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Focus on Grammar 4

Grammar Chart Transparencies


The purpose of the grammar charts is to help students notice the form of the structure, to pre-teach some of
the grammar notes that follow, and to familiarize students with grammar terminology.The Focus on Grammar
(FOG) transparencies give instructors a tool to more effectively engage students in class as they tackle a new
grammar point together.
Here are some suggestions for using the transparencies.


Ask questions that will help students become aware of the form of the structure. For example, for
present and future unreal conditionals (FOG 4, Unit 23, page 338), read the statement,If Mia had money,
she would live in a palace, and ask the class to name the verb in the if clause. (Had.) Ask students what
form it is. (The simple past form.) Ask students if the meaning is in the past. (No.) Ask the class to name the
verb in the result clause. (Live.) Ask students what form it is. (The base form.) Ask students what base form
means. (The simple form without an ending.)

Have students use the examples in the charts to practice the form. In the simple past and past progressive unit (FOG 4, Unit 2, page 11), you might ask students to look at the examples in the chart and
change the affirmative statements to negative ones. (Marie studied at the Sorbonne. Marie didnt study
at the Sorbonne.)

Use the charts with Grammar in Context. Ask students to look at Grammar in Context and find examples
that illustrate the points in the grammar charts. Students can also use the grammar terms in the charts to
label items in Grammar in Context.

Compare charts. For example, compare the past perfect and past perfect progressive (FOG 4, Unit 4,
pages 2931). Ask, Do you use had (not) in statements with both the past perfect and past perfect progressive? (Yes, but past perfect progressive uses been after had (not).) Ask,Do you use the base form with
wh- questions with both the past perfect and past perfect progressive?(No.The past perfect uses the past
participle.The past perfect progressive uses been + base form + -ing.)

Help students understand grammar terminology through the use of the charts. All Focus on Grammar
charts are clearly labeled. (Affirmative/Negative, Yes/No Questions, Wh- Questions, Subject, Base Form,
Subject Pronoun, Object Pronoun, etc.) Ask questions to make certain students understand what the
labels mean.

Use the charts to practice items from a list. For example, in FOG 4, Unit 15, page 228, students could
practice the modals by making up sentences about themselves and classmates. Instead of You should not
watch this TV show, they could say,I should not eat so much junk food,I ought to go to museums more
often,I had better study for my English test. etc.

Ask students to provide personal examples. For example, Unit 23, page 338 of FOG 4, says,If Mia had
money, she would live in a palace. Ask students to say what they would do if they had the money to do it.
(If I had money, I would buy a new car.)
Guidelines provided by Irene E. Schoenberg

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
SIMPLE PRESENT

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

Affirmative Statements

Affirmative Statements

They live in Mexico.


She always works here.

Now, theyre living in Mexico.


Shes working here today.

Negative Statements

Negative Statements

They dont live in Mexico.


She doesnt work here.

They arent living in Mexico now.


She isnt working here now.

Yes / No Questions

Yes / No Questions

Do they live in Mexico?


Does she work here?

Are they living in Mexico now?


Is she working here now?

Short Answers

Short Answers

Yes, they do.


Yes, she does.

Yes, they are.


Yes, she is.

No, they dont.


No, she doesnt.

No, they arent.


No, she isnt.

Wh- Questions

Wh- Questions

Where do they live?


Why does she work so hard?

Where are they living these days?


Why is she working so hard?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 1

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
SIMPLE PAST

PAST PROGRESSIVE

Affirmative Statements

Affirmative Statements

Marie studied at the Sorbonne.

She was studying at the Sorbonne in 1892.

Negative Statements

Negative Statements

Lois didnt plan to marry Clark at first.

She wasnt planning to get married.

Yes / No Questions

Short Answers

Yes / No Questions

Short Answers

Did he teach?

Yes, he did.
No, he didnt.

Was he doing research?

Yes, he was.
No, he wasnt.

Wh- Questions

Wh- Questions

Where did they practice?

Where were they practicing?

Simple Past and Simple Past

Past Progressive and Past Progressive

We won when we skated there.

We were winning while we were skating there.

Simple Past and Past Progressive

Past Progressive and Simple Past

She met him while she was studying.

She was studying when she met him.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 2

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PRESENT PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

SIMPLE PAST
Affirmative Statements

Affirmative Statements

I built a website last month.

Ive built a website.


Ive been building a website this month.

Negative Statements

Negative Statements

She didnt write last week.

She hasnt written many letters.


She hasnt been writing lately.

Yes / No Questions

Short Answers

Yes / No Questions

Short Answers

Did he move?

Yes, he did.
No, he didnt.

Has he moved?
Has he been living in Perth?

Yes, he has.
No, he hasnt.

Wh- Questions

Wh- Questions

Where did he work?

Where has he worked?


Where has he been working?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 3

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PAST PERFECT
Statements

Contractions

Subject

Had (not)

Past Participle

I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

had (not)

received
gotten

awards.

I had
you had
he had
she had
we had
they had

=
=
=
=
=
=

Id
youd
hed
shed
wed
theyd

had not

= hadnt

Yes / No Questions
Had

Subject

Past Participle

Had

I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they

received
gotten

awards by then?

Short Answers
Afrmative

Yes,

you
I
he
she
it
we
you
they

Negative

had.

No,

you
I
he
she
it
we
you
they

hadnt.

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Had

Subject

Past Participle

When

had

he

received

awards?

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 4

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


Statements
Subject

Had (not) been

Base Form + -ing

I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

had (not) been

working regularly.

Yes / No Questions
Had

Subject

Been + Base Form + -ing

Had

I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they

been working

regularly?

Short Answers
Afrmative

Yes,

you
I
he
she
it
we
you
they

Negative

had.

No,

you
I
he
she
it
we
you
they

hadnt.

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Had

Subject

Been + Base Form + -ing

How long

had

he

been working?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 4

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
FUTURE
Affirmative Statements
We are going to leave

Negative Statements
We are not going to leave

We will leave

We will not leave


for Mars soon.

for Mars yet.

We are leaving

We are not leaving

We leave

We dont leave

Short Answers

Yes / No Questions

Afrmative

Negative

she is.

Is she going to leave


Will she leave
for Mars soon?

Yes,

she isnt.

she will.

No,

she wont.

Is she leaving

she is.

she isnt.

Does she leave

she does.

she doesnt.

Wh- Questions
When is she going to leave
When will she leave
for Mars?
When is she leaving
When does she leave

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 5

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
Statements
Subject

Be (not) going to /
Will (not)

Be + Base Form + -ing

are (not) going to


will (not)

People

be living

on Mars by 2050.

Yes / No Questions
Be / Will

Subject

Going to

Are

they

going to

Will

you

Be + Base Form + -ing


be living

on Mars by then?

Short Answers
Afrmative
Yes,

they are.

Negative
theyre not.

No,

I will.

I wont.

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Be / Will

Subject

Going to

are

they

going to

will

you

When

Be + Base Form + -ing


be living

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 5

on Mars?

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
FUTURE PERFECT
Statements
Subject

Will (not)

Have + Past Participle

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

will (not)

have earned

interest by then.

Yes / No Questions
Will

Subject

Have + Past Participle

Will

I
you
he
she
it
we
they

have earned

interest by then?

Short Answers
Afrmative

Yes,

you
I
he
she
it
we
they

Negative

will (have).

No,

you
I
he
she
it
we
they

wont (have).

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Will

Subject

Have + Past Participle

How much

will

she

have earned

by then?

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 6

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


Statements
Subject

Will (not)

Have been + Base Form + -ing

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

will (not)

have been earning

interest for a month.

Yes / No Questions
Will

Subject

Have been + Base Form + -ing

Will

I
you
he
she
it
we
they

have been earning

interest for a month?

Short Answers
Afrmative

Yes,

you
I
he
she
it
we
they

Negative

will (have).

No,

you
I
he
she
it
we
they

wont (have).

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Will

Subject

Have been + Base Form + -ing

How long

will

she

have been earning

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 6

interest?

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
NEGATIVE YES / NO QUESTIONS

WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB


Questions

Short Answers

Be + Not + Subject

Afrmative

Negative

Arent you from Rio de Janeiro?

Yes, I am.

No, Im not.

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Questions
Auxiliary + Not + Subject + Verb

Short Answers
Afrmative
I am.

Arent you moving?


Hasnt he been here before?

Negative

Yes,

he has.

Im not.
No, he hasnt.

they can.

Cant they move tomorrow?

they cant.

WITH DO AS THE AUXILIARY VERB


Short Answers

Questions
Do + Not + Subject + Verb
Doesnt he live here?
Didnt they move last year?

Afrmative
Yes,

he does.
they did.

Negative
No,

he doesnt.
they didnt.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 7

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

TAG QUESTIONS

WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB


Affirmative Statement

Negative Tag

Subject + Be

Be + Not + Subject

Youre from Rio,

arent you?

Negative Statement

Affirmative Tag

Subject + Be + Not

Be + Subject

Youre not from Rio,

are you?

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Affirmative Statement

Negative Tag

Subject + Auxiliary

Auxiliary + Not + Subject

Youre moving,

arent you?

Hes been here before,

hasnt he?

They can move tomorrow,

cant they?

Negative Statement

Affirmative Tag

Subject + Auxiliary + Not

Auxiliary + Subject

Youre not moving,

are you?

He hasnt been here before,

has he?

They cant move tomorrow,

can they?

WITH DO AS AN AUXILIARY VERB


Affirmative Statement

Negative Tag

Subject + Verb

Do + Not + Subject

He lives here,

doesnt he?

They moved last year,

didnt they?

Negative Statement

Affirmative Tag

Subject + Do + Not + Verb

Do + Subject

He doesnt live here,

does he?

They didnt move,

did they?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 7

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
SIMILARITY: AND + SO, TOO, NEITHER, NOT EITHER

WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB


Affirmative

Negative

Subject + Be

And + So +
Be + Subject

Subject + Be + Not

And + Neither +
Be + Subject

Amy is a twin,

and so is Sue.

Amy isnt very tall,

and neither is Sue.

Affirmative

Negative

Subject + Be

And + Subject +
Be + Too

Subject + Be + Not

And + Subject +
Be + Not either

Amy is a twin,

and Sue is too.

Amy isnt very tall,

and Sue isnt either.

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Affirmative

Negative

Subject + Auxiliary

And + So +
Auxiliary + Subject

Subject +
Auxiliary + Not

And + Neither +
Auxiliary + Subject

Amy has had two sons,

and so has Sue.

Amy cant ski,

and neither can Sue.

Affirmative

Negative

Subject + Auxiliary

And + Subject +
Auxiliary + Too

Subject +
Auxiliary + Not

And + Subject +
Auxiliary + Not either

Amy has had two sons,

and Sue has too.

Amy cant ski,

and Sue cant either.

WITH DO AS THE AUXILIARY VERB


Affirmative

Negative

Subject + Verb

And + So +
Do + Subject

Subject +
Do + Not + Verb

And + Neither +
Do + Subject

Amy likes dogs,

and so does Sue.

Amy doesnt like cats,

and neither does Sue.

Affirmative

Negative

Subject + Verb

And + Subject +
Do + Too

Subject +
Do + Not + Verb

And + Subject +
Do + Not + Either

Amy likes dogs,

and Sue does too.

Amy doesnt like cats,

and Sue doesnt either.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 8

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

CONTRAST: BUT

WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB


Affirmative

Negative

Negative

Affirmative

Subject + Be

But + Subject + Be + Not

Subject + Be + Not

But + Subject + Be

Amy is outgoing,

but Sue isnt.

Amy isnt quiet,

but Sue is.

Negative

Affirmative

But + Subject +
Subject + Auxiliary Auxiliary + Not

Subject +
Auxiliary + Not

But + Subject +
Auxiliary

Amy has traveled,

Amy couldnt swim,

but Sue could.

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Affirmative

Negative

but Sue hasnt.

WITH DO AS THE AUXILIARY VERB


Affirmative

Negative

Negative

Affirmative

Subject + Verb

But + Subject + Do + Not

Subject + Do + Not

But + Subject + Do

Amy lives here,

but Sue doesnt.

Amy doesnt drive,

but Sue does.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 8

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
Gerunds

Infinitives

Eating fast foods is convenient.

Its convenient to eat fast foods.

They recommend reducing fats in the food.

They plan to reduce fats in the food.

She started buying McBreakfast every day.

She started to buy McBreakfast every day.

Were tired of reading calorie counts.

We were surprised to read the number of calories.

I didnt like his ordering fries.

I urged him to order fries.


Its time to eat.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 9

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
MAKE, HAVE, LET, HELP, AND GET
Make, Have, Let, Help
Subject

They

Make / Have / Let / Help

(dont)

make
have
let
help*

Object

Base Form

them
animals

learn

tricks.

* Help can also be followed by the infinitive.

Get
Subject

Get

They

(dont)

get

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 10

Object

Innitive

them
animals

to learn

tricks.

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PHRASAL VERBS: REVIEW

TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS


Not Separated
Subject

Verb

Particle

Direct Object

She
He

called

in

a consultant.

figured

out

the problem.

Separated
Subject

Verb

Direct Object

Particle

called

a consultant
him

in.

figured

the problem
it

out.

She
He

INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS


Not Separated
Subject Verb
They
It

Particle

came

back

quickly.

caught

on

everywhere.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 11

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PHRASAL VERBS: SEPARABLE AND INSEPARABLE
Separable Transitive
Subject

Verb

Particle

Direct Object

She

picked

up

the phone.

Separable Transitive
Subject

Verb

Direct Object

Particle

She

picked

the phone
it

up.

Inseparable Transitive
Subject

Verb

Particle

Direct Object

He

counts

on

your calls.
them.

Intransitive
Subject

Verb

Particle

They

sat

down.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 12

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE


Main Clause

Adjective Clause

Subject

Verb

Predicate
Noun/
Pronoun

Subject
Relative
Pronoun

Verb

read

a book

that

discusses

friends.

A friend

is

someone

who

knows

you well.

is

in Boston.

Whose + Noun
I

have

a friend

whose home

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE


Main Clause

Adjective Clause

Main Clause (cont.)

Subject
Noun/
Pronoun

Subject
Relative
Pronoun

Verb

The book

that

discusses

friends

is

by Ruben.

Someone

who

knows

you

can give

you advice.

writes

books

lives

in Boston.

Verb

Whose + Noun
My friend

whose sister

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 13

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH OBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS
OR WHEN AND WHERE

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE


Main Clause

Adjective Clause

Subject

Verb

Predicate
Noun / Pronoun

(Object
Relative Pronoun)

Subject

Verb

He

read

the book

(that)

she

wrote.

She

is

someone

(who[m])

respect.

read.

Whose + Noun
That

is

the author

whose book

Where / (When)
She

loves

the city

where

she

grew up.

They

cried

the day

(when)

they

left.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE


Main Clause

Adjective Clause

Main Clause (cont.)

Subject

(Object Relative
Pronoun)

Subject

Verb

Verb

The book

(that)

read

is

great.

Someone

(who[m])

you

know

was

there.

you

know

writes

books.

Whose + Noun
The man

whose sister

Main Clause

Adjective Clause

Main Clause (cont.)

Subject

Where / (When)

Subject

Verb

Verb

The library

where

work

has

videos.

The summer

(when)

she

left

passed

slowly.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 14

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS: REVIEW
Ability: Be able to*

Ability: Can and Could


Subject
She

Modal

Base Form
of Verb

can (not)

act.

is (not)

act.

She
could (not)

Base Form
of Verb

Subject Be able to

act

able to

last year.

was (not)

act

last year.

Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better


Base Form
of Verb

Subject Modal
You

should (not)
ought to
had better (not)

watch

this TV show.

Necessity: Must and Cant


Subject Modal
You

must (not)
cant

Base Form
of Verb

Necessity: Have (got) to*


Base Form
of Verb

Subject Have (got) to


They

(dont) have to

He

has (got) to

go.

go.

*Unlike modals, which have one form, be in be able to and have in have (got) to change for different subjects.

Assumptions: May, Might, Could, Must, Cant


Subject

Modal

They

may (not)
might (not)
could (not)
must (not)
cant

Base Form
of Verb

be

actors.

Assumptions: Have (got) to**


Subject

Have
(got) to

They

have (got) to

He

has (got) to

Base Form
of Verb
be

actors.
an actor.

**Unlike modals, which have one form, have in have (got) to changes for different subjects.

Future Possibility: May, Might, Could


Subject

Modal

It

may (not)
might (not)
could

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 15

Base Form
of Verb
start

at 8:00.

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
ADVISABILITY IN THE PAST:
SHOULD HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE, COULD HAVE, MIGHT HAVE
Statements

Contractions

Subject

Modal*

Have

Past
Participle

He

should (not)
ought (not) to
could
might

have

told

her.

should have
could have
might have

=
=
=

shouldve
couldve
mightve

should not have

shouldnt have

*Should, ought to, could, and might are modals. Modals have only one form.
They do not have -s in the third person singular.

Yes / No Questions
Should

Subject

Have

Past
Participle

Should

he

have

told

her?

Short Answers
Afrmative
Yes,

he

Negative
should

have.

No,

he

shouldnt

have.

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Should

Subject

Have

Past
Participle

When

should

he

have

told

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 16

her?

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
SPECULATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE PAST:
MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, COULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, HAD TO HAVE
Statements
Subject Modal* / Had to

They

may (not)
might (not)
could (not)
must (not)
had to

Contractions

Have

Past
Participle

have

seen

the statues.

may have
might have
could have
must have
could not

=
=
=
=
=

mayve
mightve
couldve
mustve
couldnt

NOTE: We usually do not


contract may not have, might
not have, and must not have.

*May, might, could, and must are modals. Modals have only one form.
They do not have -s in the third person singular.

Questions
Do / Be

Subject

Did

Short Answers

Verb
carve

Subject

Modal / Had to

They

may (not)
might (not)
could (not)
must (not)
had to

these statues?

they
Were

aliens?

Yes / No Questions: Could


Could
Could

Subject
he

Have

Have

Been

have.

have

been.

Short Answers

Past
Participle
seen

aliens?

been

an alien?

have

Subject

Modal / Had to

He

may (not)
might (not)
could (not)
must (not)
had to

Have

Been

have.

have

been.

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Could

Have

could

have

Who
What

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 17

Past
Participle
built

the statues?

happened

to these people?

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
THE PASSIVE
Active

Passive

Millions of people buy it.

It is bought by millions of people.

Someone published it in 1888.

It was published in 1888.

They have reached their goal.

Their goal has been reached.

Passive Statements
Subject

Be (not)

Past
Participle

(By + Object)

It

is (not)

bought

by millions of people.

It

was (not)

published

Their goal

has (not) been

reached.

in 1888.

Yes / No Questions
Be / Have
Is
Was

Subject

Short Answers

(Been +)
Past Participle

Afrmative

sold
it

in Japan?

Has

been sold

Yes,

it

is.
was.
has (been).

Negative

No,

it

isnt.
wasnt.
hasnt (been).

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Be / Have

Subject

Where

is
was

it

(Been +)
Past Participle
sold?

has

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 18

been sold?

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
THE PASSIVE WITH MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS
Statements
Subject

Modal*

Be

Past
Participle

The crew

will (not)
should (not)
must (not)
can (not)
had better (not)

be

replaced

next month.

*Modals have only one form. They do not have -s in the third person
singular.

Statements
Have (got) to /
Be going to**

Subject

has (got) to
doesnt have to
is (not) going to

The crew

Be

Past
Participle

be

replaced

next month.

**Unlike modals, have in have (got) to and be in be going to change


for different subjects. Questions and negatives with have (got) to need
a form of do.

Yes / No Questions
Modal

Subject Be

Short Answers

Past Participle

Afrmative

Will

will.

Should
be

replaced?

Yes,

Must

it

Can

must.

Is

shouldnt.
No,

it

can.

Yes / No Questions

Does

wont.

should.
it

Auxiliary
Verb

Negative

Subject
it

Have to /
Going to
have to
going to

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 19

doesnt have to be.


cant.

Short Answers

Be

Past
Participle

be

replaced?

Afrmative

Negative

does.
Yes,

it

doesnt.
No,

is.

it
isnt.

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
THE PASSIVE CAUSATIVE
Statements
Subject

Have / Get

Object

Past
Participle

(By + Agent)

She

has

her hair

cut

by Andr

He

has had

his beard

trimmed

before.

get

my nails

done

at Andrs.

They

are going to get

their ears

pierced.

every month.

Yes / No Questions
Auxiliary
Verb

Subject

Have / Get

Object

Past
Participle

(By + Agent)

Does

she

have

her hair

cut

by Andr?

Has

he

had

his beard

trimmed

before?

Do

you

get

your nails

done

at Andrs?

Are

they

going to get

their ears

pierced?

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word

Auxiliary
Verb

Subject

Have / Get

Object

Past
Participle

(By + Agent)

How often

does

she

have

her hair

cut

by Andr?

Where

did

he

get

his beard

trimmed

before?

When

do

you

get

your nails

done

at Andrs?

Why

are

they

going to get

their ears

pierced?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 20

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PRESENT REAL CONDITIONALS
Statements

Statements

If Clause

Result Clause

Result Clause

If Clause

If I shop online,

I save time.

I save time

if I shop online.

If the mall is closed,

I can shop online.

I can shop online

if the mall is closed.

Yes / No Questions
Result Clause

If Clause

Do you save time

if you shop online?

Can you shop online

if the mall is closed?

Short Answers
Afrmative
Yes,

Negative

I do.

No,

I can.

I dont.
I cant.

Wh- Questions
Result Clause

If Clause

What happens

if I dont like it?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 21

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
FUTURE REAL CONDITIONALS
Statements
If Clause: Present

Result Clause: Future

If she studies,

she wont fail the test.


shes going to pass the test.

If she doesnt study,

shell fail the test.


she isnt going to pass the test.

Yes / No Questions
Result Clause: Future

If Clause: Present

Will she pass the test


Is she going to pass the test

if she studies?

Short Answers
Afrmative
Yes,

she will.
she is.

Negative
No,

she wont.
she isnt.

Wh- Questions
Result Clause: Future

If Clause: Present

What will she do


What is she going to do

if she passes the test?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 22

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PRESENT AND FUTURE UNREAL CONDITIONALS
Statements
If Clause: Simple Past

Result Clause: Would (not) + Base Form

If Mia had money,


If she were* rich,

she would live in a palace.


she wouldnt live in a cottage.

If Mia didnt have money,


If she werent rich,

she wouldnt live in a palace.


she would live in a cottage.

*With the verb be, use were for all subjects.

Contractions
I would
you would
he would
she would
we would
they would

=
=
=
=
=
=

Id
youd
hed
shed
wed
theyd

would not

= wouldnt

Yes / No Questions

Short Answers

Result Clause

If Clause

Afrmative

Negative

Would she live here

if she had money?


if she were rich?

Yes, she would.

No, she wouldnt.

Wh- Questions
Result Clause

If Clause

What would she do

if she had money?


if she were rich?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 23

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
PAST UNREAL CONDITIONALS
Statements
If Clause: Past Perfect

Result Clause: Would (not) have + Past Participle

If George had had money,

he would have moved away.


he wouldnt have stayed home.

If he had not stayed home,

his fathers business would have failed.


he wouldnt have married Mary.

Yes / No Questions

Short Answers

Result Clause

If Clause

Afrmative

Negative

Would he have left

if he had had money?

Yes, he would have.

No, he wouldnt have.

Wh- Questions

Contractions

Result Clause

If Clause

would have

What would he have done

if he had had money?

would not have = wouldnt have

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 24

= wouldve

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
Direct Speech
Direct Statement

Subject

Reporting Verb

The check is in the mail,


The haircut looks great,
The traffic was bad,

he

said.

Indirect Speech
Subject

He

Reporting
Verb

Noun/
Pronoun

told

the bank
Ann
her

said

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 25

Indirect Statement

(that)

the check was in the mail.


the haircut looked great.
the traffic had been bad.

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
INDIRECT SPEECH: TENSE CHANGES
Direct Speech
Subject

Reporting
Verb

Direct Statement

Indirect Speech
Subject

I live in Dresden.
I moved here in
June.
Im looking for
an apartment.
Ive started a
new job.
Im going to
stay here.
Ill invite you for
the holidays.

Reporting
Verb

Noun/
Pronoun

Indirect Statement

Jim
me
you
told

him
her
us
them

He

said,

We can go to
museums.
I may look for
a roommate.
I should get
back to work.
I have to finish
my report.
You must come
to visit.
We ought to
see each other
more often.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 26

He

(that)

said

he lived in Dresden.
he had moved
there in June.
he was looking
for an apartment.
he had started a
new job.
he was going to
stay there.
he would invite
me/us for the
holidays.
we could go to
museums.
he might look for
a roommate.
he should get
back to work.
he had to finish
his report.
I/we had to come
to visit.
we ought to
see each other
more often.

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
INDIRECT INSTRUCTIONS, COMMANDS, REQUESTS, AND INVITATIONS
Indirect Speech

Direct Speech
Subject

He

Reporting
Verb

said,

Direct Speech
Drink warm milk.
Dont drink coffee.
Can you turn out
the light, please?
Why dont you visit
the clinic?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 27

Subject

Reporting
Verb

Noun/
Pronoun

He

told
advised
asked

Connie
her

to drink warm milk.


not to drink coffee.
to turn out the light.

her

to visit the clinic.

Indirect Speech

said
invited

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
INDIRECT QUESTIONS
Direct Speech: Yes / No Questions
Subject

Reporting
Verb

He

asked,

Direct Question
Do you have any experience?
Can you create spreadsheets?
Will you stay for a year?

Indirect Speech: Yes / No Questions


Subject
He

Reporting
Verb

(Noun /
Pronoun)

asked

(Melissa)
(her)

Indirect Question
if
whether (or not)

she had any experience.


she could create spreadsheets.
she would stay for a year.

Direct Speech: Wh- Questions About the Subject


Subject

Reporting
Verb

He

asked,

Direct Question
Who told you about the job?
What happened on your last job?

Indirect Speech: Wh- Questions About the Subject


Subject

Reporting
Verb

(Noun /
Pronoun)

He

asked

(Bob)
(him)

Indirect Question
who had told him about the job.
what had happened on his last job.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 28

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Direct Speech: Wh- Questions About the Predicate


Subject

He

Reporting
Verb

asked,

Direct Question
Who(m) did you work for?
Where do you work now?
How are you going to get to work?
Why have you decided to change jobs?
How much are you making?

Indirect Speech: Wh- Questions About the Predicate


Subject

He

Reporting
Verb

asked

(Noun /
Pronoun)

(Melissa)
(her)

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 28

Indirect Question
who(m) she had worked for.
where she worked now.
how she was going to get to work.
why she had decided to change jobs.
how much she was making.

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
EMBEDDED QUESTIONS
Main Clause

Embedded Question

Im not sure
He wondered

if I left the right tip.


whether (or not) five dollars was enough.

Can you remember

how much our bill was?

Wh- Word + Innitive


I dont know

how much to tip.

Do you know

where to leave the tip?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 29

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.