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Running Head: - CINEMAS, TELEVISION AND VIDEO ART

CINEMAS, TELEVISION AND VIDEO ART

Chapter 12:- Cinema


Cinema is the most popular form of modern arts. Cinema is a very challenging and complex
art because it is very difficult to coordinate among many people especially director,
scriptwriter, actors, photographer and editor. The history of cinema has been dominated by
the technology. The films featured earlier were black and white, usually projected at twenty
four frames per second, and silent. The most dramatic recent change is the abandonment of
celluloid film in favour of digital production and digital projection.
Subject Matter of Film
Except in its most reductionist form, the subject matter of most great films is difficult to
isolate and restate in words. Generally audience loves to enjoy the film and rarely do they
analyse the film. Auteur criticism regards the director as equivalent to the auteur. The most
important persons involved in the film are the stars who appear in the film.
Directing and Editing
Directing and editing are the most crucial phases of film making. Today the most of the
directors controls the acting and supervise the photography carried out by technicians who
work with such problems as lighting, camera angles, and focusing as well as the motion of
the camera itself. Some of the most important kinds of shot taken in the film are:

Establishing shot
Close-up
Long shot
Medium shot
Following shot
Point of view shot
Tracking shot
Crane shot
Hand held shot
Recessional shot

CINEMAS, TELEVISION AND VIDEO ART

The editor puts the shots in order after the filming has been finished. This process is highly
complex and is of supreme importance, for the structuring of the shots which will leads to
making of the film.
Some of the most familiar of the directors and editors choice follows: Continuous Cut
Jump cut
Cut in
Cross cutting
Dissolves
Fader
Wipe
Graphic match
Montage sequence
Shot, Reverse shot
If editing has been handled well, it can be profoundly effective, because it is impossible in
real life experience to achieve what the editor achieves.
The Participative Experience and Film
Cinematic realism makes it easy for us to identify with actors who represent our values (
a kind of participation).There are two participative experiences with film. One is not
principally filmic in nature and is represented by a kind of self-indulgence that will depend
on self-justifying fantasies. The other kind of participation evolves from an acute awareness
of the details and interrelationships.
The Film Image
The starting point of film is the moving image. Watching a film closely can help us to
perceive much more intensely the visual worth of many of the images we experience outside
film. The images are projected at a speed of twenty four frames per second and the
persistence of vision merges them. This is called the language of camera.
Camera Point of View
The motion in the picture can come from a numerous sources. People move before as the way
they move before the camera, but the camera can achieve visual things that the unaided eye
cannot: showing the same moving action from a number of points of view simultaneously, for

CINEMAS, TELEVISION AND VIDEO ART

instance, or showing from a camera angle the eye cannot achieve. A final basic way film can
achieve motion is by means of camera lens.
Violence and film
Clever directors can easily shock the audiences. But the more complex responses, some of
which are as difficult to control as they are to attain, are the aim of the enduring film makers.
In any form of art, the most vital thing is to control the response of audience.
Sound
Sound in film involves much more than the addition of dialogue to the visual track. Many
kind of values can be produced by merging special music with scenes such as chase, love or
suspense. Surround sound may intensify our experience of film.
Image and Action
The most contemporary film is the combination of sight and sound.
Film Structure
The structure of film is a key element in the success of film. Sometimes the function of
photography in films is difficult to assess. The most important structural qualities of a
successful film are develop from the decisions made in editing stage. The editors work gives
meaning to the film just as the scriptwriters work and the photographers.
Cinematic Significance
For one thing, we are not accustomed to permitting images to build their own meanings apart
from the meanings we already associate with them. Second, we do not always observe the
way one movement or gesture will mean one thing in one context and an entirely different
thing in another context. Third moving images are difficult to remember than still images.
The Context of Film History
All meanings, linguistic or non-linguistic, exist within some kind of context. Film, like every
art has a history and this history is one of the more significance contexts in which every film
takes place. Film exists in a context that is meaningful for the little work of a director and, in
turn, for us. To understand the content of a work of art, we must understand something about
the subject matter, and the subject matter is always embedded in some external context.
Experimentation
In the early days of film, complex technical problems were very much like lighting, zooming,
montage, and the like. Realistic art is selection of elements that convey the illusion to reality.

CINEMAS, TELEVISION AND VIDEO ART

Chapter 13:- Television and Video Art


The Evolution of Television
Television is the most widely available artistic medium in our culture. Television images are
projected at thirty frames per second, instead of twenty four, in order to overcome the
limitations of low resolution image itself. High definition broadcast standards have closed the
gap between television and film to a considerable extent.
The Subject Matter of Television and Video Art
The moving image is as much the subject matter of television and video art as it is of film.
The power of the image to excite a viewer, combined with music and sound is more and more
becoming an intense experience as the technology of the medium develops. Video art is the
antithesis of commercial entertainment television because broadcast television centers on the
needs of the advertisers, it has become stick and predictable.
Commercial Television
Commercial television dramas have evolved their own structures, with episodic programs
following a formulaic pattern of crisis points followed by commercial interruption. Since
2000, the spread of cable service has enlarged the sources of programming and has begun a
major shift in the habits of viewers, who now have a much greater range of choices among
hundreds of channels.
Video Art
Video art is not like commercial dramatic television as it avoids a dramatic narrative line of
the kind that involves points of tension, climax, or resolution. Television programming is
often formulaic, predictable in structure, and designed to please a mass audience whereas on
other hand, video art is more experimental and radical in structure, which often results in its
pleasing its audience in a very different way. Video art is international and growing.