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INTRODUCTION 3

The Zimbabwean Context 3


Objectives of the Change Programme 7
Purpose of the Report 7
Scope of the Change Programme 7
Limitations of the Report 8
Structure of the Report 8
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
QUALITY 9
EVOLUTION OF TQM 10
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 11
TOTAL QUALITY BARRIERS 14
LEADERSHIP AND TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 14
NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING TQM 15
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT GURUS 16
Dr Juran 16
Feigenbaum 17
Dr Kaoru Ishikawa 18
Dr Genichi Taguchi 18
Philip B Crosby 19
Tom Peters 20
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF TQM GURUS 21
QUALITY AWARDS 21
The Malcom Baldrige Award 22
The W. Edwards Deming Award 23
TQM and COMPETIVENESS 25
The Diamond of National Advantage 26
TQM IMPLEMENTATION MODELS 27
Multi-Tier Framework for Implementing and Sustaining TQM Programmes 27
A Model for Nurturing Business Excellence 28
Baldrige Model 29
APPLICATION 30
DISCUSSION 33
Strategy 33
Constraints 33
Leadership Behavior 33
Business 34
Academia 34
Change Management 34
Type of change 34
Objectives 34
CONCLUSION 36
Recommendation 36
Recent Similar Research Concluded 36
REFERENCES 37
INTRODUCTION
According to Porter (2001) a nation’s competitiveness depends on the capacity of
an industry to innovate and upgrade. Companies gain advantage against world’s b
est competitors because of pressure and challenge. The act of innovation is at t
he epitome of competitive advantage of an industry and country. Apart from innov
ation and the ability to upgrade, national values, culture, economic structures,
institutions and histories contribute to a nation’s competitiveness. Ultimately
, nations succeed in particular industries because their home environment is the
most forward-looking, dynamic and challenging. This paper seeks to map a plan f
or establishment and implementation of Zimbabwe National Quality Award to recogn
ise institutional innovation, in the process creating and developing competitive
ness in the country.
The Zimbabwean Context
The government plays a catalyst for industry competitiveness. It has capacity to
challenge, to encourage, to push companies to raise aspirations and move to hig
her level of competitive performance. This has been evident by the various refor
ms that the Government of Zimbabwe has undertaken since independence. In 1980, Z
imbabwe followed a command economy – Marxi-socialist policies that failed to att
ract foreign investment.
Zimbabwe adopted various reforms since independence that did not yield results.
Government of Zimbabwe Economic Reform Programmes
Period Programme Result
1990 – 1995 Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP) Failed
1996 – 1999 ZIMPREST Failed
1999 – 2002 Millennium Economic Recovery Programme (MERP) Failed
2003 – 2005 National Economic Recovery Programme (NERP) Failed
2006 – 2008 National Economic Development Priority Programme (NEDPP)
Failed
2009 – Date Short Term Economic Recovery Programme (STERP) Struggling
(Source: Monetary and Fiscal Policy Statements: 1990 – 2009)
In addition to the unpleasing results of government of Zimbabwe interventions th
at were meant to stimulate the economy, figures from the 2006 National Budget on
the Global Growth Projection (GGP) that is used to influence business control o
f issues like salaries, inflation and other economic decisions show a negative t
rend. The figures about Zimbabwe may not be reflective of the situation on the g
round given the fact that they were prepared by Central Statistical Office and a
re likely hide negative reflections on behalf of the government in order to cove
r up government short comings.

Global Growth Projection (GGP)


2004 2005 2006
Global 5.1 4.9 5.1
Sub Saharan Africa 5.4 5.2 5.2
Zimbabwe (5) (3.8) (2.5)
(Source – 2006 Budget Statement)
In July 2008, Zimbabwe inflation was reported at 231 million percent. At that ti
me, sub Saharan Africa inflation was at 5.9% and Developed world inflation was a
t 2%.
Zimbabwe Inflation Figures
Period Feb 07 Mar 07 Apr 07 May 07 Jun 07 Jul 07 Jul 08
Inflation % 1729 2200 3714 4530 7251 7634 231m
(Source: www.doingbusiness.com).
In addition to inflation data, the Growth Competitive Index (GCI) provides a mea
sure of macroeconomic environment index that measure economic factors such as in
flation, public institutions performance in terms of perceived level of corrupti
on and the rule of law, and technological index that measures the level of inves
tment in research and development, the creativity of the scientific community, i
nternet and computerisation penetration. Zimbabwe’s position is not appalling.
Growth Competitive Index (GCI) 2005 – 2006
Lowest Rank Zimbabwe Zambia South Africa Botswana
GCI 101 97 81 39 43
Tech. Index 101 83 87 39 63
Public Inst Index 101 72 64 38 39
Macro-environ Index 101 101 92 46 41
Zimbabwe economy suffered severe crisis that started in 1997. The situation wors
ened in 2006 and that period was characterised by chronic shortages of the Zimba
bwean dollar and foreign currency. The shortages cascaded to shortages of fuel,
basic commodities, and essential services such as water and electricity. The sit
uation resulted in organisations operating at very low capacity averaging betwee
n 20 – 33%. Critical skills migrated outside the country in search of better eco
nomic conditions after real wages collapsed below the poverty datum line. Unempl
oyment rose to more than 70%.
Tracing the trends in the key indicators listed earlier does not suggest an econ
omy in distress since the results and activities on the ground do not show econo
mic corelationship. The following graphs shall illustrate the extent of the econ
omic regression using a few selected indicators since the onset on the crisis in
1997.
(Source: Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Data)
In addition to the statistic provided earlier, Zimbabwe’s economy suffered a cum
ulative economic decline of 44.4% during the period of negative growth in 1997 –
2006. The trend continued up to the end of year 2008.
(Source: Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Data)
The government domestic debt rose the time when donors pulled out of the country
in 1999. The government domestic debt was regrettably in long term government s
tocks in 1990 and in 2007, it was in short term treasury bills of less than one
year owing mainly to the absence of external funding and hence the resorting to
domestic borrowing.
Zimbabwe together with other African states is suffering de-industrialisation si
nce 1970. According to the Confederation of Zimbabwe Industry (CZI) 2006 Manufac
turing survey, from 1996 – 2005, Zimbabwe only registered positive growth in the
manufacturing sector in 1996 and 2005 with a 40% and 3.2% respectively. In Afri
ca, the manufacturing sector share of GDP fell more than 16% in 1980 and 17% in
1990 to 15% in 2000. The de-industrialisation reflects the loss of market share
in the global market. Failure to adopt new techniques and new products in the Af
rican continent, decline in agricultural inputs, decline in domestic market dema
nd, and failure to develop and expand the manufacturing sector are the major ind
icators of de-industrialisation. According to World Bank (2007) Africa with Zimb
abwe leading is producing wrong products in the sense that the products are most
ly uncompetitive in the international market. The country is lacking skills, tec
hnology and infrastructure that promote industrialisation. In the process, the c
ountry is importing more goods than its export thereby affecting the balance of
payment.
Generally, the economy of the country has been struggling given the political si
tuation that was established before the implementation of the Global Political A
greement. This inevitably affected operations of Zimbabwean industries. Zimbabwe
industries had capacity to generate foreign currency and employment from its ma
nufacturing, mining, agriculture, tourism, construction, education, and health s
ectors. Since 1980, Zimbabwean industries struggled to compete on the global ma
rket. The quality of products and services continued to deteriorate resulting in
the loss of market share both locally and internationally. The quality of both
the domestic and export market were not being met and the quality of products an
d services was not consistent. In the recent past when shortages were prevalent,
the local market was accepting the poor quality products and services because o
f the lack of options. Ever since the introduction of food imports, local produc
ts struggled with competition from imported products that offered better quality
and cheaper prices. Currently, most Zimbabwean products have no quality seals
that guarantee product quality. Despite the opportunities to exhibiting Zimbabwe
an products on various international exhibitions, in most cases it has been impo
ssible to penetrate the international market. As a result Zimbabwe’s exports hav
e decreased significantly. This has resulted in severe foreign currency shortag
e and a negative balance of payment position.
Other critical indicators of Zimbabwe’s lack of competitiveness are the deterior
ating standard of living as indicated by the current per capita income, declinin
g growth and the ballooning trade deficit. According to Reserve Bank (2006), pro
blems include the losses of production from most sectors, declining export earni
ngs due to declining export volumes, the disappearance of investor confidence, t
he country’s vanishing job opportunities, collapsing social services and public
utilities, declining tax base and inability to provide for the welfare needs of
its increasingly disadvantaged population. There is low investment in technology
, plant and machinery for companies. Zimbabwean economic sectors are experiencin
g high costs of poor quality and now have an international reputation of poor qu
ality products. There is urgent need for government, business and academia to wo
rk together and focus on Total quality management to address the situation. It i
s therefore necessary for government, business and academia to embark on Total Q
uality Management in companies from all economic sectors at the micro level and
to cascade it to the macro level in the form of a national quality award.
The Standard Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ) is the only body available locally ma
inly to protect consumer rights from exposure to poor quality goods. The SAZ is
responsible for monitoring standards of food stuff against acceptable standards.
The testing is normally done in the event that goods being imported, but is not
strictly mandatory exposing consumers to poor quality goods. There were reports
recently that condemned the quality of mealie meal that was allowed into the co
untry from South Africa. In addition to monitoring of quality, SAZ is responsibl
e for certification of ISO Standards.
Objectives of the Change Programme
i) To improve competitiveness of Zimbabwe’s industry in response to competi
tion from the global market, in the process stimulating employment creation, rev
enue and foreign currency generation for the nation.
ii) To enhance national pride in the Zimbabwean award.
iii) To establish a national quality award guideline that would provide a com
prehensive framework of guidelines an organisation could use to evaluate its qua
lity programme and its quality improvement efforts.
iv) To provide recognition for Zimbabwean organisations that demonstrate exc
ellence in attainment and management of quality in the categories provided for.
Purpose of the Report
This study is being carried out to explore the role of government, business and
academic leaders in rallying behind an agenda that stresses the importance and v
alue of Total Quality Management which should culminate in the introduction of a
Zimbabwean Quality Award. This would improve product and service quality and th
us would improve Zimbabwe’s global competitive performance. However, there is ne
ed to institute the some changes at macroeconomic level to support the efforts o
f industry organisations.
Scope of the Change Programme
The scope of the change program for the implementation of the quality award will
affect the all sectors of Zimbabwe’s industries. The implementation shall be do
ne in phases and shall start with key sectors of Zimbabwe’s economy – agricultur
e, mining, education, health, tourism and manufacturing.
The following constituencies are going to be heavily involved in the change prog
ramme:
i) The Government
ii) The business sector
iii) Academia
The implementation focus shall be structured along the Deming’s universal points
in this planned change.
Limitations of the Report
Political environment inevitably shape the economic environment, the performance
of the Government of National Unity has a bearing on the efforts to stimulate c
ompetitiveness in the country. The Change Agent’s judgment may be limited by the
fact that statistical data relating to Zimbabwe is not up to date and the repor
t relied on data gathered up to 2006 in most instances. However, efforts were p
ut in place to ensure that resources available could be used to reflect the situ
ation on the ground.
Structure of the Report
Chapter 1 provided a contextual general overview of the global picture of the Zi
mbabwean situation.
Chapter 2 focuses on the literature review. The chapter will look at theories, m
odels and a critique of Total Quality Management.
Chapter 3 provides the implementation plan for Total Quality Management award pr
ocess in Zimbabwe. This chapter gives an overview of implementation plan and how
resources and will be allocated during the whole process.
Chapter 4 discusses the implementation plan.
Chapter 5 looks at Conclusion, Recommendations, and Current Research Directions
in relation to changes in the field of quality management.

LITERATURE REVIEW
QUALITY
Quality frequently is described as ‘fitness, merit, and excellence’. Generally p
eople perceive ‘high quality’ as something desirable in itself. In industrial an
d institutional operations, quality has an extremely different meaning. Quality
is related to suitability and cost (not price), rather than intrinsic excellence
. In purchasing, best quality is that which can be purchased at the lowest cost
to fulfil the need or satisfy the intended function for which the material is pu
rchased. In this sense quality has no meaning in purchasing except as it is rela
ted to function and ultimate cost (Doubler, 1996).
Oakland (1993), Juran (1998), Feigenbaum (1991), and Dale (1990) drew various in
terpretation of quality.
i) Quality as ‘conformance to specifications’ – consider the degree to whic
h a product conforms to its specifications – a description of what is required.
This leads to quantitative analysis of the extent to which all items in a batch
of a product conform to the specification. The objective and results can be expr
essed in relation to acceptable quality level (AQL). Inspection work can be plan
ned based on the statistical tables to guide inspection work.
ii) Quality as a ‘feature of excellence’ – implies the possession of feature
s of excellence in the product and can be used as a standard of comparison with
inferior products. A quality product may be assessed in relation to the best tha
t can be achieved with regard to existing knowledge and technology. This approac
h can have an attraction to professional designers and engineers, who may gain u
nderstandable professional satisfaction and pride from developing something whic
h is ‘best in the field’. The problem is that pursuit of this view of quality ma
y lead to the selection of the best, most expensive materials and the highest st
andards of accuracy with regard to their dimensions and composition. These deman
ds are not a problem in themselves, as long as there is no money constraint. Unf
ortunately, design decisions normally have to be taken in the light of costs of
making the product and the prices customers are prepared to pay.
iii) Quality as ‘fitness for purpose’ or ‘fitness for use’ – the concept of q
uality underlying this approach is to regard a product as possessing certain fun
ctional characteristics when a product is used. The aspect includes aspects with
regard to continuous use and the life of the product. It includes such consider
ations as reliability, durability, maintainability and length of use – continuou
s fitness for use, in other words.
iv) Quality as ‘conformance to customer requirements’ – emphasises the promi
nent position of customers in concerns about quality and the perceptions supplie
rs should have with regard to their requirements in a product or service. This c
oncept balances the cost and what the customer wants to pay in exchange for the
value that is derived in the product or service.
EVOLUTION OF TQM
Dale (1990) states that the development of ideas about quality has been concerne
d, initially with characteristics of a product. The concept of TQM, however, wid
ens attention to include all aspects of the offering, including service and deli
very time.
The Expansion of the Content of Quality

Source: Saunders (2000)


i) Inspection involves:
a) Salvage
b) Sorting, grading, reblending
c) Corrective action
d) Identifying sources of non-conformance
ii) Quality Control involves:
a) Development of quality manuals
b) Process performance data
c) Self-inspection
d) Product testing
e) Basic quality planning
f) Use of basic statistics
g) Paperwork control
iii) Quality Assurance involves:
a) Quality systems development
b) Advanced quality planning
c) Comprehensive quality manuals
d) Use of quality costs
e) Involvement of non-production operations
f) Failure modes and effect analysis
g) Statistical process control
iv) Total Quality Management involves:
a) Policy deployment
b) Involves suppliers and customers
c) Process management
d) Performance measurement
e) Team work
f) Employee involvement
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
There are many universally accepted definitions for Total Quality Management. Di
fferent firms understand and implement it in somewhat differently. Hutchins (199
3:4) defines Total Quality Management as “a management approach to an organisati
on centred on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming
at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to the members
of the organisation and society.” This definition provides four fundamental iss
ues:
i) The notion that quality is everybody’s responsibility,
ii) The commitment and active participation of all individuals in the organi
sation,
iii) Continuous improvement of quality, and
iv) Satisfaction of the customer.
The concept is based on the notion that people want to contribute, and that mana
gement should create a climate in which this can happen easily.
Saunders (2002) describes total quality management (TQM) as concerned with enhan
cing the contribution that people can make to the improvement of the performance
of the firm in general, and in raising the quality of the work, in particular.
The philosophy share the idea that change becomes the norm and that there is a n
eed for continuous improvement. It follows, therefore, that they are less in har
mony with a rigid mechanistic organisational structure. It perhaps takes it for
granted that the environments are sufficiently dynamic to make it necessary to p
ursue improvements all time.
TQM highlights the need to concentrate on processes as the focus of attention fo
r introducing improvements. There are two implications to this:
i) Faults in the design of processes are seen to be the main quality proble
m and not people themselves.
ii) Investigations into the causes of the problems with processes involve mo
re than one person and, frequently, the processes under examination cross functi
onal boundaries. Thus, problems solving activities often require teams.
Total Quality Management is defined in BS 7850 as the management philosophy and
company practice that aim to harness the human and material resources of an orga
nisation in the most effective way to achieve the objective of the organisation.
The definition brings forth two elements to view TQM:
i) Hard factors – the systems and tools and techniques of quality control a
nd quality assurance,
ii) Soft factors – human resources management
TQM is therefore concerned, in short, with the overall culture of the firm and i
ts desire to serve and meet customer requirements.
Doubler (1996) describes TQM along Hutchison definition. TQM is a management app
roach to an organisation centred on quality, based on the participation of all i
ts members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction, and be
nefits to the member organisation and the society.
i) The emphasis of the definition is therefore the involvement of everybody
:
ii) It requires commitment and active participation of all individuals in th
e organisation.
iii) It implies continuous improvement; TQM is not a destination but a journe
y.
iv) It aim at customer satisfaction, and enhances innovation.
v) It is based on the notion that employees are willing to contribute to im
provement of quality and that management is more than ready to create an environ
ment or a climate in which this happen easily.

A Typical TQM Operations Model


Source: Cali (1993)
TOTAL QUALITY BARRIERS
Total quality management extends beyond the scope of quality control, quality as
surance, quality management and total quality. Total quality embraces the aspect
of continuous improvement in all the activities of an organization. Organizatio
ns that have accepted and implemented this philosophy are far and few. An organi
zation complying with the above statements have reached that level of quality by
applying total quality management as part of their daily routines without it be
ing written into policy or procedures. It is a way of life for them. Many compan
ies and organizations are striving to achieve this level. There appears to be mu
ch confusion as to what total quality management stands for. Some people are try
ing to define total quality management by placing items such as change, corporat
e culture, into boxes. This means that they see each of these as separate entiti
es. It must be understood that total quality management should be seen as a sing
le integrated approach to the four areas of management s organizational being. T
hus total quality management must be seen in an organization as the organization
al consistency and harmony which are vital to corporate strategy and its impact
on the external market (Wilkinson et al, 1991). Total quality management should
be seen as the amalgamation of teams, methods, internal markets and leadership.
You must adopt a holistic approach to the concept of total quality management.
LEADERSHIP AND TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Leadership in terms of total quality management must be inherent in quality comm
itted senior management in order to ensure that the principles of total quality
management are continuously implemented. There must be a driving force or else t
otal quality management will fail. All levels of management must participate in
total quality management in order to encourage full participation. Senior manage
ment must constantly address and improve the following issues:
i) A long term view of total quality management must be maintained.
ii) Total quality management must be made central to the organizations busin
ess plan.
Therefore it can be said that total quality management means managing the whole
organization and extend relationships with customers and suppliers. This not an
overnight achievement and there will be many teething problems to sort out such
as:
i) Changing of attitudes.
ii) Establishment of a new corporate culture.
iii) True delegation of responsibility and authority.

NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING TQM


According to Globler (1994) total quality management can only be successfully im
plemented when there is ownership of the process by the key stakeholders; relev
ance of measurement and action; when priorities are set; when simplicity exists;
and when there is flexibility.
Ownership
The person responsible for the process, and those operating it, should own the m
easures and the costs. Imposed measurements without understanding and commitment
by the organization being measured, should be avoided. The concept of ownership
being in the hands of the person responsible for the process is the largest bar
rier to total quality management. Without ownership of the process no person wil
l take pride in the work that he does. Ownership will only be achieved if full r
esponsibility and authority is handed down to the person. This positively enhanc
es empowerment. There are some unions that believe that empowerment means the co
ntrolling of an organization by the workers. For change to happen there must be
a driving force which could be in the form of:
• A firm belief in the philosophy of Total Quality Management.
• Total commitment by top management.
• A belief in the capability of people in the organization.
• A belief in the future of the organization.
It is important that functional structures be established to set the process in
motion. Functional structures are there to facilitate communication and to exped
ite development of the total quality management system. Everybody must become pa
rt of the system (Remember Attitude/Culture). Total Quality Management is a long
-term project that requires stakeholder commitment.
Relevance of measurement and actions
Measurement and actions should be meaningful and support the strategy and object
ives of the organization. They should stimulate improvement. It must be remember
ed that input control is more important than the control of outputs. If the inpu
t is under control, the output will invariably be correct.
Setting priority
Measurement should clearly identify where the greatest returns will be for impro
vements. What is important in measurement results is the analysis of the results
. The results must tell whether the process is in control in terms of efficiency
and cost. Therefore the results must be compared to a measurement base to estab
lish whether one is in control or not. Measurement without comparison is worthle
ss.
Simplicity
The measurement should be fit for purpose and the measurement should be understa
ndable. A high degree of accuracy may or may not be necessary. A high degree of
accuracy will be required in terms of product quality and financial statements.
When it comes to the assessment of items such as customer satisfaction etc. such
a degree of accuracy is not required. What is important here is to see what you
r customer thinks of your product and/or service.
Flexibility
The measurement should be capable of being adapted quickly to changing needs. Me
asurement systems that are rigid and do not take into account elements such as p
rocess capability, market changes and rates of exchange will give a distorted pi
cture of the activity being measured and therefore must be able to adapt to chan
ging needs.
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT GURUS
Total Management Guru’s and Philosophies

Dr Juran
Dr. Juran developed the quality trilogy – quality planning, quality control and
quality improvement.
Quality Trilogy

Source:www.dtl.gov.uk/quality/gurus
Quality is associated with customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the pr
oduct, and emphasised the necessity for ongoing quality improvement through a su
ccession of small improvement projects carried out throughout the organisation a
ccording to Juran. His ten steps to quality improvement are:
i) Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement
ii) Set goals for improvement
iii) Organise to reach the goals
iv) Provide training
v) Carry out projects to solve problems
vi) Report progress
vii) Give recognition
viii) Communicate results
ix) Keep score of improvements achieved
x) Maintain momentum
Feigenbaum
Feigenbaum was the originator of “total quality control”, often referred to as t
otal quality. He defined it as an effective system for integrating quality devel
opment, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the various group
s within an organisation, so as to enable production and service at the most eco
nomical levels that allow full customer satisfaction.
He saw it as a business method and proposed three steps to quality:
i) Quality leadership
ii) Modern quality technology
iii) Organisational commitment
Dr Kaoru Ishikawa
Ishikawa had various contributions to quality; the most popular ones are his to
tal quality viewpoint, company- wide quality control, his emphasis on the human
side of quality, the Ishikawa diagram and the assembly and use of the “seven bas
ic tools of quality”:
Dr Genichi Taguchi
Taguchi believed product designs must be robust or insensitive to variation in
the manufacturing process, rather than attempt to control. The idea was to antic
ipate all problems and assess them in reverse to establish the causes to those p
roblems. He worked with already established knowledge to optimise products or pr
ocesses prior to the manufacturing process rather than to enhance quality throug
h inspections. Quality and reliability are pushed back to the design stage where
they really belong, and he broke down off-line quality into three stages:
i) System design
ii) Parameter design
iii) Tolerance design
The method takes into account prototyping and enables the designer to identify t
he optimal settings to produce a robust product that can survive manufacturing t
ime after time, piece after piece, and provide what the customer wants. One of t
he most widely known of these is the Ishikawa or fish-bone.
Source:www.dtl.gov.uk/quality/gurus
Philip B Crosby
Crosby is popular for the concepts of “Zero Defects”, and his quality improveme
nt process is based on his four absolutes of quality:
i) Quality is conformance to requirements
ii) The system of quality is prevention
iii) The performance standard is zero defects
iv) The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance

His fourteen steps to quality improvement are:


Tom Peters
Tom Peters identified leadership as being central to the quality improvement pr
ocess, discarding the word “Management” for “Leadership”. The new role is of a f
acilitator, and the basis is “Managing by walking about” (MBWA), enabling the le
ader to keep in touch with customers, innovation and people, the three main area
s in the pursuit of excellence. He believes that, as the effective leader walks,
at least 3 major activities are happening:
i) Listening suggests caring
ii) Teaching values are transmitted
iii) Facilitating able to give on-the-spot help
Having researched successful American organisations, he concluded that any intel
ligent approach to organising had to encompass, and treat as interdependent, sev
en variables, in what became known as the McKinsey 7-S Framework, designed to fo
rce explicit thought about both the hardware and software of an organisation:
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF TQM GURUS
The following is a critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the prop
onents of the quality gurus.
Deming Juran Crosby Fageinbaum
Level senior Management responsibility Responsible for 94% of the problems
Less than 20% of the problems are due to workers Responsible for quality
Committed to quality
Performance standard There are scales in quality Avoid campaigns to do pe
rfect work Zero defect What the customer says it is
General Approach Minimum variability General Management approach
Prevention -
Structure 14 points for management 10 steps to quality 4 steps
to quality improvement 10 crucial benchmarks
Teamwork Employee participation Team and quality circle approach
Quality improvement teams Team zealotry
QUALITY AWARDS
The main aim of a Total Quality Management (TQM) model is to lead a company into
a Competitive Business Position (CBP) both in local and international markets.
A TQM International Quality Award (IQA) model is developed to provide a basis on
which a company could assess its progress in areas of quality or prepare an app
lication for a quality award. It is an international, generic and non competitiv
e award model which is applicable to a company of any size, in any business and
in any country. The TQM IQA models are based on an accepted and comprehensive cr
iteria set. The best known quality award models like the European Quality Award
(EQA), the Deming Prize (DP) and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MB
NQA) have been used as reference point by many nations that developed their own
home grown awards.
The Malcom Baldrige Award
On 28 August 1987, President Ronald Regan signed into law the Malcom Baldrige Na
tional Quality Award Act. The Act called for establishment of national quality a
ward that would provide a comprehensive framework of guidelines an organisation
could use to evaluate its quality programme and its quality improvement efforts.
Additionally, the award was designed to provide recognition for US organisation
s that had demonstrated excellence in attainment and management of quality. Each
year, firms could compete in three categories:
i) Large manufacturing companies and subsidiaries
ii) Large Service Companies
iii) Small manufacturing or service companies
The Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence provide a systems perspective f
or understanding performance management. They reflect validated, leading-edge ma
nagement practices against which an organization can measure itself. With their
acceptance nationally and internationally as the model for performance excellenc
e, the Criteria represent a common language for communication among organization
s for sharing best practices.
The Baldrige criteria form an excellent model of Total Quality Management (TQM).
The criteria are divided into seven key categories:
1. Leadership
2. Strategic Planning
3. Customer Focus
4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management
5. Workforce Focus
6. Process Management
7. Results
Each category is scored based on the approach used to address the category, how
well it is deployed throughout the organization, the cycles of learning generate
d, and its level of integration within the organization. An excellent way to imp
rove your TQM maturity is to use the criteria as a self-assessment and then comp
are your organization s methods and processes with winners of the Baldrige award
. An integral part of the Baldrige process is for winners to share non-proprieta
ry information from their applications so you have a ready-made benchmark for yo
ur organization s TQM maturity.
Winning the Baldrige Award is about as good as it gets with respect to being rec
ognized as a world-class organization. Most states in America have quality award
programs based on the Baldrige criteria. Participating in state programs is vie
wed as an excellent first step toward winning the Baldrige award (Balridge, 2009
).
The programme according to Doubler (1996) has extremely been popular since it ma
naged to elevate the awareness and interest of American business people in the i
mportance of quality.
The W. Edwards Deming Award
The Deming prize was designed to recognise organisations achievements in the fie
ld of quality, and includes a unique emphasis on the use of statistical techniqu
es. The award is global; it includes not only institutions in Japan, but other o
verseas firms. Dr. Deming recognised as the inspirational force behind the power
of quality control movements in industrial Japan, the world’s foremost authorit
y on the development of quality control standards and procedures in industry. Hi
s 14 point criteria:
1. Create consistency of purpose with a plan toward quality improvement of servi
ce. Upper leadership should create and publish to all employees a statement of o
rganization aims and purposes and they must constantly demonstrate their commitm
ent to it.
2. Adopt the new philosophy of quality. Everyone, from top management to the low
est employee, must accept the quality challenge, learn their responsibilities, a
nd take on the leadership required for change to the new philosophy. Poor qualit
y should never reach the customer. An organization should accept that defects in
quality may occur, but it should ensure that defective products never reach the
customer.
3. Cease dependence on mass inspections to achieve quality. The purpose of inspe
ctions is for improvement of processes and reduction of costs, not just to find
defects. The need for mass inspections may be eliminated by building quality int
o a service initially.
4. End the practice of choosing suppliers based solely upon price. Organizations
should stop awarding contracts based upon the lowest bid; instead, they should
be concerned with minimizing total costs. Rather than trying to find the lowest
bidder and then having to deal with cost overruns and low quality products, orga
nizations should move toward a single supplier for any one item. They may then b
uild a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust with the supplier.
5. Identify problems and work continuously to improve the system. Organizations
must improve constantly and forever the system of quality service. Many managers
tend to think in terms of programs having a beginning, middle, and an end. TQM
does not have an end; it is a continuous process. The phrase "continual improvem
ent" must become common language within the organizations.
6. Institute training. Organizations must adopt modern methods of formal trainin
g, especially for new hires. On-the-job-training is not acceptable since new hir
es will probably be learning the "old way" of doing things from seasoned veteran
s who may be resisting the change to TQM. Training also involves educating exter
nal customers as to what the organization is trying to achieve. This helps when
the organization later seeks input on quality from these external customers.
7. Teach and institute leadership. The aim of leadership should not be just to t
ell people how to do a job, but to help people do a better job. Leadership is a
learned skill, so organizations must train their managers to be good leaders.
8. Drive fear out of the workplace. Organizations must create trust and a climat
e for innovation so that all employees may work effectively for organizational i
mprovement. Much of workplace fear comes from by-the-numbers performance apprais
als that have numerical quotas. Employees tend to do what is required to receive
a good appraisal, not what is required for quality. Employees should not be afr
aid to bring up new ideas and the organization should tolerate failures when emp
loyees are experimenting with new ideas.
9. Break down barriers between departments. Upper management should build teamwo
rk between departments, not competition. They should optimize the efforts of tea
ms toward the aims and purposes of the organization instead of fostering competi
tion between departments.
10. Eliminate exhortations from the workplace. Management must stop using slogan
s and targets to request zero defects and improved productivity without providin
g workers the methods to achieve them. Such exhortations only create adversarial
relationships. Most of the causes of low quality and productivity in an organiz
ation belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the workforce to cha
nge.
11. Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas for production. Upper manageme
nt should stress achieving service quality rather than quantity. It should remov
e individual punishment/reward control systems, such as incentive pay. Eliminate
Management-by-Objectives. Instead of relying on objectives to reach goals, mana
gers should institute methods for improvement and use leadership to help workers
achieve personal goals.
12. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. Organizations should abolish merit
rating systems and not blame employees for system failures that are beyond their
control.
13. Institute and encourage vigorous programs of education, retraining, and self
-improvement. Use master trainers to educate and nurture the workforce. Start tr
aining with the statistical vision of the organization and then broaden it to in
clude extended process training. Extensive follow-up training should then be use
d to maintain the organization’s vision.
14. Act to accomplish the transformation. Put everyone in the organization to wo
rk to accomplish the transformation. Transformation is the job of every employee
, not just management. Establish some type of information centre to keep the ent
ire organization informed about transformation progress.
(Source: Deming (1985)
TQM and COMPETIVENESS
Porter (1990) states that a nation’s competitiveness is created and is not inher
ited. Competitiveness of companies in international markets depends of its capac
ity to innovate. Innovation is in two forms:
i) Innovation related to technology: new ways of doing things; new basis fo
r competing; better means of competing in old ways
ii) Innovation related to production: new production; new designs; new marke
ting approach; new ways of conducting training.
Competitiveness of nations depends on:
i) The capacity of an industry to innovate and upgrade
ii) Pressure from domestic rivals, aggressive home based suppliers, demandin
g local customers.
iii) Highly localised processes,
iv) Difference in national values, culture, economic structures, institution
s, and histories.
v) Focus of home environment: forward-looking, dynamic and challenging.
Natural endowment, labour pool, economic factors of value of currency and intere
st rates only form a foundation for competitiveness. The prerequisites of sustai
ning competitive advantage are:
i) Global approach to strategy – selling products worldwide under own brand
ii) Existing advantage must be obsolete by design or by force.
The Diamond of National Advantage
The determinants of national competitive advantage according to Porter (1990) ar
e Factor conditions; Demand conditions; Related and supporting industries; and F
irms Strategy, Structure and Rivalry.
Factor Conditions
These relate to factors necessary to compete in a given industry. They include s
killed labour and infrastructure. The factors have to be created. Lack of natura
l resources helped countries to innovate – scarcity therefore generates innovate
mindset. Japan innovated Just in Time (JIT) concept to circumvent the country’s
shortage of storage space. Sweden invented prefabricated houses due to weather
that are not conducive for construction work using bricks and mortar (http://www
.pacific.comment.ubc.ca).
Demand Conditions
Innovation is forced by two major factors - sophisticated demand in a market, an
d enlightened customers who demand recognition of costumer rights. Sophisticated
consumers set high aspiration that leads to producers continually innovating to
ensure the consumers’ taste is met (Johansson, 1997).
Related Support Industries
This refers to the presence in a domestic market, related and supporting industr
ies that are internationally competitive. This includes upstream partners – supp
liers, and related industries – support service and or competition. Efficient re
lated and supporting industries create advantage by reducing costs for domestic
markets (Porter, 1990).
Firm Strategy, Structure
Circumstances and context in a nation creates strong tendencies of how companies
are created. Structure affects organisation’s competitiveness. This is through
the speed and style of decision making processes. This inevitably has a bearing
in the overall costs to the organisation. Speed in decision making increases com
pany’s competitiveness.
The Role of Government
Government is an essential helper of an industry through policing to protect or
promote industry viability. This is achieved through the monetary and fiscal pol
icy. Government can only create an environment for companies to be competitive o
r stimulate competition. It is the duty of individual companies to create compet
itiveness (Pecon, 1996). Government policies that succeed are those that create
an environment in which companies gain competitive advantage rather than policie
s that involve government directly in the process (Porter, 1990).
TQM IMPLEMENTATION MODELS
TQM programmes implementation requires a road map to ensure efficient and effect
ive implementation. Various models are available for implementation of TQM progr
ammes.
Multi-Tier Framework for Implementing and Sustaining TQM Programmes
TQM programmes have to cover the progressive nature of a long-term quality journ
ey. A Multi-Tier framework for achieving successful implementation activities ha
s a five tier approach. The implementation activities at the bottom layer are ea
sy to attain and the level of difficult in successful implementation increases a
s we move up the pyramid.
Multi-Tier Frame Work Implementing TQM
Source: Berry (1991)
Societal Support deals with enlightening the shop floor. The nurturing of cultur
al mindset achieves societal support resulting in success of TQM programmes.
Foundation for Quality lies in the ability to build a solid foundation for quali
ty awareness and quality appreciation. A TQM programme is only successful after
quality foundation has been firmly established. This includes education and trai
ning programmes on TQM.
Reinforcing Quality Knowledge relates to the form of behaviour and mindset that
stakeholders collectively undertake. Behaviour and mindset can change with time
and likewise it can be reinforced when given correct stimulus. This will include
regular training on employees.
Quality Criteria is the stage where the institutions should establish annual obj
ectives and goals. The quality criteria must be all encompassing. The Deming Awa
rd took the same initiatives.
Continuous Benchmarking refers to the effective ongoing quality management progr
ammes. Being effective means rich quality culture; stakeholders will have good q
uality knowledge and skills, teams functioning in all aspects of the organisatio
n.
A Model for Nurturing Business Excellence
Implementation of TQM Models requires involvement of all stakeholders to help sy
stematically plan TQM programmes. The model maps transformational processes and
emphasis the need to nurture a cultural mindset with a society that is receptive
to TQM philosophy and TQM activities, thus achieving an ‘enlightened workforce’
.
Model for Nurturing Business Excellence
Source: Farazmand (2005)
The Model emphasise the importance of stakeholder partnerships that must exist b
etween business organisation, academia, and government. Business organisations d
rive the partnerships, government facilitates the partnership and education inst
itutions nurture the partners. This forms the foundation for a holistic approach
to TQM and the fact that countries have been instituting national quality award
s to recognise excellent organisations is a testimony on the importance of the p
rogramme.
Baldrige Model
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is an annual award to recognize the
American organisations for the performance excellence. The award promotes perfor
mance excellence and competitiveness improvement, sharing of information on succ
essful strategies and the benefits derived from using these strategies (Besterfi
eld et al, 2003). There are five categories: manufacturing, service, small busin
ess, health and education. (Kurtzman, 2002).
The original stated purpose of the award was to promote quality awareness, recog
nising quality achievements of the US companies and publicise successful quality
strategies. The current award criteria are stated to have three important roles
in strengthening US competitiveness:
Malcolm Balrige National Quality Award Model

APPLICATION
The change programme shall take the form of the Model for Nurturing Business Exc
ellence coupled with the Multi-Tier Pyramid for implementing TQM. The key parame
ters of the successful implementation of a national TQM award are the establishm
ent of key stakeholders. This includes issues such as the driver of the change p
rocess, the key institutions and ministries that can support the change implemen
tation plan and the method that is appropriate for implementing the National Awa
rd. During the process, commitment must be planted and developed among the key s
takeholders to ensure success. Commitment is manifested in a relentless pursuit
of goals regardless of obstacles. The greatest threat to successful implementat
ion is an uncommitted country leadership and management cadre. It is therefore n
ecessary for management to ensure commitment through various activities. These a
ctivities can be subdivided into aspects such as permitting, supporting, managin
g and leading by example.
The change programme shall be driven by Standards Association of Zimbabwe as the
primary change agent. The process shall include transformation of SAZ into a Na
tional Institute of Total Quality Management and Best Practices. This shall incl
ude passing a Bill in parliament that will legalise the National Quality Award.
The master programme shall be guided by a Model for Nurturing Business Excellenc
e to manage the transformational process.
Master Programme for National TQM and Best Practices Award
Period: 2009
No. Activity 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Remarks By
1 Stakeholder briefing
Stakeholder Conferences and workshops CA
2 Task Force Formation
Vetting of CV s CA
3 Information Gathering
Road Shows, Conferences, and Workshops TF
4 TQM Strategy Formulation
Retreat in Vic Falls TF
5 Setting National TQM & BP Stds
Retreat in Nyanga TF
6 Preparation of Draft Bill
Retreat in Kariba TF
7 Parlimentary Portfolio Briefing
Update legislators on the proposal TF/CA
8 Parliament Public Consultation
Public information gathering PPC
Period: 2010
No. Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Remarks By
9 Motion set for debate
Parliament seeks to put Bill on Agenda PPC
10 Parliamentary Debate
Adjustment to the Draft Bill MP
11 Approval of Bill by Lower Hse
Require 2/3 majority SoP
12 Upper House Debate
Adjustment to the Draft Bill Sen
13 Approval of Bill by Upper Hse
Require 2/3 majority PS
14 Assent of Bill by the President
CoP
15 Gazetting of the Bill
Ministry of Trade and Commerce PS
16 Launch of the National Award
Ceremony at SAZ CA

Key
CA Change Agent - CEO SAZ
TF Task Force
PPC Parliamentary Portfolio Committee
MP Members of Parliament
Sen Senators
SoP Speaker of Parliament
PS President of the Senate
CoP Clerk of Parliament
The programme shall ensure success after all the stakeholders have achieved a mi
ndset that views quality management activities as routine work and inherent part
of their job responsibility. The three stakeholders involved in the implementat
ion are government, business, and academia. The three stakeholder groups should
work together closely. The different stakeholders are made up of Government, Aca
demia and Business who form the partnership framework.
Activities and Responsibility Pyramid for Implementation of Zimbabwe Total Quali
ty Management and Best Practices
Societal Support Activities
The successful implementation of the transformation programme of SAZ to Zimbabwe
Total Quality Management and Best Practices Institute (ZTQM&BPI) shall require
the framework partners – Government, Academia and Business to gather maximum sup
port from the society. The Government shall facilitate by subsidised workshops,
and road-shows that shall raise awareness of the programme. This shall be in sup
port of the driver – business and academia – nurturer’s efforts towards implanta
tion of the award.
Foundation for Quality
The academia and business will undertake programmes in line with the master prog
ramme above in order to build a solid foundation for quality awareness and quali
ty appreciation. Training programmes shall enhance education and foster a cultur
e of TQM. The academia and business shall spearhead these activities.
Training on ZTQM&BP Award
In order to create awareness and excitements of the ward, institutions shall be
trained on the requirement to participate in the ZTQM&BP award. This is meant to
reinforce quality knowledge according to the Multi-Tier framework. Business and
the academia shall be heavily involved in these activities.
Quality Criteria
The Taskforce shall blend various criteria elements that exist in already existi
ng awards that are suitable for Zimbabwe. This is meant to reduce waste by tryin
g to reinvent the wheel when already set criteria can just be adjusted to suit o
ur local situation. This shall involve the prices that shall be won, the period
of assessment and the procedure for participation.
Continuous Benchmarking
After the initial criteria has been set and run, ZTQM&BPI shall continue to revi
ewed continuously in light of the fact that is not constant. This shall be in li
ne with the quality vision set and goals of quality.

DISCUSSION
Strategy
The strategy is implemented collectively; the process involves the three framewo
rk partners, Government of Zimbabwe, the Zimbabwe business community and the aca
demia. The custodians of the strategy Government of Zimbabwe assisted by the Zim
babwe business community. The driving of this strategy shall be led by the trans
formed Zimbabwe Total Quality Management and Best Practice Institute formerly th
e Standard Association of Zimbabwe. The drivers shall be responsible for:
Establishing the Vision – the aspirations of the ZTQM&BP Award.
Establish the Mission – the path to be followed and how to get there in quest of
achieving the implementation of a national quality award.
ZTQM&BPI Values- these could include elements such as honest, integrity, trustwo
rthy, professionalism and cultural beliefs to drive how business is conducted.
Constraints
The major constraints that can be encountered are the human and financial resour
ces. This is against the background that the country is in a deep recession that
has been explained earlier in Chapter 1. The Government cannot go it alone to s
ponsor a project of such magnitude therefore the involvement of the business com
munity, academia and the social community is necessary for the successful implem
entation of the project.
The other constraints are caused by data validity as some of the data used durin
g the preliminary stages was outdated. The economic environment also contributed
to the constraints as some economic data for example inflation figures constant
ly changed because of the hyper inflation environment in Zimbabwe and the Centra
l Statistical Office was failing to keep track of economic indicators due to lac
k of resources.
Leadership Behavior
The project can only succeed if a team approach is employed. The implementation
of the transformation and transitional process shall involve the three major sta
keholders, the government, business and academia.
Government
All Government Institutions and quasi-government organisations such as Scientif
ic and Industrial Development Centre, including line ministries responsible for
Agriculture, Mining, Tourism, and Industry and Commerce shall be consulted and s
hall be involved in the implementation of the TQM & BP Award. The government sha
ll also help in funding and attracting foreign sponsorship for the award.
Business
Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries and Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce a
nd professional bodies like Institute of Directors shall be consulted and shall
be requested to second members to the Task Force to provide expertise and leader
ship in the change programme.
Academia
All academic institutions whose mandate is to teach and carry out research and d
evelopment and include technical colleges, vocational colleges and universities
fall in this category. The future of an economic system is directly tied to the
ability of a nation to establish and maintain a high quality education system wi
th a strong focus on quality teaching and learning. The development of performan
ce standards and the identification of outcomes are highly relevant to quality m
anagement in educational systems. Important issues include the calibre of curric
ular and the training of high calibre teachers and trainers.
Change Management
The process shall be completed by the passing of a Bill through parliament. This
shall involve the task force that shall be drawn from business and the academia
. The task force shall present the proposal to a parliamentary portfolio committ
ee that shall carry out public consultation before the Bill is debated in parlia
ment by members of parliament and members of the senate.
To ensure the success of the project, various ministers of the government shall
be involved. Other supporting professional institutions shall be included in spe
arheading the change process. These include, ZFU, CFU, CZI, ZNNC, IoDZ, ZTA and
others relevant professional bodies. These institutes shall be part of the task
force members and shall provide technical advice on the project.
The academia shall provide training on the TQM award.
Type of change
There are a number of ways in which change can be categorised most are related t
o the extent of the change and whether it is seen as organic (often characterise
d as bottom-up) or driven (top-down). The model for change for the national qual
ity award will be Transitional and transformational change at the same time. It
shall seek to achieve a known desired state that is different from the existing
one. It is episodic, planned and second order, or radical.
Objectives
This change initiative should result in improved products and service quality. S
takeholders will take advantage of opportunities offered by the quality promotio
n programme to further develop a quality culture. All manufacturers and service
organizations will demonstrate their capability to provide a continuous quality
for their products and services. All businesses and public organizations have se
t up quality systems enabling them to guarantee that required quality is obtaine
d at the appropriate cost, and also taking ecological concerns into consideratio
n.
The national quality award program shall improved quality and productivity by:
i) helping to stimulate Zimbabwean companies to improve quality and product
ivity for the pride of recognition while obtaining a competitive edge through in
creased profits;
ii) recognizing the achievements of those companies that improve the quality
of their goods and services and providing an example to others;
iii) establishing guidelines and criteria that can be used by business, indus
trial, governmental, and other organizations in evaluating their own quality imp
rovement efforts; and
iv) Providing specific guidance for other Zimbabwean organizations that wish
to learn how to manage for high quality by making available detailed informatio
n on how winning organizations were able to change their cultures and achieve em
inence."
Organisations in Zimbabwe will offer the following
i) Excellent product and service quality
ii) Research and Development/ new product development
iii) Acquisition of new technologies
iv) Innovative
v) Team based approach
vi) Practicing Best practices
vii) Manpower planning
viii) Have environmentally sound practices
ix) Reengineering of processes
x) Focus on core activities and competencies – outsourcing and contracting
For individual companies this will resulted in:
i) Increase in capacity utilisation and increase in productivity
ii) employee motivation
iii) quality has become a source of competitive advantage
iv) Decrease in losses
v) Training days per employee increase improved quality of goods and servic
es goes hand in hand with improved productivity, lower costs, and increased prof
itability
At a national level this has resulted in:
i) growth in world markets
ii) reputation for quality
iii) Increased export volumes resulting in foreign currency shortages being a
thing of the past.
iv) There are less foreign goods competing locally with domestic products.
CONCLUSION
From the above analysis it is evident that TQM&BP award is very important for a
developing nation like Zimbabwe. With the National quality award in place it wil
l not only motivate the local business community to produce quality products and
services, but it will also attract competition from companies within the SADC r
egion seeking recognition. The quality award will not be restricted to Zimbabwe
and will therefore attract competition from foreign companies and organisation.
With the national quality award in place, Zimbabwe will become an equal trading
partner on the world market. This will be attributed largely to quality control
mechanisms which will be put in place by companies in the process of enhancing t
heir products.
This will inevitably stimulate employment in our local industry since the qualit
y award is going to promote innovation that in turn stimulate production in all
downstream and upstream activities. In the process, the nation will make revenue
from exports creating a health balance of payment. High productivity will incre
ase revenues for the government in form of tax revenue from VAT, corporate and i
ndustry.
The ZTQM&BP Award will assist to stimulate Zimbabwean companies to improve quali
ty and productivity for the pride of recognition while obtaining a competitive e
dge through increased profits. The award shall recognize the achieving companies
that improve the quality of their goods and services and providing an example t
o others, it shall also establish guidelines and criteria that shall be used by
business, industrial, governmental, and other organizations in evaluating their
own quality improvement efforts and provide specific guidance for other Zimbabwe
an organizations that wish to learn how to manage for high quality by making ava
ilable detailed information on how winning organizations will able to change the
ir cultures and achieve.
Recommendation
If Zimbabwe is to improve its global competitive performance it has to embark on
Total Quality Management in all sectors so as to generate sufficient employment
for its citizens and foreign currency from export of high quality products. The
Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award can be adopted with adjustments to sui
t the Zimbabwean situation. As in the U.S, this national award can be given by c
ategory and initially to the main categories identified earlier. These categorie
s are manufacturing, mining, agriculture, education, health and tourism. These a
wards may be given each year in each category. They can be extended to other sec
tors are the award progresses.
Recent Similar Research Concluded
Successful implementation of quality requires the combined approach of standards
and total quality concepts articulated by quality gurus according to the findin
gs by Tang (1995). The current ISO standards particularly popular around the wor
ld are specifically internally focused and lack customer perspectives. They focu
s on doing things right, not necessarily doing the right things from a customer
point of view. This is a limitation that is associated with ISO. This is particu
larly true given the fact that ISO focuses on standard documented procedure and
do not allow any room for innovation.
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