EEE8044 Online Taster Material

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EEE8044 Online Taster Material

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 3

When performing fault calculations we usually assume that the system voltage at the point of

the fault is the same as the nominal system voltage at that point. Another commonly made

assumption is that the load current flowing in the system is negligible compared with the size

of the fault current. The process of calculating three-phase fault levels can be described in

four main steps:

Step 1, System single line diagram: represent system by its one line diagram showing

generator and transformer MVA ratings, voltage ratings and impedances, cable and overhead

line impedances and lengths and the short circuit infeeds at the incoming transformers (i.e.

system fault level at the supply substation).

Fig. 1 shows a single-line diagram for an 11 kV loop network. The 33/11 kV transformers at

each substation are shown. Our objective is to calculate the fault level on the 11 kV busbar at

substation B if the normally open point is closed on this feeder.

Substation A

33 kV fault level 2500 MVA

33 kV

Substation B

33 kV fault level 2200 MVA

33 kV

3 off

10 MVA

XT=0.06 pu

on rating

2 off

20 MVA

XT=0.05 pu

on rating

11 kV

11 kV

8.35 km

XL=0.24/km

6.25 km

NO Point

XL=0.24/km

Step 2, Develop equivalent circuit expressing all parameters in per unit values: The next

step is to redraw the single-line diagram as an equivalent circuit in which all impedances are

expressed in p.u. values calculated to a common power base. The equivalent circuit should of

course include all sources of short circuit current. In this case, there are no plant generators

and the utility incoming 33 kV supply is the only source of fault current.

The use of the per unit system allows all voltage sources to be represented by a single voltage

source equal to 1 pu and a series of impedances connected between this voltage source and

the point where the fault level is to be calculated. Effectively, we are representing the system

in terms of its Thevenin equivalent circuit.

For the above network, it makes sense to use 10 MVA or 20 MVA as our power base. If we

choose 10 MVA as our base, the reactance of each of the three transformers at S/S B is then

0.06 pu. The reactance of each of the transformers at S/S A is then given by 0.0510/20 =

0.025 pu.

The total cable length between the two substations is 14.6 km. Thus the impedance between

the two substations if the normally open point is closed is given by 0.2414.6 = 3.504. The

base impedance at the 11 kV side is given by:

Z base

Vbase 2

baseVA

1110

3 2

10 10 6

12.1

Hence, the cable impedance between the two substations is (3.504/12.1) = 0.2896 pu.

The source reactances at the two substations can be calculated from the known 33 kV fault

level at each substation. A supply fault level of 2500 MVA at substation A simply means that

the source reactance is 1 pu calculated on a base of 2500 MVA. Thus, on our 10 MVA base,

the supply reactance at substation A is now given by 110/2500 = 0.004 pu. Similarly, at

substation B, a supply fault level of 2200 MVA implies that the source reactance is 1 pu

calculated on a base of 2200 MVA. Thus, on a10 MVA base, the supply reactance at

substation B is given by 110/2200 = 0.0045 pu.

Fig. 2 shows the network redrawn as an equivalent circuit with all impedances expressed in

pu values and with the normally open point closed.

Reference busbar (1 pu voltage)

0.004 pu

S/S A

0.025

pu

0.0045 pu

0.025

pu

0.06

pu

0.06

pu

0.06

pu

S/S B

0.2896 pu

Fault

Step 3, Apply circuit reduction techniques: Standard network reduction techniques are

used to reduce the equivalent circuit to a single impedance between the source bus and the

point at which the fault level is to be calculated, as shown in Fig. 3.

R

Reference busbar

0.004

pu

0.0045 pu

0.004 pu

0.025

pu

0.025

pu

0.06

pu

0.06

pu

0.06

pu

0.0045

pu

0.0125

pu

0.02

pu

0.3061

pu

0.0245

pu

0.0227

pu

0.2896

pu

0.2896 pu

Fault

The net impedance to the point of fault is given 0.0227 pu calculated on a base of 10 MVA.

Step 4, Calculate fault level and fault current: The three-phase fault level at the 11 kV

busbar in substation B is thus given by:

Fault Level

Base VA

10 10 6

440.5 MVA

Net Impedance to Point of Fault 0.0227

If

440.5 10 6

3 1110 3

23.1 kA

The fault level can be reduced by reducing the number of parallel paths in the circuit.

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