# Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

1

Environment Protection Program
Kierzkowo 22A, 84-210 Choczewo

Poland

Applications Of An Annihilating Boundary Operator To Water Wave Diffraction By A Vertical Circular Cylinder

Fig 1a: Schematic illustration of the model geometry

An annihilating boundary operator is introduced to examine the effects of water wave interaction with a circular cylinder characterized by the dissipative or nondissipative surface properties.
with models proposed by Garrett 1983 Massel and Mazenrieder are also presented.

Comparisons

1971

, Black et al.

1971

, and experimental data of

TECHNICAL REPORT 2010

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

2

1. Introduction This report deals with the diffraction of a time-harmonic water wave by a threedimensional vertical circular cylinder which is characterized by the dissipative surface properties. The problem is investigated by means of the linear theory of water waves. We employ an annihilating boundary operator for problems of wave interaction with different structures used in practical applications. Our results are compared with solutions for a semiimmersed circular cylinder (cf., Garrett 1971), and a submerged circular cylinder protruding from sea bottom (cf., Black et al. 1971). The experimental data reported by Massel and Manzenrieder 1983 are presented. We also treat wave interactions with a full-depth-draft circular cylinder having dissipative surface. 2. An annihilating boundary operator
velocity potential for a complex-valued incident small-amplitude water wave of angular frequency ω can be written as, φin = -igA ω-1 exp(-iωt) cosh[k(z+h)][cosh(kh)]-1 exp[ikrcos(λ)] (1)

The

where the wave number k is related to the angular frequency ω through the dispersion relation; ω2 – gk tanh(kh) = 0, (1a)

and A is the wave amplitude, h is the water depth, g is the acceleration due to gravity, i = 0 + i1, ( λ, r, z) are the cylindrical coordinates (cf., Fig. 1a and 1b), t denotes the time-variable.

Fig 1b: The polar coordinates and an incident wave

For a circular cylinder of radius a it is easy to show that, L φin = 0, r=a (2)

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

3

where L ≡ [ ∂/∂r - ik cos(λ)]. (2a)

The differential operator on the left-hand side of Eq. 2 annihilates incident wave φin, so it may be called annihilating boundary operator. The operator (2a) was also considered by Higdon 1986. It is an operator that annihilates in different directions, as a generalization of the Engquist-Majda operator 1977. A more general form of L may be written as follows, L[Z] ≡ [ ∂/∂r - ikZ cos(λ)] where Z is a complex quantity and is called the surface impedance. (3)

3. The boundary value problem and its solution The irrotational flow of an inviscid, incompressible fluid, for the geometry shown in Fig. 1a, is assumed to be described by the velocity potential φ. Additionally, it is assumed that sea bottom is impervious and the excitation is provided by a train of simple harmonic waves φin of small amplitude A. The total velocity potential φ is decomposed into an incident φin and a scattered wave potential φsc according to
φ = φin + φsc. (4)

The total wave field is completely specified once φsc is known. According to the above assumption the boundary value problem for φsc is defined as follows, ▽ φsc = 0 [ ∂/∂z – ω2/g] φsc = 0 L[Z = Z1] φsc = - L[Z = Z1] φin L[Z = Z2] φsc = - L[Z = Z2] φin L[Z = Z3] φsc = - L[Z = Z3] φin ∂/∂z φsc = 0 lim r1/2 ( ∂/∂r -ik ) φsc = 0.
r→∞ 2

-h ≤ z ≤ 0, z = 0, -ht ≤ z ≤ 0, -hb ≤ z < ht, -h ≤ z < hb, z = -h

r≥a r≥a r=a r=a r=a r≥a

(5) (6) (7a) (7b) (7c) (8) (9)

The complex-valued scattered wave potential φsc can be expressed in the following form, ∞ φsc = -igA ω-1 exp(-iωt) ∞
ns

∑ ∑C

Kn(αs r) cos[αs (z + h)] [cos(αs h)]-1exp[in( λ+π/2)]

(10)

n=-∞ s=0

where Kn(αs r) is the modified Bessel function of the second kind, α0 = -ik, and the eigenvalues αs for s = 1, 2, 3,..., are determined by

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

4

ω2 + gαs tan(αs h) = 0,

(11)

for the evanescent modes. The function given by the relation (10) satisfies the Laplace equation (5), the combined free-surface condition (6), the condition at the sea bottom (8) and the Sommerfeld radiation condition (9) at infinity. The remaining boundary conditions to be satisfied are Eqs. (7a,b,c), and determine the values of the coefficients Cns. For calculating the coefficients Cns we have used the Galerkin method [e.g., Kantorovich and Krylov 1958].

4. Comparison with existing results
4.1 Wave forces on a circular dock (Garrett 1971)

Using the model proposed we have calculated the horizontal force Fx on semi-immersed circular cylinder for the following geometrical quantities: ht/h = 0, (h – hb)/a = 1, h/a = 1.5, Z2 = 0 + i0 and Z3 = 1 + i0. The results obtained are presented in Fig. 2, where ρ denotes the density of water.

Fig.2

Horizontal force on a circular dock

4.2 Wave forces on a circular cylinder protruding from the sea bottom (Black et al. 1971)

For a cylinder protruding from the sea bottom the horizontal force Fx is presented in Fig. 3 for the following set of parameters: ht/h = 0.5, hb/h = 1, a/h = 1, Z1 = 1 + i0, Z2 = 0 + i0. Our model is compared with the results of Black et al. 1971.

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

5

Fig.3 Horizontal force on a cylinder protruding from the bottom

4.3

The pressure around the circumference of a submerged cylinder (Massel and Manzenrieder 1983)

The pressure p around the circumference (-z/h = 0.939) of a submerged cylinder is plotted in Fig. 4 for: ht/h = 0.9 hb/h = 0.978, a/h = 0.508, kh = 1.044, Z1 = 1 + i0, Z2 = 0 + i0 and Z3 = 1 + i0. Fig. 4 also shows experimental pressure data reported by Massel and Manzenrieder 1983 .

Fig.4 Pressure around the circumference of a submerged cylinder

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

6

Next, a submerged cylinder on a rubble-mound base is considered. The pressure around the circumference (-z/h = 0.836) of this structure, having partially dissipative properties, where h t/h = 0.676, hb/h = 0.764, a/h = 0.572, kh = 0.779, Z1 = 1 + i0, Z2 = 0 + i0, Z3 = 0.2 + i0 is presented in Fig. 5 with the experimental data of Massel and Manzenrieder 1983.

Fig.5 Pressure around the circumference of a submerged cylinder

5. The free-surface elevation around the full-depth-draft cylinder The free-surface elevation for the total wave field around the full-depth-draft cylinder for

t = t0 is shown in Figs. 6a, b, c, d, e for the surface impedance coefficient Z1 = Z2 = Z3 = Z equal to 0 + i0, 0.5 +i0, 0.9 + i0, 0.99 + i0 and 0.9999 + i0, respectively.

Fig.6a The free-surface elevation for ka = 8 and Z = 0 + i0

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

7

Fig.6b The free-surface elevation for ka = 8 and Z = 0.5 + i0

Fig.6c The free-surface elevation for ka = 8 and Z = 0.9 + i0

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

8

Fig. 6d The free-surface elevation for ka = 8 and Z = 0.99 + i0

Fig.6e The free-surface elevation for ka = 8 and Z = 0.9999 + i0 Note that Fig. 6a shows the limiting case of MacCamy and Fuchs 1954. The impervious surface of nondissipative properties is recovered from (3) by assuming Z = 0 + i0, while Z = 1 + i0 results in a boundary condition of undisturbed plane incident wave property ( cf., Fig. 6e, Z = 0.9999 +i0). Thus, the vertical circular cylinder surrounded by a coating consisting of a meta-material

Applications of an annihilating boundary operator to water wave diffraction by a vertical circular cylinder

9

might become invisible for the time-harmonic water waves of small amplitude. This formal transparency has been used to approximate the natural boundary conditions used by Garrett 1971. Additionally, the model described above suggests the reasonable approximations to the exact solutions of the so-called transmission problems, and does not require the laborious matching of eigenfunction expansions.

6. Summary and Conclusions This report presents the applications of an annihilating boundary operator for computing wave forces on offshore structures. Examples studied include the full-depth-draft vertical circular cylinder, the submerged circular cylinder protruding from the sea bottom and the well-known Garrett's dock problem for which the solutions based on the impedance boundary conditions are compared against analytical and experimental results. The examples presented above and their comparison with the exact solutions validate the use of the impedance boundary conditions to study waves diffraction and, in particular, points out the simplicity of the method proposed. 7. References
Black, J.L., Mei, C.C, Bray, M.G.G., 1971 Radiation and scattering of water waves by rigid bodies, J. Fluid Mech., 46, 151-164. Engquist, B., Maja, A.,1977 Absorbing boundary conditions for the numerical simulation of waves, Mathematics of Computations, 21(139), 629-651. Garrett, C.J.R., 1971 Wave force on circular dock, J. Fluid Mech., 46, 129-139. Higdon, R.,L., 1986 Absorbing boundary conditions for the difference approximations to the multi-dimensional wave equation, Mathematics of Computations, 176, 437-459. Kantorovich, L.V., Krylov, V.I., 1958 Approximate methods of higher analysis, P.Noordhoff Ltd., Groningen, The Netherlands. MacCamy, R.C., Fuchs, R.A., 1954 Wave forces on piles: A diffraction theory, Tech. Memo., no. 69, U.S. Beach Erosion Board, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Massel, S.R., Manzenrieder, H., 1983 Scattering of surface waves by submerged cylindrical body with porous screen, Lehrstuhl für Hydromechanik und Küstenwasserbau, Leichtweiss-Institut, Technische Universität Braunschweig, report no. 562