled musicians ECS803 (7/77) Decca 6163 London Left: Paganini's (10/77) EMI/HMV Ingres S-36860 Angel e saw him romantic SONATAS FOR VIOLIN AND GUITAR. but in fact never performed his Harold in Italy. From 1805 he was musical director to Napoleon's sister the Princess of Lucca for eight years. 2. 1 141 . 7 (LA CAMPANELLA) D Ashkenasi/VSO/Esser/Conc. AS6 41995 (2/77) Selecta/Telefunken. OP. DAccardo/LPO/Dutoit/Le streghe 2530 714(11/76) DG* D Ashkenasi/VSO/Esser/Conc. His appearance in Milan in 1813 created a furore which could be appeased only by his giving 37 concerts there in the one season. More of his concertos seem constantly to be coming to light. 1 IN E FLAT. the general public alike D Perlman ASD3384 and Eclipse contemporary in a more light in 1819. 2 DTerebesi. which he was also to write quite copiously. either because it was not showy enough or because by titled for this time (1834) his declining health forced his him to limit appearances to a minimum. Fleming 72678 (8/68) CBS @jg> 24 Caprices MS-7163 Columbia CONCERTOS NOS. 2535 207 (12/76) 139424 DG DBelkin/Israel SXL6798 DG 2 Privilege PO/Mehta (2/77) Decca 7019 London VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. 4 IN D MINOR Ricci/RPO/Bellugi/Le sfreghi Bortesiui RHS304 (4/71) Unicorn M-30574 Columbia D Szeryng/LSO/Cibson/Concerto 9500 069 (10/76) Phonogram. which Liszt made even more famous in his piano transcription.

he became a member of the Pontifical Choir. consonant vocal lines. After singing as a boy chorister in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. to which his local bishop had been transferred. he was less interested in the expressive setwords than in smooth. Seven years later Pope Julius III. Palestrina was not an innovator. Holding a balance between contrapuntal and harmonic thinking. over 250 motets. appointed him choirmaster to the Marcelli Mass influenced the Council's decree is without foundation. but resigned after a few years and returned to Santa Maria Maggiore as choirmaster. but the legend that his Papae 3>. eight Magnificats. PRINCEPS V I VENISfONSA ( H1III1 . he succeeded Lassus John Lateran (where he composed his Lamentations]. including words extraneous to the sanctioned text and taking secular songs (such as the famous L'homme arme) for their basis. but for sheer nobility and purity of sound he had few equals. nor did he have the versatility of his contem- by a later Pope. only to be dismissed along with other married with that decree.-' L4 Me^IOANNE^ 1 142 prtri t saloisiu^pra:nxstini. Rome (b. 1594) huge body of vocal music — including over 100 Masses. Palestrina.t 5 MIT SIC*. d. it avoided the very elaborate contrapuntal type of setting which obscured the liturgical texts (to which the Council of Trent took exception). Undeterred. he became organist and choirmaster of Palestrina Cathedral at the age of 19. and some of his Masses in fact did not accord Cappella Giulia. 60 sacred and 100 secular madrigals — has for long been held up to music students as the model of classical polyphony at its most polished and disciplined. 1525. It was while there that Palestrina's porary Lassus ting of singers at St PALESTRINA **4 1 ''*. His career was distinctly unsettled. another exbishop of Palestrina.GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA Rome. nr.

John's College Choir/G. music — though the melodious Concertinos with which he is credited are of arguable authenticity. In 1567 he entered the service of Cardinal Ippolito d'Este. A wave of epidemics in the 1570s carried off two of his sons and two brothers. Willcocks/Viualdi: Gloria SDD385 ZRG505 Diamonds (1/67) '-' I IOIK Ol si |OI IN'S c Ol I I Ll . SDD319 A MARIA doubts though many works Pergolesi. but four years later went back to the Cappella Giulia as musical director. Opera buffa may be said Right: in Ecclesia SOL338-9 (10/74) L'Oiseau-Lyre SUPER FLUMINE BABYLONIS- John's College Choir/G. but surprisingly. and during the last twelve years of his life produced many of his finest works. of his music. but he had greater success with an opera buffa in Neapolitan dialect. and it had a profound effect on French opera-comique.l„. Turner/Sicut cervus. Lehane. including the Assumpta est Maria Mass and the Song of Songs. has also enjoyed a certain the the OuUAJtf JhYhfUp/*/ AVE REGINA MISSA PAPAE MARCELLI King's College Choir/Willcocks/Missa Carmelite Priory/McCarthy/ Palestrina/Victoria SOL283 brevis HQS1237 (6/71)EMl/HMV (1/66) L'Oiseau-Lyre ECCE EGO JOANNES. and despite strenuous 1 AND 2 (Dubious) Rampal. As a result. At this he decided to be- The mere Pozzuoli 1736) d. Baker.MASS Thomas. Allister. Guest/ St.MOTETS Mater. and with come a priest. Veni sponsa SINE NOMINE. Missa aetenia Christi 2533 322 (12/76) DC Archiv Produktion O SOL269 (7/64) L'Oiseau-Lyre EXULTATE DEO.I Raskin. he became maestro di cappella interest in money is also clear from the prohibitive salary he demanded from two would-be employers.MASS D Thomas.MOTET St. His extraordinary posthumous success led to many works by others being attributed to him. Magnificat a 8 ZK4 Keyte. Fleet. est Both these portraits of him Palestrina describe much to owe its exist about the authenticity existence to CONCERTI ARMONICI NOS. Ancona. his Stabat Mater. ]esi.. Stuttgart CO/Munchinger/ Concert! armonici SDD319 (3/72) Decca Ace ot Diamonds 6395 London STABAT MATER MAGNIFICAT Vaughan. the Emperor Maximilian and the Duke of Mantua). but it is open to doubt whether his slender talent would have developed more fully or shown greater originality had he lived ten years longer. ASSUMPTA scholars. (b. Hodie beata virgo. 5 AND 6 (Dubious) CO/Munchinger/Ffute concerti (3/72) Decca Ace ot Diamonds 6395 London PALESTRINA CONCERTI FOR FLUTE AND STRINGS NOS. between his entering the Naples Conservatory and dying from tuberculosis did not allow Pergolesi time to achieve very much. Stuttgart as 'Musicae princeps'. suddenly married a wealthy widow and showed himself a good business man in the management of her affairs. after taking minor orders.GIOVANNI BATTISTA PERGOLESI m. to the Prince of Stigliano. and for very highest esteem by his contemporaries. Keyte. Super flumine. Oratio Jeremiae. a Serva padrona fever swept Europe. though its fame derives less from its initial performances than from those after the composer's death and. Motets ZRG578 (9/68) Decca Argo LITANIAE DE BEATA VIRGINE MARIA D King's College Choir/Willcocks/Stabut SOL269 (12/76) Decca Argo Missa brevis/Antiphon — Assumpta ZRG690 (1/72) Decca Argo* Left: MOTET Pro Cantione Antiqua. MISSA BREVIS A EST still bearing his name prove not to be by him at all. equerry to the Viceroy of him he composed most of his instrumental comic intermezzi in his serious operas. S-60187 Seraphim ORATORIO JEREMIAE PROPHET AE London Carmelite Priory/McCarthy/Sine Pro Cantione Antiqua. Partridge. 1710. he published his first book of motets. particularly. Turner/Sicut cervus.i. He was held in the Naples.< WIIIKHM. bone Jesu. much to the composer's chagrin). (7/74) Decca Ace of J 143 . and although he himself recovered from a serious illness his wife died. Fleet. of (7/64) L'Oiseau-Lyre Cantores MISSA— ASSUMPTA EST MARIA by efforts SONG OF SONGS. Pergolesi's last work. Four serious operas aroused little enthusiasm (L'Olimpiade in fact was pelted off the stage in Rome. Of these by far most celebrated is the lively La Serva padrona. O bone Jesu. Christe — Mass. Lo frate 'nnammorato. where he had shown himself a gifted violinist. Allister. Carmelite Priory/Ecce ego popularity despite very conspicuous weaknesses. Missa aetema Christi 2533 322 (12/76) DC Archiv Produktion. Guest/ Magnificat VI toni. (His On leaving the Conservatory.„ LIOUCI LI IM . Keyte. Naple ASMF/ Decca Argo. King's College Choir. from the work being made a rallying-point for the heated squabbles which took place in Paris in 1752 between supporters of Italian and French styles of opera.

Sonata. ZRG720 ORGAN CONCERTO D Durufle. drama Les Dialogues des Carmelites Ibert. Flute from the mid-thirties with the Concerto and a number of religious works. the deeply-felt and (a pi. but he wrote with facility a number first big of short piano pieces. Though he had studied the piano. Some of his best song collections are the early Le Bestiaire and. a basic technical weakness is apparent throughout his output in his shortbreathed phrases and inability to develop material. Wilbraham/Fevner EMSP5S3 (3/76) CONCERTO IN D MINOR FOR 2 PIANOS AND ORCHESTRA D Poulenc. Anbade). but in 1957 he astonished everyone with his most considerable work. ata fc became evident writing of the Organ S. Sonata. Tel jour. and after the 1939-45 war. was in his familiar frivolous vein. several concertos for keyboard instruments (including one originally intended for choreography. Pans Cons. including the Litanies a la Vierge noire. Civil. Oxford/Preston Mass (1/741 Decca Argo* Stravinsky: and came the tense monodrama La Voix religious persecution during the French Revolution). He combined Satie's > jokiness with an almost classical lucidity (a reaction against impressionism) and a delicate little vein of sentimentality.37246 (12/76) EMI/HMV Angel MOTETS POUR LE TEMPS DE NOEL 4 MOTETS POUR UN TEMPS DE 4 PENITENCE O Christ story of Church Choir. CBSO and Ch. at World War. revelled in formal training in composition when he became the youngest member of the group of "Les Six". twenty years later. Some of his popularity was due to his ebullient pianoplaying.ii ASD2835 12/731 EMI/HMV S-35953 Angel PIANO CONCERTO MINOR Ortiz. ORTF/Pretre/G/o/. Fiancailles pour rire) Palmer/Constable ZRG804 (8/75) Decca Argo I I TRIO FOR OBOE.FRANCIS POULENC (b. ASD3299 (one of his favourite poets for song-settings). the Fianqailles pour An rire and Above: Francis Poulenc. Sonatine 61782 (7/77) CBS Classics SONGS 15 P.) DMenuhin. ASD2506 S. Andre Previn/Roiisse/: 3 pieces. and despite his rhythmic vivacity and melodic charm. during which he produced the unaccompanied choral cantata La Figure humaine./Pretre/ Cone. BASSOON AND PIANO Melos Ensemble/Son for dm Ravel Francaix Left: Poulenc (right) with Lennox Berkeley. he had had with the spirit of the time. the Easter motets and the Stabat Mater. Debost. His ballet Les Biches of 1923 was one of his successes. bassoon. plus a tinge of Stravinskian harmony. 3 Chansons Garcia-Lorca. in accord impudent wit and flippancy. Oboe a. Fevr. c Metamorphoses. Poulenc was undoubtedly the most gamin. the baritone Pierre Barnac) and in which he revealed highly sophisticated literary tastes. turned their backs on the First "good taste" and refinement of French the end of the the traditional art and. there 1963) Of young French composers who. telle nuit. IN C SHARP CBSO/Fremaux/G/oria ASD3299 (12/76) EMI/HMV MELANCOLIE. Cello Sonata. photographed during the early '30s. d. later and Elegie tor Banalites.36586 (4/70) Angel EMI/HMV andbsn . Poulenc felt ready to tackle opera. Poemes de Max lacob. trombone. a surrealist comedy to a libretto by Apollinaire two years ASD2989 CHAMBER WORKS increased seriousness of purpose expressive LtS BICHES nCBSO/Fremaux/Honegger. chamber music. humaine. 3 Poemes de ouise d Vilmorm. Les Mamelles de Tiresias. Satie EM1/HMV (5/741 (Violin Sonata. champetre ASD517 14/631 EMI/HMV GLORIA O Burrowes. La courte paille. Paris 1899. the Mass. Clarinet Sonata./Fremaux/ Piano Cone. Sonata tor 2 and inet ata fo which matched the unquenchable zest of his personality. SUITE FRANCAISE 3 PIECES. and particularly songs — an area in which he excelled (often himself playing the piano parts for his friend. Portal.

~ Alexander INcwky ALEXANDER NEVSKY. o ASD3029 (12/74) EMI/HMV S-37026 Angel Netherlands Radio PO/Dorati/Kodaly PFS4355 (5/76) Decca Phase 4 21146 London THE LOVE OF THREE ORANGES D Suite. (a common practice with him) in his Third gJ Symphony. both of which reveal a penchant for wry sideslips of tonality. but material from it was used again . where Rimsky-Korsakov 2> was among his teachers. Sontsovka. 1 & 2 DCov. his ballets in 1915). just after his return to the Soviet Union in 1934. their erstwhile iconoclasm overtaken by the march of time. Chout(The Buffoon. Hary ]anos 61193 (2/71) CBS Classics LIEUTENANT MS-7408 Columbia LSO/Previn/ShostofcoDich: Sj/m. He was musically very precocious. l. grotesque humour (exemplified. the fantastic comedy Love of three oranges. was not produced in Prokofiev's lifetime. From actually the following year he composed made his home in Paris. which upset even some of his supporters by its percussive astringency. LSO/Dorati/Scythiati Suite. he went via Japan to the USA. A strong where Diaghilev mounted the angular acerbity of those vein of dry. Moscow 1953) Many enfants terribles seem to end their days as respectable members of the Establishment. If Prokofiev at least was escaped that fate — for crass Soviet officialdom hostile to his musical style — his later works do lack title.SO/Previn ASD2800 (7/72) EMI/HMV S-36843 Angel CHOUT. 1891. 78 D Reynolds. where his first great operatic success. after the Revolution. but a disparaging remark about the "elementary harmony" of a symphony produced at the same tender Concerto and the delicately parodistic First ("Classical") Symphony. OP. he became an outstanding pianist.BALLET SUITE. Orch. .v. OP. 21b LSO/Abbado/Romeo SXL6286 (5/67) Decca CINDERELLA -BALLET SUITES NOS. 60 DCleveland/Szell/Koda/. 145 ./Leppard/ Britten CFP185 (1/72) Classics for Pleasure Left: Sergei Prokofiev. Gdn. Ekaterinoslao Govt. Le Pas d'acier and L'Enfant prodigue. was given in age stung him into vowing that such a reproach would never need to be made again. 7 SXL6702 (5/75) Decca 6897 London D Chicago SO/Giulini/Mussorgsky 2530 783(4/77) DG* KIJE. OP./Rignold ECSS97 (7/71) Decca STS-15193 London Eclipse CLASSICAL SYMPHONY. OP. and won a prize with his first piano concerto. D LSO/Sargent/Pefer and SPA90 the 25 Wolf (9/70) Decca STS-15114 London O ASMF/Marriner/Bizet ZRG719 (12/73) Decca Argo* LSO/Weller/Sym. composed in the mid-twenties. and his orchestral works were championed by the conductor-publisher Koussevitzky A horrific opera The Fiery angel. Bartok 6582 Oil (2/76) Phonogram 75030 Mercury PETER AND THE WOLF. In 1918.SERGEI PROKOFIEV (b. writing a three-act opera in short score at the age of nine and a fully-scored one at 12. even by the 1921. A. OP. While at the St Petersburg Conservatory. in his piano suite Sarcasms) informed his music. His most appealing works of this period are the exhilarating Third Piano which first made his name and reveal a hitherto unaccustomed lyricism and warmth. whose tendency to stridency is most evident the in Scythian suite of 1914. 67 D Flanders (narratorl/Philharmonia/ Kurtz/ Samt-Saens: Carnaval ASD299 D (12/59) EMI/HMV S-60172 Angel Baker (narrator)/New Philh. which owed much to the example of Stravinsky's * Sacre du printemps. LSO Chorus.

MINOR.BALLET aCpte. Klepatskaya. OP. PIANO CONCERTO NO. and nationalist fervour was powerfully expressed in the epic film Alexander Nevsky. D Ashkenazy/LSO/Previn/Sj/m. Cleveland/Maazel SXL6668 (1/75) Decca 6865 London Above: Prokofiev's challenging gaze. PIANO CONCERTOS: NO. Boston SO/Munch/Sifae/ius LSB4048 4/72) RCA LSC-4010 RCA Szeryng/LSO/Rozhdestvensky/ Sibelius SAL3571 (9/66) Phonogram D.Moscow PO/Kondrashin/ Rachmamnov DJanis. 2 IN G MINOR DAshkenazy/LSO/Previn/Ou./ (3/77) 1 Fruhbeck/Conc. Shostakovich: Sym. OP. IN D 3 IN C. PO/Karajan 139040 (6/69) DG* Boston SO/Koussevitsky (recorded in 1945) (7/77) RCA SYMPHONY NO. Decca STS-15114 London PIANO CONCERTOS NOS.36962 D Angel Richardson (narrator)/LSO/Sargent/ Sym. LSO/Kertesz/ Ravel. concession to current tastes during the war period. Vishnevskaya. epitomised his whole OP. THEY ARE SEVEN- CANTATA.SERGEI PROKOFIEV D Cvte. can be observed in the ballet Cinderella./ Rozhdestvensky/Scytliiim Suite. 1 IN MAJOR. 1 SXL6702 (5/75) Decca 6897 London VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. 2 IN G 63 DHeifetz. Supraphon 6580 (12/73) Phonogram 75019 Mercury SYMPHONY NO. Kossittayna. the Second String Quartet (based on Caucasian folk tunes). 6 Heliodor PIANO SONATAS NOS. on Hebrew Themes SXL6767 (6/76) Decca 7062 London SXL6411 (5/70) Decca DArgerich. Philh. Vlassov. BPO/Abbado/Rnuel 139349 (2/68) DG» ch: Syr. a radical change of style was soon apparent in the ballet Romeo and Juliet and the Second Violin Concerto. Verbitskaya. 7 IN C MINOR. 5 DRichter/Warsaw Nat. 2 ASD3060 (5/75) EMI/HMV STRING QUARTET NO. personality. the Fifth Symphony and the unusually gentle Flute Sonata (most often heard in the version as the Second Violin Sonata). after that he was constrained by pressures and by ill-health into writing several chauvinistic works of little value. IN E FLAT Ill LPO/Weller SXL6777 (9/76) Decca SYMPHONY NO. 2 D Prague Quartet/Tcliat'lcoiislcy. LSO/Previn SLS864 (12/73) HMV He continued to tour as a pianist and conductor. Oistrakh. on Hebrew Themes SLS882 (10/741 HMV 1 FLAT: NO. 100 VL12021 DG O Ashkenazy/LSO/Previn/Conc. and whereas in the score for the film Lieutenant Kije of that year he could indulge in his old satiric manner. 2 EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-36009 Angel WAR AND PEACE DCpte. 1 SPA90 (9/70) SCYTHIAN SUITE D LSO/Dorati/Loue of Three O -Suite. though without ASD2935 S-3802 Angel Exc. PSO/Rowicki/ Ravel 2548 104 (11/75) Berlin 4 (5/77) Decca 7 AND 8 DAshkenazy SXL6346 (10/68) Decca 6573 London ROMEO AND JULIET. caught in this portrait by Shukhayev.26 Katchen. Bolshoi Theatre/Melik-Pashaev SLS837 (2/731 HMV M4-33111 C olumbia Melodiya 146 . OP. Perhaps the peaks of his later achievements were the opera War and peace and the Sixth Symphony. 19 DChung/LSO/Previn/Conc. SXL6769 Quartet 1 111 0698(1/71) Rediffusion/ MINOR. OP. SXL6773 (3/77) Decca 6997 London DMilstein/New SXLP30235 Philh. the music for which was re-cast as after his a cantata. Shostafco ASD3060 (5/751 EMI/HMV SEVEN. 5 IN B OP. The extremely popular children's tale Peter and the wolf had the didactic overtones dear to the Soviet mind. Bartok 6582 011 (2/76) Phonogram 75030 Mercury Moscow PO/Kondrashin/Set ./Giulini/Conc. (12/73) EMI/HMV S. 3./Calliera/ Minkovsky SXLP 30155 (9/73) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-60223 Seraphim DChung/LSO/Previn/Conc. but permanent return to the USSR in 1934 this ceased. Kibkalo. 30 DElbikov. Cleveland Orch/Maazel SXL6620-2 Decca 2312 London FLAT. Cla S-36009 Angel VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. Moscow RO and Ch. OP. 2 SXLP 30235 13/771 EMI/HMV Co. 2 SXL6773 (3/77) Decca 6997 London D DMilstein/Philh. Leipzig Gewandhaus/Masur/ Ov. Some his sacrificing artistic integrity. Arkhipova. 131 DLSO/Weller/Sym. Gershwin 1-5 DBeroff. Autumnal SXL6768 (11/76) Decca PIANO CONCERTO NO.

now be began It also the start of his La Boheme only after learning that Leoncavallo > was already at work on the subject. Amara. Tozzi. Tear. Bergonzi. If those melodies were never very subtle or expanded into longer paragraphs as Verdi's » were. Orch./Mehta ARL2 0105 (3/74) RCA* Cpte. Pavarotti. as the basis for his operas. and The Girl of the Golden West (more subtle in its harmony) has never caught on with the general public. Lucca 1858. vivid in characterisation and brilliant in craftsmanship. but the gem of the trittico is the sparkling Gianni Schicchi. Turandot. Del Monaco. There was an extension of style in the three one-acters produced in New York in 1918. Pavarotti. Barbirolli SLS927 (9/67) HMV S-3702 Angel Cpte. MESSA D TOSCA D Cpte. Opera Chorus. De Palma. Milnes. at least that made them easier to remember. New Philh. Beecham SLS896 (11/74) HMV S-6099 Seraphim Cpte. LPO/Mehta SET561-3 (9/73) Decca 13108 London Cpte. Maffeo. which it overwhelmed by its enormous popular success despite initial disapprobation by the critics. with much gorgeous exotic colour to heighten its atmosphere (7/701 Decca Ace of . which he did not live to complete./ Bjorling. Cesari. and a superb sense of theatre. Reardon. La Scala/da Sabata D SLS825 (3/73) HMV Cpte. Tozzi. West German Radio Ch. Santa Cecilia/Capua SLS962IQ/72I HMV S-3782 Angel DI GLORIA Lovaas. d. Vienna State Opera Chorus. Bastianini. and if they were often rammed home very obviously on unison strings. but his Edgar was a failure. Panerai. Le Villi. His next two operas. were based on sentimental and LA BOHEME Above: Cpte. partly because of its poor libretto. Nahr.. Caballe. Harwood. reveals a notable advance in harmony and orchestration. he and was encouraged by his teacher Ponchielli to enter for an operatic competition in which he was completely unsuccessful./New Philh. Domingo Cotrubas/LSO/ Ma 76563(5/771 CBS M. Tebaldi. a year before Leoncavallo's. di 1306 London — superficial stage hits Corena/Accademia Santa Cecilia Ch. Siepi.nds GIANNI SCHICCHI ClGobbi. de los Angeles. in which he introduced more local colour. with the production of Manon Lescaut. Tebaldi. Freni. MacNeil. Berlin PO/Karajan SETS65-6 (8/73) Decca 1299 London D Cpte. Mercuriali. & Ch. Caballe. Domingo. Corena. Panerai. and Ricordi's faith was first justified only in 1893. His last opera. as a glance at the respective dates shows. The generation of a family of composers. which began a fashion with Puccini for heroines who suffer for love (usually fifth studied in Milan frail little creatures). Freni. Callas. Brussels 1924) Puccini's apparently unassailable position in the operatic world as a sure box-office winner principally rests on two qualities — a gift for writing melodic lines grateful to singers and audiences. GOS594-6 Dii was by David Belasco: Madama Butterfly though the pathetic figure of the won sympathy. he knew exactly how to screw up maximum emotional tension and extract the utmost from every sentimental or melodramatic situation. Germai Puccini's operas are a mainstay of the repertory. was produced in 1884 with modest success. Caballe. His opera was produced in 1896. Davis 6700 108 (5/77) Phonogram* TURANDOT Cpte. but thanks to lobbying by friends (including the writer and musician Boito) his piece. and Orch./Serafin D5D2 |8/7b| Decca 1208 London (The) GIRL OF THE GOLDEN WEST Cpte.) He attracted the support of the influential publisher Ricordi. Hollweg. deserted Japanese child-bride soon of sadism. shows that Puccini had absorbed ideas from Debussy ». Domingo. VPO/Karajan SET584-6 Decca 13110 London MANON LESCAUT Q Cpte. di Stefano. Price. (The oft-repeated story that the said competition was won by Mascagni's > Cavalleria rusticana is nonsense. Scotto/ Rome Opera/Molinari-Pradelli SLS921 (5/66) S-3671 Angel HMV 147 . Stasio. He had embarked on Manon Lescaut with the knowledge of Massenet's > exquisite setting behind him. BUTTERFLY Scotto. Kerns. and if his dramatic field was limited in depth and his taste often conspicuously questionable. Ludwig. and saw it only as a sensational melodrama. Pavarotti. Merrill. Alldis Choir. Ambrosian Opera Chorus. McDaniel. Gobbi. his only comedy. but he ignored the political background which gave the story significance. Corelli. Gdn. It was Verdi's expressed admiration for Sardou's play Tosca that fired Puccini to set it. marked habit of taking established stage successes. or subjects already appealing to other composers. Columbus Boy Choi RCA Victor Chorus and Orch. a grim little story. Carreras. Ghiaurov. Bergonzi. Wixell/ Cov. // Tabarro. Ghiaurov. Alldis Ch. Rome Opera Chorus and Orch. Nilsson./C./Bartoletti originally a disaster.34534 Columbia MADAMA Q Cpte.GIACOMO PUCCINI (b. Sutherland./Frankfurt RO/Inbal 9500 009 (2/77) Phonogram.

Bevan. (4/76) DG ECO/ Archiv ORCHESTRAL AND INSTRUMENTAL WORKS Overture in D minor. The Gordian Knot Untied J. who seems to have stepped down in 1679 to allow his brilliant pupil to take over as organist in Westminster Abbey. all Wwm^^ ANTHEMS Clarke. Esswood. Philomusica/Dart SOL60008-9 110/59) 1 Oiseau-Lyre O sing unto the Lord beloved spake. how long wilt Thou be angry. quam to the sea in ships. with uninterrupted music) and a masterpiece of concentrated drama. Lloyd. Sefauchi's Sonata EMI/HMV Leonhardt Consort AW6 41222 (1/68) Selerta Telefunken S-372S1 Angel DIDO AND AENEAS DCpte. Subsequent theatre pieces — Dioclesian. The Fairy Queen. led. was particularly adept. the verse anthems with string orchestra favoured by Charles II. new song. 1659. Ground in D minor. the chief medium and the gramophone is now for keeping this splendid music alive. Dido and Aeneas./Deller Rejoice heart is inditing. A c. Whitworth. Baker. Pavan in A minor. Overture and Suite (Crown the Altar). Tatnell. Morison. and some of his solo song-scenas (like Mad Bess and The Blessed Virgin's expostulation) Purcell are remarkable examples of dramatised declamation. Sinclair./Willcocks/Chacony AS6 41123 |9/70) Selecta/Teletunken ASD3316 ANTHEMS They that Jehova. Van Egmond. verse anthems and other church music. ingeniously spinning phrases of uneven length over the rigid pattern (as in the Evening hymn and Dido's final lament. Brett. Pavan A new ground. Cameron. Rogers. Britten. and from shortly afterwards dates the series of full anthems. in G. Clark. Tear. Above & Purcell. My Ch„ Ledger/A nthems KING ARTHUR down go SXL6405 (7/6°) Decca Leonhardt Ens. d. Fantasia in 3 parts in D. Thou hast cast us out.e. He then studied with John Blow. Brown. in songs and other works He also. Buttrey. not least the Welcome Songs (often to texts of sheer doggerel) written for some formal occasion or other. Overture in G Early Music Consort/Munrow/Loue's ASD3166 (abridged) Harper. Britten) Bridge. DSheppard. Rippon. O God. Anthony Singers. O God. are unfortunately not self-contained. Anthony Singers. THEATRE MUSIC Q Abdelazer. Knibbs. St lohn's College Ch„ ASMF/Guest Philip Jones Ens. Ambrosian Singers. Roger North. are rare. Alan. Bowman. Blow up the trumpet in Sion. Burrowes. Lord. minor. which were in the old polyphonic style) "faithfully endeavoured a just imitation of the most famous Italian masters". imbibed the Lully-derived French style which had just been brought in at the Restoration. He indeed excelled in every branch of music to which he turned his hand. Leonhardt King's College Ens. King Arthur. Distressed Innocence. The Indian Queen — though substantial and containing much fine music. was written in 1689 for a fashionable girls' school: it is the earliest English opera to be still regularly staged. The Married Beau. and the following year composed the first of his odes on St Cecilia's Day and brought out his first publication. My Music Fest. there 1695) by James II's Attorney-General. Tiffin School Argo 112/64) Decca Choir.. as a boy chorister. his only "real" opera (i./ EMI/HMV (3/77) O Anthony. Lord. Who hath believed our report Parker. a greater musical genius England never had". S-37282 Angel a ZRG5444 CHACONY IN G MINOR a ECO/Britten/Frflnk ODE ON ST CECILIA'S DAY DWoolf. Young. King's College Choir. Brett. Delius. Stour in the Lord alway. Thou are my God. Elgar COME YE SONS OF ART-ODE FOR THE BIRTHDAY OF QUEEN MARY N. Suite Goddess farewell. twelve trio-sonatas which (unlike the slightly earlier string Fantasias. multi sunt hostes mei. Roberts. the masque-like quasi-operas without dramatic continuity that lead a fringe existence to a play (such as The Fairy Queen. |6/76) L'Oiseau-Lyre . Keyte. in Purcell's autograph. HMD 218 (2/78) Pye/Vanguard S-311/2 Vanguard FUNERAL MUSIC FOR QUEEN MARY our offences D Bowman. Deller. which sets not a word of Shakespeare though reference to Purcell written for a Restoration production of A Midsummer night's dream). Mackerras 2533 042 (3/711 Produktion. and it is only regrettable that so much of his invention should have gone into forms for which it is difficult to find a place in today's world — the copious incidental music for unrevivable plays. When I am laidin earth).. At the age of 21 Purcell wrote his first Welcome Song and his first theatre music. succinctly sums up his stature: "the Orpheus Britannicus . Concert performances. two fields in which he was to be in increasing demand. Herincx. The Academy of Ancient Music/I logwood DSLOS04 148 Henry right: perhaps the greatest of English composers./Lewis SOL60047 (11/57) L'Oiseau-Lyre» (The) FAIRY QUEEN St. Below: The opening of the socalled 'Golden Sonata' in F. English Chamber Orch./Willcocks/A nthems AS6 41123 (9/70) Selecta/Teletunken in D. Remember not. In 1682 he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal. Pavan in B. Piatt. Purcell's father and uncle were both Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal. St. where he himself. Shirley-Quirk. showed exceptional skill in the flexible setting of the English language.PURCELL HENRY London (b. at using a ground bass. Jenkins. which present these out of context.

vHR .


FOR 1 Ashkenazy/Previn/Smte 2 SXL6697 (6/76) Decca 6893 London (8/77) EMI/HMV S-37260 Angel VARIATIONS ON A THEME OF CORELLI ETUDES TABLEAUX Ashkenazy SXL6604 15/731 Decca 6822 London VESPER MASS. Powder'd paint) QVarsi Rotterdam PO/Gardelli/ Soderstrom/ Ashkenazy Tchaikovsky 6580 141 111/76) Phonogram SXL6832 112/771 Decca PIANO CONCERTO NO.4 IN G MINOR SYMPHONY NO. 35 Armstrong. He made deep impression as conductor of the Imperial Grand Theatre (where Chaliapin was one of his singers). The Muse. Novgorod Govt. ESD7032 (4/771 EMI/HMV D Berman/LSO/Abbado 1 SRO/Weller SXL6583 14 73 Decca 6803 London CBS 1 XM-34540 Columbia PIANO CONCERTO NO. never sing to me again. Arion. The ring. at 12 he was sent to the Moscow Conservatoire. Beverly Hills. OP. A-oo-. 8. Dreams. In the last third of his life./Previn ASD3284 112/76) S-37169 Angel EMI/HMV 2 FOR TWO PIANOS. but the death of his erstwhile fellow-student Scriabin > turned his thoughts once more to the piano. A Etudes tableaux dream SXL6099 (4/64) Decca 6390 London island. In my Prokofii 6582 008 (12/731 Phonogram 75019 Mercury garden To at night: her. Left (inset): He reluctantly continued his pianistic career throughout his life. Despite a highly successful appearance in London in 1898 playing and conducting his own music. ASD2361 14/68) EMI/HMV To the children. The answer. 36 S-36954 Angel Halle/Loughran ASD2889 S-35567 Angel PIANO SONATA NO. Night is mournful. like a number of his compositions. Tear./Koizuini/ Dohnanyi ASD3197 (6/76) EMI/HMV (4/73| EMI/HMV CFP40065 (9/74) Classics for Pleasu LPO/Weller SXL6623 (11/73) Decca SYMPHONY NO. Vocalise) D Ashkenazy/LSO/Previn/Conc. RACHMANINOV Oneg. So dread a fate I'll ne'er believe. 3 IN A MINOR LSO/Previn/ The Rock LSB4090 (5/73) RCA AGLI-1527 RCA LPO/Weller SXL6720 110/75) Decca LSO/Previn/A/eko (exc) ASD3369 D Ashkenazy/LSO/Previn/Conc. to night comparing went the Wind her way. Concert Classics 2311 London several of his works. many of which are of a quality which makes one deplore their comparative neglect. LSO and Ch. so many fancies: So many hours. 3 IN D MINOR SYMPHONIC DANCES D Ashkenazy/LSO/Fistoulan Z Philadelphia/Ormandy/ HiWemim SXL6057 (6/63) Decca 61347 13/73) CBS Classics 6359 London SYMPHONIES NOS. The Lilacs: Loneliness. 2 138076 ll/oOl DC- RHAPSODY ON A THEME OF PAGANINI 4 SXL6556 (9/72) Decca 6776 London Anievas/New Philh /Atzmon/ Cone. he was much cast down by the disastrous reception at home of his First Symphony. in gratitude he dedicated his ensuing Second Piano Concerto (now enormously popular) to the doctor. Fate. of a linnet. Daisies. Cracis/ Ravel SXLP30196 (9/74) Concert Classics LM1 HMV LSO/Previn OP. Dissonance. 1-3. The) BELLS. Musicl Soderstrom/ Ashkenazy DG- SXL6772 (12/76) Decca Ashkena/v LSO/Previn/Conc. ASD2361 I TWO PIANOS. repeated later. The storm. pied piper. The poet. never to return. Before the image. Sorrow in springtime. some of his most rewarding and personal art is to be found in his songs. RHAPSODY ON A THEME OF PAGANINI exercise he wrote. The mom of life. 2 IN E MINOR Z. when he alternated between the USA and his villa on Lake Lucerne..des 138 076 11/641 I wait for thee: Spring waters. Shirley-Quirk. one of the and a composer of great pianists abiding popularity. The world would see thee smile. Ashkenazy 5BB221-2 (2/76) Rediffusion/Supraphon Nos. As his graduate PIANO CONCERTOS NOS. Day it not. he unwillingly devoted much of his time to his career as a pianist.SERGEI (b. 12. who left his native country at the Revolution. S-60091 Seraphim The fountains. Horowitz 72940 111/711 24 2 CBS PRELUDES Cpte. to become SUITE NO. Before my window. and where he met and was profoundly influenced by Tchaikovsky. and fell into a depression from which he was finally roused only by hypnosis.CHORAL SYMPHONY. In 1909 conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. whose traditions (The] ISLE OF THE DEAD D LSO/Previn/Sym. Though he had begun his musical studies in St Petersburg. His last major work before leaving Russia was his Vesper Mass. the The Quest. prophet. S-37158 Angel were very different. 1 943 1 That Rachmaninov should have felt a conflict between his various gifts as a composer. Dances ASD3259 (0/76) EMI/HMV SUITE NO. 5 Ashkenazy/Previn/Suile SXL6697 16/751 Decca 6893 London PIANO CONCERTO NO. 13 only/Richter/ Cone. How fair this spot. SXL6554 (9/721 Decca 6774 London DAnievas New Philh. 5. for which he composed his Third Piano Concerto: while there he declined an invitation. Aleko. 1 IN F* MTNOR Jartis Moscow PO/Kondrashin a Rachmaninov made his first concert tour in the USA. What wealth of rapture. He was in fact an aristocrat by birth. but for a while he remained in Moscow and directed a private opera company. a one-act opera. but two operas of his own failed through their poor librettos. quotes the Dies Irae). The harvest of sorrow. 1-4.Michelangelt Phith./Arzmon/ Paganini Rhapsody 1 SONGS Bv the grave. No On the death Melody. the Third Symphony and the Symphonic dances. 1873. 7 ARL1 1324 (5/761 RCASuisse Romande/LPO/Weller Gavrilov/USSR SO/Lazarev D9D3 9/76 Decca 1 76597 (6/77) 1 SYMPHONY NO. in order to gain more time to compose he retreated to Dresden. OP. OP. 2 SXL6SS4 (9/72) Decca 6774 London D Soderstrom/ Ashkenazy SXL6718 (7/75) Decca SONGS PIANO CONCERTO NO. which has made as widespread an appeal to mass audiences as that of his idolised Tchaikovsky >. THE ROCK. The Raising of Lazarus. The little Midsummer nights. where he wrote his Second Symphony and the tone-poem The Isle of the dead. aloofly aristocratic personality and the heart-on-sleeve emotionalism and yearning melancholy of his music. but the final decade saw the production of some of his best works— the Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini for piano and orchestra (which. 3. Ashkenazy/LSO/Previn SXL6S6S-7 (9/72) EMI/HMV as a result of which the publisher Gutheil accepted The wildfire popularity of his Prelude in C sharp minor (the incessant demands for which became a well-nigh intolerable cross for him as a recitalist) immediately brought him international notice. Believe Z Katchen/LSO/Solti/Bil/akrn-. a conductor and a pianist (one of the greatest of our time) is understandable: harder to explain is the striking contrast between his taciturn. D Ashkenazy/Philadelphia/Ormandy OP. 6. 2 (4/681 EMI/HMV S-60091 Seraphim Katchen/LPO/Boult/ Donnanyi SDD428 10/74 Decca Ace of ) 1 Diamonds Ortiz/New Philh. Twilight. 2 C MINOR IN DAshkenazy/Moscow PO/Kondrashin/ (in the silent night. 371 USSR Academy Choir/Sveshnikov ASD2973lc 74 1 EMI/HMV S-4124 Melodiya/ Angel S-37178 Angel 151 . in a fortnight. d. Though Rachmaninov's long surging melodic lines and warmly romantic orchestration constitute his greatest attractions to the ordinary listener. Left: Rachmaninov. After setting Poe's The Bells (which he rated one of his best compositions) he became conductor of the Moscow Philharmonic concerts. The soldier's wite. 17 1 SONGS (Oh. SDD181 (10/681 Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15086 London Richter/Warsaw PO/Wislocki/ rreh. OP.

for example. and affected Ravel to the extent of his refusing the Legion d'Honneur when he was offered it in 1920. 1683. The period up to the first World War saw the production of a large number of the works. fastidious taste. the Rapsodie espagnole. Paris (where he published his first volume of harpsichord pieces). the impressionistic Miroirs (which influenced Debussy >) and dazzling Gaspard de la nuit for piano and the charming Ma mere 1'oye suite for piano duet. them on Italian fashions. conservative musicians considered his writing "noisy and violent". His first piano pieces and songs. consummate craftsmanship and lucidity have never been better exemplified than in the music of Ravel. Dardanus and Zoroastre: ironically. Liszt >. ALBORADA DEL GRACIOSO ONPO/Burgos/Falla/Granados/ Ravel/ Pavane SXL6287 (11/67) Decca DOrch. including Voltaire. Dijon. RAMEAU Dijon. but it was bitterly attacked by other theoreticians. and a MAURICE RAVEL (b. and introduced him to various librettists. Lyons and then Clermont again (the post he had left ten years previously in search of wider responsibilities). 1875. the piano Jeux d'eau and the String Quartet. then successively in ClermontFerrand. the one-act opera L'Heure espagnole and his masterpiece. devoting himself to writing a treatise on harmony: this he managed to get published when he returned to Paris in 1722. in particular. but he got nowhere until the financier La Poupeliniere became his patron. His orchestration. first in Avignon. From the one he may have inherited the love of minutiae which found expression in the jewelled subtlety of his orchestral scoring and. This provoked a huge scandal in the musical world. he was much influenced by Chabrier ^. in which Rameau's solidly based style. against whom he defended himself vigorously. 1764) Rameau's career was a curious one: until the age of 40 he was. inevitably. stage works. It was to be followed in the next thirty years by another 17 full-scale. and several of his works contained set-pieces (such as the earthquake in the enormously successful Les hides galantes of 1735) which were the astonishment of the time. of Faure >. — 152 For brilliance of his orch- always has a prominent part. and particularly the overture to an unwritten opera. Among his chief works produced at the Opera were Castor et Pollux. for Gluck >). and he built up a reputation as a performer and teacher. . one of the very few orchestral works of his which did not first appear in a piano version. to the other is certainly due the delight in Spanish colours and rhythms which pervades many of his works. expressive harmony and modulations and human characterisation brought opera to a new level of development (paving the way. grafting tradition. his comedy Platee (first performed at Versailles) was thrust into prominence as the French counterblast to the Italian comic style exemplified by Pergolesi's > Serva padrona. but in 1905 he was not even admitted to the preliminary round despite the recognition he had already won with the Pavane pour une Infante defunte. AhWEOUBTELEC to whom he dedicated his early string quartet. by which Ravel is best known — the exquisitely fashioned Introduction and Allegro for an instrumental septet in which the harp Left: all the voluptuous estration. to the outside world. Ravel's original conceptions were almost in terms of the piano. nr. The theatre. and initially he was regarded with considerable suspicion as a musical revolutionary. The appearance of a second book of harpsichord pieces brought him some recognition. and Rimsky-Korsakov *. since Rameau was initially accused of being too Italian. around 1730. however. For seven years he lived there quietly. based on Racine's "Phedre" but given a happy ending. and the song-cycles Sheherazade and the drily ironic Histoires naturelles. St-]ean-de-Luz. Les Fetes d'Hebe. Hippolyte et Aricie. had captured his interest. de Paris/Karajan/La Va/se. although. He followed in his father's footsteps as a church organist.JEAN-PHILIPPE (b. from 50 he was the most famous French opera composer of his time. The great wealth of sparkling dances in his operas holds much attraction for listeners today. in the complex ticking and Rapsodie Espagnole Tombeau ASD2766 (3/72) STRASBOURG FHWIWCNC OfOCSTRA RAVEL sounds of the watchmaker's shop in which his and risque opera L'Heure espagnole is set. no more than a talented provincial organist of intellectual pretensions. Paris. Rameau's first opera in 1733. d. the son of a Swiss father and Basque mother. EMI/HMV S-36839 Angel PIANO CONCERTOS brilliantly witty A to the Lully a break with the fashionable light- hearted operas-ballets of Campra. the voluptuously beautiful Daphnis et Chloe written for the Diaghilev Ballet. Paris 1937) The traditional French ideals of formal precision. whose virtuoso piano writing he was to surpass in such imaginative works as Gaspard de la nuit (although he himself was not remarkable as a pianist). tinkling pupil. very characteristic in their colourful harmony. adopted Ciboure. in fact aroused such hostility that not only were three attempts at the Prix de Rome unsuccessful. at the Paris Conservatoire. and marked dozen shorter. held in the highest esteem at the court of Louis XV (who ennobled him) and enthusiastically acclaimed by the general public — though constantly a source of controversy in the musical profession. as we can see with hindsight. marked a great step forward from Lully's practice. d.

Le 73212 (5/74) CBS M-32159 Columbia DEFUNTE Boston SO/Abbado/Daphnis 6 Chloe-Suite 2. Vol. Cone. For DCpte. Honegger SXL6065 [2 64) Decca 6367 London severe. was unusually (a significant title).HARPSICHORD WORKS Vol. . His music of the period. Pavane./Giulini/Rapsodie. Constable. VOCAL WORKS CI. Alborada Ensemble/Rotissel../ Rattle ZRG834 in (3/76) Decca Argo even more meticulous orchestral detail. SDD486 1/76) Decca Ace of in l Diamonds G PO/Lombard/ major Coyjcerto STU70928 (9/76) RCA/Erato CONCERTO IN G FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA D Michelangeli.yre Suite No. 2 only: Berlin PO/Karajan/ Debussy: La Mer: L'apres-midi 138923 (3/65) DG* Suite No. Leonhardt AS6 41133 (1/721 Hamoncourt HF6 35048 112/721 Selecta/Telelunken- Selecta/Teletunken* (Les) (La) FETES D'HEBE. amusing himself with mechanical toys.n. Alborada SXLP30198I Co: I 76) EMI HMV DSRO/Ansermet. Derenne. POEM to of mental ill-health ILSO Monteux/Bolero. which are to be observed in the Piano Trio and the Tombeau de Couperin but shortly after the war the first signs began to appear. Ma MIROIRS: JEUX D'EAU D Pascal Roge/Mn mere VALSES NOBLES ET SENTIMENTALES Mere 70306 (5/75) NYPO I'oye SXL6715 (11/75) Decca Boulez/lfne bare Tombeau de Couperin I'ocean. ECO/ ew is SOL286-8 (4/o6| L'Ois . v 1 1 CASTOR ET POLLUX PIECES DE CLAVECIN EN CONCERT OBruggen. 1: 1-10. Haas/Monte Carlo Op. Trois poemes de Stephane Mallarme. Rapsodie./Giulini/Daphnis. 2533 303 18/76) theoretician until he turned DG Bach. Nash and he found pleasure Ens. SXL6411 Haas. Histoires naturelles. Ch. Haas/Paris Nat. La valse O580 10f 751 Phonogram DAshkenazy/ Chopin. but not without a certain reserved sensuousness./LSO/Monteux SDD170 (3/08) Decca Ace ot Gershicin CFP40071 Monte Carlo Op. Galliera/Pno. Saint-Saens./Gracis/ Rachmaninov SXLP30169 (9/74) the left hand Diamonds Conservatoire/ Cluytens/Pno. Starzer Archiv Produktion to the operatic stage. in C Quefrelec/Strasbourg 2548 104 (11/75) DG Heliodor DKatchen/LSO/Kertesz/Pno. Cone. 2 72170 (7/641 CBS HMV DF. Cov./Paray/Prokofie. have turned his thoughts towards still greater simplification and classical clarity./VCM/ Scheie. — 3: 35-50. Kuijken. 5 IVandersteene. Dukas. Leppard 1 ECO/Leppard/Gretry: Suite SOL297 HMV |2/67) L'Oiseau-l. antique. but a car accident the following year put a premature end to his creativity. Berlin D LSO/Monteux/Mn SAL3766 DMelos Pno. Mickey. S. Chorus/Boston SO/Ozawa 2530 563 (4/701 DGD Suite No. 2: 11-34 111 included in error not intended for performance). for the left hand SAL3766 11/701 Phonogram DM. Pavane SXLP301°8 i4 76) EMI MS-6043 Columbia Z Katchen/LSO/Kertesz. 35-41 D Trevor Pinnock CRD1010 CRD (2/75| Nos. Pavane. Debussy SXL6215 (1/66) Decca G Abbey Simon/ Vn/ses nobles TV34397S (4/73) Decca Turnabout- The war. Nocturnes (exi (9/74) Decca Ace ol I Conservatoire/Cluytens/ Tombeau de Couperin. Pavane 9500 314 1 1 77 Phonogram I CONCERTO FOR THE LEFT HAND DW. 23-24. writing the superbly scored though musically empty Bolero and orchestrating Mussorgsky's ^ Pictures from an exhibition. Debussy: Prelude a I'Apn-i-nud. 42-50 D Trevor Pinnock CRD1030 (5/77| CRD HIPPOLYTE ET ARICIE DTear. W.BALLET Phonogram DKatchen/LSO/Kertesz/Prokofiec. CBS M-32838 Columbia PAVANE POUR UNE INFANTE Menuet 9500 347 (10/77) Phon>.BALLET ASD3084 (6 76) EM] TEMPLE DE LA GLOIRE Suite No. ECO/ Connors. Gdn. de Pans Karajan Rapsodie INTRODUCTION AND ALLEGRO Cone. Philh. V oodland. apart from the whimsical short opera L'Enfant et les sortileges. Cone Danco. Stockholm Chbr. Souzay. Debussy. Carnival CFP4008C (6 7S) Classics for Pleasun D NYPO/Boulez/Meuuet antique. Line barque Menuet (11/75) Classics for Pleasure DConcertgebouw/Haitink/Rapsodie.E. Kuijken. Ch. Scovotti. SDD425 Di. 1-10 and 51-56 D Trevor Pinnock Vol. Alborada SXLP30198 (4/76) EMI/HMV Concert Classics in which Ravel served as an ambulance driver. Mn Mere DLSO 6580 106 (6/751 Phonogram 6570 092 Philips Festivo l ONYPO/Boulez/L<i™/se. Two piano concertos (one for left hand only) composed in 1931 show an incisive and piquant style. Baker. including jazzy elements. 2 DECO/Leppard Campra L'Europe SOL302 12/oSI L'Oiseau Lyre ZOROASTRE Left: Rameau was no more a provincial organist 7 Dances tlian and DMelkus Ensemble/CP. EMI/HMV CFP40036 (6/73) Classics for Pleasure MonteuVBolero. Jeux d'enfants./ SDD486 (1/76) Decca Ace of IV mds DAPHNIS ET CHLOE.741 Classics foi Pleasure DKatchen/LSO/Kertesz/Pno. 3 SXL6209 (2/641 Decca 6367 London Pno. EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-35567 Angel G STS-15090 London DCpte. 2. Philh D Bernstein/Columbia SO Giulini/Daphnis. Suisse/Ansermct (11/76) Decca Eclipse ECS78C Shostakovich Cone. Cinq melodies populaires grecques Bolero. CRD1020 (6/76) CRD Nos.Menuetantiqu 76306(5/75) CBS DScotttsh National/Gibson/ Bizet. 12-22. nds SONATA STS-15356 London VIOLIN New DWallez/Rigutto/ Debussy/ Faure 7174 (8/76) Philh. Rapsodie. Shirley Quirk. Stalma St Antho Singers. Ambrosian Singers. Cone.- - ( 1 Decca PO/ Abbado/ Prokofiev 139 349|2/o8l DCArgerich./Calliera/ G in 1/701 (5/70) Decca D Francois/Paris (8. seems (9/62) L'Oiseau -Lvre- MA MERE L'OYE LA VALSE CHOREOGRAPHIC ESPAGNOLE (3/721 D Paris GASPARD DE LA NUIT (L'lHEURE ASD2766 S-36839 Angel Conservatoire/Cluytens/ Bolero. 51-56 Nos. 6580 106 (6/75) Phonogram 6570 092 Philips Festivo Concertgebouw/Haitink/Ln Vatse. Cone. Cuy-Ropartz SOLe0048 (9/66) DOrch. Palmer. Le tombeau. megger Mere/La valse DM. Chansons madecasses. 'Barlok: Concert Classics BOLERO DSRO/Ansermet Dukas SXL6065 I/. and he wrote but little. Debussy Nocturnes 2530 038 (o/71l DG- DLSO/Monteuv -Rapsodie D Paris CFP40095 Espngno/e. 153 . Philh.

1908) not pay" need look no further than Rimsky-Korsakov: having devoted much of his time and energy to orchestrating. he has met with obloquy from later generations for having modified their character. the seventh of his nine operas. and the attractive and delicate suites of Ancient airs and dances and The Birds (again transcriptions of old masters). less thorough. (b. Borodin's > Prince Igor and Mussorgsky's > Boris Godunov and The Khovansky have seen the light at plot would never all./Munch SDD494 (8/76) Decca Ace Diamonds D of 21024 London Philadelphia/Ormandy/Fesfe Rotnane 30077 (9/76) CBS Harmony MS-6587 Columbia Q Berlin PO/Maazel/Mussorgsky. seeing his feeling for orchestral colour. is an exception) and also includes a large number of transcriptions of music by other composers: he was an extremely cultured musician and edited many early works. d. 1936) great technical facility far outstripped his creative capacity. His professionalism however had been hard won. he went to St Petersburg as first viola in the opera orchestra. La Boutique fantasque. Yet without him Dargomizhky's Stone guest. Rimsky 2548 267 (7/77) 138033 DG Left: 154 DG Heliodor Ottorino Respighi Tikhvm. of 1844. putting in order and completing works by his less systematic./Marriner ASD3188 (6/76) EMI/HMV S-37301 Angel (The) BIRDS ASMF/Marriner/ Trittico (3/77) EMI/HMV BOUTIQUE FANTASQUE ASD3327 (La) rr. so that much of his later work reveals a conspicuous Maria falling-off in quality of invention (the one-act Egiziaca. As a of a naval family he had become a cadet. He managed to write some to write a in . despite his lack of grounding elementary harmony. of St Petersburg.RESPIGHI OTTORINO Rome RIMSKY-KORSAKOV NIKOLAI Novgorod. became pianist in a singing academy. at the age of 17. ANCIENT AIRS AND DANCESSUITES 1-31 Philh. Govt. Hungarica/Dorati 6582 010 (4/76) Phonogram 75009 Mercury DLos Angeles Chbr. Govt. encouraged him even symphony. Orch. Respighi) D RPO/Dorati/Suite Rossiniana PFS4407 (12/77) Decca THE PINES OF ROME: THE FOUNTAINS OF ROME DLSO/Kertesz/Tlie Birds SXL6401 (7/69) Decca DNewPhilh. and began a career as conductor of his own music. who was one of his greatest formative influences: a year later he travelled to Berlin for further study with Bruch S>. and following the success of two operas in his home town. He then played the violin and viola in a chamber ensemble for five years. After studying in his native Bologna. Although he enjoyed a considerable reputation in his lifetime as one of Italy's leading composers. he had met Balakirev >. Apart from his popular ballet after Rossini >. almost his only works now heard are his picturesque and sumptuously-scored symphonic suites The Fountains of Rome and The Pines of Rome (which made history of a kind by being the first orchestral work to include a nightingale): in the later gramophone record — of Roman festivals the grandiosity unfortunately erupted into a tendency to empty noisiness. d. Respighi's A cynic seeking an illustration for the text "Altruism does (b. less professional friends. who had fostered his musical tastes member and. Bologna 1879. in 1913 was appointed a professor of composition at the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome. already "dazzled" by the music of Glinka >. and while there took lessons in composition and orchestration from Rimsky-Korsakov >. Lyubensk.

Vedernikov. Though his operas are rarely given on the stage in this country.tour. Easter Fest. both often with a flavour of the supernatural. Borodin. Scheherazade and the Russian Easter Festival. ASD3141 EMI/HMV 1/62) 139022 (3/68) FLIGHT OF THE BUMBLEBEE: Prokofiev: 1 D LSO/Monteux •rgsky. whose biting (Rimsky-Korsakov had already with the authorities for his sympathies with the 1905 revolutionaries) caused it to be banned. but now turned to gentler national subjects on folk myths — May night and The Snow-maiden. Espana. Ravel: Rapsodie espagnole and Ch. Sapegina. though most of the works then created were extensively revised later (as was his common practice). MAY NIGHT— OV. the Song of the Indian guest (from Sadko) and the Hymn to the sun (from Golden cockerel) have become extremely well satire on been in trouble rulers' ineptitude known. D Chicago SO/Reiner DUBINUSHKA: SADKO-MUSICAL PICTURE: CHRISTMAS EVE— SUITE: RUSSIAN EASTER FESTIVAL OV. Bournemouth SO/Berglund/ Moscow Radio SO and Ch. Ov. To the former belong Sadko and The invisible city of Kitezh. CCV5010 (6/75) LSC-2446 RCA Camden Classics D RPO/Stokowski ARL1 1182 (4/77) RCA* D RPO/Beecham EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-35505 Angel Decca Ace of SNOW MAIDEN GOLDEN COCKEREL— SUITE D Cpte. in which indeed he found his true manifest in metier. His deep involvement in academic studies. Gliere VCS10060 (11/71) Pye/Vanguard DG* Rimsky-Korsakov. all written within two years — before he decided (perhaps as the outcome of hearing Wagner's > Ring) to concentrate on opera composition. by far most professional of the Left: the Russian nationalist composers. Very conscious of his own ignorance. de Paris/Rozhdestvensky/ Capriccio. "colour is the essence. Mussorgsky: Night 2548 267 (7/77) DG Heliodor 138033 DG Moscow SXLP20026 DBPO/Karajan Eclipse SPA89 (5/71) -nds EMI/HMV Concert Classics a Respighi SDD281 (9/76) S-36889 Angel OPhil. Arensky and Glazunov ». and their success led to his of this during a long overseas naval Balakirev's help it being appointed professor of composition at the St Petersburg Conservatory in 1871. the epic and the fantastic. 36 D Orch. Pi. His absorption in vivid instrumental writing (which was to culminate in a textbook on the art of orchestration) resulted in three brilliant concert pieces — the Spanish caprice (in which. de Paris/Rozhdestvensky/Russ. Troitsky./Kletzki LSO/Argenta/Granados: Chabrier. he declared. CFP169 (8/71) Classics for Pleasure DOrch. He quitted the navy in 1873. and by his work as editor of Glinka's operas. Arkhipov. and the next year started to acquire a thorough practical knowledge of instruments as Inspector of Naval Bands. RO DG* Decca SXLP30253 (10/77) SRO/Ansermet (12/75) (9/70) STS-15158 London LPO/Haitink 6500 410 (1/74) Phonogram. and isolated excerpts such as the Flight of the bumble-bee (from Tsar Saltan). where he gathered a new circle of composers around him./Fedoseyev 2709 063 (11/76) Utah SO/AbravaneI//ppo/ito-7uanot>. the remarkable Golden cockerel. He had already written his own first opera. whose works he was put often left to in order. Krivchenja. 2548 267 (7/77) BPO/Maazel/Respighi: Pines. 2 (ANTAR) MAY NIGHT D Cpte. OP. not the dressing"). which is some rather dry chamber works. The Maid of Pskov. he so steeped himself in the study of harmony and counterpoint to keep ahead of his pupils that the "kuchka" composers began to regard him as a reactionary academic. Yelnikov. Budrin. Mat justhina. Lisoksky. and with was finished and performed in 1865 — the first Russian symphony of any consequence. and it was not produced until after his death. The succession of stage works which followed fall roughly into two categories. Arkhipova. CAPRICCIO ESPAGNOL D LPO/Pritchard/Chabrier. some have been recorded./Fedoseyev SLS5102 (11/77) HMV Summer Night EMI/HMV SYMPHONY NO. was tempered by an interest in folk music which resulted in his compiling and publishing an important collection of folksongs. to the latter the sparkling Tale of Tsar Saltan and his very last opera. Mussorgsky ESD7006 SCHEHERAZADE EMI/HMV S-36889 Angel (The) RUSSIAN EASTER FESTIVAL OVERTURE. In the Balakirev circle he continued to compose. 155 . Borodin: Mussorgsky ESD7006 (9/76) Moszkowski ECS797 (6/77) De 6006 London D BPO/Maazel/Mu. including Liadov. Budrin. Sokolik.. and succeeded Balakirev as director of the Free School of Music.

like many — now favourite operas. in view of the work's length) and in the whimsical and humorous small pieces entitled Peches de ma vieillesse (from which Respighi > drew the material for his Boutique fantasque ballet). Rossini was engaged to provide two operas annually in Naples. 1868) Perhaps no other composer. and he himself had a rather irregular. In 1855 he decided to spend the rest of his life in Paris. and. vivacious art solennelle (an ironic . Through the good offices of the French ambassador. At this point he was to have written bankrupt. but although he enjoyed a brilliant social (and financial) season in England the theatre manager went Mo'ise. Through the influence of a kindly his his one-act farce La Cambiale di matrimonio ("The marriage contract") was produced in Venice when he was 18. horn-player and cellist. and to bask in his reputation as a wit and epicure. the year before he died. fun-loving nature: his parents were a small-time singer and a theatre horn-player. including the scintillating comedy The Barber of Seville (1816) which. Rossini was instead appointed musical director of the Theatre des Italiens in Paris: there he presented a star cast in his cantata // Viaggio a Reims during the coronation celebrations for Charles X. ever enjoyed such prodigious and widespread popular acclaim and so lively and ebullient a musical heritage as left who had the curious distinction of having been born on a leap-year February 29: certainly no other became the rage of Europe shortly after the age of 21 and. Tell. lifted from the romantic Elisabetta. to which he withdrew: almost his only composition of this period was a Stabat Materhe had begun long previously. but Rossini also developed the romantic vein with La Donna del lago ("The Lady of the lake") and serious opera with Otello (which held the stage until supplanted by Verdi's > setting 70 years later). who showered him with favours. comic opera (with which his name is nowadays primarily associated) and serious opera with. education as a singer. suffered a disastrous first night: its Regina d'Inghilterra of the year before (the first work in which he abandoned unaccompanied recitative and wrote out the singers' embellishments in full instead of leaving it to their fancy). "Di tanti palpiti". This was to have been the first of five operas for the French stage. The vexatious litigation to obtain his money seriously Guillaume affected Rossini's nerves. the riotously comic Cornte Ory. in 1829. Paris. There he was able to hold brilliant salons frequented by artists and intelligentsia. after a crowded career. Pesaro 1792. his lifespan. the latter causing a furore: a cavatina from it. quickly became the rage of Italy. respectively. d. including La Scala di seta and Signor Bruschino: meantime La Pietra del paragone ("The Touchstone") — in which for the first time Rossini employed the device of building up excitement by a long crescendo on a repeated phrase. at 38. Le Siege de Corinthe and made him the idol of Paris too. In 1813 he scored a triumph in Venice in both nobleman. Passy. Many stories are told of his laziness. Moses in Egypt and Semiramide. nr. which was to become his trademark — was so great a success in Milan that he was exempted from military service. Two impressive French adaptations of former works. "noisiness" of his vivid orchestration. the large-scale 156 in his old age.GIOACCHINO ROSSINI (b. an opera for London. though he was taken to task for the overture. but someone who could write over 30 operas in 20 years can scarcely be culpable of that particular failing. not even Handel ^. Above: Rossini and his health suffered further in succeeding years from domestic and political troubles in Bologna and Florence. though fortunately sound. He had started life with no natural advantages beyond musical genius and his high-spirited. had actually already done service in yet another previous work! Two more very successful comedies were Cenerentola ("Cinderella" with the magic element eliminated) and La Gazza ladra ("The thieving magpie"). retired exactly halfway through Rossini. and the next eight years saw the composition of several of his masterpieces. Above right: Rossini at the height of his fame. L'ltaliana in Algeri and Tancredi. but his invariably elegant and found expression in the Petite Messe title. He no longer gave much attention to writing. and these were followed up with his first opera in the French language. but the king's abdication and the 1830 revolution put an abrupt end to the plan. accompanist. and its reception led to four more at the same theatre.

LSO/Gamba Italian Girl in Algiers RPO/ Davis CFP40077 William (6/74) Classics for Pleasure Tell. Montarsolo. Semiramide. '^H yH 11 Wm Diamonds STS-15307 London 5&.I an Philh. Corena. Minton. Sawallis. Malagu. Dara. Jenkins. Barber of Seville. Munich Vocal Ens. Alva./ Galliera SLS853 |12/74) HMV S-3559 Angel Berganza. Semiramide. Thieving Magpie./Abbado DG' 2709 039 (6/72) ELISABETTA REGINA D'INGHILTERRA O Cpte. Siege of Corinth. 2720 053 (10/72) 2709 041 DG (La) LSO/Abbado It DG CENERENTOLA D Cpte. Philh. Berganza. Above: Autograph of an ensemble from Barixrcif Seville- I'll. William Tell. Ambrosian LSO/Masini 6703 067 (9/76) Phonogram. Silken Ladder.Right: A highly ornate 18thcentury oboe belonging to Rossini. Inganno felice 1383 London STABAT MATER D Lorengar. Trama. Barbe of Se Magpie. LSO and Ch. Cinderella Chicago SO/Reiner CCV5020 (6/75) LSC-2318 RCA Camden Signor Thi. Creffield. Thieving Magpie. Thieving Magpie. BARBER OF SEVILLE D Cpte. PETITE MESSE SOLENNELLE STRING SONATAS NOS. made in Milan. Guglielmi. Italian Girl in Algiers. Sutherland. Tancredi. Berganza. LSO/Bonynge SET317-9 (10/66) Decca Classic. D ASMF/Marriner 6500 878 (10/75) Phonogram. Fassbaender. 5 LSO and Ch. Tavolaccini. Serge./Kertesz SXL6534 (2/72) Decca 26250 London P I 1-6 Musici/Bortesini 6747 038 (5/73) Phonogram 6500 245 Philips 1-6 ASMF/Marriner/Donizetti ZK26-7 (12/77) Decca Argo ZRG 603 Argo 157 . William Tell. Montarsolo./Sawallisch SER5693-4 RCA ARL2-2626 RCA Pavarotti. Zannini. Alva. (L) ITALIANA IN ALGERI D Cpte. Silken Ladder D New u MUU\ I U1IS rmi '"UIU ) 1IK. Truccato-Pace.*~ OVERTURES Barber of Seville. Caballe. Benelli. Carreras. Ql-6 Lovaas./Gardelli SDD392 (10/731 Decca Ace -J of Rossini's William Tell. Panerai. Masterson. Ambrosian Singers. Gobbi. Singers. Silken Ladder SXL2266 Decca 6204 London Barber of Seville. Marriage contract. Roni. Callas. Montarsolo. Signor Bruschino. William Tell. Signor Bruschino. Rouleau. Hirsch. Cesare. Alva. Capecchi. -mg SEMIRAMIDE Ho Ambro Cpte. Prey. Schreier. Signor Bruschu Turk in Italy. Fischer-Dieskau. Malas. Singers. D Cpte. Alva. Maggio Musicale Fiorentino/Varviso SET262-4 (5/64) Decca 1375 London '/ii-~^- j~. Silken Ladder.

1 ECS756 (7/75) Decca Eclipse IN D. He had previously written a ballet. derived from Debussy > with a strong admixture of d'Indy's classical reserve and his own and individual sense of colour. OP. Mov. containing some of his finest music. Apart from a symphony subtitled Poeme de la foret. the Suite in Fand the energetic and closely-reasoned Third and Fourth Symphonies (the former written for the fiftieth anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra): all of these are noticeably more complex in texture than before. but repertoire. where he himself became a professor in 1902. Honegger: Sym. but the logic intellectual integrity of his his songs rank music appeal among and to the discerning. 158 a naval officer. The ballets Bacchus et Ariane and Aeneas.BACCHUS ET ARIANE-BALLET Brno PO/Neumann/Sj/ni. in which his work as a Red Cross driver at the battle of the Somme completely disappeared in his post-war compositions. OP. 42 NYPO/Boulez/Dulcos: La 76519 CBS M-34201 Columbia peri Above: Like Rimsky-Korsakov. VIOLA. 45 Quartet/Martinu: Quartet b STRING QUARTET D Novak SUAST50950 (10/72) 3 IN SYMPHONY NO. 3 (9/66) Supraphon SUAST50482 3 PIECES. which eventually prompted him to write two exotically-coloured works. who made no effort to undermined his health. whose idiom. CELLO AND HARP. Tourcoing 1869. are rarely heard — though this would not have worried Roussel. Roussel had been ALBERT ROUSSEL (b. The symphonic poem Pour une fete de printemps was a transitional work leading to the period of his fullest maturity. Roycm 1937) Roussel was a late starter in music. successfully produced in 1913. OP. giving up his career as a naval officer (which had taken him several times to the Orient) at the age of 25 in order to study composition: he became one of Vincent d'Indy's first pupils at the newly founded Schola Cantorum in Paris. Supraphon G MINOR. 30 Melos Ensemble SOL60048 (9/62) L'Oiseau-Lyre 60048 Oiseau (The) SPIDER'S BANQUET Suisse/Ansermet/Periti? Suite. which are more boldly dissonant (owing something to Stravinsky >) and have the dryness of a good champagne. The Spider's banquet. VIOLIN. d. he published little of consequence until a journey to Cochin-China and India in 1909. to which belong the delightful Serenade and. Evocations for chorus and orchestra and the opera-ballet Padmdvati: the completion of this latter was delayed by the 1914-18 war. Andre SONATINA FOR PIANO Previn/Poti/eiiC 61782 (7/77) CBS Classics SERENADE FOR FLUTE. ' He is a connoisseurs' composer. as in most of his early works. in the orchestral field. all traces of impressionism seek popular favour and regarded music as "the most hermetic and least accessible of the arts". the subtlest in the French .

in Weimar. Ravel: Ma Mere CFP40086 16/75) Classics for Pleasure DColIard. Clark/Philh Kurtz/ Prokofiev ASD299 (12/59) / EMI/HMV OKatin. Marhnoi ./Martinon/Rouel d'Omphale/ Bizet. in which the xylophone suggests the rattle of dry bones and the skeleton's fiddle has the E string de-tuned by a semitone — are on the Liszt model. and cyclic form (in which a single theme recurs throughout a work. this work (which contains much sensual music but is very static) was rejected by the Opera and first presented. Though he taught but seldom (Faure > was one of his few pupils). 159 . who was to become a close friend. who could be termed the complete professional. 33 Du Pre/New Philh. Faure 76530 4/77 CBS M-34550 Columbia 1 F Orch. d. 3 rondo. LE DELUGEPRELUDE: ROMANCES FLAT/(Ysaye: Capricel Hoelscher. brilliant effect and skill compensate for some lack of originality (preoccupation with which he deplored). D Milstein/Philh. rather than opera. de Paris/Barenboim/ Chausson. de Paris Martinon Havanaise Chausson. OP. Vesuvius Ens. A musician of wide culture and a first-rate pianist. lucidity and technical fluency. Again CARNIVAL OF THE ANIMALS DH. Fowke. the most frequently heard are the G minor (No. CIkuissom: Poeme SXLP30159 1 VIOLIN CONCERTI 1-3: LA MUSE ET LE POETE. Paris 1835. Four years later he was appointed organist at the church of the Madeleine. INTRODUCTION AND RONDO CAPRICCIOSO. OP. besides three violin concertos there are some brilliant showpieces for that instrument. though several of his lesser stage pieces were produced in Paris. Kirschbaum. MORCEAU DE CONCERT. Ravel ASD3125H 76) EMI S-37118 Angel HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. Lalo DC DANSE MACABRE 2536 157 (4/76) Scottish National/Gibson/Duljus. CAPRICE ANDALOU. Like many musicians who set out as progressives. Orch. CAPRICCIOSO. Bruch. Dervaux SLS5103 (12/77) IN C AND D New Philh.CAMILLE SAINT-SAENS (b. he did much to encourage French composers of instrumental music. 3 etc. Scottish National/ Gibson/ BizW./Pou/enc: Babar BRNA502 IO/77) CELLO CONCERTO IN A MINOR. which is far better in its original chamber version and without well-meant spoken interpolations by comic writers. HAVANAISE. 5 IN Ciccolini. through Liszt's influence. 28 Z Perlman. de Paris/Baudo/ SYMPHONY NO. Cones. which was dedicated to Liszt's memory. He had been precociously gifted. of which only Samson et Dalila is generally known: ironically. of his music nevertheless continues to attract those to whom refinement. Menuhin. writing music and studying the score of Mozart's > Don Giovanni at the age of six. 2) for piano and the A minor for cello. LSO/Gamba/Sarasate ECS663 (2/73) Decca Eclipse 1-4. ASD3348 EMI/HMV D Bron. Of his concertos. Rossini MFP57012 111/73) Music tor Pleasur Cons. a respected figure in French music. Orch. Saint-Sae'nsbecame increasingly conservative meeting in in the latter part of his life. and ZRubinstein/Philadelphia/Orniandv Falla: Nights SLS802 CONCERTO NO. 4 CSD3750 16/741 EMI/HMV DAdni/Royal Liverpool PO/Groves/ Mendelssohn ASD3208 (8/761 EMI/HMV PIANO CONCERTO NO. A 1852 with Liszt >. and often the wit. Algiers 1921) age which tends to look down on craftsmanship is unlikely to raise much admiration for Saint-Saens. who received scant support from the Paris public. also touring extensively as a virtuoso. the Third Symphony (for orchestra and organ)./ HMV ironically. and composed prolifically "as an apple-tree produces apples"./Fistoulari/infro. Beroff/Inst. de Paris/Baudo/ Cone. by the time he entered the Paris Conservatoire at 13 he was already a public performer. in his own words. Etude. and for the next twenty years held this key post. his best-loved composition was intended only for private performance — the witty and beautifully written Carnival of the animals. Septet ip 71i HMV C MINOR IN CBSO/Fremaux ESD7038 (10/77) EMI/HMV Los Angeles PO/Mehta SXL6482 11/71) Decca n Chicago SO/Barenboim 2530 619(4/761 DG- 15-741 EMI HMV Concert Classics S-36005 Angel Chung/LSO/Foster/ Vieuxtemps SXL6759 |0/7ol Decca 6992 London DStern/Orch. Ens. Iberl ECS782 I8'7c0 Decca Eclipse 3 Paris INTRODUCTION AND RONDO Above: Saint-Saens. 2 IN VIOLIN G MINOR SB6841 (12/70) RCA LSC-3165 Ciccolini. and at 18 he wrote his first symphony. He wrote 13 operas. he rated emotional An involvement lower than elegance./Barenboim/ Schumann ASD2498 in 69) EMI HMV S-36642 An s el D Torteher/CBSO/Fremaux/CeHo loorl ASD3053 (7/751 EMI/HMV nier/Lamoureux Orch. jeux d'enfants. The sheer polish. perhaps in transformation) is often employed. DCampoli. had important consequences on his style: four programmatic symphonic poems — the best known being Danse macabre. as in the fourth of his five piano concertos and his most played large-scale composition. Simon.

Tendrement. Francaix A Decca/Vox PIANO WORKS DEBUSSY) Above: agaceries. but undoubtedly Satie's most important work was the "symphonic drama" Socrate 1918). a work of studied anti-emotional objectivity. Preludes flasques. P. His last ballet. Prelude en tapisserie. Vieux sequins. LSB4094 (9/73) RCA CBSO/Fremaux/Honegger. Emhryons D Croquis et Gnossiennes. Les pantines. M. Trois Gnossiennes. and his piano pieces of static. a surrealist affair with a cinema interlude directed by Rene Clair. Gnossienne No. Trois Meduse Embryons desseches nsees ALDO CICCOLINI . Poulenc ASD2989 (5/74) (9/68) EMI/HMV PARADE. Hymne. Petit air. PIANO WORKS Trois Gymnopedies. witty drawing of Erik Satie by Alfred Frueh. Ventables preludes flasques. strongly influenced Debussy > and Ravel >. Picasso and Diaghilev. whose austerity and formalised simplicity influenced Stravinsky > and has a quiet beauty. with all of whom he collaborated in the Cubist ballet Parade (1917). Sonahne bureaucratique. During and after his contrapuntal training there he produced many piano miniatures of extraordinary economy and simplicity (already reacting against Debussy's impressionism). Reldche. Chanson medievale. F. Gnossiennes Ciccolini ASD2389 LSO/Previn//bert. Passacaille. La belle excentrique. sdies Morceaux en forme de poire ques SONGS fleurs. Descriptions automatiques. Trois morceaux en forme de poire. Petites pieces Trois Trois ique drapeau. ERIK DCuenod. Avant-dernieres pensees. whose most important work. 2. Les trois Valses. and was friendly with Cocteau. Les desseches. Chanson. Premier menuet. but his use of sequences of unresolved chords of the ninth in his Sarabandes. had a succes de scandale. Socrate. Le piege de Meduse. Veritable* preludes flasques. Reverie. Avant-dernieres pensees. Je te veux.BALLET montees. Les anges. 160 Trois Le Piege de La Diva de 1'empire. Paris 1925) An eccentric of fitful musical education who lived most of his life in poverty and whose music has always been of specialist appeal. d. 2. even though he did not share its views. Dickinson. frequently without key-signatures or barlines. Parsons Nimbus 2104 (1/78) Nimbus Reihe Ens. Dickinson 1. Sylvie. He became a well-known "character" in Parisian artistic (though living in an industrial suburb and remaining very much an individualist). Air de Genevieve. Piege de STGBY646 KZJM EM1/HMV SOCRATE Ibert. Satie nevertheless influence in French was significant a Right: Erik Satie. Elegie. Le Piccadilly. (12/71) Decca 31018 Candide Vox No. Embryon desseches. Early studies at the Paris Conservatoire had been uncongenial and unfruitful./ Relache. but at the age of 40 decided to study at the Schola Cantorum under d'Indy and Roussel >. RHS338 (11/76) Un Salut Gymnopedie No Vexations. DA. Its technique of juxtaposing apparently trivial melodic fragments and basic harmonies in an unexpectedly effective mosaic was further developed in another ballet with Picasso. He wrote various trifles while working as a cafe pianist. who looked to him as a mentor and circles ( guide. especially with the Bright Young Things and the group of "Les Six".-> ERIK SATIE (b. was written in 1918. Passacaille. La belle excentrique. Honfleur 1866. music. Trois Gymnopedies. Greekfrieze-like quality (under such titles as Gymnopedies and Gnossiennes). Glazer STGBY633 (2/70) GYMNOPEDIES 1 & 3 (ORCH. Poudre d'or. desseches. Pieces froides— Airs a faire fuir Embryons SATIE Preludes flasques Luxemburg RO/De Froment/Die Meduse. and with jokey titles and facetious verbal com- vrHAi mentaries. Mercure. and his interest in Gregorian chant was fanned by his involvement with the mystical Rosicrucian sect.

140. confusingly. 322. then he became maestro di cappella in the Vatican service for five years however make before being appointed to a similar post in the royal number of religious works (some still chapel at Lisbon. 52. 402.). 202. 420-423. 87. worked in virtual isolation at the royal court of Spain for some 27 years. 553. 2-20. though treated with the greatest freedom. Mackerras 2533 324 DC hiv An Kuentz Chbr. 119. 481. 490. 9. 544. 308. 429. 519. 29. after spending the first half of his life overshadowed by his illustrious father. even surpassing Handel >. while the former. 24. They are of an incredible variety and richness of invention. d. 212. Madrid 1757) By one of the ironies of time. but his works lose something of their incisive quality if not played on the harpsichord. 42. 242. 444. Rameau Custav Leonhardt (harpsichord) ASe 41045 I7/p7I Selecta/Telefunkem KEYBOARD SONATAS Kirkpatrick Nos. 461. for which. 358. Contemporary accounts Scarlatti is it clear that he was known from an early age as a brilliant harpsichordist. 192. whose admiration he reciprocated. 259-264. 169. an arbitrary one by Longo L. 513. 434-436. and when she married the heir to the Spanish throne in 1729 he followed her to Madrid: he was then nearly 44 years as an enormous stimulus old. for the exiled Queen of Poland. and are influenced to a remarkable degree by the forms. D Joseph Payne (harpsichord) (7/73) Decca Turnabout TV34434S STABAT MATER DFreni. George Malcolm (harpsichord) ECS542 (4/701 Decca Eclipse KEYBOARD SONATAS Kirkpatrick Nos. 403. 470. 215. 505. 113-116. 552. the rest exist only in copies by royal scribes. 531. 252. 120. 399. 359. 216. 178. 471. 545. 245. yet the latter was the most celebrated opera composer in Europe. including an impressive Stabat Mater. 29. 33. 51°. Berganza. 518. rhythms. 153. 192. Below: Scarlatti at about the time of his move Spain acted and the music by to Madrid. 325. 407. 278. 309. 525. known It to posterity springs consists of from after more than 550 keyboard sonatas of unparalleled exuberance and virtuosity — even so. 14b. 214. 544. 260. 403. 491. Among his duties at Lisbon was to teach the harpsichord A to the Infanta Maria Barbara.) and another. 208. 238. 253. 402. which he is mainly this catalytic move. 185. At first he followed in his father's footsteps by writing operas in Naples and. 243. 206. 470. 175. 524. ranging from ebullient movements exulting in extravagant virtuoso effects to deeply expressive and sensual pieces: a large number are characterised by a vivacious wit and by harmonic punning (described by the composer as "an ingenious jesting with art"). 46. 395. 259. Naples 1685. Scarlatti was one of the greatest innovators in the development of keyboard music. in London.DOMENICO SCARLATTI (b. 209. to be discovered) were composed during this period. These sonatas. 239. 441. 446. 33. in Rome. 460. A mere thirty were published in his lifetime. lsoir. 380. 132. Huguette Dreykis (harpsichord) (4/75) Selecta/Telefunken EK6 35086 KEYBOARD SONATAS Kirkpatrick Nos. ( KEYBOARD SONATAS Kirkpatrick Nos. 44. are nearly all single-movement pieces in binary form. and no autographs survive. more chronological./ Production . 141. 430. but to his genius. 380. 426-429. the music of Domenico now considerably more often performed than that of his father Alessandro. 394. possibly only a proportion of the pieces he played to regale the solitary-minded and music-mad royal couple. 461 Q Blandine Verlet (harpsichord) 6581 028 14/771 Phonogram KEYBOARD SONATAS Kirkpatrick Nov 120. 255. two numbering systems are in use. 460. harmonies and instrumental colour of Spanish folk music. lo8. L6S. 96. by Kirkpatrick (Kk. 492. 442. 24. Handel. 502/ Bohm.

Cassily. which employed chords built of fourths rather than thirds. Noble. but also contains scoring of the utmost couched in a freely tonal post-romantic idiom ultimately deriving from Wagner's > Tristan. a programmatic work for Gurrelieder (which string sextet. Herzgewachse SDD520 (5/77) Decca Ace "I Di. where he resumed his teaching. 19. d. 11 Three piano pieces. The peak of this early period of expressionist intensity was reached in the nightmare visions of Pierrot lunaire. Price. the either a father-figure or a bogeyman. in his 47th year. 15 songs. a melodrama of great friends. 33 . 23. This serial method (which creates such bewilderment in listeners accustomed to traditional tonal procedures) was first employed in the piano Suite and Op. Reich. Napier. M2-33S94 Columbia . Ch. but it can be seen at its most skilfully deployed in the Op. Suite. but a more basic reconciliation with the romantic tradition. 31 Variations for orchestra. the Five orchestral pieces and the monodrama Erwartung.fg- 'it >4. Satze ZRG763 (1/75) Decca Argo D Sextet • M —_.'. retrogressions and transposi- provides all the material for a composition. 29 CBS 5 BPO/Karajan 2530 485 (10/76) DC' PIANO WORKS Op. the Op. Bowen. but by 1921. Lunaire.SONG CYCLE. :. 9 D London Sinfonietta/Atherton/ . Lutyens ZRG754 110/74) Decca Argo 3 PIECES FOR CHAMBER ( London Sinfonietta/Atherton/ Pi. was a notable pedagogue who adopted the in his teaching —but.%_'. There was a gap of almost a decade. Pain Winfield. and five instrumentalists which Schoenberg introduced a novel kind of "speechsong". In 1933 the Nazis dismissed Schoenberg from his post and he moved to the USA. Performances of all these works aroused vociferous opposition. M2-33303 Columbia MOSES UND ARON DCpte. himself was largely self- taught.nds VERKLARTE NACHT Ens. (5/77) Decca Ace ol SSD519 Si-. 23 Five pieces and in the Serenade for baritone and seven instruments. Op. Ein Stelldichein. technical complexity for soprano (the Suite for strings and the Theme and variations for band). but the dissimilar musical climate of California was responsible for some softening of the asperities of his music — not just the appearance of a couple of quasi-educational works with key signatures tions. OP. 3 pieces. (5/73) WEA/Nonesuch* QUARTETS 1-4 DM. Anga BBC SO SUITE FOR OP.' London Sinlomella/ Atherton/CbamberSymi'lioiiy No. Minton.. Op. Outstanding works of this final period are the violin and piano concertos. Below: The opening of Schoenberg's Klavierstuck. SOL282 10/65) L'Oiseau-Lyre SUITE FOR STRINGS IN G RPO/Del Mar/Britten. Webern: //. OP. CHAMBER SYMPHONY. due largely to the war and to his intellectual self-searchings. 7 INSTRUMENTS. Berg 2720 029 (11/71) DG DValente. Los Angeles. to a batch of more experimental works in 1909— the Op. Webern.33A.- mjfys BPO/Karajan I s /«•' DASMF/Marriner/HitiJcinlli Funf Stucke./Boulez 79201 (12/75) f^*:j° Knight. and the cantata demands gargantuan choral and orchestral forces. STRING QUARTET iit . Dnds - ' r. like Verklarte Nacht. . ' • . his and him from the lavishly scored symphonic poem Pelleas und Melisande through the First Chamber Symphony. if 4 pieces 2530 531 (5/75) DC' PIERROT LUNAIRE. and became Paradoxically. Nimsgern. is testimony to his religious and ethical in philosophies. he followed a path of unfettered subjectivity introversion which led two most famous pupils were Berg 2> and Webern). luilliard Quartel 79304 (1/78) CBS M3-34581 Columbia 162 mi§ &\ ? Nachtwandler. but upheld by an earnest and pugnacious belief in himself he developed his ideas with uncompromising logic while teaching in Berlin and Vienna (where his Right: Schoenberg's ideas revolutionised 20th-century music. 21 D De Gaetani. BBC SO and Ch. I — r. 5 res. like several of his later works./Boulez 78264 (4/75) CBS ***ftfpr udh. (#? 2530 627 15/76) version: DG ii. he had evolved his world-shaking theory of "composition with twelve notes related only to each other" — in which a predetermined series of all the twelve different notes. to add strictest traditional disciplines a further twist. the Ode to Napoleon and A survivor of Warsaw (both calling for a reciter). 1951) man who brought about the most fundamental musical revolution for three centuries (the abandonment of the orthodox key system). Contemporary Chbr./ -The Piano Musi >InunzH»IVilliiii Ins Kla\ icnvi-rk 5 pieces SAL3539 (1/66) */' ' K Phonogram GURRELIEDER P Thomas. La Salle IN D: STRING Quartet/ Webern. and the unfinished opera Moses und Aron which. which are not "atonal" (a term Schoenberg rejected as meaningless) but "pantonal"./Weisberg H71251 mf^r^k % ORCHESTRA DPollirii OP. 11. PELLEAS Op. ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (b. Vienna 1874. delicacy) were Working in parallel with the expressionist painters. 6 pii Op. before Schoenberg's next compositions.VnioldSelwienlH'iTr Verklarte Nacht 1 SDD519 (5/77) Decca Ace of Diamonds 5 PIECES FOR ORCHESTRA QLSO/Dorati/Berg:3 pieces. pieces. whose influence almost no composer since the 1920s has escaped. l~&~ : f l -rTjS . with certain possible inversions. Melos Ensemble/Berg: UND MELISANDE. His earliest compositions. according to the point of view held.

EX H R _u_ <> III - %% .

poured out of him in an astonishing flow. apart from the sheer quantity and quality of his output. or whether the recipient lost the last two movements. was unable to obtain a steady post. which he took as a theme for variations in a piano quintet of sunny mood. than the world has time to get to know. At the same time songs like Heidenroslein illustrate a vein of folk-like melody frequently to be encountered in his music. these clearly derived from the Haydn tradition and showed none of the individuality and amazing technical and dramatic mastery of the songs Gretchen at the spinning-wheel (written when he was 17) or The Erl-king (a few months later). Schubert's particular contribution to the development of the lied. poem Right: The most prolific loved song-writer of all time— Franz Schubert. and best . become a chorister in the Imperial Chapel. and was prone to melancholia and illhealth. hated teaching (to which he was driven for a time). but his Eighth was an eloquently personal and poetic creation. another example is Die Forelle (The Trout). and though two years later he had written his first symphony and three string quartets. which includes variations on the song Death and the maiden. Lyrical writing was his natural instinct: he had composed an extended scena-like song when only 14. Yet he was by no means merely an untutored "natural": at eleven he had. the undersized and short-sighted son of a suburban schoolmaster. His graceful and charming Fifth Symphony had been clearly indebted to Mozart >. It was not until his early twenties that Schubert achieved in instrumental music anything like the easy maturity of his vocal writing. Vienna 1797. good or bad. Haydn's friend Salieri (who also taught Beethoven >). the latter expressing in music new depths of bleakness and despair. the deeply intense D minor String Quartet. having produced in only 16 years nearly a thousand works. fortified by a musical comedy loosely based on his life. the discovery of various preliminary drafts reveals that not were dashed all his works off in a white-hot burst of inspiration. and the epic piano Fantasy based on the song Der Wanderer. Other instances of works incorporating previous compositions of his are the A minor String Quartet. which had certainly been started. including a treasury of over 600 songs — more wonderful music. and though almost any poetry of sufficient imagery. which takes up an entr'acte from his Rosamunde. and the "Great" C major was a work of such scope and originality that it Below: Autograph of Schubert's setting (1815) of Goethe's 'Der Fischer'. Melodic invention. immediately awoke a response in him.FRANZ SCHUBERT (b. d. was familiar with privation. in turn elegiac and gently resigned (whether it was in fact unfinished. as has been sadly remarked. he died of typhoid at the age of 31. like Haydn >. in particular. has not been unequivocally established). there 1828) Romantic legends about Schubert. For this great genius (the first native Viennese master). and had been well schooled musically by the kapellmeister. had to be supported by devoted friends. have tended to obscure the harsher realities. lay in making the piano an equal partner with the voice. frequently evoking a mood in a few notes or by some small detail: the peaks of his achievement were the two cycles Die schone Miillerin (The maid of the mill) and Winterreise (Winter journey).


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2530 646 (8/761 DG* Rhodes.784 Ashkenazy/Sou. Mignon Mil. DG STRING QUARTET NO. Turnabout D. tend to length. 8 SYMPHONY NO.) Pears/Britten/Schumann: Dichterliebe SET270-1 (7/65) Decca 1261 London Hotter. Vienna Octet 6090 London Haebler. Knushevitzky. (5-8). schlate. 5 IN B BPO/Bohm/Sym. La Pastorella. 6580 010 (12/71) Phonogram 18/71 die Nachtigall.960 ROSAMUNDE.959 PIANO SONATA NO. MINOR O Brendel/Crochet D 1-8. FLAT 8 139162 (5/67) DG* Dresden Staatskapelle/Sawallisch/ dem Felsen. RPO/Beecham/Sym. 'skapelle/Sawalhsch/ Sym. ROSAMUNDE -INCIDENTAL MUSIC BPO/Bohm Serkin PIANO TRIO NO. Lachen und Weinen. 8 SXL6090 (7/64) Decca PIANO QUINTET IN A (THE D Fischer-Dieskau. Overtures 139001 (4/66) DGVPO/Kertesz/Schubert Overtures SXL6090 (7/64) Decca ECO/Britten/Mozart: Sym. SXL6426 (10/70) Decca ASD2417 EMI/HMV 6649 London S-36529 Angel Vienna Octet Harrell/Levine/Mende/ssohn. Schwestergruss. 8-9. 17 IN D. Delphine. 41 2530 357 (4/741 DCVPO/Knps/Beetlloi. 6 Classics for Pleasure 1 TV34472S 18 IN G. C MINOR 3 DG* 2530 526 (5/73) SYMPHONY NO. Der Konig in Thule.ed in der Nacht. 4 IN CFP166 (12/681 B FLAT Privilege DG* 2530 216 (4/72) SONATA FOR Blinde Knabe Price/Lockhart TROUT) D RPO/Beecham/Sym. D. Claudine von Villa An Sym. 21. Allegretto in lanzer. Was bedeutet die Bewegung. Left: Aeolian Qt. BPO/Maazel/Sym. Der Brendel/Deutsche Tanze 1-lb 6500 763 (7/75) Phonogram* PIANO SONATA NO. Szeryng.i.15 SYMPHONY NO. Horch. 14 IN A MINOR. An die Laute.FRANZ SCHUBERT first essayed it. 8 IN B (UNFINISHED) (5/77) Decca (12/72) EMI/HMV BPO/Bohm STRING QUARTET NO. D. GRAND DUO: FANTASIA TV34144S SAL3621 1 3 IN BPO/Bohm/Sym. 15 6500 416 Phonogram. Piano Works 6500 929 (9/75) Phonogram. ROSAMUNDE Moore SLS840 12/76) HMV DIE SCHONE MULLERIN SXL2200 Turnabout 1 BPO/Bohm/Sym. Iphigenia. 2538 166 (7/73) Curzon SXL6580 (12/73) Decca 1 IN B FLAT SAL3535 Brendel/Three Pieces. Die junge Nonne Baker/Moore SLS812(9/71) HMV Fischerweise. 2538 166 (7/73) (5/74) Classics for Pleasure Hirt aut IN 2 IN DG SYMPHONY NO. 9 and 10 Pollini/ Piano Ace THE ITALIAN BPO/Bohm/Sym. SONATINAS FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO NOS. D. Brendel 6500 928 (9/751 Phonogram Brendel/ Sonata. SXL6135 (11/64) Decca Ashkenazy/4 German Dances SXL6739 (4/77) Decca 6961 London D DG* ('TRAGIC') Bella. Lob der Tranen. 2 SYMPHONY NO.935 19/691 Decca IMPROMPTUS. 5 139162 (5/67) DG* Dresden St. BPO/Maazel/Sym. 14 IN D MINOR (DEATH AND THE MAIDEN) Melos Quartet 2530 533 (5/75) C DG* 2530 422 (12/74) LPO/Boult Hill/Walker SAGA5404 (11/75) Saga STRING QUARTETS NOS. Beaux Arts Trio 9500 071 (8/761 Phonogram PIANO SONATA NO. 38 SXL6539 (6/721 Decca 6741 London Boston SO/Jochum/Mozart. PIANO SONATA NO. Gretchen am Spinnrade. Czako./Schrecker SAGA5266 (10/66) Saga Alberni Quartet. Werba 2726 030 (2/75) DG 167 . op. lo DG D. CRD1018 SYMPHONIES 1-6. 3 SXLP30204 (2/76) EMI/HMV Concert Classics Gretchen am Spinnrade. Standchen. C 2530 090 (0/7H minor.946 (°-ll) Kempff 139 149(1/671 1-8. D.574. 1-3 1 Thonogram Amadeus Quartet/ Rhapsody Brendel TV34141S (10/67) Gilels. DG Ceheimnis. 12 IN C MINOR (QUARTETTSATZ) STRING IN G MAJOR Gabriel. Intermezzi and Q Curzon// mprornpfus LIEDER DUETS Phonogram VIOLIN AND PIANO A MAJOR. 12 Waltzes SXL6260 (3/67) Decca Lupu/Bra/mis. Das Hungarian Melody. Schlate. Son.850 Moore 2530 328 (6/73) DG MOMENTS MUSICAUX Curzon/ Beetlioivn SXL6523 (1/72) Decca 6727 London Brendel/ Piano Sonata No. Ellens Gesang [-III. At his request Brendel/ Fantasy in C D Rostropovich/Britten/Bridge: Cello Sonata OCTET IN (2/70) Decca F Melos Ens. Litanei auf das Fest Aller Seelen 12-15 DG Privilege Hungarian Quartet (7/74) Decca Turnabout. Obonn SONG RECITALS OVERTURE. Amadeus Quartet QUARTET NO.6849 Columbia PIANO SONATA NO. Die Forelle. Die Winterreise (exc). 9 (GREAT C MAJOR) ASD2856 9. in the case of his dozen or more theatre pieces. (Cpte. Kempff/Ktauiersruck in A. DC- (3/69) Decca Eschenbach 2530 633(4/7ol Turnabout 1-8. horch die Lerch. Sym.958 Melos Quartet. D. Berthas . 2530 526(5/73) (12/65) IN 2 DC- 2530 216 (4/72) Trio di Trieste 2538 213 (7/73) DG Privilege D. D. 5 Phonogram 1 SYMPHONY NO. 5 SXLP30204 (2/76) EMI/HMV Schwanengesang. Epistle an Herrn lose) Spaun.845 Pollini/Fantasj/ 2530 473(1/751 DG Brendel/Misc. Auf der Riesenkopfe. TV34142S DG SYMPHONY NO. MINOR.899 (1-4). Brendel/Moments musicaux TV34142S (2/70) Decca Turnabout 9-11. D. Problems of were not easily solved by Schubert (and.960 6500 285 (11/72) Phonogram IN F Brendel. Kennst du das Land. Quartet SDD512 MINOR BPO/Karajan/Beethoi-eu. 2733 008 (4/77) IN BPO/Bohm/Rosamunde 6580 010 (12/71 Fruhlingsglaube. never were). Some of his finest music is to be found in his works for piano duet — a medium rarely heard in the concert-hall but somewhat better served on disc. D 1-4. Cazavvan SDD185 SXL6502(5/71) Decca Sonata No.899 6500 415 (3/73) Phonogram* 20 IN A. 8 SXL6549 (1/731 Decca BPO/Bohm/Sym. I. and some of his works. Der VPO/Kertesz/Sym. Nacht und Traume. Sonata 2 ARL1 1568 (Q/76) RCA* SCHONE MULLERIN: W1NTERREISE: SCHWANENGESANG DIE Fischer-Dieskau.821 (ARPEGGIONE) CRD (11/75) 2740 127 (1/76) 61645 (12/76) CBS Classics MS. Hortnagel. um deine feuchten Schwingen. The "Death and the maiden" Quartet. D. Ach. the mellifluous Trio in B flat and the sublime String Quintet in C are outstanding here: an earlier serenade-like Octet is of a more relaxed nature. Schlummerlied. 13. D. An Silvia. Zepperitz.958 6500 415 13/73) Phonogram* 9-11. 13 Variations DG Quartettsatz Baker. D.) Pears/Britten Decca (6/60) SDD230 (7/70) Decca C (IN Curzon.BALLET Schubert was buried close to Beethoven. D. Du bist die Ruh'. Wiegenlied. D. Moore 2530 544 (8/751 DG- 2530 473 11/751 of STYLE) FANTASY IN C. CFP4O037 H. Sym. Haebler 6500 885 (3/76) Phonogram Diamonds OVERTURE SYMPHONY NO. posth. Der Musensohn. Oistrakh. Die Forelle. Wehmut. Grumiaux. Die Manner sind mechant. Brendel 6500 284 (4/73) Phonogram. SXL6504 (5/71) Decca 6716 London Brendel/Moments musicaux 6500 418 (10/731 PhonogramPIANO SONATA NO. like the late and unusually profound piano sonatas. DG 5-11. Fischer-Dieskau. 16 IN B MINOR. Rostropovich 2530 980 (6/78) DG 19 IN C Brendel/ Four Impromptus. Heidenroslein. An die untergehende Sonne. 3 6500 285 (11/72) Phonogram Concertgebouw/Haitink CELLO SONATA IN A MINOR.894 Brendel/Piano Sonata No. FIERRABRAS OVERTURE. but it is in his chamber music that he showed the perfect balance between lyrical invention and sureness of design. Heidenroslein. 14 6500 418 110/73) Phonogram* Privilege Concert Classics 4 IN BPO/Bohm/Sym.593 SXL6741 (5/76) Decca 6966 London PIANO SONATA NO.760 (WANDERER) D Kars/ Impromptus Nos. baffled the orchestra which large-scale construction STRING QUINTET IN C Lupu/2 Scherzi D. D. 21 IN B FLAT. Des Madchens Klage. Igloi Ace of 138877 111/64) DG* Boston SO/Munch CCV5054 (2/69) Camden Classics LPO/Pritchard CFP40233 (8/76) Classics for Pleasure Concertgebouw/Haitink 9500 097 (2/77) Phonogram* LSO/Krips SPA467 (4/77) Decca STS-15140 London WINTERREISE ICpte. D.

' Hi .168 *.

/Barenboim/ Saint. 1 opposed the with s Ashkenazy. the and took piano lessons from Friedrich of a child prodigy. 7 Toccata. piano quintet and piano quartet — of 1842. calling into play the expressive sonorities beginning to be possible on the instrument (including the sustaining pedal) and revelling in syncopations and Fantasiestiicke. K448 SXL6130 (11/64) Decca 6411 London ARABESKE IN C. Recovering. 2538 025 (12/71) DG Privilege D Gendron/VSO/Dohnanyi/ Tchaikovsky 6580 131 (8/76) Phonogram After this his health began to deteriorate and his music to lose its freshness. he attempted suicide. Extended structure. 4. From of 1856) nr. OP. FLAT a reputation as a concert pianist. Far left: Robert and Clara generously championed the cause of younger composers such as Chopin >. he instead studied the music of Bach » and Florestan in extrovert Beethoven VVieck. 4. Mozart: Sou. Brahms >: he invented the "Members of League of David" pledged to combat the "Philistines" (older-generation pedants and purveyors of salon trivialities). No. Zwickau I810. complexities: rhythmic Kinderscenen. completing two symphonies (the latter of which. his father. which he was less at ease. who was to become the most famous interpreter of his music. 5b.d./ Faschingsschwank. dominated who had made inherited literary translations tastes his thoughts equally with the piano. in a fit of despair. father declared that he would only apply himself systematically. later. legal proceedings) just after the Concerto ANDANTE AND VARIATIONS fanciful in mood. and In 1884 he began to suffer from after attempting to drown himself in the Rhine was confined to an asylum. From his father Schumann had also inherited mental instability. drunkenness and lack of money. he married Clara. The following year Schumann concentrated on writing for the orchestra. Endenich. Carnaval.Saens: Cello Cone. Sent as an unwilling student of law to Leipzig and Heidelberg. melancholia and singing in the ears (not improved by being caught in revolutionary riots in Dresden. etc. with whom he was obsessed. Papillons and the 1833.c. These were mostly small in scale. 9 Kempff/ fantasia DG CELLO CONCERTO IN A MINOR 2530 185 (3/72) Du Pre/New EMI/HMV D Rostropovich/Leningrad PO/ ASD2498 match because of Schumann's instability. never his strong point. later revised and called No. OP. 18 Claudio Array. a bookseller Schumann Byron. "was constantly portraying himself in his works. both of which were personified in the piano pieces which occupied him in the 1830s. which are notable for their romantic sensibility. he undertook the editorship of the newly-founded Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik. Clara: Wieck he could make him an outstanding player if ^. is remarkable for its use of thematic transformation) and beginning a piano concerto which was eventually to become his most popular large-scale work. as Schumann noted.SCHUMANN ROBERT Bam. which is frequently given lengthy poetic postludes. now making Schumann as a (11/69) Rozhdestvensky/Piano Cor. after a long struggle (ending in with her father. in his teens a sister had drowned herself. Frager. for the moods and Eusebius in introvert. In his newfound domestic bliss he turned to song-writing. named he loved to improvise: moulded in his personality. recording in his diary his fear of insanity. Tuckwell. Meantime he had fallen in love with Clara Wieck. Etudes symphoniques. premiere. Mendelssohn » and. He had bad bouts of lethargy. and Schumann indulged a love of cryptograms references). Kreisleriana. (b. or subsequently by strong criticism of his inadequacy as conductor of the Diisseldorf orchestra): however. Fleming. and in a single year poured out over 130 of his finest lieder. at which which one particular sense they romantic novelist JeanPaul Richter. always in the form of two persons". But he had begun to compose for the piano: the "Abegg" Variations (the name was derived from that of a girl he had met all his life — and secret Op. literary finesse and the important role allotted to the piano. Weill/Etude Op. This ambition had to be abandoned when he permanently injured his right hand by the use of a mechanical device for strengthening the fingers. he continued to compose — the Scenes from "Faust" and the Cello Concerto date from this delusions. Until 1840 he had written virtually nothing except for the piano. and this influenced him to do the same as a split personality. to which he had moved. was most successfully achieved in this and in the chamber works — the string quartets. imaginative and who violently Piano IN B (1843) Humoreske SAL3690 (4/69) Phonogram 839709 Philips CARNAVAL. period. 169 . often tending to sprawl started ineffectually or to over-use rhythmic patterns. but in that year. and for the following decade in Above: Robert Schumann young man. in D. Philh.

OP. OP. IN Bb. B. MINOR. 111. 84. 137. 15/71) Norrington Rostropovich. 136. Ach Herr. OP./ (10/701 Decca MATTHEW PASSION D Pears. (1/62) Decca ASD3217 N PI DRegensburg Cathedral Choir/Choral Works ZRG639 SXL2298 6237 London D Reynolds. SAGA5277 D M. Nc ingle ZRG689 13/721 Decca Argo Argo CANTATE DOMINO Schut^ Double Choir Motets HKINRICH SCH0TZ CHOIR EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-35629 Angel 6500 394 16/751 Phonogram.13 D Murray. 2530 447 (9/74) (4/661 Saga Price. Studies SXL6214 (3/66) Decca 6471 London Right: Heinrich Schiitz. 1585.HEINRICH SCHUTZ (b. 115. 12 Perahia/Dal>idsbund/ertan. OP. Ich freu mich des. Dichterliebe CFP40099 VIOLIN Leben MINOR. 47. Lockhart/Recifa/ CFP40078 D Baker/Barenboim/Ltederlcries. 1 ECS758 (3/75) Decca Eclipse STS-15019 London 2 Parsons/Maliler SOL-R327 17/721 L'O. 2. DG 2530 170 (10/75) DG BPO/Kubelik/Getioi-era Ov./Norrington/ Mofets ZRG666 (5/711 Decca Argo: D Dresden DCIeveland/Szeli/Sym. studied law (in which he showed some brilliance) and was then sent by the •benevolent Landgrave to Venice.seau Lyre Dlan Partridge. 102 DM. he became a chorister in the Landgrave's chapel at Cassel. Unser Herr Jesus. 48 CFP40099 Classic for Pleasure CFP40255 (12/76) PIANO QUARTET IN E FLAT MAJOR. 61 DBPO/Karajan/ Overture. 3 61595 (3/75) CBS Classics 2535 116 (9/75) i MUS1KALISCHE EXEQUIEN Eclipse QBrendel/Sym. 3 IN E FLAT. Composers may be 2 • director ROGKR NORRINGTON Ol II . Studies VCS10020 (4/72) Pye/Vanguard OKemptf/Cnrmuifl/ FRAUENLIEBE important figure in German church music °f the 17th "ntury. 130. 23. lenniter Partridge/ DBPO/Kubelik/Sym. Shetler/ liederkreis.ingridge. OP. SCHERZO 76635 CBS (4/72) PIANO SONATA NO. . Heinrich Schutz DG* PIANO SONATA NO./Norrington/ Deutsches Magnificat 4 DG 2530 169 (11/74| IN C. Lieder SCHUTZ Herr unser Herrscher. 1 IN A 2535 116 (9/75) (2/75) Classics for Pleasure Baker/Barenbiiim/Frniieii/iebe und 15 DWallez/Rigutto/Sonnfa 2 7292 (8/761 Selecta/French Decca WALDSCENEN D Arrau/ Fantaswstucke 6500 423 (7/75) Phonogram ^^U~7 ^^ | 1. Bettelherm. Jennifer Partridge/ Liederkreis. 22 d. 2538 025 (12/71) DG Privilege D Barenboim/LPO/Fischer-Dieskau/ Introduction and Allegro ASD3053 DAVIDSBUNDLERTANZE. PIANO QUINTET D Parahia/ Fantasiestucke D Pears/Britten/ Schubert: EMI/HMV DAnda/Berlin PO/Kubelik/Grieg: Cone. enriching German culture with the new techniques that had made northern Italy pre-eminent in the musical world.isiti VCS10020 IN FLAT MAJOR. no/7i Decca Argo. 100. Coming from a good family. OP. 110.34539 Columbia PIANO CONCERTO IN A MINOR Richter/Warsaw PO/Rowicki/Cel/o Cone. Nos. PAPILLONS. 8. Kostritz. 150 ' DG THE RESURRECTION (H1STORIA DER AUFERSTEHUNG JESU CHRIST1) (EASTER ORATORIO) Q Soli. Dickinson. Debussy: Cello Son. 39 D BPO/Kubelik/Manfred 2530 169 (11/74) D Ashkenazy/Humoreske SXLP30167 SXL6642 (10/74) Decca 6859 London (2/75) DVPO/Solti/Syru. 2535 117 (9/75| DG Privilege SYMPHONY NO. OP. OP. OP. 17 Ashkenazy/Sj/m.44 Rhodes. Scherzo D Baker. of SHARP Pollini/ Fantasia MANFRED OVERTURE: OVERTURE. Murray.e 73202(10/73) CBS 32299 Columbia and Schutz Choir and Ens. UND LEBEN MOTETS 6580 039 (5/73) Phonogram 2530 185 (3/72) DG DPollini/Piano Sonata No. OP. 3 61595 (3/75) CBS Classics Oi\ 2535 118 (9/75) DG Privilege SYMPHONY NO. Heinrich Schutz Cho Heinrich Schutz Choir. Schumann ST. 128. OP. 138888 (3/64) DG* D Lupu/LSO/Previn/Crieg SXL6624 (2/74) Decca 6840 London D Bishop/BBC SO/Davis/Grieg 6500 166 (3/72) Phonogram* QSolomon/Philh. Thomas./Klemperer/Metidelssobn: Sym. MINOR. McCullo Luxon. 122. Beaux Arts Trio 9500 065 (5/761 Phonogram- DICHTERLIEBE. Perahia/PapiHons 1 IN F 2 IN G 1-4: FINALE Staatskapelle/Sawalhsch HMV SLS867 (2/74) SYMPHONY NO. ASD3217 (7/76) EMI/HMV Op. Yet he was also an important historical figure. 4 ECS758 (3/751 Decca STS-15019 London DBPO/Kubelik/Sym. Perahia/Efuclessympbonirfues 76635 CBS M. D Arrau/Sonata n DG DCleveland/Szell/Sym. Op. stral mich nicht. 121. 4 KRE1SLERIANA (7/76) PASSION Ml- VPO/Solli/Sym SXL6356 (1/68) Decca 6582 London D BPO/Karajan/ Sym. Pye/Vanguard FANTASIA Privilege 2 IN C. the most Choir/ DEUTSCHES MAGNIFICAT QArrau/Kreislerimm 6500 394 (6/75) Phonogram* AND Brendel/fmifasifl importance in the development of without necessarily producing works which make an immediate impact on later generations as being of genius. even those knowing nothing of his special significance cannot fail to recognise the grandeur and dramatic force of his music. OP. where he studied for three years under Gabrieli and eagerly imbibed the polychoral techniques for which St Mark's had become famous: while there he published a book of five-part Italian madrigals. OP. 39 12/75) Classics for Pleasure ETUDES SYMPHONIQUES. On his teacher's death in 1612 he 2530 379(5/74) D Dresden SXL6214 (4/66) Decca 6471 London Dresden 1672) their art THE CHRISTMAS STORY a Partridge. 24 2530 353 (3/741 DG Ian Partridge. 4 IN D MINOR S-37222 Angel 5 I'l I (9/74) Classics for Pleasure STUCKE 1M VOLKSTON. Britten/Cello Son. 11 SYMPHONIES D Ashkenazy/Fniit. 39 170 IOIIN MIIKII Decca Argo ! DG DPhilh. 1 2530 379 (5/74) DG* FANTASIESTUCK. 6 CBS E M-32299 Columbia Winterreise SET270-1 (7/651 Decca 1261 London DSchreier. Wie PSALMS OF DAVID 4 SYMPHONY NO. Op. lieblich. SPRING' 1 BPO/Karaian/Sym. LIEDERKREIS. ZRGWl Schutz Choir and Ens. ST 1 Shirley-Quirk. EMI/HMV S-37222 Angel 1 DG Privilege SONATA NO. 3 SXL6356 (1/68) Decca 6582 London LSO/Krips/Sym. Cantate Domino. 6. MATTHEW Keruzchor/Mauersberger 2722 007 (10/72) Finale 'RHENISH' BPO/Karajan Isepp/Brabms. but in the case of Schutz. Menges/Grieg OArrau/Nachfstucke 6500 178 (7/731 Phonogram* 73202 110/73) (3/75) Saxony. OP. Ens. ZRG666 LSO/Krips/Sym.

on the text which had been used in Florence in 1600. After some Latin motets (Cantiones sacrae) Schiitz wrote the first German opera. Schiitz's earlier works imported to Germany the ideals he had absorbed in Italy. his words now being delivered in unaccompanied chant. but a lengthy tug-ofthe Landgrave and the Elector of Saxony war between resulted in his taking up a similar appointment in Dresden The disruption caused by the Thirty Years' War spurred him to make protracted visits to the royal court in Copenhagen and to plead. for example. German motets. Dafne. such as that on the subject of Saul on the road to Damascus. is characterised by restrained use of colour. the other characters onlv bv organ. in vain.returned to Cassel as kapellmeister. His Psalms of David (1619) reflect the splendours of the Venetian tradition. The Evangelist is accompanied only by the continuo: in the Passion settings of the next two years (the most important precursors of Bach's ») further simplification takes place. Later came the Musicalische Exequien (a German funeral Mass). but unfortunately the music of this was destroyed in a fire. and three collections of Symphoniae sacrae which contain several masterpieces of the highest order. The Resurrection. but after 1655 matters in Dresden improved. employs two four-part choirs and two six-part vocal and instrumental ensembles. The Christmas Oratorio of 1664 struck a balance between Italianate style and the solid contrapuntal Lutheran tradition: the various groups of characters are differentiated by their accompanying instrumental colour. with opulent texture and a virtuoso use of brass coloration: Zion spricht. on the other hand. /j H . the Evangelist being accompanied by four gambas. including those of operatic monody. for his release at home. In his later years Schiitz curbed his love of elaboration. in 1617.

POEM OF FIRE. when it was re-titled Katerina Ismailova. and his Fifth the following year (one of his most tranquil) was penitently subtitled "An artist's reply to just criticism". . a nonprogrammatic work of eloquence. progressively a move towards greater thematic economy. whose size and emotionalism owed much to the example of Mahler *. were developed in. the First for violin and the First for cello. whose symphonies and quartets are already recogmsed as modem classics. quoting his own music and exploiting the "musical letters" of his name. but fundamentally orthodox and distinctly eclectic (by no means a rare quality in a young composer). was denounced as degrading and musically brutal: it was not rehabilitated until 1962. USSR most considerable the 's composer. often almost crudely bombastic. The sombrely impassioned intensity of his last symphonies. 13 is based on poems on the Nazi massacre of Jews and Russians. IN F SHARP 20 D Ashkenazy/LPO/Mehta/Promethe SXL6527 |1/72| Decca PIANO SONATAS NOS. a brash energy and a grotesque wit. Verklarte Nacht SXL6325(l/68) Decca PROMETHEUS. initially successful. gives them a special place in his output: the choral cantata-like Symphony No. as of his last songs. Shostakovich's music is one of the last great outcrops of the classical heritage. and delightfully.PIANO CONCERTO MINOR. 1 AND 3 GLazar Berman ASD3396 (12/77) EMI/HMV M. who wrote well for his instrument) and a cello sonata. but even so the composer was under pressure to bring his style closer to folk art. informs the works written during the Second World War. St. was hailed with enthusiasm and widely publicised as a brilliant product of the new system: brilliant it certainly was. 60 LPO/Maazel/ Piano Cone. two rather disappointing further symphonies. 2530 137 (4/72) DC Los Angeles PO/Mehta/Schoenber. and the Ninth was decidedly. written at the age of 19 as a graduation exercise from the Leningrad Conservatoire. the dark pessimism of his late works runs completely counter to the Soviet ideal of optimistic art for the stimulation of the common man. 14 (which follows the song-cycle-symphony tradition of Mahler and Britten ». however. like several works from then on. DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH (b. The honeymoon period with the authorities came to an end in 1936 when his opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk. OP. OP. Above right: Shostakovich. lightweight. free from the erratic standards of hitherto. chief of which was the Seventh ("Leningrad") Symphony. Despite conspicuous unevenness. There was. SXL6527 (1/72) Decca Left: Mystic visionary or hysterical decadent? Attitudes to Scriabin have veered from one extreme to the other. though his expansiveness is at the other extreme from that master's terse compression. and from that decade also date two fine concertos. The peak of his symphonic achievement was the Tenth (1953). Petersburg 1906.34565 Columbia PIANO SONATAS NOS. whose repetition of a banal tune typifying the Nazi invaders was mocked in Bartok's Concerto for orchestra. It was at this time that he entered the more private world of the string quartet: his fifteen works in this genre form the most important addition to that repertory since 172 Bartok ». to whom it is dedicated) is an anthology of poems on death. but though many of his compositions were overtly inscribed to political events and achievements. was partly autobiographical. No. His First Symphony. 3-5 Ashkenazy SXL6705 (11/75) Decca 6920 London POEM OF ECSTASY Boston SO/Abbado/Tchaikousky: Romeo and Juliet Ov. notably the satiric opera The Nose (which offered much scope for orchestral effect) and the ballet The Age of gold (a parody of the League of Nations): of more lasting appeal were an engaging concerto for piano and trumpet (Shostakovich was himself an excellent pianist. The composer withdrew his new Fourth Symphony. d. Moscow Shostakovich was the 1175) first composer of recognised international stature to emerge under the Soviet regime in Russia. An ardently patriotic note. and various film and stage works. Its main aspects. respectively. and the Eighth Quartet of 1962.

Bernstein/NYPO/Riuu'/ 72170 (7/64) CBS OP. and his last completed composition. Fitzwilliam Quartet DSL09 S-37026 Angel Berlin Radio SO/Kleinert/Stmi'i. Prometheus. VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. OP. 1 5. The atmosphere of his Divine poem for orchestra. Bulavin. and seven further piano sonatas showed an increase in hysteria. exotically convoluted style (a kind of aural equivalent of Art Nouveau).nd\ Sym. 43 Philadelphia/Ormandy 61696 (8/7ei CBS Classics New 1 Philh. This was deeply indebted to Chopin ». Kije EMI/HMV BPO/Karajan 1-13 Borodin Quartet (6/74) OP. 8 110/731 Shostakovich. omonossc OP. to Liszt ». SUITE ON 143a 112/751 L'Oiseau I 4 AND Rostropovich/rhiladeIphia/Orm. d. STRING QUARTETS NOS. AND Quartet (4/76) NO. OP. Radzievsky. the poem of fire (which contained a part for "colour organ"). OP. 71 Phonogram SYMPHONY NO. 141 SYMPHONY NO. OP. 7. Richter 17. 135 Vishnevskaya. 1 7cl HMV Ens. D. in music of overwrought emotionalism bordering on ecstasy. The change in his style dates from. 53 6. D Ortiz. 7 IN C. LSO/Previn/ProJco/jeu: 87 A. and to Wagner ». SO/Berglund/ ASD3440 3 Fantastic Dances ASD3081 (6/751 EMI/HMV PIANO QUINTET.. there having dwindled to practically nothing after an enormous vogue around the time of the First World War. 3 ECS580 \i. made however. SYMPHONY NO. Akhimova. reviving at the present day. and CO/Shostakovich/Barshai SLS5078 15/77) HMV SLS879 ASD3029 SYMPHONY VERSES BY MICHELANGELO FOR BASS AND ORCHESTRA. 1 72081 (O/60I 1 LSO/MartinonMge Dec Berglund/Conc. PIANO CONCERTO NO. gave himself up whole-heartedly to a self-centred mysticism (loosely based on Theosophist philosophies). in violence and (after the apocalyptic No. when pseudo-religions. 14. 60 139020 (1/69) DG. as an exceptionally after studying at a number the Moscow highly successful of European tours playing his own music. whose chromatic harmony led him to far-reaching experiments. mostly in Brussels. Shostakovich ASD2668 (5/71) EMI/HMV D Ortiz/Bournemouth CELLO CONCERTO NO. . Wilbraham/ASMF/ ZRG674 15 Oiseau-1 yre OPhiladclphia/Ormandv Cello Cone PIANO CONCERTO NO. should be It is significant that interest in Scriabin's music. Stanislavsky Musical Drama Theatre Ch and Orch. OP. DNos. His numerous shorter piano pieces reached a peak of delirious excitement in Vers la flamme.i Clazunov 2530 653 (ll/7ol DGKATERINA ISMAILOVA. whose influence is manifest in such miniatures as his early Preludes. of a personal "mystic chord" which and drug-induced artistic nihilism "trips" are he built up of superimposed fourths. 101 S-40163 Melodiya/Angel Chicago SO/Previn 1. pianist Conservatoire. the last of his three symphonies. 4.ALEXANDER SCRIABIN lb. 145a :'"«' Mc RSO Ne STRING QUARTETS NO. 47 MS-6043 Columbia Cone. rampant. OP. 13. Moscow 1°15) 18-72. EMI/HMV S-36980 Angel 10. EMI/HMV (2/77| S-37279 Angel DMelos 24 EMI/HMV (6/78) S-37285 Angel Bournemouth SO/Berglund S-37109 Angel (The) NOSE. He had begun brilliant his career. 12c Rostropovich/Boston SO/Oaiu. from whom he derived the "diabolism" which was to erupt in later works. 12. indulging himself in a decadent. OP. OP. 72081 |O/o0| CBS MS-6124 Columbia CELLO CONCERTO NO.isk 6580 042 12. Davis HMV STRING QUARTETS Lt.140 SUITE OF 6 SONGS TO POEMS OF MARINA TSVETAEVA FOR 6 MEZZO-SOPRANO AND CHAMBER ORCHESTRA. 2. For Scriabin. OP. OP. LSO/Previn 1 12 Fitzwilliam Quartet I Bournemouth SO/Berglund SLS897 (10/74) HMV Moscow PO/Kondrashin SLS5109 (2/781 HMV S-60255 Seraphim yre. U ASD2857 111/721 EMI/HMV Marriner/StrnoinsIcK (2/721 MINOR CBS MS-6124 Columbia Seniot ASD2917 ASD3090 IN F Ogdon. OP. 23. and performing. 2. LPO/A. when he gave up a teaching post in Moscow to devote himself entirely to composing. the "White Mass") in compression of thought. in the idyllic Piano Concerto and in his first three piano sonatas. was meant to lead to a final Mystery which would be a synthesis of all the arts and include the use of perfume. of Mo: Musical Thealre/Rozhdestve HMV SLS5088 (9/77) 10/77) L'Oiseau-Lyre 8 STRING QUARTETS NOS. OP. USSR SO/M. SYMPHONY 6580 084 112/741 Phonogram ROMANCES ON VERSES OF ENGLISH POETS FOR BASS AND CHAMBER ORCHESTRA./M Shostakovich ASD2936 11/74 1 EMI/HMV S-36964 Angel MS-6459 Columbia 173 . Yefimov. Andreyeva. STS-15180 London SYMPHONY NO. D Fitzwilliam DSL011 1 SYMPHONY NO./Provatorov SLS5050I8 I Ch and Soloists.about 1903. Moscow Radio SO Maxim M-34507 Melodiya. 112/741 SYMPHONY NO. who.. OP. 114 D Cple. 14. 93 15/751 Classics for Pleast DLPO/Haitink SXL6838 10/77 Decca 7061 London SYMPHONY NO. ASD3081 a (6/75) S-37109 Angel 2. Reshet in/Moscow 1 PO/Rostropovich (12/751 EMI/HMV M-34507 Columbia Melodiya 15 IN A. Oistrakh. at least in the last decade of his life.o Bournemouth £ fantastic EMI/HMV at Cold-ballet (2/71) Decca Eclipse 4. DSL023 1 1 (LENINGRAD) CFP40216 14 7.Quartet No. 15 O'Cpte. was to be greatly intensified in the trance-like Poem of ecstasy (1908). and making extensive use. ESD7029 57 Ensemble/Profco/ieu: Wind Quartet SOL267 (6/64) L'Oiseau-Lyre PRELUDES AND FUGUES. 15.

7 is a stern. some fine songs and a number of rather trivial piano pieces. The Bard and The Oceanides. a draught of "pure cold spring water". and No. mostly at the mercy of elemental natural forces. Tavastehus 1865. these share a highly individual treatment of the orchestra. 2 conspicuously derive from the Russian tradition. was entitled simply A Saga) — from the four early Legends. During life Sibelius wrote nothing. closely-reasoned a storm sequence as terrifying as that in his incidental symphony music to The Tempest. No. No. Very diverse in character. but one whose work is totally imbued with an instantly recognisable national atmosphere. 174 . but critical opinion is agreed in considering the remaining three the summit of his achievement. but apart from these. 4 is a work of stark introspection. both date from the first decade of this century. Berlin and Vienna. head of Finland's composer stands Left: This greatest in the capital. which contains — in one fluid. to Tapiola (named god of the forest). d. and a suite-like string quartet ("Voces intimae"). powerfully evoking the bleak Nordic landscape. and their methods of construction favouring the enunciation of a mosaic of short motifs which are not fully synthesised until later— have been the subject of much discussion. 3 is sparer and more classical. a symphony never materialising. consists of seven symphonies. Jarvenpaa 1957) Unlike the many cases where composers vainly sought support or had to struggle to make a livelihood. No. keenly-awaited eighth tremendous movement. which include the sombre-coloured Swan of Tuonela with its haunting cor this anglais solo. No. on which his reputation securely rests. 5 heroic and optimistic. 6 offers. but the final thirty years of his Finnish government which left him free to compose — and only four years after he had completed his musical education (which he had taken up after reading for the law) in Helsingfors. The blatantly patriotic Finlandia and the hackneyed Valse triste were early pieces. Helsinki. Sibelius was fortunate enough to receive an annual grant from the after the mythological other orchestral works of infinitely finer quality are Nightride and sunrise. No. play a significant part in his orchestral tone-poems (though the first. Episodes and characters from the Finnish national epic. in the composer's own phrase. in 1892. A technically demanding but popular violin concerto.JEAN SIBELIUS (b. the Kalevala. and Pohjola's daughter. the remainder of his output. This enlightened patronage made possible the appearance on the international scene of not only the greatest composer Finland has ever produced. 1 and the very popular No.

Lemminkainen's return ASD2272 D Helsinki RSO/Kamu/ Four Legends 2530 656(10/76) DG* KING CHRISTIAN II./Szell 6580 051 (1 1/721 Phonogram 6570 084 Philip-. Liv. Pohjola's Daughter. King Christian Suite POHJOLA'S DAUGHTER Classics No. Tapiola. Swan ASD3374 (12/77) Tapiola. 4 IN A MINOR D VPO/Maazel/Tapiola JB45 (9/78) Decca Jubilee D BPO/Karajan/Siuan 138974 (6/66) DG* a Boston SO/C. Finlandia. sigh. Valse triste. Come away. Oceanides SXLP30197 (2/7(?) EMI/HMV (The) TEMPEST. ASD3038 The diamond on Finlandia. Lemminkainen's return (7/66) EMI/HMV S-60208 Seraphim D SRO/Stein/ Poh/ola's Daughter. 2 D Halle/Barbirolli/Finlandia. D BPO/Karajan/ Valse trisfe. Black roses. Flagstad. Sloan of Tuonela. But there's still no bird for me. TAPIOLA. 6 IN D MINOR OBPO/Karajan/Sym. Davis/Tapio/a 9500 143 (8/77) Phonogram 5 IN E FLAT SYMPHONY NO. Sigh. Oceanides SXLP30197 (2/76) EMI/HMV S-37104 Angel a (4/77) Decca Eclipse INCIDENTAL MUSIC (7/66) it 33216 London AND MELISANDE— CBS D VPO/Maazel/Sym. Swan ASD3374 Royal Liverpool PO/Groves (Q/75) EMI/HMV S-37106 Angel RSO/Kamu/Kareha 2530 656 (10/76) DG* KARELIA. Arioso. D Stockholm I'O/Dorati CCV5029 (11/68) Camden CIBPO/Kamu 2530 021 (4/71) DG' Classics D LSO/Monteux ECS789 (10/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15098 London DRPO/Barbirolli GL25011 (10/76) RCA Gold Seal 7008 Quintessence SYMPHONY NO. DSNO/Gibson CFP40218 (9/75) Classics for Pleasure P Bournemouth ASD3038 SO/Berglund/En Saga (1/75) EMI/HMV S-37104 Angel DLSO/Gibson/ Karelia Suite SPA122 (5/71) Decca STS-15189 London BPO/Karajan/ Tapiola 138973 (9/65) DG* ONYPO/Bernstein/ Poh/ola's Daughter 61808 (8/77) CBS Classics MS-6749 Columbia SYMPHONY NO. 7 Oceanides Above: Sibelius's granite-like appearance was BARD D Bournemouth (The) SO/Berglund/Sym. Bournemouth SO/Berglund/ D RPO/Beecham/TapioIa. 5 (1/75) Lemminkainen's (9/72) EMI/Studio 2 (4/67) EMI/HMV EMI/HMV BPO/Karajan/Tapiola Finlandia. Davis/Sym.SYMPHONY NO. Swan ASD3374 (12/77) EMI/HMV S-37408 Angel D RPO/Beecham/ Pelleas. The first kiss. Valse triste. SYMPHONY NO. Swan Berglund HMV S-3778 Angel OCEANIDES EMI/HMV S-60208 Seraphim OLSO/Gibson/Sym. 1 IN E MINOR VPO/Maazel/Karelia Suite JB42 (9/78) Decca Jubilee Helsinki RSO/Kamu/The Bard 2530 455 (9/74) DG* Q Bournemouth SO/Berglund/Scenes SYMPHONY S-60289 Seraphim Karelia Suite EMI/HMV VIOLIN Studio 2 CONCERTO DChung/LSO/Prcvin/Trhaikouslcy SXL6493 (11/701 lecea 6710 London DHeifetz. 5 powerful. Lemminkainen's return of TWO380 (9/72) EMI/Studio 2 triste. Night-Ride and Sunrise SXL6542 (6/72) Decca 6745 London D BPO/Karajan/ En Saga. Male Voice Choir. FINLANDIA 139 016 (3/68) D Boston Finlandia. Tapiola 139 016 (3/68) DG* D Bournemouth SO/Berglund/Finlandia. Valse triste. No. Finlandia. TWO380 triste. Valse triste. 4 JB45 (9/78) Decca Jubilee 6592 London dream. En Saga. Night-Ride and Sunrise SXL6542 (6/72) Decca 6745 London EN SAGA D BPO/Karajan/ Finlandia. Death. ASD2961 II S-36425 Angel Karelia Suite. DConcertgebouw D MAIOR IN 2 Orch. S-37408 Angel Bournemouth SO/Berglund/Sym. 3 9500 142 (8/77) Phonogram NYPO/Bernstein/Sym. 7 139032 DG* Boston SO/C. Davis/Sym. Lemminkainen's return TWO380 (9/72) EMI/HMV SO/Davis 6709 011 (9/77) Phonogram* NO. LSO/Fjelstad ECS794 RPO/Beecham/ Pelleas. Swan of Tuonela. Swan Tuonela. :Cla S-35458 Angel S-37408 Angel Helsinki his Co (12/77) FOUR LEGENDS FROM THE KALEVALA ASD3092 keeping with Bournemouth SO/Berglund/ D Bournemouth ASD2272 in historiawes ASD3216 (12/76) ASD2272 (7/66) EMI/HMV S-60208 Seraphim BPO/Karajan/ Finlandia.INCIDENTAL MUSIC D R. EMI/HMV S-60208 Seraphim SRO/Stein/ En Saga. 6 JB44 (9/78) Decca lubilee D Helsinki PO/Kamu/The Bard 2530 422(12/74) DG D Boston SO/C. Helsinki University (The) Q SRO/Stein/ Poh/ola's 6745 London Tuonela. 3 IN C VPO/Maazel/Sym. Lemminkainen's return DBPO/Karajan/Sym. o 9500 142 (8/77) Phonogram SYMPHONY NO. PO/Groves/In memoriam (2/74) EMI/HMV VALSE TRISTE Halle/Barbirolli/ Finlandia. The Tryst. Tapiola 139 016(3/68) DG* Halle/Barbirolli/Poh/oIa's Daughter. No. Night-Ride SONGS of TWO380 (9/72) EMI/Studio 2 KULLERVO SYMPHONY D Kostia. 5 SPA122 15/71) Decca STS-15189 London Autumn Was evening. 4 ASD3340 (6/77) (SQ) EM1/HMV FINLANDIA SO/Berglund/Valse King Christian 11 Suite. Bournemouth SO/ PELLEAS SXL6542 JB46 (9/78) Decca Jubilee NYPO/Bernstein/Sym.SUITE Halle/Barbirolli/Finlandia. Lemminkainen's return return ASD2308 Valse 5 138973 (9/65) DG* D BPO/Karajan/ En Saga. Swan of Tuonela.SUITE (7/661 Finlandia. Chicago SO/Hendl/Profco/reu LSB4048 (4/72) RCA LSC-4010 RCA DOistrakh. Suite. Vitanen. Moscow Radio SO/ I Rozhdestsvcnsk y ASD2407 (10/68) EMI/HMV 175 . 7 61806 (8/77) CBS Classics IN C MAJOR Bournemouth SO/Berglund/Tapiola. On a balcony by the sea. austere music. Lemminkainen's return SLS807 (7/71) ASD2874 (7/73) EMI/HMV D VPO/Maazel/Sym. Karelia Suite. Poh/ola's Daughter. Tapiola SXLP30197 (2/76) EMI/HMV ASD2272 and Sunrise (6/72) Decca In the evening. 6 Daughter. King Christian II Suite. rushes. Concert Classics Halle/Barbirolli/Sym. Spring flies fast. Since then I have asked no further. SWAN OF TUONELA Concert Classics S-35458 Angel 61806 (8/77) TAPIOLA the March snow. Valse triste DG* SYMPHONIES 1-7.

From Bohe)nia's woods and fields. and for it Smetana (who soon afterwards became conductor there) wrote eight operas. the father of Czech musical nationalism. Litomysl 1824. is also often heard. Though he was precociously gifted. he opened a music school. Wallenstein's the selves revere as the father of their national camp and Hakon it was virtually only in the Czech dances for piano that Smetana quoted actual folk tunes. SYMPHONIC POEMS zech PO/Ancerl SUAST50521-3 ku. again autobiographical. and whom Czechs themmusic — Smetana. Soloists. Polka.BEDRICH SMETANA lb. with the backing of Liszt >. most people would think of Dvorak ». D 1040/2 Genesis MA VLAST K (8/72) Decca Vltava only BPO/Karajan Dvorak ASD3407 (10/771 Ml IIMV DALIBOR OCpte. Vltava. Theatre C DVPO/Kubelik DPAS75-6 (3/77) Decca & Orch. his Though the dance music are typically Right: Smetana. string quartet. Military defeats causing Austria to relax its grip on Bohemia. After this came the heroic tragedy Dalibor and the national festival opera Libuse. A deeply melancholic second string quartet. Vltava only Israel PO/Kertesz/ Bartered Bride. Prague Nat. d. as its sub-title was autobiographical. Prague 1884) name the composer who first distilled the essence of the Bohemian countryside in his music. Svork. The second of these. Furiarit Israel PO Kertesz/Vlfaua. In fact he only continued the pioneer work of the man in whose orchestra Asked to he had been a viola player. there was a big upsurge of nationalist feeling. RO/Kubelik 2530 248 (11/72) DC 176 Trio 6500 133 (12/711 Phonogram) I IN E MINOR Smetana Quartet/String Qf. whose vitality and sparkling melodic invention have won it a firm place in international affection. and was obliged to resign from his theatre post. in order to make ends meet while having lessons in Prague he himself acted as music tutor to the family of Count Thun.ul Richard III. first as a teacher and then conductor of the Philharmonic Society in Goteborg. and the last movement ears. Duorak SPA202 ./Chalabala STS-15096 London SUAST50397-9 (12/72) Supraphon UOverture. Kniplova. The following year a new theatre was opened for native works. who also introduced him to a publisher. SrT ietana M^Vlast THE BARTERED BRIDE [ ICpte. is Smetana's most popular composition and describes in music the course of the river on which Prague stands. beginning with the historical Brandenburgers Bohemia and then creating his comic masterpiece The bartered bride. 2 STRING QUARTET NO. was written in 1882: the following year Smetana's mind gave way. and finally. Theatre/Krombholt I SUAST50O713 10 721 I Supraph< i PIANO TRIO IN G MINOR D Beaux Arts Trio/Chopin: Pno. While there he wrote three programmatic symphonic poems in the Lisztian mould — Richard III. Wallensteins Lager Bav. But conditions proved not to be favourable. in which he took part. followed by light in comedies of Bohemian rural rhythms and melodic cast of life. Overwork brought on severe headaches and ill-health. Svobodova. and he ended his days in an asylum. a fervent patriot. circumstances for some time delayed his taking up the study of music. No. opening another music school and becoming conductor of a choral society. and after the death of his little daughter (which impelled him to write his elegiac Piano Trio in G minor) he moved to Sweden. a persistent high violin E in represents the fatal whistling in his from this period of deafness also date operas and the imposing cycle of six symphonic poems on nationalist subjects called Ma Vlast (My country). Hakon l. During this time he wrote a number of polkas for the young pianist who was shortly to become his first wife. Following the revolution of 1848. 4. ]ar\. SUAST50448 Supraphon (7/73) IlioslonSO/Kubelik 2707 054 112/71 DG< I Supraphc Carnival in Prague. returned to Prague for good in 1863. and Smetana. His first Bohemian. and in 1874 Smetana suddenly became completely deaf. Prague Nat. Nevertheless his last rustic "From my life" indicates. Svehla. Priybl. where he spent four successful years. Dvorak SPA202 18/721 Decca n I (indrak. Horao cek.

his oratorios (some of which were written for England). his nine symphonies (several with programmatic titles). OP. and the unerring skill of his instrumentation were universally recognised — as was the unexpected nature of his modulations./ Vivienne/Stamitz: Clar. 31 Vienna Octet/DMe. Though occasional performances are still given of the eighth of his fifteen violin concertos (cast "in the form of a song sccna"). enjoying a reputation equal to Beethoven's 3> throughout the nineteenth century. OP. of his two clarinet concertos. FLAT. 3 ORYX1828 112/731 Peerless/Oryx* CONCERTANTE NO. Yet his melodic fluency. Qr. Brunswick I784. 1 FOR VIOLIN. and though he was baffled by Beethoven's later style and by Weber's 3> Der Freischiitz (whose introduction of the supernatural into opera he had anticipated in his own Faust). his great success as a composer. has now faded to a fact in the history books.l ) LOiseau-Lyre* 2 IN E CLARINET CONCERTO NO. his 34 string quartets (including some very fine examples) or his songs. OP. whose Flying Dutchman and Tannhauser he conducted — the latter in the face of considerable opposition. 17/74) Decca Ac SDD416 Diamonds STS-15074 London OCTET IN E. ISO/Davis/ Weber: Oar. and of a few of his chamber works — notably the delightful Octet and the witty Nonet — next to nothing is heard of his ten operas (of which Zcmirc and Azor and ]essonda were particularly popular). he had been enabled by the Duke of Brunswick to continue his studies with a famous teacher. SOL60035 | 1 1/c. 57 Denman. Sadler's Wells Orch. but increasingly at loggerheads with his employer on account of his liberal politics and musical sympathies. OP. his Faust. who took him to Russia: on his return he entered the ducal orchestra. 47 (GESANGSZENE) DH. CRD30-407 l8/7o) CRD NONET IN F. which he filled with distinction for more than a quarter of a century. as well as scenes constructed as continuous wholes. His music is a curious mixture of the conventionally classical and the romantic. and became conductor of the Frankfurt Opera. became leader of the new Theater an der Wien in Vienna. Incidentally.LOUIS SPOHR lb. Cone. Cassel IS?") Like Spohr's widespread fame as a violinist. Holliger. which was not based on Goethe. which were responsible for the much-quoted charge of over-chromaticism. he was an ardent admirer of Wagner ».d. who enjoyed a huge reputation but whose star is momentarily in eclipse. and two years later became leader of the Duke of Gotha's orchestra. HARP AND ORCHESTRA D Following his first tour at the age of 14. produced his Faust in Prague. CLARINET CONCERTO NO. he wrote three operas for Hamburg. Touring as a soloist the while. SO/Beck/ Vln. 177 . shows the use of leading-motives before Wagner. ot Diamonds VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. Spohr was busy as an eminent concert violinist. Bress. Cone. All his life. MINOR. in addition to his activities as a composer. which sometimes tempted him into excessive length. 26 1 IN C D De Pcycr. " SOL278 (4/6e>) L'Oiseau-Lyre CHEESES SPOHR SONET IN F MAJOR members of the VIENNA Above: Spohr. OP. in his \ DOUBLE-QUARTET IN E MINOR OCTET day. SDD256 (10/70) Decca Ace Qu. Schneeberger. ECO/ Graf/R and Harp Son. Cone.) When Weber declined the appointment as musical director to the Elector of Cassel he recommended Spohr for the post. 32 D Vienna Oetet/ Beethoven. U. 8 IN A MINOR. (His claim to have been the first to conduct with a baton in London the following year may have been an exaggeration.

E. who had taken not only Vienna hut the whole of Europe by storm with his 178 lilting dances. Morning Papers. Strauss Blood. Voices of Spring and the Emperor. II: E. Liebeslieder Waltz. Blue Danube. Wine. Tales from the Viei Emperor Waltz sky O J. Pizzicato Polka. Radetsky March. . Roses from the South Waltz. Eingesendet. losef Str iiss. FLEDERMAUS D Cpte. Tales from the Vienna Woods Waltz. Following Offenbach's >visit to Vienna to supervise the had attempted to head him off production of some of his stage works. Tales Eingesendet. pouring out a profusion of elegantly melodious dances which presented to the world a roseate picture of the Imperial capital. II: New Champagne Polka. Annen Polka. Five years later. ESD7025 (12/76) EMI/HMV THE WORLD OF JOHANN STRAUSS -VOL. Fledermaus Waltz. and to bring him lasting fame. Song. 3 Die Fledermaus Overture. 2 Gipsy Baron Overture. Wine. Morning Papers. Bandit Galop. lockey. 1804-1849) who. Perpetuum mobile. Varady. Fischer-Dieskau. Artists' Life Waltz. there 1899) Johann. Roses from from the Vienna Josef Strauss: Spharenklange. St Petersburg (for summer concerts during a whole decade). Prey. Rebroff/Bavarian Slate Op. but it was the It was his father (also younger Johann. fre 7. and have been admired by serious composers as dissimilar as Brahms > and Wagner > and by innumerable musicians since. of Vienn. Eljen a Magyar. Lieb' und Lust. Fassba nder/ Vienna Op. /. Poland. Napoleon March. the South. Tritsch-Tratsch Polka*. St. who become the "waltz king". Some of these were fatally flawed Zigeunerbaron). he amalgamated the two orchestras and began a career which was to take him to Germany. DVPO/Boskovsky SDDC298-300 (10/71) Decca Ace Dil Bahn of ml. Women and ods. Wo die Zitronen bluhn. playing music by his father and himself. Vienna Blood Waltz. though it has become the very epitome of Viennese charm: other famous waltzes are Artists' life. was originally for chorus and was not a success. Emperor Waltz. Morning Papers./C. His nearly 200 waltzes — which are chains of lilting tunes. Explosions. The Hunt Polka. Holn Berry. Explosions Polka. for example. however. 1 On the beautiful blue Danube Waltz. of great diversity and often with extensive and atmospheric introductions and codas — and his numerous polkas and other dances. New Pizzicato Polka*. Strauss fr. DIE Gedda. His father was to from following in his footsteps. Accelerations Waltz.. Perpetuum mobile. Tales from the Vienna Woods. Gypsy Baron March. Roses from the South. but Die Fledermaus (The Bat) in 1874 was a masterpiece and is universally loved: of the other operettas the most completely satisfactory was The gipsy baron (Der genre. Strauss turned his attention to operetta and produced sixteen pieces in this by their librettos. Paris and the USA. Rothenberger./VSO/Boskovsky SLS964 (2/731 HMV S-3790 Angel CiCpte. Voices of Spring. A statue of him playing his violin is one of Vienna's best-known landmarks. The Hunt. Plappermaulchen. Thunder and Lightning Polka. Leichtes Blut Polka. The blue Danube. Tales Woods. Persian March. London. many of whose titles contain topical allusions. & Ch. the most brilliant of his three sons. Eljen a Magyar Polka. are also remarkable for their subtle and brilliant scoring (the zither in Tales from the Vienna woods. Vienna Bonbons DVPO/Boskovsky SPA312 (11/73) Decca Right: A drawing made in 1896 of the 'waltz king' Johann Strauss the younger. Vienna Pizzicato Polka. had started the waltz on its course as the dance that was to become the craze of Vienna. In the Vi< i Wo Egyptian March. Feuerfest. Strauss I: Radetzky March. Thunder and Lightning. is of haunting effect). Persian March. Knappertsbusch SPA73 (8/70) Decca THE WORLD OF JOHANN STRAUSS — VOL. Park. Wine. Pizzicato Polka. Emperor Waltz DVSO/Horenstein GL25019 (10/76) RCA Gold Seal 7051 Quintessence Blue Danube. Strauss Orch. with Lanner. but he studied the violin and composition in secret and at the age of 19 appeared with his own orchestra. Strauss: Bahn frei. Popp.Intermezzo. Kleiber 2707 088(10/76) DG* MUSIC OF THE STRAUSS FAMILY /. d. Kollo. on his father's death. Vienna Bonbons. Vienna 1825. Women and Song Walt/. Vienna Blood. Vienna Blood. Bandits DHalle/Loughran CFP40256 (11/76) Classics for Pleasure WALTZES Blue Danube. Weikl. Thousand and one nights . Egyptian March. Roses from the South. Wine Women and Song. women and song. Voices of Spring Waltz DVPO/Boskovsky SPA10 (4/69) Decca CTTTF WOIfLDOF THE WORLD OF JOHANN STRAUSS -VOL. Artist's Life.JOHANN STRAUSS II (b. Pizzicato Polka (with losef Strauss). Emperor Waltz* DVPO/Boskovsky*. Orch.

with which he toured throughout Europe and in the USA. The Blue Danube (as untruthful a description as could be imagined).Above: The melody of the most famous waltz of all time. had to do. 179 . written out by ]o- hann Strauss and signed. for as he so often someone's autograph album. being greeted everywhere with rapturous enthusiasm. Top: Strauss was a practical musician whose innumerable dances were written for his own orchestra.

Richard Strauss had Right: golden touch. a .As a conductor and a composer of operas and concert works of dazzlingly virtuosic orchestration.

STRAUSS RICHARD Munich 1864. challenged by any of his ten subsequent operas. along with Ravel > and Respighi * one of the greatest of all virtuoso orchestrators: such — together with his distinction as a conductor — are Strauss's chief passports to the Pantheon of fame. whose series of vivid tone-poems had caused a sensation. Meanwhile he had created a sensation with a succession of vividly scored and harmonically audacious tone-poems which raised programmatic writing these included the passionate Eulenspiegel's Don Quixote to a new level of virtuosity — Don Juan. very Wagnerian. Also sprach Quixote. 64 2740 111 (10/74) AN Dresden Staatskapelle/Kempe ASD3137 (4/76) EMI/HMV ALSO SPRACH ZARATHUSTRA D Chicago SO/Reiner CCVS040 (6/68) Camden Classics VPO/Karajan SDD175 (7/68 Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15083 London QBPO/Karaian 1 2530 402 (o/74| The controversial younj Richard Strauss. Der Rosenkavalier (1911) was also charged with being immoral. But even this paled besides the outrage caused by his one-act operas Salome. Don Heldenleben. considered brutal and anti-vocal. Mahler > described Strauss as a "great opportunist". His again depicted his relationship with his temperamental wife: his Silent woman caused an upheaval (because his librettist was Jewish) with Strauss resigned the the Nazis. the most successful writer of symphonic poems. at first branded as obscene. the elegiac Metamorphosen (a lament for his defeated country). Till Eulenspiegel. The son of a horn-player in the Munich Opera. and some of the elegance comedy Intermezzo had Capriccio. von Biilow as conductor of the Meiningen orchestra before joining the Munich Opera. a quartet and two symphonies to his credit) he first assisted. Left: DC DRPO/Lewis/TiH SPA397 (7/75) Decca D Chicago SO/Solti/Don luan- Till SXL6749 (12/75) Decca 6978 London 181 . and began a regular association with the Berlin Philharmonic. married the leading soprano. of which the most distinguished were the small-scale Ariadne auf Naxos (originally the two-in-one entertainment at the end of Le bourgeois gentilhomme). he acquired an extraordinary mastery in writing for orchestra at a very early age — his first publication was an orchestral march composed when only twelve — and at 21 (already with his wind Serenade and Violin Concerto. After the exhaustion of his first creative fires. taking over the Berlin Court Opera four years later. a conversation-piece with of his revered Mozart >. One of the few twentieth-century composers to have several operas firmly in the international repertoire. During this time he had transferred his musical allegiances from Brahms > to Liszt > and Wagner >: in 1894 he conducted at Bayreuth. the rollicking Till merry pranks and the witty but humane (with a solo cello representing the hero). Tod und Verklarung. its luscious vocal writing (Strauss had a love-affair with the soprano voice all his life) and particularly its beguiling waltzes soon carried all before them. luan.r^. ORCHESTRAL WORKS Don tV . in both of which Strauss revelled in elaborate orchestral detail and exotic colouring. Its supremacy was not Above: In Strauss's last years his genius flowered anew. and Elektra. d. and the opera quickly became a universal favourite. and besides the unmistakable whiff of bombast and vulgarity in Thus spake Zarathustra. eclipsing Sibelius > in popularity and sheer brilliance. Dance Salorne- Veils. opera Guntram produced. then succeeded. Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1949) (b. the questionable taste of his self-aggrandisement and self-satisfaction (reviling his opponents the while) in the autobiographical A hero's life and Sinfonia domestica aroused considerable criticism. Ein Seven of the Zarathustra. it is undeniable that Strauss came to rely on his extraordinary technical facility and his skill at spinning complex textures. Metamorphosen BPO/Karajan DG* ALPINE SYMPHONY. had his first. OP. in which he produced works suffused with a golden mellow glow — the Second Horn Concerto and the Oboe Concerto. but its humour. the lyrical Arabella. as a result of which presidency of the Reichsmusik- kammer. and (after a number of fine lieder in his youth) the final beautiful Four last songs for soprano and orchestra. but in his eighties he enjoyed an Indian summer.

Dermota. The following year Diaghilev produced SINFONIA DOMESTICA 6978 London POEM. 6500 097 (12/71) Phonogram* D Netherlands Wind 6500 297 (10/72) Phonogram* Till ASD2955 etc. Minton.WALTZES FROM THE OPERA D Chicago Staatskapelle/Kempe ASD3319 Donath. a SPA397 S-37057 Angel 2530 368 (12/74) his many EMI/HMV (4/74) 2530 349 (6/74) O Fournier/BPO/Karajan DG him conducting the case with so VPO/Karajan/Tod. Salome. was against him becoming a musician and sent him to study law. which brought him fame overnight in 1910. Krause./De Waart/ Wind SONATINA FOR Vars.Dance SDD211 (12/69) Decca Ace of Diamonds 6211 London BPO/Karajan/ Four Last Songs 2530 368 (12/74) DG O VPO/Reiner/ Till D BPO/Karajan (10/75) EMI/HMV ECS674 (5/73) Decca Eclipse D LSO/Horenstein/Hindemifrl Angel Staatskapelle/Kempe/ Concert SLS880 (6/74) his Petrushka. SERENADE FOR 13 WIND INSTRUMENTS IN E FLAT. Ludwig. Si contemporary Picasso) often prompted accusations of "reaction at all costs" and publicity-seeking: it would be truer to say that they sprang from an exceptionally keen and original mind which. VPO/Solti SET418-21 (9/69) Decca Cpte. D Dresden impresario Diaghilev. Philh. and PO/SoIti SET354-5 (11/67) Decca 1269 London S. 1882. Hoffman. Dresden Staatskapelle/Kempe/Till. lanowitz. Waechter. 2535 208 (12/76) DG Privilege 138866 DG Dresden Staatskapelle/Kempe/Also. Oranienbaum. Fischer-Dieskau. and we are fortunate in having a number of recordings of ASD3074 DON JUAN-SYMPHONIC POEM. 2709 038 (8/72) RO/Bohm DC* EMI/HMV (7/75) SALOME D Cpte. As a centre of artistic polemics and as an influence on others he was one of the great key figures of this century. EMI/HMV (4/77) ARABELLA Cple. Kmentt. the most significant pointer to the future was the Infernal dance. his first ballet for the great 28 RPO/Lewis/A/so sprach (7/75) Decca Chicago SO/SoIti/Don ]u ELEKTRA ASD3126 own works. Beethoven: Crosse Fuge 2530 066 (6/73) DG* Dresden Staatskapelle/Kempe/ Concert SLS861 (10/73) HMV OBOE CONCERTO D Holliger/New Philh. Bav. having explored to the full any one set of possibilities. Stolze. Vienna Op. 6500 481 (3/75) Phonogram* VPO/Karajan/TVhailcoDslcy: Romeo and for nr. d. Edelmann./Sawallisch/Hindemitri HLS7001 (3/72) EMI/HMV METAMORPHOSEN FOR 23 Stravinsky SOLO STRINGS OBPO/Karajan/Mozart: Adagio and Fugue in C minor. 20 Chicago SO/Reiner/Rosenkaunlier Waltzes. Stravinsky's bewildering changes of style in the course of his career (which have been likened to those of his HMV RHS312 (8/73) Unicorn 71307 Nonesuch VOCAL RECITALS D Janet Baker. OP. EIN 16 INSTRUMENTS. Salo Dan ASD3074 (7/75) EMI/HMV D Rostropovich/BPO/Karajan ASD3118 (6/76) EMI/HMV 2535 195 (8/76) York 1971) S. etc. Prey. VPO/Solti SET228-9 (3/62) Decca 1218 London OP. his father. SXL6749 (12/75) Decca 6978 London Cpre. As was Waechter.RICHARD STRAUSS IGOR STRAVINSKY (b. Edelmann. Los Angeles PO/Mehta SXL6382 (6/69) Decca 6608 London D Concertgebouw/Haitink 6500 048 (1/71) Phonogram* ASD2431 (1/69) Wolf EMI/HMV Schwarzkopf. Dresden Staatskapelle/Kempe/ Schreier.36973 Angel TILL EULENSPIEGEL-SYMPHONIC POEM./De Waart/ Suite Juliet (10/71) Decca 6209 London Chicago SO/Solti/Also sprach. 35 Tortelier/Dresden Staatskapelle/ Kempe/ Rosenkavalier Waltzes FOUR LAST SONGS D Schwarzkopf/Berlin RSO/Szell/Songs ASD2888 (9/73) EMI/HMV Angel DJanowitz/BPO/Karajan/Tod DG* HELDENLEBEN. 2535 208 (12/76) 138866 DG DG Privilege DON QUIXOTE. was not content to repeat his effects. who encouraged and taught Stravinsky. Moore/Schubert. Chorus. Resnik. 16 D Dresden EMI/HMV (2/77) CCV5051 Camden (6/68) Classics Cple. Ridderbusch. Vienna Opera Chorus. LSO/Szell/Mozart ASD2493 (3/70) EMI/HMV Above: Stravinsky's meteoric career began with The BPO/Karajan 2535 194 (8/76) 138025 DG DG Privilege HORN CONCERTOS NOS.36347 7 Ens. composers. spr Privilege Stolze. D SO/Reiner/Dou Juan: Burleske CAPRICCIO D HMV ROSENKAVALIER . New D BPO/Karajan Eulenspiegel SXL6749 (12/75) Decca Petersburg. and whose influence is apparent in a youthful symphony and (along with that of the French impressionists) in The Firebird. VPO/SoIti GOS571-3 (8/72) Decca Ace of Diamonds Welitsch. In this scintillating fairy-tale score. OP. . OP. Schwarzkopf. Jungwirth./Karajan S-63S22 Richmond SLS810 (10/71) AUS 1TALIEN-SYMPHONIC POEM. Stich-Randall. D Gueden. luan Troyanos. OP. London.FANTASTIC VARIATIONS. Salome-Dance SDD211 (12/69) Decca Ace of Diamonds 6211 London D BPO/Karajan/ Don luan. NO. Burleske BPO/karajan/Till Eulenspiegel. Ch. DER ROSENKAVALIER Salome — Dance ESD7026 Cpre. but a fellow-student was a son of Rimsky-Korsakov >. OP. Crespin. 1 AND 2 OBrain/Philh. SPA119 S./De Waart/ Mozart 6500 174 (1/72) Phonogram. Collier. Salome — Dance SLS894 HMV TOD UND VERKLARUNG VPO/Karajan/Till. Nilsson. K546. BPO/Bohm/ Till. Delia Casa. Dot.37060 famous operatic bass. Nilsson. Salome-Dance D Netherlands Wind CCV50S1 Camden (6/68) Classics 2S30 349 (6/74) DG* Concertgebouw/Haitink/Elgar: Enigma Sym. 182 ftJlQNEUA Firebird. WIND 1 IN F Ens.SYMPHONIC 40 DG* :AUi O BPO/Bohm/ Don D Juan.

favouring the use of wind instruments as being more "objective" than strings. Alldis SOLDIER'S TALE Ch. Paris Cons.BALLET SUITE ZRG575 D Suisse (10/68) Decca Argo* Romande/Ansermet/Song of the Nightingale (10/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15011 London (The) RAKE'S PROGRESS D Cple.n -ton Oaks Concerto. (8/78) Decca Eclipse 6190 London VIOLIN CONCERTO DKyung Wha-Chung. Manning. Luxon. 1 62 (8/78) Decca Eclipse 6190 London SYMPHONY IN THREE MOVEMENTS SRO/Ansermet/Sym. rhythmic and harmonic novelty and all contributed to its overwhelming 1913 the elemental Rite of Spring. LPO/Haitink 6500 483 (11/75) Phonogram 6500 458 Philips D Cpte. are all tautly compressed. in BALLETS. 72181 (8/64) ECS820 in C CBS D SRO/Ansermet/Sym. by composer 78307 (11/76) S-37081 London (7/75) S-37081 London FAIRY'S KISS D Kern. Haitink SPA152 Shostakovich SDD242 in EMI/HMV Soldier's Tale SDD247 VAR1022 Diamonds (2/71) Decca D THE FIREBIRD. as in on Pergolesi >) and pastiche. Fleet. but it has long since been recognised as a major landmark in twentieth-century music./Monteux/ Firebird SPA152 (1/721 Decca STS-15197 London D Suite only: NYFO/Bernstein/Firebird 61122 (O/70) CBS Classics SONG OF THE NIGHTINGALE PULCINELLA. (11/63) L'Oiseau-Lyre CAPR1CCIO FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA STS-15048 London Ogdon/ ASMF/Marriner/ £ only: Suisse/Ansermet/ Ace of Argo* CONCERTO FOR PIANO AND WIND INSTRUMENTS Magaloff/Suisse/ Ansermet/ Capriccio (3/71) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15048 London D LSO/Abbado/ Firebird 2530 537 (8/75) STS-15102 London RITE OF SPRING. Garmei. Sadler's Wells. Ragtime.. in structure at least. Q Carlisle. CBS DLSO/Davis Boston Ensemble/Howarth/Dimil'. The Symphonies of wind instruments and the drily witty Octet exemplify this trend. of Psalms 72181 (8/64) CBS MS-6548 Columbia SRO/Ansermet/Sym. This neo-classical phase also involved both highly individualised regenerations of the past. 4 SYMPHONY Etudes. APOLLO O ASMF/Marriner/ Pulcine//a ZRG575 (10/68) Decca Argo* CONCERTO FOR 16 INSTRUMENTS IN E FLAT (DUMBARTON OAKS) Q Los Angeles CO/Marriner/Conc.BALLET a Tyler.BALLET Cpte. the opera The Rake's progress. SDD242 (4/71) Decca Ace of ZRG674 IN Los Angeles CO/Marriner/Conc. Scherzo SDD241 (11/70) Decca Ace Suisse ASMF/Marriner/ApoHo 6500 483 (11/75) Phonogram* D Cpte. Young. Finding himself in Switzerland at the outbreak of World War I. Suites ECS820 Ace of ECS776 Classics D Suites only: PCO/Monteux/ Petmshka 72054 (4/61) ECO/Davis/CantnfO (11/63) L'Oiseau Lyre MAVRA SDD241 of onds Dii DG* WOODWINDS D Murray. flat. austere "Apollonian" (as opposed to "Dionysian") style. Romande/ Ansermet/ Maura. McCowen. Concertino 2530 551 (1/76) DG* (1/72) Decca STS-15197 London only: Berlin Radio SO/Maazel/ Song of the Nightingale D Suite 2548 145 (4/74) DG Heliodor NYPO/Bernstein/Petrus/ik. Davies. without any hope of the large forces he had hitherto demanded. THE RITE OF SPRING FIREBIRD. LSO/Dutoit 2530 711 (5/77) DG* D Cpte. D. This economy of means turned his thoughts towards a "neo-classical" style which was to exert a profound influence throughout Europe: reacting against romantic warmth. Sarfaty. it deliberately adopted a non-expressive stance. RPO/Stravinsky 77304 (3/65) CBS M35-710 Columbia RSO/Maazel/Firebird 2548 145 (4/74) DG Heliodor Berlin Suisse Romande/Ansermet/ Pulcinella ECS776 (10/76) Decca Eclipse STS-15011 London IN C Columbia SO/Stravinsky/Sym. 61122 (9/70) CBS Classics O Suite only: 6580 013 (10/72) Phonogram Chicago SO/Solti SXL6691 (11/74) Decca 6885 London a LPO/Haitink 6500 482 (11/75) Phonogram* LSO/Abbado 2530 635 (5/76) DG* SO/Dorati/Petrushka 6582 021 (8/77) Phonogram Concertgebouw/Davis 9500 323 (3/78) Phonogram D Minneapolis OEDIPUS REX D Pears. in 3 Mouts..FIREBIRD: PETRUSHKA. Watts. Stravinsky RENARD MAVRA Scherzo 6 bRusse IORCHESTRE DE LA SUISSE in ROMANDE ANSERMET harmony and instrumentation initially created a scandal. Dean. to whose musical theories he had been strongly opposed. Mitchinson. LPO/Solti (The) SET616 D Nash (2/78) Decca PETRUSHKA .BALLET Magaloff/Suisse/Ansermet/Pimui G Wind Cone. After the death of Schoenberg >. MacDonald. Keyte. Stravinsky had by this time left Russia for good. Franzini. though of unusual constitution (The Wedding was written for four pianos and percussion).BALLET D Columbia SO/Stravinsky/tfl/l by MASS FOR VOICES AND Allister. and in works set in Latin in order to lend them distance and a hieratic. Sinclair. Suisse/ SDD245 (4/71) Decca PULCINELLA. Rouleau. These final works. St Anthony SOL265 Sgrs. Octet CFP40098 (2/75) Classics NYPO/Boulez for Pleasure 73056 (9/74) CBS M-31076 Columbia D Cpte. monumental quality. according to the listener's viewpoint. Players/ Pastorale. Another aspect of this objectivity was his cultivation of a grave.BALLET Diamonds Diamonds RENARD. as in the Cantata and the ballet Agon. Douses concertantes CANTATA ON ANONYMOUS 15th AND 16th CENTURY ENGLISH LYRICS Young. of Wind. D Divertimento Anthony ECO/Davis/Moss SOL26S St Sgrs. such as the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex and the masterly Symphony of psalms. later in its strictest form. subtle characterisation and effect. 6747 094 (10/74) Phonogram JEU DE CARTES. he made a virtue of necessity and wrote theatre works — Renard. Onuses concertantes RITE OF SPRING ASD3077 LPO/Haitink 6747 094 (10/74) Phonogram D Columbia SO/Stravinsky/Ta/J. and breathe Pulcinella (based asceticism or aridity. R. Garrard. Its orgiastic violence and iconoclastic concepts of rhythm. Reardon. Meyer.. Mclntyre. Scherzo ( 1 RPO/Dorati (4/77) CRD/Enigma 1/70) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15102 London OCTET FOR WIND Symphony Chbr. Suisse/ Ansermet/Renurd. he suddenly capitulated and from 1952 onwards (by which time he had long been settled in the USA) embraced dodecaphony. D English. Glossop. as in his ballets on classical Greek legends Apollo Musagetes and Orpheus and the melodrama Persephone. of Psalms ECS820 (8/78) Decca Eclipse 6190 London SYMPHONY OF PSALMS D Columbia SO/Stravinsky/Sym. Raskin. as in The Fairy's kiss (where the model was Tchaikovsky >) and. Walton SXL6601 LSO/Previn/ (5/73) Decca 183 .whose vivid colours.A BURLESQUE D LPO/Haitink Ansermet (2/71) Decca Cpte. EMI/HMV CONCERTO FOR STRINGS ASD3077 CBS (7/75) PETRUSHKA. the narrated mime The Soldier's tale and the choreographic cantata The Wedding — which employed only chamber instrumental groups. at first slightly tempered. from Threni onwards.

It is one of history's ironies that throughout his life he was constantly being urged not to waste his time on such frivolities as light opera but to concentrate on serious composition. . and conducting — which brought him a knighthood at the age of 41. which Leipzig and absorb the German in . he received a good musical background.ARTHUR SULLIVAN '.1 there 1900) The century-old cult of the Gilbert-and-Sullivan operettas (which only the expiry of the copyright saved from total mummification) has resulted in many people being practically unaware of Sullivan as an individual at all. As the son of a leading bandmaster and as a chorister in the Chapel Royal. particularly sacred music. and subsequently at the Royal Academy of Music was the first recipient of the enabled him to study Mendelssohn scholarship.

was unremarkable. Morison. f topsy-turvy comedy situations and topical satire Offenbach >. of a new- become the Royal College of composed The Sorcerer and HMS Pinafore. Chorus and Orch. The first. PAO Chorus. which broke all records by running for 700 consecutive nights and was extensively pirated in the USA. Cameron. HMV THE GONDOLIERS. Wallace.BALLET larr. O "41 Decca I OVERTURES HMS Pinafore. /Pro Arte Sargent SXLP30112-3 11 68] EMI HMV Concert Cla-- THE MIKADO D Studholme.EMI Fest. Kern. COX AND BOX -loung. his reputation rests on the melodic charm.tradition. Sargent SXDW302°. Revili. Brannigan. Glyndeboume Fest. Shaw. Holmes. Sullivan and Patience enabled their impresario to open a newtheatre for the "Savoy operas". within a fortnight. Dowling.4 -. Brannigan Glyndeboume Ch. when he was introduced to W. Ivanhoe. Cameron. his first stage comedy Cox and Box. Mo Leu aker. Decca Groves TWO403 3 73 EMI Studio 2 185 . Lewis. The death of his father prompted his In Memoriam overture. Young. I. Allister.ill Arte Sargent EMI him by scope? can be perceived HMV HMSPHATOEE hum \\\ ji in PINEAPPLE POLL. While shouldering extra responsibilities as director. Yeomen ot the Guard: Gondoliers: Overture di Bal!< Iolanthe: DRPC nl New SO Godfrey SPA250 ZRLPO Decca portrait of in this well- Sir John Millais. The Mikado. The Yeomen of the guard (an attempt at a more serious manner! and The Gondoliers. Godfrey SKL4925-6 (9/68) Decca Harper. BY JURY Sinclair. Their first collaboration. The further triumphs of The Pirates of Penzance conservatoire. and a new theatre was built for his one "grand" opera.. TRIAL D Monson. Sinclair. for three years. as they were grandiloquently called. At this point a rupture between librettist and composer turned Sullivan's thoughts. D. Cameron. and with conducting he maintained regular associations during his life with London. Pirates of Penzance. SXLP30088-O It Concert Class Sargent a EMI HMV - IOLANTHE ZCpte. but it led to an 18-year partnership which produced more than a dozen runaway taste for a la successes. Sadler's Wells Oper. Glasgow and Leeds]. Gilbert. Much as he would have deplored the fact. Glyndeboume Fest. their only piece to be continuously composed. Brannigan. G. Glyndeboume Arte Orch. S. Mackerrasl RPO. Mackerras ESD702S . Thomas. for Christmas 1871. Milligan. an ingenious librettist with a cantatas. PAO/Sargent 12 "1 EMI HMV Concert Classics S-6102 Seraphim RUDDIGORE Z Baker.l. Chorus. On made name his Tempest: he took posts as an organist and 1862 with his incidental music to The his return in this led to a commission for a festival cantata Symphony.1. OVERTURE D[ BALLO ZRLPO Groves Symphony PATIENCE Z Monson M. Wakefield. Mikado. encouraged by the enthusiastic reception of his cantata The golden legend. Brannigan. again to serious music. . Baker. and later in the decade came Iolanthe. Baker. later to Music../Faris SOC244-5 9 71 World Records D'Oyly Carte Opera Co R Nash SKL5158-3 I known Sinclair. Heddle Nash. Baker. (8 77) Above: Did an insatiable public Left: Sullivan's intrinsic seriousness SKL4624-5 Opera Co /Sargent (11 c-4 . Thomas. Z D'Oyly SXDW3031 ASD2435 EM] 2/tt Carte Opera SKL413S-40 cl 11 Co Godrrey Decca HMS PINAFORE. Pro HMV SYMPHONY FLAT (IRISH Groves Oi-trture M Ballo ASD2435 (2/69) I EMI HMV YEOMEN OF THE GUARD y Carte 11 72) ro restrict Sullivan's Concert Classics SXLP30131-2 Nash. wrote a Marmion overture and produced. without dialogue. N. Sinclair. polished craftsmanship. 77 EM] HMV PIRATES OF PENZANCE Z DOyly Carte Op Co. Concert Classics IN E Z RLPO Ch. was Trial by jury. the following year Sullivan was instrumental in re-discovering Schubert's > Rosamunde music. which charmed by its vitality and melodic freshness. lucid instrumentation and gift for parody in his operettas. He was still mainly occupied with oratorios and and to his "Irish" with editing and writing hymns. but this proved a disappointment. Lewis.

in the mid15705. Two of his tunes for a 1567 psalter have become famous out of context — one adapted as "Tallis's canon". but the Latin church music almost certainly preceded the English — some Latin motets indeed were later adapted as English anthems. d. shortly afterwards he Cantiones sacrae. Greenwich 1585) . the other taken by Vaughan Williams > as the theme of his O string Fantasia.Above: Appreciation of Szymanowski is beginning to grow.ilri^^^^liliklM5liMi^il. Spent in alium. of which. "father of English cathedral music" sometimes bestowed on the c. ?. His remarkable motet in forty parts (eight fivepart choirs). r 1505. The Leicestershire title first ^iliMl. Right: A page from Szymanowski's score of his 3rd Symphony THOMAS TALLIS (b. Tallis makes sense only in that ARCHIV he was one of to write for the Anglican service ("Tallis in the Dorian mode" is still in the repertory). his junior by some forty years. engraving of . sacrum convivium and Audivi media node. he became joint organist with Byrd >.. which they subsequently pleaded to exchange for an annual grant. IN ALIUM (40-part molet) SPEM Right: An Thomas Italian Tallis. was a volume of 1540. interest of his historical position transition from the choirmaster at Roman rite..I. each contributing half. 186 O HKOC ANTIONI: ANTIQHA. Another of his masterpieces is the gravely beautiful Lamentations of Jeremiah. In 1575 Queen Elizabeth granted them her sole patent to print music. contrasts with the simplicity nata lux: other fine Latin motets are of. Tallis's works cannot be definitely dated. Waltham Abbey is Thomas Tallis: Lamentationes Jeremiae William Byrd: Missa tics vocum but the particular that he bridged the He had been before its organist or dissolution in is known to have been a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. for example.ONlX>N CANTIONES SACRAE (jointly with Byrd| DCantores in Ecclesia/Howard SOL311-3 (12/69) L'Oiseau-Lyre Clerkes of Oxenford/Wulstan/TnHis recital CFP40069 17/74) Classics for Pleasure Kind's College Choir/Willcocks/ LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH Motets DPro Cantionc Antiqua/Turner/ Byrd: ZK30-1 (1/78) Decca Ar s o Mass 2533 113 (10/72) DG Archiv/ Produktion. and their first publication.

Meanwhile. had received its first performance. OP. Op. more nationalist character of the Slopiewnie songs (to surrealist texts). d. 35. But lured by the spell of Strauss's > orchestral music. A leg injury in boyhood made educated at aristocratic it necessary for him to be home. which both acted as antidotes period A is turgid. down. Op. Sroubek. Lausanne 1937) Szymanowski's music is known— which is unfortunately not very far. and he died of tuberculosis in a sanatorium. His opera Hagith clearly shows its descent from Strauss's Salome. the virtuoso piano Masques. His the Tatra mountains. polytonal Mazurkas for piano. 30 OK. mysticism. he went for three years to Berlin. including a B flat minor Etude whose later popularity hung around his neck like Rachmaninov's > C sharp minor Prelude round his) that he was able to go and study in Warsaw. It was produced the sensual. Metopes. VIOLIN CONCERTOS NO. Szymanowski's operatic masterpiece King Roger. 34. elaborately textured works by which he is chiefly remembered: the piano Metopes (on classical Greek legends). It is an overworked convention to divide a composer's output into three periods. but in the present case this is valid because of the marked changes in his style. Fantasie SUAST50S80 12/75) Supraphon PIANO WORKS Etudes. Polish musicians however consider his last works to represent him at his best. In the 1917 Revolution his family's estates were plundered and destroyed. however. and more especially in the crisp. which is imbued with a luminous pantheism. Sanatowski AUR5063 (4/78) Rediffusion/ Aurora MYTHES. composing during this time his magnificent Stabat Mater. For three years he headed the Warsaw State Conservatory. 4. ecstatic.3 POEMS FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO. and its influence is to be perceived in the simpler. Ukraine. where he became the centre of a small colony of Polish musicians. 29 (3/73) Decca Argo . OP. Hala/Ysaye: Au rouet. and the Songs of a love-crazed muezzin.KAROL SZYMANOWSKI (b. Martin Jones ZRG713 Fantasie in F minor. the Third to the now that he Symphony (which contains a vocal setting of a Persian "Song of the night"). the violin Mythes. Treger. however. and much of his music of this by Chopin and tortuously chromatic. and it was not until he was about 20 (having written various piano pieces strongly influenced >. the voluptuous. though its subtlety and In so far as refinement of thought make a strong appeal to connoisseurs—it is only that of his middle period. his health was breaking Tatras. 1. Warsaw Nat. febrile taste for Germanic style which had possessed him. which he visited for his health. 1882. play. and only with some difficulty did he interest make his way to Warsaw two years was caught by the folk music of later. 2. NO. Op. iridescent First Violin Concerto. about the bandits of the and the Symphonie concertante for himself to By this time. PO/Rowicki. OP. J. amid his cultured and intensely musical family. fed by his admiration for Scriabin >. 61 Wilkomirska. Masques. a work of almost Byzantine austerity: then came the colourful folk ballet Harnasie. Timoshovka. and a growing interest in Oriental philosophy coincided with his discovery of Debussy * and of Stravinsky's > Petrushka.

". f .*i- fw 13 m .

Cpte. for whose music the public. As a youth he had been sent to a school of jurisprudence and became a clerk in the Ministry of Justice.viii/i/iciiix Au 1 Voyevode SXL6627 (2/74) Decca 6841 London D Leningrad PO/Rozhdestvensky/ /villUMHI ••'. for a dozen years making him an allowance: they never met. seems to have an insatiable appetite and any concert of whose works is assured of a good response. hyper-sensitive figure perpetually worried about his inability to create large-scale works without the seams showing. very much later.N.PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY Kamsko-Vothisk 1840. and less professional). Strauss 2545 010 DG/Heliodor /. often highly original orchestration. A wealthy widow became his "fairy godmother". Covent Garden/Solti SET596-8 (6/7S) Decca 13112 London D USSR SO/Svetlanov ASD2558 (3/70) EM1/HMV Y. Resigning from his teaching post. and was sent to recover from his breakdown on Lake Geneva and in Italy— this was shortly afterwards to figure in the unusually sunny Italian caprice. the entirely into composition: TCHAIKOVSKY Six Symphom Symphonies and Manfred Orchestra Yevgeny Svetlanov FRANCESCA DA RIMINI D Washington NSO/Dorati/ Hamlet. though he dedicated to Balakirev romantic fantasy-overture Romeo and Juliet and. Alldis Choir/Royal Oper Orch. KhnAmahp cbi N . Burrows. d.. CFP40083 (12/74) Classics for Pleasu EUGENE ONEGIN OCpte. his splendidly dramatic Manfred symphony. attempted suicide. A meeting with Balakirev ^ and his circle revealed that his aims differed from theirs (their approach being both more nationalistic Left: Tchaikovsky in later life. Weikl. but corresponded regularly. St Petersburg 1893) (b. and to her Tchaikovsky dedicated his Fourth Symphony. Romeo and ASD2894 (7/73) EMI/HMV Juliet S-36890 Angel DLSO/Alwyn/1812. despite his homosexual nature. almost aristocratic lyricism which certainly owes something to his lifelong love of Mozart >. into marrying an ardent admirer. The secret of his popularity lies in his profusion of deeply expressive melody. If concert promoters were ever to choose a patron saint it should by rights by Tchaikovsky. his fullblooded "writing from the heart" and his warm. the level of music for which art he raised to a then unknown height of distinction. halien Romeo Juliet CN2021 (0/76) Pickwick/Contour THE NUTCRACKER A preliminary sketch in Tchaikovsky's notebook for his Left: opera The Queen of Spades. Yet strangely enough most of his music initially met v\ith scant success. but on reaching the age of 21 his musical instincts could not be thwarted. While working on his operatic masterpiece Eugene Onegin he was so overcome by the emotional situation of its heroine that he was misled. Ghiaurov.34609 Odyssey/Melodiya MARCHE SLAVE D LSO/Previn/1812.15221 London 11 slave DPhilh. from a painting by Serov. DLSO/Alwyn/1812. and the first of his ten operas: his first piano concerto (now enormously popular) followed a few years later. Capriccio SPA108 (3/72) Decca STS-15221 London D New and Philh. his He had already composed symphony. certainly in Britain. and he studied composition seriously at the new conservatoire in St Petersburg— to such effect that at the end of his course he was engaged by Nicolas Rubinstein as a professor at the Moscow Conservatoire. introspective. LSO/Dorati 6780 250 (11/75) Phonogram 189 ./Kletzki/ Violin Cone.^ W*" Khachaturian 2538 345 (11/74) Bi g|y DG Privilege D LPO/Handley/ Hamlet CFP40223 (1/76) Classics for Pleasun HAMLET n D Washington National SO/Dorati/ Francesca da Rimini. he threw himself one of his finest works. Kubiak./Del Mar/1812.Marche SPA108 (3/72) Decca STS. The result was catastrophic: after two months he fled. which is haunted throughout by the intervention of its initial "Fate" motif. his first sub-titled "Winter daydreams". and he himself was a solitary. the first of his three ballets. yet side by side with an emotionalism which at times approaches hysteria goes an intimate. % The r. LSO/Previn SLS834(l/73) HMV S-3788 Angel D Cpte. Voyevode SXL6627 (2/74) Decca 6841 London D LPO/Handley/ Frances™ CFP40223 (1/76) Classics for Pleasun MANFRED SYMPHONY CAPRICCIO ITAL1EN DBPO/Karajan/Lisir. From this period also date the orchestral fantasy Francesca da Rimini and his graceful Swan lake.. «5VC "*' Lf" ' L.

and by about 1885 he had recovered to such an extent that he now appeared with increasing frequency as a conductor. Philh. New EMI/HMV (4/75) 6209 London S-3798 Angel D 1 SLS881 (9/74) HMV D LPO/Rostropovich SLS5090 (10/77) HMV SYMPHONY NO. Netherlands CO/ D Exc. 6580 020 (2/72) Phonogram BPO/Karajan/Serenade only. SPA119 1-3 PIANO CONCERTO NO. ASD3067 4 Mendelssohn SIT66034 (9/60) Gilels. The Tempest SXL6694 (2/75) Decca 6891 London a Dresden Staatskapelle/Sanderling/ Borodin Sym. Decca STS-15221 London D New Philh./Del Mar/Marche slave. DG* 2530 651 (11/76) Serenade E SXLP30200 Cpte. OP. which absorbs folk material. The last five years of his life saw a remarkable sequence of some of his greatest compositions: the Sleeping Beauty and Nutcracker ballets.Ashkenazy/ValseScherzo D Belkin/New SXL6854 (10/77) Decca OVERTURE DLSO/Previn/Marche and Juliet ASD2894 MINOR (7/73) Slai'e./Stokowski/Su>au Lake PFS4083 (10/66) Decca Phase 4 21008 London D Exc. S-36890 Angel SO/Dorati/Beerhot'en: D VPO/Maazel SXL6159 (7/65) Decca DNewPhilh. he died (as had his mother when he was fifteen) of cholera. MAJOR./Horenstein GL25007 D LSO/Tjeknavonan LRL1 5129 (11/761 DBPO/Karajan Zinman/ Verdi STRING QUARTET NO. 4 IN F MINOR DLSO/Szell SPA206 (3/72) Decca 6987 London DBPO/Karajan DG* D Goncertgebouw/Haitink 6500 012 (11/70) Phonogram 7300016 Philips (5/64) Marche slave SPA108 (3/72) Phonogram ltalwn./Karajan/Suian Lake (2/76) EMI/HMV (8/77) EMI/HMV 9500 104 (6/77) Phonogram. PIANO CONCERTOS SLS865 (2/74) (10/76) QCilels/New Philh. 6580 131 (8/76) Phonogram VIOLIN (WINTER DAYDREAMS) ASD3213 of Ecstasy DGilels/Chicago SO/Reiner VICS 1039 Strauss S-36890 Angel Boston SO/Abbado/Scriabin: 2530 137 (4/72) Argerich/RPO/Dutoit 2530 112 (10/71) DG* Katin/LSO/Cundell/Concert Fantasia SPA168 (11/71) Decca STS-15227 London (4/75) DG* (10/71) Decca ASD2894 SXL6058 (6/63) Decca 6360 London ASD3067 139 029 (6/69) DLSO/Previn/3812 Ov. New 6582 013 (10/76) Phonogram 2530 350 (7/741 DG* Leningrad PO/Mravinsky 2538 180 (12/74) DG Privilege 2535 237 DG DPhilh. Marche slaue Classics CN2021 (9/76) Pickwick/Contour Schumann CONCERTO IN SXL6493 (11/701 Decca 6710 London DZukerman/LSO/Dorati/Mendelssohn 72768 (11/69) CBS MS-7313 Columbia DGrumiaux/New Philh. like Eugene Onegin./Markevich/ NPO/Maazel 1 CCV5016 Philh. who had been a staunch champion of his music and laid the foundations for its wide acceptance. was written in memory of Nicolas Rubinstein. No./ Rozhdestvensky SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN C MINOR 139381 (2/70) DG Dresden PO/Masur/Romeo and 2538 233 (6/73) DG Privilege SYMPHONY NO. LSO. MINOR 5 IN E 2530 699 (8/7o) DG* D Leningrad PO/Mravinsky 2538 179 (3/75) DG Privilege 2535 236 DG D Concertgebouw/Haitink 6500 922 (2/76) Phonogram* Decca Argo* Concert Classics S-35740 Angel 6747 364 (1/77) Phonogram 6747257 Philips D Cpte.Piano Trio. Bolshoi Theatre Orch. Tchaikovsky's reputation was spreading outside Russia. D VPO/Abbado Philh./Krenz/ (1/77) EMI/HMV Concert Classics Philh../Giulini LSO/Previn ASD3370 SXDW3028 DG* 2530 699 (8/7o) DLSO/Dorati Prevm S-37261 Angel Above: Tchaikovsky stood apart from the nationalists. New. DNew SXLP30208 SOUVENIR DE FLORENCE. the Fifth Symphony. Concertgebouw/Dorati DBPO/Karajan ASD2814 (6/75) EMI/HMV VPO/Abbado Florence' Juliet DPhiladelphia/Ormandy/Beerhouen. Philh. 1 IN G 139 044 (10/69) DG* D Gendron/VSO/Dohnanyi/Pezzo SXLP30225 Philh. SUITE NO. Tortelier/GWeg SWAN LAKE (11/76) RCA 6 IN B D Concertgebouw/Haitink THEME D P. (6/76) Concert Classics S-60031 Seraphim EMI/HMV D Rostropovich/BPO/Karajan/ Beauty DBerman/BPO/Karajan Seal MINOR 6500 081 (3/71) Phonogram* ASD2954 OCpte. Tortelier. OP. MANFRED DUSSR SO/Svetlanov Seal ROMEO AND JULIET D VPO/Karajan/R./Karajan/Sfeeping Beauty (2/7o) Concert Classics S-35740 Angel DBPO/Karajan/ 1812 Ov. 3 PLPO/Boult ASD3135 (11/75) EMI/HMV Concert Classics M2./Del Mar/1812./Maazel/Conc. VPO/Karajan/Suiau Lake JB35 (9/78) Decca Jubilee SYMPHONY NO. P. the melodramatic opera The Queen of Spades (based. A week after the premiere of this last.33116 Columbia (10/76) (PATHETIQUE) 2530 774 (6/771 DG* VARIATIONS ON A ROCOCO D Prague Exc./Muti D LSO/Alwyn/Capriccio Wellington's Victory SAL3461 EMI/HMV S-37114 Angel SYMPHONY NO. 2 2548 226 (4/76) DG/Heliodor DNew Philh. RCA Gold PIANO CONCERTO NO. SERENADE IN C FOR STRINGS D Dresden Staatskapelle/Suitner/ Dvorak: Serenade in Leningrad PO/Mravinksy 2538 178 (12/74) DG Privilege 2535 235 DG E 2584 121 (4/75) DG Privilege ASMF/Marriner/Sexret 'Souvenir de ZRG584 (4/69) Decca Argo* D ASMF/Marriner/Duorak: in (7/76) ECO/Leppard/Duorak 9500 105 (3/77) Phonogram* LSO/Barbirolli/A rensky SXLP30239 (5/77) EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-36269 Angel DBPO/Karajan SLEEPING BEAUTY Cpte. though typically racked with home-sickness on every journey yet longing to get away again.80 DOrrh. LSO/Monteux SYMPHONIES 1-6. Marche Slave HMV D Ashkenazy/LSO/Maazel D Gilels./Stokowski/Sleeping 139 030 (6/69) DG Suite only. VPO/Karajan/Sleeping Beauty JB35 (9/78) Decca Jubilee EMI/HMV Gold Y. PO/Bonynge D37D3 (9/77) Decca 2315 London D Cpte. version. Philh. O Exc. Boston Pops/Fiedler/ Grieg: Peer Gynt PFS4352 (5/76) Decca Phase 21142 London D Suite only. Romeo and Juliet CN2021 (9/7ol Pickwick/Contour NPO/Abbado 139017 (4/68) Romeo EMI/HMV D Minneapolis (7/76) D D Chung/LSO/Previn/Sibelius 1812 (LITTLE RUSSIAN) Poem cappriccioso. and the gloomridden Sixth ("Pathetique"). Netherlands RPO/Fistoulan 10BB168-70 (10/74) Decca 21101 London DNat. LSO/Previn SLSS070 (12/76) HMV SX-3834 Angel D Exc. 11 D Exc. DBPO/Karajan ZRG848 D Exc. on Pushkin). 1 IN D Quartet/Prokofiev 111 0698 (1/71) Rediffusion/ Supraphon D Suite Philh.Wellingtons Sieg LSB4031 (7/71) LSC-3204 RCA RCA . 3 (6/75) 190 RCA EMI/HMV Camden (7/73) EMI/HMV DC* Washington National PO/Dorati/ Fatum. SLS5001 (12/74) HMV SX-3812 Angel a Exc. 3 GL25013 Northern Sinfonia/ (2/74) Serenade melancolique 9500 086 (6/76) Phonogram* D Milstein/Pittsburgh SO/Steinberg/ Concert PFS4083 (10/66) Decca Phase 4 21008 London SXLP30200 2530 677 (3/76) DG* DWild/RPO/Fistoulari EMI/HMV Duorak: Cello Cone./Maazel/Conc.

Concerto Amsterdam/Bruggen/ Suite for Solo Violin. tShingles. finally. and taught himself composition by poring over scores of older masters. and to the Prince of Bayreuth. Corelli. various Ens. He accepted a succession of posts as organist and kapellmeister— in Sorau (where his lively mind absorbed the Polish and Moravian folk music he heard). like that in G for viola — perhaps the earliest for that instrument — have become popular) and a mass of instrumental music of all kinds./Wenzinger 135 080 II/08) DG Privilege productive Telemann. Roth. on the same plot as Pergolesi's > later Serva padrona). Qua (1/70) 641183 Telefunken SUITE IN A MINOR FOR FLUTE AND Above: The enormously AND STRINGS: CONCERTO IN D FOR STRINGS TRUMPET. whose lively 4 HORNS. Fasch Cvte. in Frankfurt (where he was musical director to the city. some 200 concertos (some of which. I DCianella. C MINOR FOR OBOE TK11565 . There. as the works makes clear. where he spent the rest of his life. Stuttgart Bach Soc. and VCM/ Harnoncourt FA6. his first in Hamburg. DER TAG DES GERICHTS Landwehr. in 1728 he published a collection entitled The constant music-master in 25 fortnightly parts in which some of the pieces were ingeniously written so as to be read in different clefs for different tradition with Italianate melody. and Pimpinone. who was appointed Cantor in Leipzig only after Telemann had declined the post. of which The Day of judgment is the best known. Fluth Decca Argo* 14/771 PIMPINONE. he created a synthesis of the solid German contrapuntal DON QUIXOTE-SUITE CONCERTO IN F FOR RECORDER. they found time to create it all. Herrmann. As happens with all exceptionally prolific composers. alert as he was to all new ideas. since although he was virtually selftaught musically he mastered a number of instruments. and superficial increasing availability of his though contemporary evaluations are often fallible. 2 contemporaries than Bach. Wenk. Mainz CO/Kehr/ViixjIdi: Streatfield. 3 VIOLINS AND Overture CONTINUO 72 anciens AW6 41204 17/67) Selecta/Telefunken ZRG837 CONCERTO IN I CONCERTO IN Rilling TV34124S Bach./ G FOR VIOLA AND STRINGS! Handel. and while studying languages in Leipzig he founded a Collegium Musicum and wrote operas for the theatre there. Hamburg 1767) Bach » and Handel > the sheer size of their output leaves one wondering how. in Eisenach. he became Cantor of the Johanneum and city musical director in Hamburg. it is worth remembering that in his day Telemann ranked higher than Bach. in 1721. Ch. Canne-Meijer. 2 VIOLINS AND OVERTURES CONTINUO: CONCERTO IN B FLAT FOR 3 OBOES. enterprise and tireless caused him to be much more highly esteemed by his vitality Angel FOR AND STRINGS I music for Hamburg. 600 French overtures or orchestral suites. director of Sammartini: Recorder Cones. Amsterdai AND CONTINUO: CONCERTO IN Turnabout an) D69D3|1/77) Decca CONCERTO IN B FLAT FOR 3 OBOES. Rosetti: Horn Cone. Via. Ame. many with programmatic titles such as Don Quixote or The Hamburg ebb and flow. Overture des Nations modernes. Koch. FOR 2 HORNS. ASMF/Marriner/ F FOR 3 D Scherbaum. numerous services and oratorios. ASMF. including five sets of Musique de table. Overture in C in et Hamburger Ebb and ASMF/Marriner VCM/Harnoncourt D. and B flat ASD3028 S. instruments. Equiluz. Vivaldi SOL276 (3/65) L'Oiseau-Lyre Doktor. Melkus.who composed about as much as the two of them together? (Handel remarked that Telemann could write an eight-part motet as quickly as anyone else could write a letter).37019 (11/74) in F EMI/HMV OBOES CONCERTO FOR G FOR VIOLA AND STRINGS DSpach. whose concerts he made famous). evident very early. STRINGS AND CONTINUO: CONCERTO IN VIOLINS AND STRINGS D Munrow. VIOLINS (6/68) Decca QUARTETS FOR FLUTE.OPERA D FOR TRUMPET AND STRINGS* 3 C. as well as writing the remainder of his forty or so operas (including The Patience of Socrates. In all he composed some 45 Passion settings. His extraordinary energy and vitality made themselves form though he had always been an admirer of Lully) and Polish dance elements.GEORG Magdeburg (b.35044 13/67) Selecta/Telefunken 191 . commentators who have not troubled to look at more than a fraction of his music have tended to dismiss In the cases of him as merely facile and — most unjustly. twelve sets of cantatas for the church year. Suite — La Lyra AS6 41105 14/70) Selecta/Telefunken SUITE IN F intelligence. P320. What then is one to say of their contemporary Telemann. CELLO AND HARPSICHORD *Wilbraham. he poured out an incredible amount of music in which. with their other responsibilities. TELEMANN PHILIPP 1681. Cone. a friend of them both (and godfather to Bach's son Carl Philipp Emanuel >). ASMF/Marriner/ Gabrieli. in G IN G FOR 4 VIOLINS: CONCERTO IN F ZRG836 (2/76) Decca Argo. d. TV34078S Decca Turnabout. VIOLIN. ASMF/Marriner/Owrfure in BASSOON AND STRINGS: CONCERTO Cone. Handel. the French suite (particularly after a visit to Paris in 1737. Egmond. Marriner/Concerfi by Vivaldi.

lighter-coloured opera The knot garden of 1970 (of which Songs for Dov was a spin-off). The "complex yet luminous" (his words) metaphysical cantata The vision of St Augustine of 1966. Under the influence of the ebullient sprung rhythms of the Elizabethan madrigalists he wrote his Second String Quartet and the Concerto for double string orchestra (which. the Second Symphony. But then came a reaction. 1905) Unlike those composers whose music is a self-sufficient independent creation. The elaborate vocal Boyhood's end. especially after the clearer-textured. the Second Piano Sonata. his first opera. The chief or of difficulties of in this new style were the largely declamatory opera King Priam. now coupled with an intense homage to Beethoven >. Deeply concerned with social problems. as in all his operas) was at first considered impenetrable. and he exchanged his luxurious lyricism for a sparse and abrasive style (owing conscientious objector— he has pursued his own musical path. his first great breakthrough was with the oratorio A child of our time. he seemed to be drawing together diverse threads from his past. on an individual wartime tragedy. Tippett is a mystic whose abstruse philosophies. regardless of fashion comprehension. . the year in which Tippett was knighted.MICHAEL TIPPETT London (b. This was discernible in the Third Piano Sonata and made explicit by a quotation from the Choral Symphony in his Third Symphony — in which a solo soprano sings in a mainly direction. works "blues" idiom. form an integral element in his work. He was a late developer. worked out with knotty intellectual effort. like A child of our time. he is now the most thought-provoking of Britain's senior composers. Tippett described his piano concerto as an unemployed professionals. and at 30 withdrawing all he had composed till then. prepared the way for a further stage in his output. includes the "blues" harmony of negro spirituals which has been a strand in his make-up right through to his Third Symphony more than thirty years later). which has taken some disconcerting changes of something to Stravinsky >) in which disjunct contrasting blocks of material are juxtaposed as in a mosaic. whose Jungian libretto (his own. taking up further study at the age of 25 after having already been active as a musician. spiritual values and humane ideals — during the Depression he conducted an orchestra of complexity of texture was further developed in the Fantasia concertante on a theme of Corelli: and there is a wealth of expressive polyphony in the visionary Midsummer marriage. the year of The 192 his 2nd Symphony Midsummer Marriage. in which. and he elected to go to prison as a extension of this opera. and the Concerto for orchestra. and ment. Its - Above: Tippett's MS of the slow movement of Right: Tippett in 1955. revealed a new its line of his cantata richly-written piano accompani- personality on the English scene.

(1/68) Decca Argo- SYMPHONY NO. Hm. SYMPHONY NO. Gdn./Davis/Orch. Liv. Standen.. Orch. Little music Assurance: Songs for Ariel. CONCERTO FOR DOUBLE STRING ORCHESTRA D Moscow CO and Bath Fest. SYMPHONY NO. Son. CO/ DSL014 (The) Co KNOT GARDEN (The) MIDSUMMER MARRIAGE D Cpte. Bowden. Cov. BBC Chora] Soc. D Paul Crossley for Dble.SONG Achilles DSL014 (11/76) L'Oiseau-Lyre (A) CHILD OF OUR TIME- (The) ORATORIO DP. Herincx. Watts. Barstow. Gdn. 3 LSO. of Decca DCov. London Sinfonietta/Atherton/ Messiaen: Poemes ZRG703 (5/73) Decca Argo. 1-3 6500 534 (11/74) Phonogram* String Orch. DASMF/Marriner/Conc. Carey. LSO and Ch. Barshai/Britlen SXLP30157 (10/73) Langridge. Constable/Songs for Songs for Achilles (11/76) L'Oiseau-Lyre Ariel. CYCLE D Norman. Remedios. babe. Cov. Cone. Carlyle. Dean. Gdn. Tear. Harwood. (3/77) STRING QUARTETS NOS. Above: Sir just before the of his BOYHOOD'S END. ZRG535 Hm./Pritchard/C/nM our Tunc DLSO/Davis/4 DPA571. BBC Sgrs. Orch. Gdn. Burrows. Baker. 1-3 Lindsay Quartet (12/75) L'Oiseau-Lyre. 1 LSO/Davis/Snite in D 9500 107 (10/76) Phonogram. Lewis. Gomez. ShirleyQuirk. Herincx. Choir. Cassilly./Davis :Cla RITUAL DANCES DCov.Michael Tippett premiere opera The Ice Break. Songs for and SO/Davis 6500 985 (11/75) Phonogram* DMorison. D Harper. Phil. I. Hemsley. Minton. Langridge. Davis 6500 662 (1/751 Phonogram.CANTATA FOR TENOR AND PIANO FANTASIA CONCERTANTE ON A THEME OF CORELLI DP. /Davis 6700 063 (4/74) Phonogram* 6703 027 (5/71) Phonogram* EM1/HMV SONG FOR DOV DSLO10 DCpte. 4 CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA DTear. RLPO/Prilchard/ Ritual Dances DPA571-2 (3/77) Decca 6580 093 (1/75) Phonogram* PIANO SONATAS NOS./Tippetl Fantasy SER5620 (4/72) RCA 193 . J. 2 DLSO/Davis/ Weeping quartet. (The) VISION OF ST AUGUSTINE Shirley-Quirk.2 Ritual dances 6580 093 (1/75) Phonogram. Bainbridge. Constable/Heart's ZRG680 (1/72) Decca Argo HEART'S ASSURANCE. Orch. Orch.

. 1872. d. yr tt- n Top: Vaughan Williams by ] Finzi (National Portrait Gallery). Among other English poets. Apart from his ballet fob (1930). . He certainly chiefly responsible for the final emergence from German had been conservative — Cambridge. The "morality": artistically the most "*$£ i . and the focus of interest became purely his compositions. under Parry and Stanford at the RCM and under Bruch S in Berlin— though at the of a national style that traditions. which attempted to do for English opera what Smetana > had done for Czech. RALPH VAUGHAN WILLIAMS Down Ampney. A third powerful formative influence. literary taste: chiefly to it A sea symphony) and reveal a cultivated is inspire notable that the sources which were him were the Bible. Rossetti. which combines Elgarian extroversion with poetic meditation. The year 1914 saw the composition of the London Symphony. Stevenson and Housman were put under contribution in the song Silent noon. an imaginatively rhapsodic work of a delicacy rare in his output. which provided the background for some early orchestral pieces) and absorbing their often modal idiom. the Songs of travel and the cycle On Wenlock Edge respectively. but he accepted very few other appointments (though he was a generous supporter of younger of composition at the RCM musicians). yet his had shaken own itself free leisurely musical education age of 36 he unexpectedly took some lessons with Ravel > He had by then been active for a few years with the English Folk Song Society. Bunyan and Blake. After returning from war service he became a professor and for six years conducted the Bach Choir. lacked a sense of movement — he in fact Pilgrim's progress.. collecting (especially from Norfolk. his stage works. a termed his most ambitious. whatever their lyrical qualities. unassuming. (b. and The lark ascending for violin and orchestra. besides folksong and literature. Hugh the drover. London Gloucestershire. Above: The six-year-old Vaughan Williams's first composition. blunt-spoken farmer — so exactly accorded with the "homespun" image of a proportion of his works (which exerted an almost overwhelming influence on so many composers of what has been pejoratively called the "English pastoral" school) that his true range of utterance was is sometimes underestimated. Left: Daring rehearsals for The Pilgrim's Progress in 1951. the Fantasia on a theme of Tallis. was the polyphonic church music of the Tudor period — which brought into being his most famous work. 1958) Vaughan Williams's personal appearance — like a somewhat abstracted. and had put much work into editing the English Hymnal His first compositions to attract attention were in the choral tradition with which he was familiar (Toward the unknown region. Shakespeare.

Above: Vaughan Williams \\it./Boult/Toicards the unknown EMI/HMV FANTASIA ON A THEME OF THOMAS TALLIS for double string orchestra CFP40068 16/74) Classics for Pleasure D ASMF/Marnner/Greensieenes. But were his symphonies. Herincx. 6 IN E MINOR D NPO/Boult/ The Lark Ascending D Bournemouth ESD7013 and Ch. 3 SB6861 (9/72) RCA LSC-3281 RCA CONCERTO IN A MINOR FOR D LSO/Previn SB6860 (8/721 RCA PASTORAL SYMPHONY D Price. lacques Orch. TEN BLAKE SONGS D Tear. ASD2458 (5/69) EMI/HMV O CLAP YOUR HANDS D King's Mass College Choir. whose desolate Epilogue. EMI/HMV DLSO/Previn/Sym. (2/72) S-3785 Angel SERENADE TO MUSIC. CFP40068 6/74 Classics for Pleasure DASMF/Marriner/Tnl/is: Fant. LPO and Ch. of available in performance Adrian Boult. Record collectors are fortunate that so many interpreters.SONG CYCLE D ASD2847 SONGS OF TRAVEL. 8 IN D MINOR D LSO/Previn/Sym. OLPO/Handley/ Ta/lis. SLS780 (12/68) OBOE AND STRING ORCHESTRA ASD2962 SEA SYMPHONY Boult/The Wasps RCA EMI/HMV 195 . Evans. Keyte. Shaw. include three indisputable masterpieces — the prophetically grim and violent Fourth. Shirley-Quirk. Carol Case. Case. in which the sequences of block chords which had always been a fingerprint of his took on on a new significance. LSO/Previn/Tuba Concerto SB6861 (9/721 RCA SYMPHONY NO. Noble.721 EMI/HMV ZRG732 (3/73) Decca SYMPHONIES 1-9 EMI/HMV 8 RCA SINFONIA ANTARCTICA D Burrowes/LPO/Boult ASD2631 (11/70) EMI/HMV SYMPHONY NO. SUAST50959 |10/o9) Supraphon CONCERTO FOR BASS TUBA AND ORCHESTRA IN F MINOR (A) D Fletcher. VOICES D Aronowitz. Lark Ascending. Music Group of London/ 10 Blake Songs./ music DLPO/Boult ASD2740 (10/71) EMI/HMV Berglund/Sym.I was successful opera central to his output the one-act Riders to the sea. CONCERTO ACCADEMICO IN D MINOR FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA D Grumlikova.BALLET EMI/HMV GREENSLEEVES ASD2750 (5/63) S-36101 Angel S-36699 Angel 1 and Allegro for strings. LSO/Previn SER5585 (4/70) RCA A LONDON SYMPHONY D Williams. Elgar.. NPO/Boult//n the Fen Country ASD2393 (9/72) RCA D Harper. EMI/HMV I.\uiimt considers a knotty point in one of his scores. Serenade for strings S-37211 Angel King's College Choir. Shirley-Quirk. The 111. 6 SB6767 (10/68) RCA D LPO/Boult/ Partita for Double String new (2/71) (7/72) Decca Eclispe STS-15216 London TOWARD THE UNKNOWN REGION D LPO and Choir/Boult/Dona nobis ASD2962 S. when he was nearing 70. sacred (Sancta civitas. Cone. and finest. is one of the most remarkable pieces of music ever written. The other main field work was his choral of his creative music — liturgical (the Mass). string orch. Bournemouth SO/ 15/741 Case. Dives and Lazarus ZRG696 10/72 Decca Argo. LSO./Boult SLS959 JOB. Serenade for strings ASD521 EMI/HMV (5/63) Irjndbn fHramonc Ckhesto SRAOjaNBCUJ S-36101 Angel SO/Silvestn/E/gar (10/76) ASD3286 (11/76) Partita ASD2329 DSinfonia of London/Barbirolli/Ta/Iis: EMI/HMV Fant. DLSO/Boult ASD2673 (The) PILGRIM'S PROGRESS D Cpte. the gravely contemplative Fifth. Lark Ascending. Dickerson. and the restless Sixth. EMI/HMV DLPO/Boult/Co>ic. Water mill. Partridge. ECO/VVillcocks/ in C ASD2458 minor (5/69) etc. English folk Songs Suite 111 71i EMI/HMV DLPO. Sir Vaughan Williams's works are by one of his earliest. he began writing for films./Boult/ ON WENLOCK EDGE./Willcocks/ Dines and Lazarus. Perrin.Fant. 5 IN D D Philharmonia/Barbirolli/Ta/lis Armstrong. 4 IN F MINOR Norfolk Rhapsody NPO/Boult/A D ASD2375 (6/68) EMI/HMV SYMPHONY NO. LPO and Ch. HMV D Harper.. for dble. which is cognate with Pilgrim's progress. LSO/Prevm 1 HQS1236 Orch. despite a tendency to thick colour and galumphing rhythm. which cover an extraordinary variety of styles and. Oxford Elegy (10/67) SB6767 110/68) FLOS CAMPI FOR VIOLA. Magnificat) and secular (the racy Five Tudor portraits and the exquisite Serenade to Music). o ASD3127 (10/75) EMI/HMV NOBIS PACEM-CANTATA DONA DLPO/Handley/Tippett: Concerto LPO incid. Dives and Lazarus HMV NORFOLK RHAPSODY S-36773 Angel MASS IN G MINOR D Eaton. (9/711 SYMPHONY NO. drained of all emotion. Ledger King's College Choir/Willcocks Tippett: Cone. written in 1935. THE LARK ASCENDING. IN THE FEN COUNTRY. 1 I Fantasia DSinfonia of London/Barbirolli/ ASD2698 Greensleeves. NPO/Boult van Asch.36972 (5/741 EMI/HMV Angel THE WASPS— OVERTURE AND SUITE D LPO/Boult/Sea Symphony SLS780 (12/681 HMV SLS822 (4/72) HMV D Soloists.. Elgar: introduction ASD521 AND ORCHESTRA ASD2487 (2/70) EMI/HMV (4/71) EMI/HMV 1 ZRG696 (10/72) Decca Argo DLSO/Boult/ Elgar: Enigma Vars. Doveton. and from his score for Scoff of the Antarctic (1949) was later drawn his Seventh Symphony. Previn/Sym. At the start of World War II. Introduction and Allegro for strings. ECS644 Orchestral pieces SER5649-55 10/72) S-36799 Angel Argo* Soloists/LPO/New Philh. Grosso. D Armstrong. Prague SO/Maag/ Britten: Vln.

the antimonarchist sentiments in Rigoletto and Ballo in maschera. born in the same year and first made their name at much the same time. was produced at La Scala in 1839 with sufficient success for him to be offered a contract for three more: of these. 1813. initially a failure. the comedy Un giorno di regno was a total failure (but during its composition the death of his wife. before Macbeth (1847). He then turned out four operas in only 15 months the generosity of a local merchant. and the richlyscored Un ballo in maschera. Oberto. The early 1850s saw the production works that have become the mainstay of opera companies ever since: Rigoletto. His next two. In all these works Verdi's vigorous. / Lombardi and Ernani. After this came Les vepres siciliennes for Paris. since he was not accepted for the Conservatorio) through whose daughter he married on his return. Verdi and Wagner >. in which a new delicacy of scoring underlines the pathos. . obliging the action (originally about the assassination of Gustavus III of Sweden) to be implausibly transferred to Boston. Verdi. full-blooded style contrasted sharply with that of his predecessors Bellini > and Donizetti >. but the biblical Nabucco (1842) was a triumph. in the fiveacts-with-ballet "grand opera" tradition favoured there. His first opera. which marked a great advance in characterisation and formal construction. after that of his two children. Milan 1901) and were a strange coincidence. acknowledged musical 196 an giant. and whose libretto was distinctly superior to most of those he too uncritically accepted. had been a shattering blow). and was enabled to continue his studies in Milan (privately with a member of the staff of La Scala. // Trovatore. a wildly melodramatic blood-and-thunder whose excesses can be forgotten in the excitement of the music. where in his teens he made himself generally useful musically. and Italian audiences smarting under Austrian rule had been quick to respond to such things as the chorus of exiled Israelites in Nabucco. the operas made their effect by their sense of theatre (on which Verdi set much store) and robust melodic gift. spread his fame wide. Busseto. the son of a humble tavern-keeper.GIUSEPPE VERDI (b. Simone Boccanegra. and the lyrical La Traviata. By nr. Left: Verdi in later life. noteworthy for its greater continuity. if his orchestration was crude. the number of its ensembles and its characterisation. he Roncole. Massachusetts. Verdi's ardently patriotic feelings had frequently found outlet in his music. which like several other of Verdi's operas fell foul of the censor. of three romantic Above: The 'hurdy-gurdy' gibe was most unjust by the time of Verdi's Don Carlos (1867). received his musical education from the cathedral organist in Busseto. d. the greatest figures in Italian German opera respectively.

and their subtlety of construction. La battaglia Ambrosian DCpte. These two masterpieces represent the peaks of Italian tragic and comic opera. Cossotto. Sutherland. Roni. Ewing. Verrett. PO/Maag London Op. Cappuccilli. Malagu./ HMV EMI/HMV Angel REGNO LUISA MILLER Cpte. Friends or Music Choral Society. Philh. Chorus and Orch. Cpte van Dam. a librettist of genius and himself a more than competent composer. whom he venerated: though much criticised for its theatricality at first. Chorus/Philh. Collins. Squilli I rapine. Tourangeau. MACBETH Orch. After the triumphal political upheavals of 1860 Cavour persuaded Verdi to become a deputy in the new parliament. MacNeill. Cotrubas. Wixell. Cossotto. Ambrosian Opera Chorus. Royal Opera Chorus.and the openly nationalist propaganda of La battaglia di Legnano. Arroyo. LSO/ Bonynge SET542-4 (5/73) Decca 13105 London 197 . Urli Lombardi: Gerusalem. Alva. leon il il O D 2707 103 (11/77) D Cpte. Vienna State Opera Chorus./Mehta SER5586-8 (7/70) RCA LSC-6194 RCA VESPRI SICILIANI DCpte. Bergonzi. Cossotto. Corena./C. Morris. La forza del destino was written for St Petersburg./Giulini SIMON BOCCANEGRA fosche. DCpte. (I) Del Monaco. Talvela. La Scala/Abbado all Fuoco di gioia. Fuoco D Cpte. Ghiaurov. Ambrosia Opera Chorus. & W" Above: Verdi's picture. and Aida (a great spectacular work which also contains some of his most lyrical invention. Otello was produced in 1887. Milnes/ Bavarian State Op./LSO/Levine (10/63) DI SER5710-2 (2/75) 6179 LSC RCA DON CARLOS Cpte.. his only comedy for more than half a century. Milnes. Domingo. /Lei nsdorf SLS956 (7/71) D Sutherland. Simionato. SLS984 112/75) HMV SX-3762 Angel Cpte. Pavarotti. Giaiotti.otti. Romanato. RPO/ HMV II S-3765 Angel DCpte. Chorus and Orch. VPO/Karajar SXL2167-9 (12/59) Decca 1313 London Cpte. and (when Verdi was 80) Falstaff. Raimondi. van Allen. Gobbi. Gedda. Milnes. Kleiber fosche./Karajan di d'ltalia. reveal how far Verdi had travelled in his artistic journey. Giuriam Giulini GIORNO Va Egitto. RCA Italiana/Pretre SER5564-6 (2/68) RCA LSC-6180 RCA Cpte./Franci SXL6139 (1/65) Decca 2S8"3 London Nabucco: Gli arredi festivi. which he did for five years. D Santa Cecilia Chorus and Orch. Aida: Gloria Cossotto. Nat. 1873 Verdi composed one of his few non-operatic works. Price. Ganzarolli. New DG* Domingo. Casoni. Philh. Foiani. Caballe. Lombardi: O Signore pensiero. Ghiaurov. Vienna State Opera Chorus. Grist. Ambrosian Opera Chorus/ Price. Bacquier. Grist. Pavarotti. /Levine D55D3 ARL4 0370 (8/77) Decca (9/74) New RCA. La Scala/Abbado 2709 062 (10/76) DG* S-3774 Angel dal tetto natio. Bergonzi./ Sanzogno GOS655-7 (9/75) Grosvenor 1332 London Nabucco: Gli arredi festivi. Cappuccilli. Bergonzi. Milnes. Domingo. Cossotto. Milnes. Ambrosian Opera Chorus. Raimondi. Domingo. Merrill. Otello: D Cpte. Verrett. Attila: di oppressa. Domingo. RL01864 (8/771 RCA* FOUR SACRED PIECES D Baker. Cappuccilli. Carreras. His last compositions were the unexpectedly austere Four sacred pieces for chorus. Chorus and SAN120 trovatore: Vedi echeggi. Schwarzkopf. Ernani: Si ridesti Signore. VPO/SoIti SET374-5 (10/68) Decca 1275 London OPERATIC CHORUSES: Gardelli SLS948 (3/70) 6703 055 (9/74) Phonogram* Orch. Alldis Choir. Beronzi. Caballe. Milnes. Domingo. Santa Cecilia Chorus and Orch. Sardinero. di. their matching of invention and technique. Sutherland. With the encouragement In and collaboration of Boito. Gia. Alldis (Un) Pavarotti. Moffo. Price. Covent Garden Orch. Mill. signature and a line from La Traviata. Milnes. Otello: Don Carlo: Spuntato ecco 1 DG* LA TRAVIATA Prelude. Ch. Ghiaurov. Norman. Corena. Singers. Cioni./ OTELLO D Cpte./Giulini SLS909 |7/64) S-3649 Angel D Trovatore: Vedi HMV le I appuccilli reni. the expansive Don Carlos for Paris. le DCpte. Ch. Vienna Grosstadtkinderchor. Protti. 2530 549 (11/75) C 2709 017 (11/77) Legnano: di gioia. its intensely dramatic force and sincerity have ensured its place in the repertoire. Arroyo. Sharpe. MacNeill. RCA Italiana Chorus and Cappuccilli. It was not only on this account that larger intervals occurred between his operas: they were increasing in complexity and sensitivity. Covent Garden Chorus/New Philh. New Philh. AIDA LA FORZA DEL DESTINO Cpte. Carreras. 1324 London RIGOLETTO D Cpte.. Philh. Ghiauro Phil. Home. Celini. SET608-8 (5/76) Decca 13114 London MESSA DA REQUIEM SLS5037 (1/76) S-3552 Angel HMV Ludwig. RPO/Gardelli FALSTAFF Barbieri. Reynolds. Caballe. Milnes. Panerai. VPO/Karaian Arroyo. Merriman. Caballe. Evans./Mut. the Requiem for the writer Manzoni. Verrett. Tebaldi. Tebaldi. DLa D Schwarzkopf. Abbado DG* TROVATORE IL Scala Op. Domingo. Va pensiero. Raimondi. Talvela. DCpte. imaginative scoring and colourful harmony) for Cairo. Domingo. Muti SLS977 (2/7S) HMV SX-3815 Angel UN BALLO IN MASCHERA Cpte. van Allen.

though published. many more were revised. for soprano and still later series which claimed Brasileiras. Villa-Lobos has with justice been called a cataloguer's nightmare. PRELUDES NOS. Rio de Janeiro 1887. the uninhibited exuberance of his music suggests some force of Nature that defies control. but accounts differ about whether. the most popular. frequently conducting mammoth choral concerts. 3 calling for an extra 37 brass instruments!) Acquaintance with Milhaud >. He exercised powerful influence on Brazilian musical education and its musical life generally. 8. A constant preoccupation with him was his evocation of his country's tropical forests. His lavish output for piano and his solo guitar music have done much to keep his a name alive. D Ortiz./Ashkenazy/ 3 Momoprecoce ASD3492 (2/78) EMI/HMV S-37439 Angel GUITAR CONCERTO DBream/LSO/Previn/ Pre/tides SB6852 (2/72) RCA 2-5 etc. Williams/ECO/Barenboim/Rodrixo. Like all to his music. Brazilian composer to achieve international status. 1-5 Yepes 2530 140 (3/73) 1-12. d. New Philh. which found expression particularly in the four orchestral suites drawn from his score to the film Descobrimento do Brasil. there and almost 1959) the sole. these are full of exotic rhythms and colours. after a period of frustrated Bohemianism. where he was much influenced by Debussy 3>. raided to provide material for other works. playing and collecting Indian folk music. eight cellos). and five programmatic symphonies for large orchestra (No. BACHIANAS BRASILEIRAS NO. and a quantity of instrumental and chamber music. however. 5) to gargantuan orchestras featuring native percussion instruments: these had the avowed intention of synthesising various types of Brazilian music. the only Brazilian any real composer to impact on the international scene. It is established. The confusion extends even to the facts of his early life: he certainly started to learn the cello. others. Sometimes his appellations for his chamber music are Humpty-Dumptyish. many are still in manuscript. have made . as when one quartet proves to be for four instruments plus female chorus. A more ambitious was the nine Bachianas pay homage to Bach >— each movement has a classical and a Brazilian title — without in fact reflecting his style at all: these also were for various combinations (No. though asserting his own flamboyant personality. at 11. that he undertook extensive trips into various parts of the country. and then other instruments. are unavailable. he ran away from home. Rudepoema Nelson Freire AS6 41299 (Q/74) Selecta/Telef Left: Heitor Villa-Lobos. Like the extravagantly luxuriant giant vegetation of his native country. led to VillaLobos spending the years 1923-6 in Paris. The first. During the 1920s he composed a series of 14 Choros (street serenades) for diverse forces ranging from solo guitar (No. in which he became passionately interested. and despite somewhat exiguous tuition he gave a concert of his own works in 1915. then in Rio. and shortly afterwards he composed the ballet Uirapuru. or his Nonet to include a mixed-voice chorus as one of its nine elements. often introducing novel instrumental effects. Ravel ^ and Stravinsky >. Bachianas Brasi 4. Izaht. or merely re-titled. Tres Marias. he supported his family by playing in cafes and street bands or whether. deAr CBS Co 76369 (1/75) M-33208 Columbia GUITAR STUDIES NOS. He had already written an opera. Of the works that tumbled out of him in wild profusion. when very young at home. adapted for other instruments. when his father died. a set of Indian mestizo dances. some are lost and others prove to have been left unfinished. in which the central role is a jungle bird with magical properties. DG PIANO PIECES Prole do bebe 1.l) or piano (No.HEITOR VILLA-LOBOS (b.

but today by far his best known are first four from another set of twelve published in 1725. vividly illustrate a sequence of descriptive sonnets: also programmatic are some of the flute concertos of his Op. Watts. Corboz. RV270 in E-L'amoroso RV277 i E ZRG733-4 O No. 2533 117 (3/73) Produktion DG Archiv STABAT MATER.. DVCM/Ha L'ESTRO ARMONICO. entitled L'estro armonico (Harmonic imagination). Stabat Mater and Magnificat. he died in poverty. He himself was a noted violinist who had been taught by his father. RV610 Palmer. Although he is chiefly remembered for his concertos and sonatas. some of his church music that has been revived has proved to be of outstanding quality. OP. Ens ZRG654 (9/70) Decca Argo* AVV6 41239 (2/70) D Michelucci/Musici Selecta/Telefunken 6500 017 (12/70) Phonogram* CONCERTOS D Szeryng/ECO RV500 Oboe Concerto in A minor: 6580 002 (7/72) Phonogram RV484 Bassoon Concerto in E minor. with solo episodes alternating with ritornelli. (5/761 RCA/Erato AGLI1340 RCA KYRIE. For the Pieta Vivaldi also wrote church music and his oratorio Juditha triumphans (remarkable for the scope of its instrumentation). Leonhardt. OP. Jaccottet.J:-. brought him widespread fame. and after 1724 toured very extensively Europe. Rossier. Flute. Oboe. RV234 in D — L'inquietudine. Ospedale. GLORIA IN D. Vienna 1741) d. Tear.. Oboe. RV317 in G minor. but had scarcely been ordained in 1703 when he which clearly was given a dispensation. Oboe. Telemanyi. Violin RV105 Co L' Oiseau-Lyre only. where. The four VIVALDI (b. 8. Schaer. Schaer. and began a long association with the Ospedale della Pieta. Violin. sold much of his property and moved to Vienna. Violin. Oboe D Sillito/Virtuosi of England/Davison >r for RV108 Concerto in A minor CFP40016 (6/731 Classics for Pleasure Recorder. 4 ASMF/Marriner ZRG800-1 14/751 Decca Argo LiStr.iO|\4 CONCERTOS FOR VIOLIN AND i STRINGS D in kuxi s \i \MO\Hn->.n. Roberts. from an engraving of 1725 by La Cave. one of Venice's four music academies for foundling which gained a great reputation for its high standards. ASMF/Marriner/ Handel. D Loveday/ ASMF/Marriner DBruggen. Dresden Staatskapelle/Negn 6500 690 (2/751 Phonogram RV158 Concerto in A for Strings. SDD417 Grumiaux. girls. OP. RV587 D Smith. Bassoon and Ferrari/Stuttgart Soloists/Couraud Continuo. as these are called./ Corboz/Credo.. 2 Violins and Continuo. in 12 CONCERT1. 297) Violi Recorder. (4/73) Decca SOL276 (3/65) DNos. for he catered for practically all instruments then in use. King's College Choir. Hamoncourt. AW6 41961 (12 concerti) CONCERTOS FOR VIOLIN AND in such as the Gloria. Lausanne Ens. Nos 1-4 RV87 Concerto in C for and Continuo. were written for the Pieta. which are in three-movement form. who transcribed several. Corboz. Kuentz CO/Kuentz RV107 Concerto in G minor for 2548 005 (11/75) DG Heliodor Violin. he spent three years in Mantua as musical director to the Margrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. 10. RV524 B flat for 2 Violins and Strings. ASMF/Ledger/Bach: Magnificat ZRG854 (9/77) Decca Argo* SONATAS FOR RECORDER AND CONTINUO. a violinist at St Mark's.. 10 nnd 11 RV353 A minor. Bassoon and Continuo. Staempfli. RV531 Concerto in G minor for 2 Cellos and Strings. but he was allowed considerable time away from the the Above: Antonio Vivaldi. but now that well over a third of that number are in the current record catalogues we can hear for ourselves Not so long ago how great in fact was his variety — and not only of instrumental colour. Venice 1678. In 1735 he returned to Venice. RV54-9 |IL PASTOR FIDO) D Hans-Martin Linde. Rossier. O Lucerne Festival Strings/Baumgartner SXL6628 (7/741 Decca CONCERTOS RV94 Concerto in D for Recorder. 3 Musici 6580 007 (1/73) Phonogram I RV277 IEa VIVALDI Cpte. Kyrie Taccottet. Recorde Continu . but his best have an extrovert vitality — commended itself to Bach ». RV621 Bowman. i. RV271 E-II riposo. RV569 Concerto in F for 3 Violins and Strings: RV151 Concerto in G for Strings. a wit could safely jeer that Vivaldi had written not 450 concertos but the same concerto 450 times. (RV269. sometimes acting as his own impresario (he was still familiarly known as the "red priest". Staempfli. 293. on condition that he maintained his supply of works for it. Academy Music/Hogwood DSLO506 of Ancient (2/77) L'Oiseau Lyre- 199 . in D for Recorder. Ens. Most of his concertos.J. RV177 Sinfonia in B minor. 10 only. Lausanne Ens. RV199 in C minor-Il sospetto. RV157 Concerto in G 6530 014 (2/771 Phonogram minor for Strings and Continuo. 315. A set of twelve published in Credo STU70910 (5/76) RCA/Erato AGLI-1340 RCA MAGNIFICAT. N|"\ llll MXKKINIK \R\lll u. he took minor orders. RV92 Concerto Cello. . It is undeniable that he sometimes fell into conventional formulas or produced mechanicallyconstructed works. \u \n ot m \i\kiix-i\ rui inn*. He produced over forty operas in various Italian cities and in Munich. RV271 inE-L'amoroso and (7/74) Decca Ace of Diamonds STS-15364 London Bassoon and THE FOUR SEASONS. It./ Corboz/ Gloria. apparently on health grounds. Moscow CO/ Barshai/ Bartok CONCERTOS in STU70910 Argo. from the red hair which ran in his family). Cabrieli in Concerto (12/76) Selecta/Telefunken D ASMF/Marriner STRINGS E minor-Il favorito. minor— II favorito. RV589 D Smith. however. OFrasca-Columbier.

Luxurious clothes were one of Wagner's weaknesses. Left: Below d 200 right: left) Wagner with his (seated .Far left: Wagner's 1877 London concerts with singers from Bayreuth and a 170-piece orchestra proved disappointing.

together with the the first half of the Ring cycle. his extravagance and the scandal caused by his seduction of Liszt's daughter Cosima (wife of his disciple von Biilow) forced him once more to go into exile in Switzerland. but had expanded into three plus a further one preliminary to the action proper. d. Brought up in a theatrical atmosphere (his stepfather was an actor who had been friendly with of he studied music desultorily. the humane and lyrical Mastersingers of Nuremberg. youthful orchestral musician there. monstrous egotism. But Wagner's visionary ambition was to have his own opera-house where his ideal of a "union of the arts" (music. he interrupted the sequence to write Tristan amours. as a result of which he was offered the post of music director in Dresden. Then. borrowing money from all sides as usual. this colossal enterprise was brought to fruition by the building of the festival theatre in Bayreuth. At this point a fairy godfather appeared in the person of the young King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Having completed the composition of the first two. drama. which 201 . An interest in mediaeval legends led to Tannhiiuser (1845) and the Weber-influenced Lohengrin — which. verse and staging) could be realised. and Iso Ide the wife — inspired of a by the latest of his endless generous benefactor named Wesendonk. who invited him to Munich. Leipzig 1813. Konisberg and Riga. ingratitude and dishonesty and at the same time one of the greatest figures in the story of opera. where Tristan was staged in 1865. a composer whose influence on others was overwhelming and who was to change the whole course of music. and after a year as a repetiteur in Wiirzburg secured conductor's posts successively in Magdeburg (where he married an actress). lack of scruples. even despite the friendly backing of Meyerbeer. was given in Munich. carnality. made much of him and settled his finances. composed some and piano pieces (influenced by Beethoven >). since Wagner had been heavily involved in the abortive 1848 revolution and forced to flee to Switzerland. In Switzerland he worked out his personal theories of music drama (following in Gluck's » steps in attempting to recapture opera's first ideals) and embarked on the planning of a monumentally ambitious setting of The Nibelung's ring: by 1852 he had written the libretti of what had initially been a single drama. However. Siegfried's death. but efforts to get it produced in Paris (whither he had fled in 1839 to escape his creditors) proved vain. and Wagner spent three years scraping a by journalism and musical hackwork. He received an amnesty from arrest in Germany and returned to Dresden. which.RICHARD WAGNER (b. Wagner's imprudent meddling in politics. which was followed a year later by The flying Dutchman. and now began work on Rienzi. which he carried out efficiently if not tactfully or without a lot of friction. Venice 1883) To the dismay of moralists in Wagner was both an individual the field of aesthetics. in Weimar. then the most popular Weber >). and had piled up huge debts. written in the French "grand opera" style. There he wrote his only comedy. He had already tried his hand at two early operas. and incredibly enough. he went to living Dresden for the triumphal premiere of his Rienzi. was produced (thanks to Liszt >) only in 1850. but had little success with performances of his works (though by now he had a host of ardent admirers).

Op. (9/71) time of BPO/Karajan Philharmonia/Klemperer LPO/Boult/Concerf of Wagner (9/71) at the Bayreuth triumphs. and where his work. the course of the next half-century breakdown was to lead to the of tonality. Tristan and Isolde: Prelude and Lohengrin: Act EMI/HMV Nilsson. Doningo. Krause. St./Jochum DG ORCHESTRAL EXCERPTS Der fliegende Hollander: Overture. Op. Windgassen. Acts 1 and 3 13119 London Fischer-Dieskau.isteranger c 1604 London Hunter. Die Walkure-Ride of the Valkyrie Siegfried: Forest Murmurs. Ch. ASD3260 (9/76) S-37199 Angel EMI/HMV R. Act 3 Prelude Music. Fischer-Dieskau. Flagstad. fin English). Der fliegende Hollander: Overtui PARSIFAL on SLSS075I2/77) HMV Die Meistersinger: Prelude. Lohengrin: Act 1. Chorus and Orch. Windgassen. Hotter. Ch. Gotterdammerung: Siegfried's Rhin Bayreuth Fest. Lohengrin: Prelude to Act and Isolde: Prelude and Liebestod Tristan GOTTERDAMMERUNG Ludwig. & Orch. Nilsson VPO/Solti SET242-6 (4/031 Decca 1508 London Metamorphosen ZRG604 (9/69) Decca SIR ADRIAN OS WAGNER LOHENGRIN Preludes to Acts 1&5 Ad I Argo. Evans. Die Meistersinger: Overture. ASD2697 Bailey. Vickers. van Mill. SET506-9 (12/71) Decca TRISTAN AND ISOLDE DCpte. Martin. Lohengrin: Prelude to Act 3. Weber.. HARDWCNER ! D Exc. Buchner. Windgassen. Nilsson. Rienzi: Overture: Tannhauser: Overture Lohengrin: Act 3. Bailey. Frick/Vienna 1. Philharmonia/Klemperer ASD3071 (4/75) EMI/HMV DER FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER D Cpte./Solti Decca LOHENGRIN a Cpte. Dallapozza/Vienna Op. Parsifal: Preludes to Acts 1 and 3 ASD3160 DNewPhilh. Howard. Prelude. Kollo. in Tristan. Remedios. Sotin. Nilsson. and the art of orchestrawere hugely developed — even to the extent of bringing into existence special "Wagner tubas". St. 6500 932 (11/75) Phonogram Tannhauser: Overture and Venusberg S-3776 Angel « EMI/HMV Die Meistersinger: Act 1. Remedies./ Sadler's Wells Goodall English) Bailey. Ad3 D Philharmonia/Klemperer ASD269S (9/71) EMI/HMV I Liebestod. Vienna Singverein/VPO/Solti D41D5 (8/77) Decca 1502 London WESENDONK LIEDER Baker/LPO/Boult/Brahms. VPO/Solti SET382-4 (9/68) Decca 1309 London Prelude. TANNHAUSER UCpte. Vienna State Opera Chorus. Above: Wagner his A FAUST OVERTURE EMI/HMV ASD3130 ASD2696 Overtures Cpte. Cpte. Hunter. Pring. Bailey./Boult ASD2812 DIE EMI/HMV (12/75) S-37098 Angel . Bailey. SET550-4 (4/731 Decca 1510 London STANILND ISOLDE Gotterdammerung: Funeral Music. Braun. Grant/ENO/Goodall SLS5063 (9/76) HMV SX-3826 Angel Cpte./VPO/Solti D13D5 (9/76) Decca 1512 London St. Mackerras Prelude. EMI/HMV rhe Ch. Hamari. Tannhauser: Overture. Strauss . VPO/Solti ERVONNtRNBERG and Prelude. Ludwig. Wagner's hands the orchestra. Watson. Hunter. Das Rheingold: Entry of the Gods. There were also the importance he attached to dramatic action and motivation (which in the Ring have been construed with various different kinds of symbolism). Waechter/Bayreuth/Bohm Talvela. Act 1. Remedios. Ludwig/Berlin Op. Bode. Uhde. 7BB125-9 Decca 1511 London DCpte. Neidlinger. Prelude. Wagner made three great contributions to opera. Kollo. Belcourt/ENO/ UNS245-6 (7/73) Transatlantic/Unicorn Goodall 1. OCpte./Karajan 2740 149 (12/76) 2713 Oil DG D Cpte. Dresden St.11. DfeMrisi . Ligendza. Adam. Grant. Vienna Op. Varnay. Tristan and Isolde: Prelude. Fischer-Dieskau. Moll. the unprecedented harmonic audacity which in In tion. VPO/Solti SET292-7 (5/65) Decca Frit Svanholm. S-36871 Angel D Cpte. Lagger. Vienna Chorus. -Dieska Vii Kele Boys' Choir. Weikl. Neidlinger. Op.RICHARD WAGNER opened last 1876 with the complete Ring. which rested on a symphonic conception of drama in which the orchestra was a principal exponent and in which characters and dramatic concepts were represented by "leading motives" woven into the texture. Tristan and Isolde: Prelude and Liebestod vcnMinibcrg ickh:ki\(aiv\r\Jv\ 202 < 1. Donath. Frick. SLS957 (10/71) (7/72) D BPO/Karajan |3/7e] WALKURE D Cpte. Bailey. Thomas./Keilberth D97D3 (7/78) Decca 63519 Richmond Journey Parsifal: Prelude to Act Tannhauser: Prelude to Act 3. Hotter. 2713 001 (1/66) DG* DNilsson/Resnik/Uhl. Prelude: Cpte. The chief was the new kind of continuity in all his works after Lohengrin. Die Meistersinger: Act 1. and. Prelude. (in Ha (8/72) Classics for Pleasure Act 3 Scenes 2 and 3 (in English). Dresden HMV Cpte. Londi DAS RHEINGOLD D Concertgebouw/Haitink State Orch. soloists. Kollo. the erotico-religious Parsifal. Dernesch. nd-Stroud. Moll. Lohengrin: Preludes. Chorus. Prelude./VPO/Kempe SLS5071 (12/76) HMV S-3641 Angel DIE MEISTERSINGER Ridderbusch. Talvela/ Chicago D24D3 SO & (5/77) Ludwig. LPO/ CFP40008 O SLSS032 (11/75) HMV SIEGFRIED IDYLL SIEGFRIED ASMF/Marriner/Sfrnuss D Cpte. Parsifal: Act 1. was in stage produced years six later. Act Dance of the Apprentices. Hesse. VPO/Solti TANNHALSER Overture 3. Kollo.- Right: Wagner's manuscript of the Mastersingers Prelude. Grummer. Hermann. Ludwig. London.

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as in the scherzo of his First Symphony (uniquely marked con malizia). having third facet of Walton's music has been his — "occasional" manner: in his works for two coronations the marches Crown imperial and Orb and sceptre. Capriccio SRCS49(6/71) Lyrita SONATA FOR STRINGS ASMF/Marriner/Prolco/ieu: Visions ZRG711 (10/73) Decca Argo* PRELUDE AND FUGUE. a composer he has always admired. A study taken at the time of the revival of Troilus and Cressida 204 " . in incidental music. Britten EMI/HMV S-36861 Angel QRippon. and to some extent in the Te Elgar ». Apart from his "applied" music he has generally been a slow writer because of his acutely selfcritical sense (the First Symphony had originally to be performed without its finale. It is also exemplified in the opera Troilus and Cressida. Halle Choir Chorus/ Partita (3/77| EMI/HMV Concert Classics S-35681 Angel catingly witty and satiric setting for reciter and six players of surrealist poems by Edith Sitwell (with whose — family he lived for a time after Oxford) even this is more familiar in a later arrangement for orchestra alone. Oldham 1902) Though he was a chorister at Christ Church Cathedral. The Quest. Walton was largely self-taught as a composer. virgins ASD3317 (3/77) EMI/HMV SINFONIA CONCERTANTE FOR ORCHESTRA WITH PIANO Katin.. whence he entered the university at the exceptionally early age of 16. Scapino Ov. The CELLO CONCERTO D Tortelier. LSO and Chorus/ Previn/ Improvisations on an Impromptu of Benjamin SAN324 (11/72) CFP40063 1 ( SXLP30236 & Orch. a work that upset some cathedral authorities by its bloodthirsty exultation. RCA 2 DLSO/Previn/Portsmoufh Point Ov. the finest for the instrument but Walton's most intimately revealing composition). It is often coloured by a nervous tension that manifests itself in irregular twitching rhythms. LSO/Walton/Soifimo. He first attracted notice when a youthful string quartet (since withdrawn) was played at the first International Society for Contemporary Music festival in 1923. and since about the time of his knighthood. Its ebullience represents one of the constant threads in Walton's make-up. it was transmuted into a vividly barbaric splendour. Philh. CAPRICCIO BURLESCO D Royal Liverpool PO/Groves TW0272 ( 10/68) EMI/Studio 2 SYMPHONY NO. Bournemouth (12/73) Laine. Alongside this extrovert and sardonic humour. notably 1951./Loughran 2/74) Classics for Pleasure & DBell.WILLIAM WALTON (b. Suites. live and Right: sculptured.4 double image of Sir William Walton./ Fistoulari/Lecocq: Mam'zelle Angot ECSS86 (9/71) Decca Eclipse S-15191 Angel DOrch. and who was the soloist in the first performance of his Viola Concerto). he has shown little interest in breaking new ground. Ross/Ens. Lambert: Rio Grande ASD2990 (5/74) EMI/HMV VIOLIN CONCERTO DKyung Wha Chung/LSO/Previn/ Stravinsky SXL6601 (5/73) Decca 6819 London . first apparent in 1929 in the bitter-sweet Viola Concerto (not merely. about which he was unhappy). CBSO/Fremaux/ Wise DOrch. a corus- BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST Shirley-Quirk. the Violin Concerto combines lyrical yearning with dazzling technical display. save for Fagade the same year. in his largescale oratorio Belshazzar's feast. SO/Berglund/ Shostakovich: Cello Concerto EMI/HMV FACADE. the Cello Concerto and the Variations on a theme of Hindemith (». JOHANNESBURG FESTIVAL. 1 IN B FLAT MINOR D LSO/ Previn LSB4100 (10/73) SYMPHONY NO. by common consent. SCAPINO. runs a vein of nostalgic romanticism. Covent Garden Orch. Oxford. and in complete contrast..AN ENTERTAINMENT ASD2924 been written for Heifetz. /Dankworth 6382 037 (2/68) Phonogram Suites. CROWN IMPERIAL: ORB AND SPITFIRE SCEPTRE. Deum — he has worn Mention should be made the mantle of of his extremely skilful Henry V and Hamlet. particularly for films. but chamber music has been of little significance in his output. from the breezy bustle of the 1925 overture Portsmouth Point to the Partita thirty years later and the one-act comic opera The Bear (1967).

~~ .

whose desolate beauty suggests the loneliness of spirit that was to become intolerable to him. when under the influence of Bernard van Dieren he began overture dates from the same year as Weber's Oberon. flute. Eutin. though seldom performed. Weber finding employment as secretary to the Duke's brother. Partridge. and Vars. It was then that he wrote his amusing T7T1 PeterUtir/ock QERVASE DE FEYER WEBER CONCERTO NQ VautilumWilliaius INF MINOR OP 73 Ivurflvmns CONCERTINO OP 26 R0S9NI: THEME AND Merciless Beaut) VARIATIONS RAFAEL FRUHBECK DE BURGOS NEWFHLHARMONtA ORCHESTRA /London CAPRIOL SUITE FOR STRINGS troly loly. Konzertstuck 2538 087 (7/72) DG/Privilege CLARINET QUINTET de Peyer/Melos Ensemble/Moinrt HQS1395 206 F (9/77) EMI/HMV . but his Midsummer night's dream while he was still a schoolboy at Eton. The Fox). A musicologist and critic of no mean distinction — he edited a great deal of Elizabethan and Jacobean music. which have earned him the composing title Heseltine. having meantime studied seriously in Vienna. New Philh. Taylor. hard-drinking ( (Captain Stratton's fancy. In an arbo Berry.) SHE525 (3/76) Pavilion/Pearl Hey ABU HASSAN D Cpte. though for a short time he was taught by Haydn's > brother Michael. he became an excellent pianist and started composing at a very early age. d. and wrote books on Delius. Casadesus. Delius > dichotomy between his alter Bohemian. cor anglais and string quartet. An opera he wrote at 13 was re-worked a decade later as Silvana. at 16 he produced his second opera. Schreier. of founder of German romantic opera (this despite by his contemporary and friend Spohr >. for a time. However. and eked out a living in Darmstadt as a critic and writer and by giving concerts. fall into a number of diverse categories: pseudo-Elizabethan. a rake and spendthrift in whose company he fell into dissolute ways. written for London. solitary and melancholy nature. Adarr Dresden Staatskapelle/Rogner LRL1 5125 (8/76) ANDANTE AND HUNGARIAN RONDO FOR VIOLA AND ORCHESTRA IN C MINOR J47 Zukerman/ECO/Stnmi'rz. It was his last opera. My thief. but the establishment had soon to be disbanded. WEBER CARL MARIA VON London WARLOCK PETER pseudonym of London 1894. for he was the son of a travelling theatre director (the uncle of Mozart's > wife). These. The Sackbut. 1 IN MINOR. light-hearted Yarmouth fair). and because of this unsettled life his musical education was sporadic. Mendelssohn > Basically of a sensitive. poetic [Sleep. 1786. Fill asked a fancy. melodic line and harmonic elaboration. PHILIP HESELTINE (b. Maltworms/flrrflngemi? Music Group of London/ Vaughan Williams: Vocal works Partridge. d. Perhaps his masterpiece. was appointed conductor in Breslau. He then entered the service of the Duke of Wiirttemberg (during which time he composed his two symphonies). Becoming involved in some shady financial dealings. Gray (spkr. he wrote for orchestra a Serenade for Delius's sixtieth birthday and a Capriol suite (his most popular work) largely based on a sixteenth-century dancing-master's book. Piggesnie. The English Ayre. where his vigorous talent for theatre organisation was somewhat hindered by his the earlier Faiist youthful tactlessness. Hallste.n. nr. various and readings I. and Gesualdo — he composed only spasmodically. was editor of a hard-hitting magazine. Peter Warlc Sinfonietta/Hurst/ Elgar. Sweet content. rollicking in earnest: the ego. He had opera in his blood. Rossini: Intro. D Bournemouth green. adopted a different persona (along with a new name) around 1916. HQS1325 (5/74) EMI/HMV PIANO AND VOCAL WORKS Capriol Suite— exes. J114 De Peyer. and so stands somewhat apart from his previous stage works. Peter Schmoll. ASD2455 (5/69) EMI/HMV S-36S89 Angel DLeister/BPO/Kubelik/fnpiMtioM. showing great gifts in their flexible declamation. J. Hoist. there 1930) Ltibeck. and at only 17. the bulk of his output consisting of about 100 songs. of Away t< Twivver. Gillian ghostly fader. the premiere of which he conducted). Ireland RL25071 19/77) RCA THE CURLEW-SONG CYCLE I the cup. Gohler. is the Yeats songcycle The Curlew for tenor. Apart from these and some short choral pieces./Fruhbeck/ Concertino.1 (b. which also achieved something of the kind. who admired and was encouraged by is 1826) credited with having "brought fairyland into the orchestra". Telemann 76490 (5/76) CBS CLARINET CONCERTO NO. Rutterkin) or dark in mood [The frostbound wood. a swaggering. The contented lover). and his real self is conspicuous in his music and may have led to his suicide after he had been writing for a mere fourteen years. Partridge. he was banished by the king.

CELLO AND PIANO./Beetliouen: Serenade SOL284 D (12/65) L'Oiseau-Lyre Musica Viva Trio/Dusi'lc: Trio TV34329S (6/73) Decca Turnabout ist 207 . Preciosa. Sind es Schmerzen. Ich denke dein. A confused libretto also flaws the poetic and picturesque Oberon. RONDO BRILLIANT IN D FLAT. Elfenlied DM. C Hogwood (fortepiano) DSL0523 four temperaments deinem Zauberkreise. where he threw himself with great thoroughness into every detail of operatic presentation: three years later he was appointed director of the court opera in Dresden. Meine Lieder. Neuk Hunter. Euryanthe. of Abu Hassan. Was zieht zu 46. a complete understanding Singspiel with dialogue. With DerFreischiitz in 1821 he scored a major triumph. SONGS Liszt. Norman. Wiedersehn. when be became conductor German theatre in Prague. J259 Melos Ens. Preciosa. Domingo. Meine Farben. INVITATION TO THE DANCE Gedda Krahmer. Vogel. VPO/Andreae/Bsn. Ruler of the Spirits. Die freien Sanger. which nevertheless enjoyed a triumph at its first performances in 1826. various clarinet works (a quintet and three concertos) which show an and affection for. cones. Grobe. Cov«nt-<»arden in 1826. Schreier. painted in London by John Cawse. Dresden Staatskapelle/Janowsl SLS983 (10/75) HMV S-3764 Angel Adam Radio Choir. D Bavarian RSO/Kubelik 2535 136 (3/76) EURYANTHE D Cpte. Dv Smetan ale 2530 244 (10/72) DG* KONZERTSTUCK IN F The Op. but two months later Weber. Der Freischutz. Dresden Staatskapelle/Carlos 2720 071 (11/73) DG 2709 046 DG D BPO/Karajan/ Berlioz. MINOR FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA. Klage. makes much of its effect by its evocative orchestral colouring: its Wolf's Glen scene is a landmark in operatic atmosphere. Euryanthe (the forerunner of Wagner's Lohengrin): despite its melodic grace this was less successful because of its weak libretto. Abu Hassan. Uber die Berge. DER FREISCHUTZ Cpte. directed by the composer. The Ruler the Spirits.KIXCTs OATH e44~k OBERON U Cpte. Mathis. Ich sah ein Roschen. Der kleine Fritz. and 2 (12/77) Decca Eclipse — Song cycle. This Singspiel. for a virtuoso with whom he toured extensively. Leipzig Clar. Euryanthe. death OBERON: THE RLF. J260 DG Der Frieschutz. AND DLSO/Schonzeler LRL1 5106 (4/76) RCA TRIO IN G MINOR FOR FLUTE. Unbefangenheit. Die Zeit. A lucky break came in 1813. Above: Weber just before his iNKVER ACTED. D Gulda. Oberon. RSO and Prey. Bavarian Ch. Mein Schatzerl (1/771 1 Oiseau-1 yrc 1 2 SYMPHONIES NOS. never robust in health. which (like the programmatic Konzertstiick for piano and orchestra written for himself to play) is set of the against a background of chivalry. Peter Schmoll BPO/Karajan 2530 315 (5/73) DG* J282 cone./Kubelik 2726 052 (1/76) OVERTURES Der Freischutz. Jubel DSRO/Ansermet ECS645 (7/72) Decca Eclipse STS-15056 London Oberon. Das Veilchen im thale. where in place of the Italian style which had hitherto held sway he established a strong German tradition (which was to pave the way for Wagner > and Strauss >). Janowitz. and. There is also a "Gothic" element in Weber's next opera. Minnelied. Right: Covent Garden playbill for the premiere of Oberon. I ECS807 1 Privilege hubsch. which combines the naively sentimental and the supernatural elements of German country folklore. Euryanthe. Die gefangenen Sanger. the instrument. Reigen. Krause. died in London of consumption. though none of his new operas was produced there. Jubel SCAPJEHBOAT. Nilsson. Er an Sie. Tlientre Koynl. Hill. meine Sange. Oberon. Es sturmt. Abu Hassan. Hamari. Abu Hassan.

recent popularity of way it would have Mack gratified the knife. and. before hitting the jackpot in 1928 with Die Dreigroschenoper (The Threepenny opera). another acid social satire by Brecht. BERLINER REQUIEM D Langridge. and after producing Die Biirgschaft (The Surety) in 1932 he was forced to flee the country. Weill. since the socio-political bitterness underit and most of his works written in Europe was largely overlooked. he adopted a Singspiel style with dialogue and expressed the work's savage social criticism in a cynical "wrong-note" jazz idiom (scored for jazz band) that. which enjoyed a sensational success. Rippon. The York 1950) d. With the same librettist. This style was further developed two years later in Mahagonny. and his first compositions were in the turgid expressionist style then current in Berlin — the First Symphony. had declared his music "decadent". In Paris he wrote the sung ballet Seven deadly sins and his Second Symphony. whose Haydnesque clarity and lying economy stand in the greatest contrast to his First. Tartridgf. and he turned to "musicals" (of which Lady in the dark was the most successful). Rippon. works 2740 153 (11/76) DG KLEINE DREIGROSCHENMUSIK FOR WIND ORCHESTRA II. after a spell as an opera repetiteur. like Hindemith's » Cardillac produced in the same theatre eight months later.KURT WEILL New (b. while preserving the period style. Klemperer SXLP30226 EMI/HMV (1/77) Concert Classil 5 London Sinronietta/Atherton/ Mahagonny Songspiel 2530 897 (2/781 2709 064 DG DG MAHAGONNY SONGSPIEL D Dickinson. London. Dessau 1900. whose black comedies and bitter social satires were 1 anathema to the Nazis. studying with Humperdinck >. like Georg Grosz's drawings. which is headed by a revolutionary slogan. though in his last three years he aimed a little after a brief stay in higher with the "Broadway opera" Street scene. infuriated by the success of this Jewish composer's subversive works. The Nazis. enya and so RO/Bruckner-Ruggeberg/ in Weill: Theatre Songs 78279(4/75) CBS Above & above right: Weill. he wrote the topical black comedy The Tsar has his photograph taken. and the opera The Protagonist (which./Klemperer//. the folk opera (for college students) Down in the valley and the musical drama Lost in the stars. Langridge. with Busoni >. with whom Weill also worked on Happy end and the cantata The Lindbergh flight. The recordings by his widow. defeat and corruption in post-war Germany. which marked the start of Weill's collaboration with Brecht. Berlin 208 German. Georg Kaiser. then. Luxon. There the musical climate offered him no opportunity for the kind of works he had hitherto written. For this updated version of the eighteenth-century Beggar's opera. includes an important scene in mime). London Sinfonietta/Atherton/Chora/ and Orch. . Thomas. are not always the most faithful interpretations of what he wrote. Srnn. Luxon. London Sinfonietta/Atherton/K/efne Dreigroschen 2530 897 (2/78) 2709 064 DG DG THE THREEPENNY OPERA aCpte. He had grown up during the First World War. though would one have in also saddened him. Lotte Lenya. he settled in the USA in 1935. perfectly caught the sour smell of disillusion.

though certainly designed to provide opportunities for his own dazzling gifts. He was indeed one of the greatest virtuosi of the last century. At the age of 25 he was appointed solo violinist to the Tsar. His spectacular career was his course there three years later. Below: A more sober view of the Polish violinist at the period of his appointment to the Russian court.. 2 IN D MINOR D Perlman/LPO/O/awa ASD2870 (5/731 EMI/HMV S-36903 Angel Left: An Amsterdam cartoonist's to humorous reaction Wieniawski's spectacular playing. He toured the USA with Anton Rubinstein (Tchaikovsky's 3> teacher) — though it is related that after a disagreement over the respective size of their names on a poster they gave 70 concerts together without speaking — and in 1874 went to the Brussels Conservatoire as successor to another great virtuoso. carrying off the cut short by heart LEGENDE. Haydn. 16 Dicterow. that his compositions. Los Angeles PO/Mehta/ Polonaise. De Waart/ Berlioz. whose melodic sense and sound musicianship ensured as music. he made such extraordinary progress in Poland that his teacher (who also taught Joachim) advised that he should be taken to Paris when he was only eight. who had showered praises on him a quarter of a century earlier. Vieuxtemps.580 047 111/711 Phonogram* SCHERZO-TARANTELLE. Tchaikovsky t. 17 New rhilh Romance: Beethoven. Violin virtuosi who write for their instrument take a natural delight in exploiting its possibilities. and then made a name for himself throughout Europe with his younger brother as accompanist. . d. 1 IN F MINOR VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. but the results are sometimes more notable as pyrotechnics than An honourable exception was Wieniawski. disease. 209 . Concerti In. At 13 he made his first extensive tour. OP. during which time he taught in St Petersburg and also continued his public concert career. OP. He was immediately accepted for the Conservatoire and completed premier prix and also being awarded a Guarnerius violin. His Second Concerto (his most frequently played work) and Legende in particular bear witness to his romantic warmth and poetic refinement. rarely fall into vulgar exhibitionism. Sparks fly from lis bow and the animal kingdom is set capering. Vivaldi and Weber SXL6737 (2/76) Decca VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. Taking up the violin at a very early age. 1880) Lublin 1835. a post he held for twelve years.HENRYK Moscow WIENIAWSKI (b. DGrumiaiix. famous for his phenomenal technique and beauty of tone.

In similar bursts of creative frenzy he dashed off settings of Eichendorff and Goethe poems and the collection known as the Spanish If was 210 expelled. his only instrumental work to have established itself. in which he had extolled Wagner and lashed Brahms and his ever a composer was marked out to be one of Nature's losers. or even three. This humiliation—like an even more brusque dismissal of his string But suddenly from about 1876 he was gripped with wild urges to compose. Some encouraging words from Liszt > led him to write a symphonic poem. and these at last began There were despairing intervals to attract attention. After the mercurial and highspirited Italian serenade for string quartet. whose genius seemed to be starcrossed. within two months he lost it because of his quarrelsome nature. which was. laughed to scorn by the Vienna Philharmonic at a trial run-through. d. masterly lieder in a single day. Nobody showed interest in his compositions — in fact. songbook. Even he was taken aback by the incandescent heat of an inspiration which drove him to write two. a snub administered by Brahms > probably engendered Wolf's violent hatred of his music. he plunged into song-writing with a superhuman intensity. rather unfairly. Penthesilea. and subsisting only through the help of musical friends. of exhaustion and barreness. Windischgraz 1860. Vienna 1903) — undoubtedly sprang in part from the hostility Wolf had aroused as a critic for the Wiener Salonblatt. quite apart from the fact that he was already an idolator of Wagner > — and though he secured a job as an assistant conductor in Salzburg. drinking in the music and literature around him. he led followers with vitriolic abuse. it was Wolf. but then another ecstasy would possess him: the Italian songbook was brought out in two instalments . from which he quartet an impoverished existence in Vienna as a teacher (for which he was temperamentally unfitted).HUGO WOLF (b. composing 43 settings of poems by Morike within three months. An unsatisfactory and difficult pupil at three schools and at the Vienna Conservatory.

Der neue Amadis. Beherzigung 2. Of these. Abendilder. Serenade: Slrimss: Capricdo SXL6S33 ITALIAN (2/72) Decca SONGBOOK DCpre. which however fell light exceptions it was given in Germany. there 1948) Wolf-Ferrari followed in the footsteps of his father. which represent the peak of that art form. like himself) and all twelve were written in Italian (or Venetian). creativity 211 . . IL CAMPIELLO. with the voice adding a melodic obbligato. Gutmann und Gutweib. man his last year. Fischer-Dieskau. Mit schwarzen Madchen Du Wo bist einst. Gleich und gleich. the majority of them received their premieres in German opera-houses. Nepomuks Vorabend. SCHOOL FOR FATHERS . Spatherbstnebel. in i mit dem roten Mundchen. Mahler's > elimination from the Vienna Opera's production schedule of his only completed opera The Corregidor (which because of its static nature had been coolly received at its premiere the previous year) suddenly turned his brain. Der Sanger. Mathis. in translation. but left him exhausted. We nn Wie des Mondes Abbild Frage nicht. His evocative and often technically brilliant piano parts— "accompaniments" would be an inadequate term — frequently bear the main weight of the musical thought (as Wagner's orchestra does). Dies zu deuten bin CO/Munchinger/S»Jc. but after it he returned to his MLIENMES j Venice 1876. during which time Wolf -Ferrari directed — extremely efficiently — Venice's chief conservatory. Phanomen. In 1897. 2740 162(8/771 DG MOERIKE LIEDER OLuxon/Willison 3BBA 1008-10(5/74) Fischer-Dieskau/Barenboim 2709 053 DG Wolf's frenzies of produced superb songs. Ritter Kurts Brauttahrt. sei. a distinguished German painter. zittert. Fruhling ubers lahr: Anakreons Grab. Der Rattenfanger. Had EdifliMathis Peter Scbreier KaiiEngelj iano > preferred style of graceful. Trunken komm. Herbstenschluss. Erschaffen und Beleben. performed in England under the title "School for fathers") and the one-act Susanna's secret were all successes in the first decade of this century. Dank des Paha.OVERTURE. wird ich in deine Augen Seh. his work shows the utmost sensitivity to verbal nuance. Wolf's reputation rests on his nearly 300 lieder. melodious. Returning to Venice. Engel 2707 096 (8/771 St alle sein. RITORNELLO. in the play. Barenboim Segein. Spottlied. though five of his operas were based on plays by Goldoni (a Venetian. I quattro rusteghi ("The four curmudgeons". with a gang of terrorists!) This had a temporary vogue. Cov. SUSANNA'S SECRET. where he died insane four years later. Without having Schubert's > uncomplicated melodic gift. Freeh Und Froh 1 and 2. « rie eine Blume. Gdn / Gardelli SET617 (ll/7o) Decca 1169 London Below: Wolf-Ferrari.ERMANNO WOLF-FERRARI (b. Pr. but after his release he attempted suicide and was removed to an asylum. Blumengruss. the world would have been the poorer without the neat skilfully written. ike. DG ethe Ganymed. Der Harfenspieler 1-3. was perhaps this which was responsible for flat until It the curious situation that. der Menschheit. Bedenke Wic LIEDER RECITAL nd Solang 1 i Schreier. LA DAMA BOBAOVERTURE.PRELUDE. rhythmically vital comedies with a touch of the 18th century about them. He made one excursion into heavily melodramatic realistic opera with The Jewels of the Madonna (1911) (the catchy popular intermezzo from which is associated. He was taken to a mental home. and more harmonic subtlety than had ever been known in the (the 24 songs of the sphere of song. pictured ITALIAN SERENADE mussen wir D Stuttgart nuchtern ist. INTERMEZZO. Komm ch heiter bleiben. Der Schafer. a remarkable sense of mood and character. second half taking him 36 days). Nerbst. Genialiscl Treiben. Chiara. he wrote an oratorio which was well enough received for him to produce an opera. HugoWoff LIEDERBIflai I d. Cophtisches Lied 1 and 2. but his response to music was so passionate that in his middle teens he was allowed to change course and go to Munich to acquire a musical education. Epiphani. as it were. the Liceo Marcello. Ob der Koran von Left: Hugo Evvigkeit 3llt ch irgend Liebchen. attractive comedies he composed — though with only occasional it shows little urge to know much more than the liltingly tuneful intermezzos which were a feature of his operas. Le donne curiose. Wenn ic Locke haltet derangen Wanderers Nachtlied. Nichte Gelegenheit macht Diebe. Koniglich Gebet. Was in der Schenke waren heute. JEWELS OF THE MADONNA— ORCHESTRAL I'HiMI SUITE O Paris Conservatoire/Santi SDD45 (o/7S) Decca Ace STS-15362 London of Diamonds SUSANNA'S SECRET DWeikl.INTERMEZZO. He had in fact been sent to Rome to study art.


= French.















double-bass (largest


decoration; (2) a fanciful till
used to describe an essential

decorative piece

Absolute music Music complete in
itself, i.e., without words or

"programme", and







shorter and usually




Optional; (2) in free
(3) as often as required

Arioso (ahnoh'zoh) (It.). (1) Analike fragment interpolated in a
recitative; (2) instrumental^, "in
a song-like style."

See ground.





traditional Italian

same as Assez.
Assez lasay'l Fr

Cradle song.
Binary form Musical design in





any tonal system or




producing beautiful

notes only of the pianoforte
Affettuoso(afetoo-oh'zoh) (It.).

Agrement (agraymo(ng)) (Fr.). See






marcia (mar'chal



Cantilena Ikanteelay'nah)

moving out





consist of




Not quite


Ballad opera Eighteenth-century

Allegro (alay'groh)

as fast as

Allemandelal-mahnd'l Fr or
Alman Moderate-speed dance
common time found in the




produced by

falsetto; (3) Fr. for Viola.

Andante (andan'tay) (It). At a
moderate speed
Andantino(andantee'noh) (It.).
Slightly quicker than Andante.
Answer In fugue, the entry of the
subject in the dominant key.
Anthem A composition for church
choir, not forming part of the
liturgy, sung in Anglican

A piacere (ah








four-part writing, (2) the highest



ot bra

Bravura Ibravoo'rahl (It
and brilliance ot execution.
Breve (breev) Almost obsolete

unit of metrical

semibreves Not the




strings of



support over


of the

in-a-bar swaying rhythm.

Barcarolle (Fr


Appoggiatura apojatoo'rah) (It.).
An ad) a cent introductory note
suspending or delaying a melody

in six-

Male voice midway
between tenor and bass.
Baroque Term borrowed from




Bach's works

The lowest musical strand
composition; 12) the deepesl
type of male voice; (3) the

Chromatic Outside the scale of the


chanting in a synagogue, (3)
musical director in a German

Lutheran church
Canzonet (1 in seventeenth
century England, a light
contrapuntal song for several

simply a light lyrical song.
Capriccio Ikapreechoh) (It or
Caprice (1) An instrumental piece
of fanciful or whimsical character.
|2) a seventeenth-century
composition of fugal type
Carol Popular song, usually joyful,
associated with a religious


festival, especially

Cassation Eighteenth-century
divertimento, usually for open-


prevailing key. Chromatic scale.



semitones throughout

Cimbalom (sim'balom) Hungarian
variety of dulcimer
Classical music


Music worthy



Light or Popular. (2) music of

roughly the eighteenth century,
from Romantic and

as distinct

Clavecin (klav'salng)) (Ft


Clavichord Old keyboard
instrument of faint tone, in which
metal tangents press on stretched

Clavier Iklaveer'l (G.) See klavier.

Conventional sign determining

the pitch of

the notes




five-line stave.


Tail piece of a

two small pieces of
clacked together.
A male singer operated on
boyhood to preserve his

consisting of






short, simple

operatic song, or an ir.strumenl

piece of similar style

in which hammers
on steel plates
Cembalo Ichembahloh) (It).

Cabaletta lit). (1) The quick
concluding section of an opera
scena. (2) short operatic song






Short coda rounding

off a section of a

composition or

Colla parte (ko'lah par'tay (It ).
Indication that the accompaniI

Catch Restoration round for men'
voices in which the words by
unexpected juxtaposition acquii
humorous or bawdy meanings

Celesta Orchestral


in a




Chief singer in a church



musical style of the 17th and
early 18th centuries.
Baryton Obsolete instrument like
the gamba but with sympathetic


Chord The sounding together of
three or more notes to produce

Castanets Spanish instrument

Briolbreeohl (It
Broken chord Like an arpeggio, bul
with the notes ot the chord
played in a different order.
Buffo (boof'oh Kit .). Comic.
Abbreviation for the
German numerical index of

architecture to denote the

which couid also be plucked.

German Lutheran

Chorale prelude Organ composition
based on a chorale


stave separating bars. Double-

A double vertical line
through the stave denoting the
end of a section or of a complete


church or cathedral, and
properly of boys' and men's

round which decorative strands






Choreography The art ot arranging
the dancing and movement in a

usually pre-existent

Vertical line through the

strings like the viola

lib (2)


voices, usually unaccompanied,
or one voice with lute, (21 today,

instruments (and percussion)
only Not the same as military





Band consisting

Brass band



choir; (2) leader ot fhe ritual

stretched, (2) passage linking twe

eighteenth-century suite.
Alto (1) The second highest voice


spoken dialogue interspersed
with songs set to popular tunes.
Bailed A light, dance-like madrigal,
often with the refrain "Fa-la"




smoothly flowing melody
Canto fermo (kan'toh tair'moh)
An unembelhshed and




Broadening and



two keys simultaneously
lively three-in-a-bar


An old popular narrative
song, 12) a nineteenth- or early




fourth beat


Alia breve (alahbray'vay) (It.).
Indication that a four-beat bar



Russian instrument of the guitar

part, suitable for

Chamber orchestra See orchestra.
Chanter The pipe of the bagpipes
on which the melody is played

Chorale (korahl'l

BouffelboofllFr.) See buffo.
Bourree Ibooray'l (Fr.). Dance of the
eighteenth-century suite in alia

BIG). The note B

In the style of, e.g., alia



Chamber-music Concerted music for

Choir Vocal group, especially in



Spanish dance.

Balalaika Triangular-shaped


for note


(bairse(r]z) IFr.).

which two sections balance each

Bitonal In


Cantabile Ikantah'heelay)



irrespective of the starting pitch,

the intervals correspond to those
of the scale A-A on the white


lowest register of the clarinet


original key, the second returning

scale in which,

Oialumeau (shalyoomoh)


composition by
which one or more melodic lines

vocal tone

Bemol(bay'mol')(Fr). See

other, the first

mode Old



one voice proceeds note



and often

indistinguishable from, the


a bar, (2) the

English ornament.

related to,


making counterpoint together.
Canon cancrizans a canon in which

of the pulse-units

which constitute

Canon A device

time on a ground bass of


four or eight bars' length Closely

French seven-


teenth-century name for a
Cadenza Flourish possibly
especially in a concerto.


Bel canto

(of repeats).



Arpeggio (ahrpei'ioh) lit.) Chord
played harp-style, i.e., with the
notes sounded successively
instead ot simultaneously, either
upwards or downwards.
Assai (asah'ee) (It I. Very. Not the

Atonal Not



Beat (1)



improvised) by a

Basset horn Obsolete instrument
slightly deeper in pitch than a


note chromatically by a

lib (1)


lighter ana.


Adagio (adah'jioh)


Harmonic progression


closing a phrase, a section or an


Basso ostinato bas'oh ostinah'tohl.

Accelerando (acheleran'doh) (It.).
Getting gradually quicker
Acciaccatura (achakatoo'rah) (It
A short appoggiatura.
Accidental Sign raising or lowering

struck sideways


clarinet but of the


Unaccompanied choral



not designed to support any
other art.
Absolute pitch Instinctive ability to
identify notes by their sounds

Acappellaiah kapel' ah}

With the bow,




of the violin family)
Bass drum. Large drum ot indefinite
pitch, placed vertically and

ment should be accommodated
to follow the soloist
Col legnolkol layn'yoh) (It). With
the stick of the bow, not the hair.
Coloratura (kolorahtoo'rah) (It )
Floridly decorated singing

Come prima (koh'may pree'mah)







As above.
Comique (komeek'l Term




to opera with



sopra (koh'may soh'prah)



spoken dialogue.

necessarily comic

Bach. Johann Christian 13. 14
Bach. Johann Sebastian 9, 12,

The index contains names and
places mentioned in the book.


bold denote a main
entry, and numbers in italics denote

14-17, 51, 52, 58. 64, 83, 94. 106,
126, 169, 191, 109

Balakirev. Mily 18, 38. 87. 137,
154-5. 189
Barbaia 28
Bartok, Bela 19-21, 70, 113. 119, 17:
Baudelaire 65
Bavaria. Duke of 115
Bax, Arnold 22, 109
Bayreuth, Prince of 191
Bayreuth Festival Theatre 201 2
BBC Symphony Orchestra 12, 3°

Adams, Adolphe 67
Agoult, Comtesse de 11°
Albemz, Isaac 8, 9, 72, 92

Tommaso 9
Festival 47
Quartet 102
Anne, Queen of England 94
Arensky 155
Army Music School 91
Arne, Thomas Augustine 10,
Arnold, Malcolm 12, 13







Beethoven. Ludwig van 13. 20.



23-27, 44, 51. 94, 106, 197, 164,
167, 169, 177, 192, 201


Vincenzo 28, 71, 196
Alban 29, 162
Berkeley, Lennox 30, 144
Berlin Court Opera 181
Berlin Master School of
Composition 108
Berlin Music High School 102
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra 181

Bach Choir 194


Bach, Carl Philipp En
14. 98, 191

Bernac, Pierre 144






18, 30, 31, 33. 87,

119. 120, 123. 126

Leonard 32
Berwald, Franz 33
Biblioteca Central (Barcelona) 84
Bizet, Georges 34, 139
Bliss, Sir Arthur 35
Bloch. Ernest 36
Blow, lohn 148
Boccherini, Luigi 37
Boito 147, 197
Bonaparte, Lucien 37
Bonaparte. Napoleon 23
Borodin, Alexander 18, 38, 137, 154
Boston Symphony Orchestra 151, 158

Bouffes Pansiens 138
Boulanger. Nadia 30, 6]
Boulez, Pierre 39, 128

Adrian 195
Boyce. William 40
Brahms, Johannes 19,
Boull, Sir

Bruckner, Anton 50-51, 123
Brunswick, Duke of 177
Brussels Conservatory 209

Chopin, Fryderyk

Budapest Conservatory 70, 113
Budapest Opera House 123
Bulow. Max von 181, 200, 201
Busoni, Ferruccio 51, 91, 208
Buxtehude. Diderik lo. 52
Byrd. William 52-53, 186


139, 140, 169, 178, 181, 210
Brandenburg, Margrave of 14
Brecht, Berlhold 208
Bridge. Frank 47
Britten, Beniamin 47-48, 172
Brno Philharmonic Orchestra 111
Bruch, Max 49, 154. 194



Sweden 62

Cibber, Susanna 10
Claudel, Paul 129

dementi, Muzio 106
Cleveland Institute of Music 36
Cobbett Composition Prize 12
Cocteau, lean 160
Collegium Musicum Leipzig 191
Cologne. Elector of 23
Comedie Francaise 138
Copenhagen Conservatory 139
Copenhagen Music Society 139
Copland, Aaron 32, 61
Corelli, Arcangelo 62, 63, o4
Couperm, Francois 64
Covent Garden 10, 103
Coventry Cathedral 48
Cui, Cesar 18
Czech Provisional Theatre 73
Czerny, Carl 106, 119

Cappella Giulia 142
Carl Rosa Opera 103
Cassel, Elector of 177

20, 41-45,

51. 67, 70, 74, 109, 113, 114. 123,

28. 57-59, 65,

82, 119, 169. 173. 187
Christiana Philharmonic Society 93



of 170-1

Opera House 123

Chabner, Emmanuel

54, 55, 152

Chaliapin 151

Chandos, Duke of 94
Chapel Royal 40. 52, 148, 184. 186
Charles II, King of England 148
Charles IX, King of France 115
Charles X, King of France 156


Chausson, Err

Cherubim 58






137, 154



hord Chord consis
maior or
and the perfect

Crescendo kreshen'doh)


time Four beats ,n

Comodo (kom'ohdohl


trumpet or horn to alter the
length of the tube and thus the




Cross-rhythm An effect produced
by the accentuation of a phrase

With con fuoco




conflicting with the basic pulse or

con lice

with the accents of another
simultaneous phrase
Crotchet The most usual one-beat
note-value, equivalent to a

(leechen'tsah). Freely,


melancholy com malizia
Imaleelsial With malice O
moh'toh] With

Cyclic Form



flay] at

Concertanle iknnch
Having a promin^



which the


same theme recurs in different
movements of a work.
Czardas Ichar'dashl Hungarian


possible force

to* (21




instruments with orchestra

Concerto ot
Concerto grosso It
the Bach period, in which a sole
group of instruments is combir*
and contrasted with a larger


satisfying in


without the addition of a
following chord.
Console That part ot the organ,
containing the keyboards and
stops, where the player sits.
Consort Old English term tor a
group ot instruments performir



consort- instru

ments of the same family. Brok
consort. A mixed group ot
strings and wind instruments
Continuo or basso conrinuo
ibasoh ko


Seventeenth- and eighteenth
century harpsichord or organ
part, in a concerted work,

organ building denoting



that a





the pit. h

The note C.
Dodecaphony System






ol a

applying the mouth to



Enharmonic modulation A change
of appellation ot the same note





wind or
brass instrument. (2) method

of strings whit h

normally plays in unison should
divide and play separate parts
Division See double.


Embouchure (ombooshvoor



by Schoenberg in
which the twelve notes within an
octave are related not to a key
sition initiated



players or singers



D-D on the white
notes only ot the pianoforte


independent section between

ot the scale




Idah kah'poh) (It
to the beginning
Dal segno idal say'nyohl lit

to the sign

Dampfer Idemp'lerl iG Mute
Dampfer auf (awf Put the mute
on Dampfer ab or weg (vayk).
Take the mute off

entries ot the roneio subject



to be played staccato. (21


beside a note,

Da capo


a note,



duration is lengthened by half
normal value




Idoo'bll (Fr.l.

ornamental variation
Double-bar See bar.






added above an existing melody,
especially a hymn-tune, for
decoration. (2) old English name
for highest voice in part music,
used also for highest-pitched

instrument of a family (e.g
descant oioll
Development 1 Elaboration of the

Double counterpoint Counterpoint
in two strands whose vertical
order may be interchanged with
equally good ettect
Double fugue Fugue on two
subiects simultaneously

Double-stop The production






subject or subiects. (2) the middle
section of a






which such elaboration

completing the harmony, whic
was indicated only by a bass
figured or unhgured.
Contralto The deepest type of

Diapasonfsl Organ

Contrapuntal See counterpoint

Diatonic Consisting only of the


stops producing
the solid foundation-tone of the





Equal temperament A system of
tuning the notes of the scale on a
keyboard instrument so that ,1
can be played in any kev. by
making all twelve semitones in
the octave ot equal size
Eroica (eroh'eekahl (It.). Heroic.
A study
Etude ay tyood' Fr



(piece developing

Dulcimer Instrument in which
strings stretched over a sounding
board are struck with hammers
wielded by the performer
Dumka Idoom'kahl A type ot
Slavonic lament, in Dvorak's
music, alternating with animated



Euphonium A tuba ot tenor range
Exposition The setting-out of the
themes of





notes in the scale
prevailing key.

statement of the subiect by all the
successive voices, in sonata form,
the whole first section before the

Expressionism Term tor a style ot
objectivist painting Imainlv
second decade ot the twentieth
applied to the non-expressive

Extemporization The art ot
simultaneously creating and

Counter-subject In fugu
phrase designed to ac








Diminuendo Idiminooen'doh)

Courantelkooront) lFr.1 Tnpletime dance of "running" type,
found in the eighteenth-century
suite There are two different

used ol



different for







The note









A flourish of trumpets.
alone or with other brass and/or
wind instruments
111 An
Fantasia lantazee ah lit


Ecossaise aykosayz






Duke ot Ferrara 112
Warlock. Peter
Hesse-Darmstadt. Margrave of 190
H.ndemith. Paul 102, 208
Hoist, Gustav 103-5


Gluck. Christoph VVillibald 31,
S<), 152. 201
Goldberg 16
Goldoni 211
Goossens. Eugene 105
Cot ha Duke of 177
Gounod. Charles 34. 90, 121
Grainger. Percy 91
Granados. Enrique 84. 92
Grieg. Edvard91, 92-93
Guggenheim Fellowship ol
Guiraud 139
Gutheil 151

Heseltine. Peter see


Imperial Chapel iSt Petersburg!

Delibes. Leo 67
80, 81

Diaghilev 66, 80. 145. 152. 160. 182
Bernard s




28. 71, lOt,

Drury Lane Theatre 10
Dukas. Paul 9, 72, 80, 128. 129
Dvorak. Antonin 73-75, 17o


Fenby. Eric 08
Franck Cesar 51. 55. 72. 82.
Frankfurt Opera 102. 177
Frederick the Great 12. 16
Frederick William
i 37
ree School of



King of


18. 155


Norma le





Trtnite 128

Edward 35, 76, 77-80, 204
Queen of England 52,

Song Society 194
English Opera Group 47
Escola Normal 84

English Folk

Esterhazy, Prince Nicolaus 98. 99

King of England 94
Gerhard. Roberto 84-85
Gershwin. George 84-85
Geyvandhaus Orchestra 126

Hanover, Elector of 94
Hanover Square Rooms 14

Esterhazy. Prince Paul

Anton 98




Handel. George Fridenc 10. 52, 62,


Haydn, loseph

13. 37. oj. 98-101,

106-7, 133, 134. 164

Haydn, Michael 206

S 185

Glazunov. Alexander



brilliant guitar

lowering a note
chromatically by a semitone
Flutter-tonguing Special ettect
obtainable on certain woodwind
Flat Sign

and brass instruments by


down orally, whose
Forte Itortayl






f .1

Loud. Fortissimo tortis eemoh
(abbreviated ff). Very loud.
Four-foot tone Term derived from

organ-building, denoting a piteh
an octave higher than written
Fourth The interval betyveen a note
and the third note alphabetically
above or below ,i ,i contains five
semitones and is termed
"perfect." e neither major nor

Thin snips






tugal style

Fughetta (fooget'ah)







polyphonic style

38. 86, 87,



textural strands, based



a definite

single subject



stated b\ vrn'

lanacek. Leos' 111

loachim. loseph 42, 209
losquindes Pres 112

Georg 208
Kennedy. President 32
Kings Theatre 14
Kodaly. Zoltan 19, 70. 113
Koussevitzky. Serge 145
Koussevitzky Music Foundatii



Luis 37
ety fo

88, 94-97, 99, 161, 191



lorm ot traditional florid
Andalusian folksong with


Opera (Vienna) 88. 122
D'Indy, Vincent 125. 158. 160

Hamburg Opera House



Honegger. Arthur 106-7
Hugo. Victor 71
Hummel, lohan Nepomuka 106-7
Humperdinck. Engelbert 108, 208


Gabneli. Giovanni 170
Gade 92. 139



Ikan'tay tlamen'kohl

voice alone and then by the other


Glinka, Mikhail 18. 87, 154. 15

158. 160. 187. 198

Manuel de




92. 106. 113. 114. 119. 147. 152.

Faure. Gabriel 82, 152


Finger-board That part ot the neck
ol a stringed instrument against
which the strings are pressed by
the fingers in the production ot

Fugue Ifyoogl.

normal range

Debussy. Claude 20. 65-66, 72, 80.





A method
by males
above their


resulting in notes

demanding a following
chord on which to resolve




Fugato Itoogah'tohl It
passage, not a complete

of voice-production


Delius. Frederick 68. 69. 91, 130.



characteristk musical


separate numbers; 121 a song


chord not complete



Diminution Compression of a
phrase by reducing the note-



correct placing of the fingers


Getting gradually softer.



across the finger-board ot certain
stringed instruments (not ol the
violin family facilitating the

beats in a bar



The interval between note
and the fourth note
alphabetically above oi below it


(doorrl (G.).

which the music



Counter-tenor See alto






,n the


Durchkomponiert idoorshkom-

Dieze (dee-ayzl (Fr .). See sharp.
Diminished interval A perfect or
minor interval decreased by a
Diesis idee-ay'zeesl






Duple time



wind band,

oi military

Folksong Traditional song, handed


of thr.

Counterpoint (II The combinatic
ot melodic lines; (21 a strand

tcltp.iitce t.ih


fugue, the

section containing the





r.irtit.i to,

musical shorthand
Finale lleenahlayl III


In fugue, a passage
separating two entries of the



harmony indicated by a series
numbers forming a kind of







Figured bass A bass line tor the use
ntinuo player, with the



a section lor several singers

Entr'acte lontrakt'l llr

titth note ol an
ascending diatonic scale.
Dorian mode Old scale in which,








Dominant The




termed "perfect,"

to E flat

Ensemble onsom'bl Fr
Unanimity. 121 a concerted group


fanciful eh.ii.uter


a bar

the intervals correspond to those


Concord Chord

Scottish origin in

Term derived from


irrespective of the starting pitch,





Eight-foot tone


Divisi Ideeveezeel

Dolce Idol'chay)

dance consisting of a slow section
followed by a quick and fiery


chamber ensemble or


also (on,




centre but only to each other See

Concertino koncha

quick two


suite in several

joint htted to



Crook Detachable


of (doubtful

Divertimento (deevairteemen'tohl
A light and entertaining



Getting gradually louder

of a note with the

Contemporary Music

35. 84.


Ippolito d'Este. Cardinal 143

lohn 47. 109, 130
Charles 61. 110


la Poupelimer
La Scala Oper,

Heifetz, Jascha 204

Henze. Hans Werner 101



composition of capricious



K. or K.V. See Kochel.

Grand opera Opera without any
and dominant keys


See orchestra.
Fundamental The note produced by
Full orchestra

spoken dialogue
Grazioso (grahtsee-oh'zoh) (It).

Grave (grah-vay)


Humoresque An instrumental


in its

complete length

Furiant Ifooriahnt) Lively three-in-

a-bar Czech dance characterized
by strong cross-rhythms

Great organ The chief part of the
the organ, containing the most
powerful stops, and controlled
by one of the keyboards
Gregorian chant See plainchant.
Ground or ground bass A bass pa
continually repeating the

Hurdy-gurdy Rustic instrument of
the south of France whose strings
are set in vibration by a wheel


Musical director.
Key 1 A system of relating notes
and chords to one tonal centre,



on pianos, organs,


part of the striking action




verbal text of an opera or

Kapellmeister (kapel'mysterl (G


turned by a handle Nothing to
do with the barrel-organ

Libretto (leebret'oh) (It).

touched by the




fingers, (3) a

plural Lieder (lee'der)




The nineteenth-century


art-song cultivated by
Schubert, Schumann, Brahms,
Wolf, etc., in which voice and

piano are of equal importance.
Liederkreis (lee'derkrys) [G.)- See

Lieder ohne worte (lee'der ohne

Calliard Lively sixteenth-century
dance, nearly always following a
pavane and usually based on the

same theme
Galop Fast nineteenth-century
ballroom dance in two-.n-a-bar
Gamba or viola da gamba (veeoh'lah dah gam'bah) fit.). The
second largest instrument of the
viol family, corresponding to the

Gamelan, Gamelang Indonesian




(hah) (G). The note
Habanera (abanair'ahl





of the

eighteenth-century suite in quick
four-in-a-bar rhythm,




on the third beat.
Gebrauchsmusik Igebrowkhs'
moozeek') (G.). "Utility music",
written specifically to satisfy a



gigue (zheeg)

Animated dance

in three-,


rhythm, often forming the


eighteenth-century suites.


Giocosco Ijohkoh'zohl


Giusto Ijoo'stoh)



Strict, e.g.,

giusto: strict time.






of air. arranged

today, a mouth-organ.
Harmony The organisation of


necessarily cheerful in style

(1) In the


trombone or member

sounds into chords and chord-

Eastern percussion

bronze plate which, when struck,
emits a definite note
Gopak A gav two-in-a-bar Russian
Grace-note See ornament.
Gran cassa See boss dram.

Orlando di see Lassus,
Roland de
Roland de 115, 142
Legion d'Honneur 152
Leipzig Conservatory 9, 111. 12o
Leipzig Opera House 123
Leningrad Conservatory 87, 172
Leoncavallo, Ruggiero 116-7, 124,

Leopold. Prince of Anhalt-Cother


Nouveaux leunes

106. 160

LesSix 106, 129. 144, 160
Liadov 155



Liceo Marcello 211
Lincoln Cathedral 52

Linz Cathedral 51


o. 18, 20, 33. 38, 42.

51. 83. 84. 93, 106, 119-21, 123.

126, 140, 152, 159. 173. 176, 181,

201, 210

Liverpool Philharmonic Society 49

London Philharmonic Orchestra 12
Louis XII, King of France 112
Louis XIV. King of France 64
Louis XV. King of France 152


ucea, Princess of 141






Hautbois lohbwa) Fr
(hoh'boy Oboe.
Heckelphone Instrument of the
oboe family an octave lower in
pitch than the oboe
Homophony A style of music in
which the voices or parts move
together without independent
melodic or rhythmic interest, th
opposite of polyphony.
Hornpipe An English dance.




82, 159
of Fine Arts 80
Maeterlinck 65. 82
Mahler. Gustav 29, 48, 120, 122-3,
172, 181, 211


Madrid Academy

Mallarme 39, 45
Mantua. Duke of



of a




distance in pitch
In calculating

val the degre






Music preluding a church
ung i
priest advances to the altar
Invention Short keyboard piece
imitative counterpoint based
a single musical idea.

The presentation
phrase upside down, (2) the





Marcello, Alessandro 9
Marie Antoinette 88

Masi igni, Piefre lie. 124, 147
Massenet, lules 55. 125, 147

Master of the King's Music 40, 70
Master of the Queen's Music 35
Maximilian, Emperor 143
Meiningen Orchestra 181
Members of the League of David 169
Mendelssohn, Felix 16. 31, 92, 126-7,
139, 169, 206
Mendelssohn Scholarship 12, 185
Messiaen, Olivier 39, 72, 128
Metropolitan Opera 123

of a

presentation of a chord with any




Meyerbeer. Ciacomo 90, 201
Milan Cathedral 14, 112
Milan Conservators 196
Milhaud, Darius 55, 106, 129, 198
Moeran, Ernest John 130
Monteverdi, Claudio 130-1
Morley College 103
Moscow Conservatory 151. 173.
Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra
13, 14,

23, 51, 57. 88. 98, 106, 132, 133-6,

159, 164, 181, 189, 206

Munich Opera 181
Mussorgsky, Modest

Legato (Laygah'toh)




Leggieroflei.air'ohltlt .)


Legno See col legno.
(lyt' mohteef) (C
theme or figure, especially in
Wagnerian opera, associated
with a person or idea, and
quoted or adapted at relevant




Nielsen, Carl 139
Nordraak, Rikard 92
North, Roger 148




of polyphonic a

and early

century poetic and musical form
bearing little resemblance to its
sixteenth-century namesake
Maestoso mystoh'zoh) (It.).



(my'stroh dee

di cappella




See kapellmeister.

Maggiore (major'ay [It
One of the two present-day key
systems, of which the ascending


between the third and fourth and
between the seventh and eighth
Magnificat The canticle of the
Virgin (as it appears in St Luke)
which is sung at Vespers (or




interval of the

maior scale.
Manual A keyboard of the organ
played by the hands, as opposed

in the

to the feet

Marcato Imarkah'toh)




accented; (2) to the fore.

Marchen Imair'shenl


(G.). Fairy

Species of xylophone

with a deeper register and a large
resonator attached to each note-

Pedrell, Felipe 80, 84,



Battista 143,

183, 191


Okeghem, Johannes 112
Offenbach, Jacques 34, 138-9, 178
Opera (Pahs) 67, 152, 159
Opera-Comique 138
Orff, Carl 140
Orpheon Choral Society 90
Ospedale della Pieta 199

Paganini, Niccolo 31, 118, 119,

Naples Conservatory 28, 143
National Brass Band Festival 35
National Conservatory of Music 74
New England Conservatory 51
New York Philharmonic Society 123



152, 154

Society 84



Lento (It
Lesson Seventeenth and eighteenthcentury English name for a

18, 65. 137,

Newman. Cardinal 70

to dramatic).

second, third, sixth or seventh as

Ottoboni, Cardinal 62

New York Symphony



Introit (1)


semitone below the tonic.
Lebhaft (layb'haft) (G
Ledger-lines Short lines accommodating notes above or below

act of intoning

song melody, |2| the degree of
accuracy of singing or playing


Leader (1) Principal first-violin
player of an orchestra; (2) in the
U.S.A., conductor.
Leading note seventh note of an

of the

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
130. 143




musical thought

Lyric Sweet-toned (of voices, as

character; 12) a fourteenth-

and Fr.lThe note A
Fairly slow
Austrian country-dance in triple

Larghetto (It.). Slightly less slow
than Largo.
Broad, slow
Largo (It


Lute Obsolete plucked stringed

in the sixteenth

time, precursor of the waltz

and revelation


seventeenth centuries, usually
one voice to a part and of secular

Langsam (lang'zam) (G .). Slow

stretched strings are plucked



entr'acte: [2) a

the opening phrase of a plain-

of the violir




capella composition nourishing



often of a light nature
Interpretation That part of a


keyboard instrument

Gong An


piano pieces.
Loure Moor) Fr
Originally a type
of bagpipe found in Normandy.



between two notes.

Glissando An effect of "sliding" a
scale passage on the piano, harp,

Glockenspiel Iglokenshpeel) (G.).
Orchestral instrument in which
tuned steel bars are struck with

suited to their character
Intermezzo lintairmed'zohll

musical performance which

the order of their

mathematical ratios, the
fundamental being termed the
first harmonic or partial.


least three solo voices,


together with the secondary
notes produced by a vibrating
string or

composer's mind.
Improvisation See extemporization.
Incidental music Music for theatre,
radio or him not fundamental
to the dramatic development
Instrumentation The art of
writing for instruments in a way
in the

Harmonic series Acoustical term
for a main note, or fundamental,

unaccompanied part-song

for at

which included Balakirev.
Borodin, Cui, Mussorgsky and

improvisatory type of

the key-signature, with the
exception of the leading-note,

so-called 'mighty

handful' of Russian composers

piece, the title suggesting, not an


A type of eighteenth- and
early-nineteenth century English


Kuchka (R). The

of air; (3) a special tone

quality obtainable on stringed
instruments by the isolated use




keyboard instrument
Kochel (ke[r]'shel)(G) The
numerical index of Mozart's

Impressionist school of painters
Impromptu A short instrumental

produced together with the
tundamental by vibrations of

vor'tel(G). Songs without

words — a title invented by
Mendelssohn for short lyrical

after the clef.



ch ba



Impressionism A term for atmospheric music by composers
contemporary with the

of the


Key-signature Indication of the
sharps or flats proper to a key,
placed on the stave immediately



a pulse of dotted

to ha
Harmonic (1) Rela
(2) one of the secondary notes



musical phrase representing a
person or idea which persists


Spanish dance (from Africa

Cuba) with



Idee fixe (eeday teeks)

aliquot parts of a string or


fingering of wind instruments.
Keynote Principal note of a key,
on which the scale starts and

Pesaro Conservatory 124
Philharmonic Society (Goteborgl
Picasso 160, 182
Ponchielli 147
Poulenc, Francis 30. 55, 144
Prague Conservatory 74
Prague Opera House 123
Prix de Rome 34. 65, 90. 125, 152
Prokofiev, Sergei 145-6


116. 124. 147

Pulitzer Prize 110


48, 96, 148-9



of 161


Palestrma. Giovanni Pierluigi de 90,
115, 142-3

Rachmanlnov, Sergei

Palestrma Cathedral 142
Paris Conservatoire 9, 34. 55, 65,

Rameau, lean-Philippe
Ravel. Maurice 30, 80.

67, 72, 82. 83. 90. 106. 125, 128,

129, 152, 159, 160,

Parry. Hubert 194
Pears, Peter 47


51, 140, 150.

152, 187

72, 88, 152-3
82. 109,

152-3, 160, 181, 194, 198




Hans 51



154, 156. 181


Masque Stage production, designed
for the entertainment of the

nobility in the sixteenth


seventeenth centuries, usually
allegorical and mythological in
character and involving poetry.
music, dancing and elaborate
scenic effects.

Masstg (mes'ikl lG
Massig bewegt (bevaykt) At
moderate speed
Mazurka Polish national dance in
moderate three-in-a-bar rhythm.

the accent tending to

second or
Mediant the

on the




group of

(2) in pl.nnsong, a

note* sung to a single syllable


Melodic minor scale



version of

which the

scale in

descending form conforms to the
key signature, but the sixth and
seventh degrees ot the ascending
lorm are sharpened





Mixed voice choir Choir ot both
male and female voices.
Modes The early scales in use
before the establishment during
the sixteenth-century of the
major and minor systems.
Rhythmic modes. Thirteenth

Much, very




Monody A

style of




ot speed indication.


For lay)


(abbreviation mf.) Moderately

piano med'zoh piah'noM




set to


Movement A

in the different

of a



a larger

crotchet beats, equivalent


ot the




seventh reduced by a semitone
Minuet Triple-time stately French
dance, nearly always with a
contrasting middle section callei

which the minuet is
repeated It was common in the
eighteenth-century suite and wa
a trio, after

movement of the
sonata and symphony until
a regular

Beethoven superseded


by the






28. 34. 118,

154, 156-7

Roussel, Albert 158, IcO

Royal Academy of Music 04. 184
Royal Choral Society 90
Royal College of Music 47, 103,
109, 130. 185. 194

Royal Orchestra



Naluralelnatoorah'layl III.
Direction that a voice or


performance, should



style ot twentieth-

century music deliberately
adopting the impersonality and
lormal style of the "classical"
period, and concerned with
craftsmanship rather than

St Clotilde


Sammarhni. Giovanni Battista 88
San Carlo Opera House 28
San Francisco Conservatory 36
Sand, George 57
Santa Cecilia Conservatory 154
Santa Maria Maggiore 142. 143


55, 128, 144, 160

16. 171
Sayn-Wittgenstein. Princess ot 120
Scarlatti. Alessandro 62, 161
Scarlatti. Domenico 37. 161
Schoenberg, Arnold 20. 84. 101,

Anton 209

Church IPansI 83

Gervais Cathedral 04
lohn Lateran (Rome) 115, 142
Mark's Venice) 130
Michael's Church ICornhill 40
Paul's Cathedral 40
Petersburg Conservatory 87.
145. 155. 180
Petersburg Opera 154
Stephen's Cathedral Vienna 98

St Sulpice

nlle82, 121. 159

Salzburg Festival 35, 47


Rubinstein. Nicolas 108, 100








102. 162, 163. 183
Schola Cantorum 128. 158. 160
Schubert. Franz 33. 50, 73. 164-7,
185. 211
Schumann, Clara 42. 168, 169
Schumann, Robert 18, 38, 42. 50. 82
126. 140, 168. 169-70
Schutz. Heinrich 170-1
Scriabin, Alexander 151, 172-3, 187
Shostakovich. Dmitri 20. 172-3
Sibelius, lean 130. 139, 174-5. 181

Viceroy of 115

Slngakademie 44




lever raising or shifting

dampers on the pianoforte,
on the

a note





solo character Often wrongly
used as meaning an optional

Oboe d'amore Idamor'ay)


Ottavino (otahvee'nohl III
piccolo time
Overtone See harmonic 121
Overture 111 Piece ot instrumental
music properly preceding an


play, etc., but also


Rarely used instrument slightly
lower in pitch than an oboe, but

on the harp and the kettle
an organ keyboard


played by the feet; (3) on the
trombone, the |ust-playable
fundamental note of the tube



a device, especially in fugue, of

holding one note through a



changing harmonies

or moving parts,
Pentatonic scale The five-note scale,
widely current in Folk-music,

which is most easily represented
by the black notes of the

Dn for


Cadence consisting

Perfect cadence
ot the


ot the

followed by the tonic chord




or twice, the

Octet IDA composition for eight
instruments; (2) a movement tor
fifth One without an inter
mediate major or minor third
Opera A sung drama with

Pantonal Schoenberg



comedy opera,
some spoken



composer's death
Oratorio Extended composition for



Piano (piah'noh]


Soft Pianissimo
ipiahn.s'eemohl (abbreviation

early organ






religious subject but not



in style


Smetana. Bednch 176, 194
Society of Classical Concerts 02
Sonzogno 116
Spohr, Louis 33. 177, 206
Stanford 103. 109, 194
Stighano, Prince ot 143
Stockholm Conservatory 33
Strauss. Johann
Strauss, lohann II 178-9
Strauss, Richard 19, 20, 70, 106.
140. ISO, 181-2, 187. 207

Stravinsky. Igor 20. 30, 32, 35, 61,
80. 101, 109, 144, 145, 158, 160,
182-3, 187, 192, 108

Sullivan. Arthur 184-S

Szymanowski, Karol

186. 187



secular composition lor several

voices with piano

homophonie and

strophic in


52, 186-7
18, 67,

87. 151. 183, 188, 189-90,

Telemann. Georg Thilipp

Theater an der VVii
Theatre de la Gaiet
Theatre des Italiem





instrument ot today,




disposition ot the
"parts" or melodic strands in the







on stretched

sinner Most frequently
abbreviated to "piano"
Pitch The "height" or "depth" ot a
musical sound according to the
greater or lesser




vibrations producing








flu mosso.




Pizzicato (pitzikah'toh)



ground which can recur





lol a stringed

Plagal cadence

length See also chaconru
Passepied Ipaspiay'l IFr Breton

of the

Cadence consisting

chord ot the subdominant

followed by the tonic chord
Plainchant, plainsong The ancient
modal music of the Church, sung

dance like a faster minuet
sometimes found in the


Theatre Lynque 67
Three Choirs Festival 40, 78
Thun. Count 176
Tippett, Michael 192-3


in tree

rhythm and

Walton, William 204-5
Warlock, Peter 130, 206
Warsaw Conservatoire 57. 187
Washington Square College 91
Weber, Carl Maria von 33. 162.

Toscanini 124

177, 201, 206-7


Webern 20
Weill. Kurt 208

Vaughan Williams, Ralph

Westminster Abbey 148
Whiteman. Paul 84
Widor 82
Wieck, Friednch 160
Wieniawski, Henryk 209


Verdi. Guiseppe 120. 147, 196-7

Verlaine 65
Vic-Wells Ballet 35

Queen of England 126
Vienna Conservatory 51. 210
Vienna Opera House 123
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra

Wiesbaden Opera 101
Williams, Vaughan 103. 186




Pianoforte piah'nohtortay

The most common keyboard
Part-song A nineteenth and
twentieth century type ot short


Villa-Lobos. Heitor 198

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr llyich



eighteenth-century suite

Sitwell, Edith



music, a set of variations







on a

sentence" or
usually a lew bars long.

Phrasing The shaping



eighteenth-century suite,



Op. posth. A posthumous work,
e one published after the

of the

Phrase Musical


Ophicleide Obsolete bass brass
instrument, superseded by the
Opus number (abbreviation Op.l
Enumeration ot a composer's
work, properly based on the


maior nor minorl



Partita (partee'tah)

Partitur Ipartee'toor] [G



fourth, fifth or octave

Partial See

eight voices.



Perfect interval

publication, for the purposes or

Saxony, Elector of


Osrinalo ostinah'tohl




usually with

Sarasale 114

139 28

setting a tone-colour



persistently repeated figure or


16. 38,

87. 137, 145, 152, 154, 154-5, 182

dame, often followed by a
on the same theme






harpsichord, altering the pitch ot

Obbligato lobleegah'tohl


revert to the



An old word
Ornament A melodic deco
A term denoi n>;


accompaniment acted
with costumes and scenery on a




beats-in-a-bar sixteenth-century

Orchestration The art of v
music laid out for the
instruments of the orche



Saint Sa

Rimsky-Korsakov. Nikolai

Pavane Ipavahn

tor a pianr



or twelve beats

six, nine,

a bar

ely of



in rustic style,

imitating a shepherd's pipe,



hn K


not intended to be acted

Ricordl 116, 147

brass and percussion



Natural Sign counte rmanj,n t an


Sound of definite pitch,
symbol by which this sound




orchestra of at least sixty players


ot the Gospel slorv ..1 the
Pastorale pastorah lav III

of vibrations) eight degrees of the

lC.1 See serenade {2)

Minor interval The interval ot the
major second, third, sixth or



quasi-pastoral style

Nachtmusik mahkhl'mooseek'l

key-systems, of which the
may be according either t»

small orchestra Full or








instruments (with percussion]

between two chords
Passion music Musical presentation


string part



softening the tone of an

band Band consisting
woodwind and brass


chamber group by having more


subdivision of

Passing-note Note not forming part
of the harmony serving as a link,
in any one strand of the texture,


or bagpipe


composition for nine



Music drama A term for
Wagnerian opera
Musicology Musical scholarship,
embracing all theoretical, stylistic
and historical aspects of the art
Mute Device tor damping and




words other than

counterpart of the anthem
Motif Fr
Motiv (G.). (mohteef'l.
Figure See also leit-motiv.
Motto theme A musical phrase

A body o( instrumental
players combining to form an
ensemble, differing from a



serenade 2


form of sacred poly-

phonic vocal composition

imitating the French

Moderately soft
Mezzo-soprano med'zoh
sohprah'nohj (It



piece introduced into music by


Mordent An ornament indicating
that the note over which it stands
is struck rapidly twice with an
adjacent note between
Mossolltl Motion See also meno

Musette imyoozet't



voice or part, or in which the
melodic interest is so confined.

which recurs



suggestive of night

Novelette Fanciful

those of the Mass; the Catholic

ment on the pendulum principle
which audibly marks a pulse at
jnv required speed and whose








romantic piece or


metrical patterns.

Modulation The movement from
one key to another


Notturno Inotoor'nohl


(usually Latinl

mosso. Slower
Metronome A mechanical instru-

NobUmente Inobeelmen'lav

century systems of rhythm.
involving the consistent
repetition of certain simple


third beat

third note of an
ascending diatonic scale
Melisma 1 A decorative passage;




Wagner, Richard






Wurttemberg 200

14, 199

28. 51. 55, 65, 67.

74, 82, 108. 119, 120, 123. 125.
140. 155, 162, 173, 177, 179. 181.


196, 200. 201-3, 207. 210
Walter, Bruno 72

Waltham Abbey 186






unaccompanied, which
survives in the







Rigaudon reegohdo(ng)') (Fr.), Old
Provencal dance in lively two-ina bar rhythm

foi fh




Ensemble consisting

Player-piano Mechanical piano
worked by the action of air
through perforated paper rolls
Poco(h-). Little. Poco a poco (It
Polacca See polonaise.
Polka Lively Bohemian dance in




Romantic music Subjectively
emotional music of roughly the








The note








Recital Properly, a concert given

performer (with piano

a single

Ponticello (sul) (sool pontee-

accompaniment it necessary) or
single group such as a string

(It.). Direction to play
near the bridge of a stringed





recitals are

sometimes shared by two artists
Recitative Narrative declamation in

(It.). Slurring from on.
note to another vocally or on a



bowed instrument

times, with different episodes

or octave in more than two
parts continuously returning
from the end to the beginning
Rubato (roobah'toh) lit




seen together



pipes) causing


Relative major Major key based on

minor key and
having the same signature
Relative minor Minor key based on
a ma]or key
and having the same signature.
the mediant of a

Repetiteur (raypaytiter') (Fr).



an opera-house

Semiquaver Note-value


for the


to the

slow triple time found in the
eighteenth-century suite

adjacent black note

(G .). Movement.
Scaled) The notes of a key in


Sempre (sem'pray)

for four


Ricercare reechairkah'rav) lit.
(1) Seventeenth-century term tor



and cello. Piano quartet.
Ensemble consisting of piano,
violin, v.ola and cello, or a work
for such an ensemble
Quaver Note-value equal to half a

fugue employing as







often three





degrees of the scale

Evening vocal or
instrumental music by a lover
under h.s lady's window; (2) a



Scherzando (skairtsan'doh),

Serialism Dodecaphony or an



Scherzo (skair'tsoh
piece or






rondo— though there have been
many modifications ot this

The sonatas

of D.

and other early

eighteenth-century composers


mostly single-movement pieces
binary form
Sonata form Musical design
normally employed in the first
movement (and sometimes
others) of a

symphony, sonata,

quartet, etc.



generally found,


movement, generally


very frequently found

technical devices (e.g.,

triple time,
in the

possible; (2) sixteenth-century

Beethoven's time, when it
replaced the earlier minuet




scherzo, the last often a




Sequence Repetition of a phrase o
figure, starting on successive

augmentation, diminution,



Serpent Bass wind-instrument of
wood covered with leather
played with a cupped brass
mouthpiece it tell out of use
during the nineteenth-century

Seventh The interval between

subjects in contrasted keys are

introduced, a development

which the subjects are restated


same key,

coda to round

note and the sixth note

-.oil usually



form, the middle


(whole-tone), or with gaps



Soldi. andFr
The note G
Sonata Extended composition tor

Senza (sen'dza) (It.). Without
A composition for seven


changing the length ot tube and
hence the pitch of the harmonic



order of pitch. (2) a succession of
ascending or descending notes in
some conventional order, e.g., by




Term derived


sixth eight.


Semplice (sem'pleechay)

for solo voice.

Rhapsody Impassioned or




Satz (zahts)

Scena (shay'nah) (It). Operatic
movement of dramatic character,

instruments, especially a string


Slide (1) See portamento; (2)

exemplified by the interval
between a white note and the



interval not

declamatory piece

of a quarter

irotchet. equivalent to a

Semitone Smallest interval in use in
Western music, one-twelfth of an
octave On the piano it may be

tarantella, but with a leaping

rhythmic figure
Sarabande (sarabahnd) (Fr


from organ-building denoting a
pitch an octave lower than writte
Sixth The interval between a note
and the fifth note alphabetically
above or below it: a major sixth

mechanism on

An animated Roman


Resolution Progression from a
discord to a concord which

normally used in
Western music
Quartet (1) A composition for four



Sixteen-foot tone


teaches singers their roles.



Semibreve The longest note-value






"straight on."

Spanish dance in three-in-a-bar
rhythm, dating back at least to



indistinguishable from a

Segue (say'gway)


dance similar

The choice and use
on the organ or

Requiem Mass

interval betwet

notes alphabetically adja







an instrument


rapid alteration o( a note with
the note above.

Shanty Working-song on sailingships assisting rhythmic
unanimity for collective tasks.
Sharp Sign raising a note
chromatically by a semitone.
Si (see) It and Fr
The note B.

dotted six-in-a-bar rhythm
Sinfonia concertante smtonee'a
konchertan'tay) (It.), A
symphonic work with one or
more solo instruments almost

Sackbut Obsolt


some l.terary, pictorial or extramusical sub,ect
Progression Motion from note to
note or from chord to chord


Shake Ornament consisting

Slow pastoral



Sforzando (sfortsan'doh) (It
Sudden emphasis on one note or

Siciliano (seecheeliah'noh)


instruments, of metal in organ



be easily
Score of

Full score.

Score showing vocal parts in full,
but with the orchestral parts
reduced to an arrangement for

Second The

Expressive elasticity of





Reed Thin vibrating tongue

Prima donna (pree'mah donah)
"Leading lady" of an opera
Programme music Music illustrate

performed by


accompanied only by simple
chords on the harpsichord.
Recorder Type of flute, blown
downwards and not sideways.


work showing on

part.'so that they

Recitativo secco (recheetahtee'voh

of a

Seguidilla (segeedil'yah). Popular






Presto It
Rapidly Prestissimo
Very rapidly

voices. String quartet.


instruments; (2) a

Root Bass note of the triad from
which a chord is derived
Round Vocal canon at the unison

definite notes but following


Prelude (1| An introductory piece
to an opera or act of an opera,
an oratorio, church service, suit.
or fugue, (2) somet.mes merely ;
separate short piano or orchestr
piece without anything

quartet, (2) a

Sextet (1)






which one


principal subject recurs several

continuo part.
Recapitulation The


An abno

or choral work. Vocal score.

from Classical

Rondo Musical form

filling-up of a

restating the original



tuning of a stringed


nineteenth-century, as distinct



Organ piece played
church service while the
congregation is leaving

seventh a whole tone shorl





other, the music


independently and are of equal



alphabetically above or below


Nineteenth-century ballroom
danei like a slower polka Not




Ritardando, ritenuto

composition. Modern writers
also use the term to describe the




Schottische (shot'eesh) (G


which the textural strands.
though combining to form a

The system




moderate three-in-a-bar rhythm




Polychoral For several choirs,
usually spatially separated
Polyphony A style of music in

satisfactory whole,






be a





Mary Evans

like to

Picture Library

40: Mansell Collection,

thank the following orga

tor use in this

book Cert

Mary Evans


Trustees. National Portrait Gallery. London: National Portrait Gallery
Novosti Press Agency: Novosti
Radio Times Hulton Picture Library: Radio Times
Raymond Mander and loe Mitchenson Theatre Collection: Mander & Mitch
Zentrale Farbbild Agentur ZEFA






and trom top

Front jacket flap and endpaper |Sir |ohn Barbirolli):

to botlo

Topham UPP

Back jacket flap and endpaper (Alexander Kopylov): Novosti
Endpapers Bartok's Sixth String Quartet): The Trustee ot the Estate
Half title llstvan Kertes/F. Embassy ol the Hungarian Peoples Republic
! (Alexander
Title verso (Leonard Bernstein): ( live Harda
Introduction spread (Sir John Barbirolli): Topham/Fox

Fold-out (orchestra):




41: Ibothl Mansell Collection. 42:



47: Britten Estate/Boosey


Ibothl Radio Times 52:

Archives Photographiques Larousse 54: Photographie Giraudon 55: Poppertoto 56: Mansell
Collection 57: ricturepoint 58: (left) Piclurepoinl 60: Clive Barda. 61: AP PhotoColor 62:
(r.ghtl Royal College of Musk 64: Radio HmeS 66: Mary Evans 67: Mansell Collection. 69:
National Portrait Gallery 70: Poppertoto 71: let! Radio Times 73: Radio Times 76: Boosey &
Hawkes Music Publishers Id 78: National Portrait Gallery. The Elgar Birthplace Trust. 79s
Popperfoto. 81: Royal College ot Music 82: Mary Evans 83: Radio Times 84: Poppertoto. 85:
Oxford University Press 86: National Portrait Gallery 87: Novosti 90: Mary Evans 92:
Piclurepoinl 93: Mary Evans, 94: Royal College ot Music 95: National Portrait Gallery 96:
Victoria 4 Albert Museum "7: Royal < ollege ol Music. 98: Robert Harding Associates 99:
ibrary 102: Mansell Collection 103: National Portrait Caller]
(inset) Mary Evans 101: British
104: Mander St Mitchenson. Radio Times. 106: Radio Times. 107: Radio limes 108: Mary Evans,
Radio Times 111: The London Coliseum/Donald Southern. 113: Embassy ol the Hungarian
People's Republic 114: Mary Evans. 115: Mary Evans. 116: Mary Evans. 118: Collection Viollet.
119: Mander St Mitchenson 120: Mansell Collection 121: Collection Viollet. IVturepoint. 122:
(inset and main pic] Mary Evans. 124: Radio Times, Mary Evans. 125: Mary Evans, Radio rimes
126: Bodleian Library, Filmstrip No 228.5. 128: Collection Viollet. 129: Mansell C ..lie. Hon 1.12:
(main pic) ZEFA. 133: inset) Radio Times. 135: Piclurepoinl. Radio Times 137: Novosti 139:
Mary Evans. 140: Mary Evans. 141: Radio Times. 142: Royal College ol Music. Mansell
Collection. 143: Mary Evans 144: I. 4 W. Chester/De7o Hoffmann. Topham/FE 145: Novosti
146: Novosti. 147: Collection Viollet 148: Mary Evans. British Library 140; National Poll. ail
Gallery. 150: Ibothl Novosti. 152: Mary Evans. 153: Radio Times 155: Novosti 156:
Evans. 157: Mary Evans, Victoria & Albert Museum 158: Photographie Giraudon. I59l Radio
imes 160: Mary Evans, Radio Times, 161: Royal College ot Music 163: Universal Edition 164:





Page 10: Mansell C oil,-. Hon. British ibrary. 11: National Portrait Gallery. 12: (top) Radio Times.
13: Radio Times 14: Mary Evans 15: Mary Evans. 16: Archives Photographiques Larousse. 18:
Iholhl Novosti 20: The Trustee of the Estate ol Bela Bartok. 21: Embassy of the Hungarian
People's Reptiblu 22: Radio Times, (inset) Mary Evans. 23: Mansell Collection. 24: (main pic)
ZEFA, (inset both)! olleclion Viollet. 27: (top) Mansell Collection, Photographie Giraudon 28:
Radio Times 29: Mary Evans. 30: 4 W. Chester/Clive Barda, Radio Times 31: British Library,
Robert Harding Associates/Bibhotheque Municipale (Crenoble). 32: (bothl Chve Barda. 35: Lady
Bliss, Radio Times 37: Mary Evans 38: Radio Times 39: Clive Barda. BBC Pictorial Publicity



Royal College

ZEFA 44: Poppertoto 45: Mander & Mitchenson 46: Radio Times
Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd. 48: Reg Wilson. 49: Radio Times 51:




Mary Evans. 166: Spectrum Colour Library 168: Collection Viollet 171:
Radio Times 172: Radio Times 173: Novosti 174: Spectrum Colour Library 175: Mary Evans.
Mary Evans. 179: (top right) Mary Evans. 181: (both) Mary Evans 182:
British Library. 165:

176: Radio Times. 177:



sometimes easy.


Thorough-bass See continuo.
Timbreitambrl [Fl

Syncopation Temporary

Triad Three- note chord consisting
of a note with the maior or minor


A group of songs linked
by some poetic idea and intended


sung as

to be

strong to a normally




Soprano The highest range female
Sordino sordee'noh (It.) Mute
Sostemitoisostenoo tohl ill



value ol the


Sotto voce sot oh voh'cha)
In an undertone
Soubrette (soobret [Fi
A light
soprano who undertakes a

certain type ot stock character in

opera usually a young.
chattering se





harpsichord. sometimes without
legs so that it could be laid on a

oJ the

Tablature Special system of musical
notation employing letters figures
and other symbols Used chiefly
tor lute, guitar, etc., and already
obsolescent bv the eighteenth

Tacet (taset, Direction in an
instrumental or vocal part
indicating that there is nothing to
perform tor a period or that the
pertormer should remain silent
Tam-tam Like a gong, but emitting
Tarantella Six-in-a-bar dance from
southern Italy in alternating maior

southern states ot the




and minor sections, fast and
gaining in speed towards the end
Tasto solo Direction in a continuo

Slave The


part that the bass line

ot musical

rive parallel horizontal

on which music






entries of the subiect

Stringendolstnnien'dohi It
increasing speed and excitement



ascending diatonic scale


set ot pieces


eighteenth-centurv a series ol
various dance-torms.










Supertonic The second note of an
ascending diatonic scale
Suspension Device tn harmony
whereby a note ot a chord is held

up by the persistence ot a
predecessor not forming part ot


organ manual whose
pipes are enclosed in a box titled
with shutters which can be
opened by means ot a pedal
Swell pedal Mechanism on an
organ producing a crescendo and




the middle

normal time



Triple time Three beats in a bar
Tritone The interval of the
augmented fourth, containing





frame and struck with a
hammer to produce the effect of
bells in orchestral music
Turca, allalala toor'kahi It
the Turkish style i-e as if with
the drums, cymbals and triangle
(of the regimenl or Turkish



Turn Tvpe

of ornament whit h
around one main note



the notes ot the scale



on a






Up or

Pace. -4 tempo.

The same speed Tempo
ordinano Handelian term tor
moderate- paced common-time.
Tempo primo. At the initial pace
rubato. See

of musical

staves, used




Transposing instrument Instrument



even slightly beyond
Ternary form Musical design ot
three sections, of which the
second contrasts with, and the


level ot pitch in a







Boy's voice equivalent






but also used tor the longer and
completely selt-contained basis of



countermanding una




Symphony A sonata tor orchestra
Symphony orchestra See orchestra.

unadjacent notes.



of the












which has been pla
should now revert to
playing m unison
Unison Simultaneously sounding



same pitch
The note C

Utleetl iFr




up-and-down movement

bow on

the strings of



mgregation assembles or




Direction to apply the

Rapid alternation of two
Third The interval between a note
and the second note alphabetically
above or below it a maior third



Waltz Ballroom dance in triple time
descending from the Landler and


into fashion in the earlv

Whole-tone scale Scale proceeding
exclusively in whole tones
Wiegenlied (vee genleet] (G.|










I Ivelj
vee voh] lit
Vocalise vohkahlee/


highest voice or part in a

ot the piano,

Vivace iveevahchay

leaves the church


Tre corde trav kor*day]

like a spinet


Vorspiel ifor'shpeel) |C

[2] the

Direction to release the

Theme Synonymous with




notes of the

in 1930.



First time Seconda volta.
Second time.
Voluntary Organ piece played as

Unis Direction that

which it is written
Trautonium An electronic
ment invented in Berlin

Viola da'gamba It
See gamba
Viola d'amore (vioh'lah da
A special variety ot tenor
viol with a second set of stnngs
not touched by the player but
vibrating in sympathy with the




pitch to the

the voice or instrument tor which



Transposition Process of performing
a part, passage or piece in a key
or at a pitch other than that in


is a repetition of, the first.
Tessitura (tesitoo rahi (It.). The

written in a key or at

pitch other than that in

to the tull value ot the note or


overlapping the

vocal studv or piece without

Commonwealth! bv some schools



Family of

Volta, prima

Una corda loo nah kordah.

Tenutoitenoo'tohnltl Sustained

part in relation to the

the direction

Britain land the

than that tor which


stringed instruments preceding


standing technical


Transcription Arrangement ot a
composition for a medium other


Virtuoso Performer with out

and not notes



Tenor The highest range male voice
produced naturally, le not



Tonic See keynote.
Tonic sol-fa System

keyboard or on woodwind

a verse ol


keyboard instrument

composition. 121 a passage tor
orchestra without the soloist [4]
direction that all the instruments
ot a string section should play,



instruments, but intolerable in
singing unless under control
VUlaneJIe Musical setting of a type
of French poem in three-line


Schoenberg's twelve-note system


short organ piece based

Virginal, virginals Elizabethan


entire forces called tor in a

Tonguing Method of articulation
by using the tongue in playing


Too. too much
Metal tubes tuned to

in a

harmonics; (41 one of the fixed
psalm chants in the Gregorian
system ot modes: 151 in the
U.S A a note
Tone-poem See symphonic poem
Tone-row The twelve semitones of


continuous oscillation of pitch,
improving and giving warmth to
string playing, and being
acceptable on certain wind-

ol three notes in

the notes ot the scale, suspended


(3] a

A group


two semitones,





combined performance by the

that chord.


Interval ot





note without any secondary


on plainsong, replacing

predetermined order tor use as the


intended to be

in succession: in the


(2) quality of

Variations Varied presentations,
treatments or elaboration

basis ol a composition in

sixth note ot


diminished fifth above.
See shake.
Trio ill A omposition for three

temporarily to be played without



Submediant The


augmented or

added harmonies Sul fasfo.
Direchon to play towards the

fourth note ot an

ascending diatonic scale
Subito (soo*beetoh 'It
Subject Musical passage torming a
basic idea or group of ideas in a


the performer's skill
Tonality Synonymous with key.
but also meaning the feeling ot
one tonal centre suggested
throughout a movement or piece



Subdominant The


a perfect,




Tutti (toot'ee)

String orchestra Sec orchestra

Study See

Toccata tokah tab lit
A brilliant
piece of keyboard music designed
to show off the instrument and


fingerboard ot a stringed

is wi




Spiritual Religious song of negroes

Staccato [stakah'toh) [It.]
Detached the opposite
Staff notation The normal

Indication of beat

each following bar of
a movement or piece, initially
placed on the stave immediately
after the key-signature and
thereafter at each change ol
rhythmic grouping
Timpani dm panee It

a set

Sustained to the

Time signature


instrument of the violin family;
(3) see vibrato

changing the length ot tube and
hence the harmonic senes


Xylophone Instrumei
tuned wooden ban
iwth hammers.

Radio Times 184: National Portrait Gallery 185: Mary Eyai s. 186: Poppertoto, Archive
Photographiques Larousse 187: John R Freeman 188: Radic Times 189: Collection Viol
Mansell Collection 191: Archives Photographiques Laroussf 192: right Radio Times 1
Sunday Times 194: Radio Times, National Portrait Gallery. British Library 195: Mande:
197: Radio Times 198: Brazilian Embassy- 199: Royal
College ot Music 200:ltopl Mar
ans. 201: Collection Viollet 204: Sunday Times 207: Royal
College ot Music. 208: Ibothl Un
lal Edition 209:
both Mary Evans 210: Radio Times. 211:
Royal College ot Music










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