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TRANSFER

CDB 2023: PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER

Jan Semester 2016

(1) PROFESSOR DR MOHAMED IBRAHIM B ABD

MUTALIB

(2) DR. YEONG YIN FONG

Lesson Outcomes:

At the end of this session:

1) Understand the physical mechanism of convection and its

classification.

2) Understand the development of velocity and thermal

boundary layers during flow over surfaces.

3) Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flows.

4) Obtain convection coefficients and determine heat

transfer rates to or from surfaces of various geometries in

external flow.

5) Obtain convection coefficients and determine heat

transfer rates to or from fluids flowing inside pipes of

various geometries.

6) Obtain convection coefficients and determine the heat

transfer rates in natural convection heat transfer from

various geometries.

Outline

Chapter 6: Fundamental of

Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Convection

Classification of Fluid Flows

Velocity Boundary Layer

Thermal Boundary Layer

Chapter 7: External Force

Convection

Parallel Flow over Flat Plates

Flow Across Cylinders and

Spheres

Flow Across Tube Banks

Convection

The Entrance Region

General Thermal Analysis

Laminar Flow in Tubes

Turbulent Flow in Tubes

Chapter 9: Natural Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Natural Convection

The Grashof Number

Natural Convection over

Surfaces

Reference Books:

Cengel, A. Y. and Ghajar, J. A., Heat and Mass

Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications, 5th Ed.

McGraw Hill 2015.

Holman, J. P. Heat Transfer, 10th Ed., McGraw Hill,

2009.

Outline

Chapter 6: Fundamental of

Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Convection

Classification of Fluid Flows

Velocity Boundary Layer

Thermal Boundary Layer

Convection

Parallel Flow over Flat Plates

Flow Across Cylinders and

Spheres

Flow Across Tube Banks

Convection

The Entrance Region

General Thermal Analysis

Laminar Flow in Tubes

Turbulent Flow in Tubes

Chapter 9: Natural Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Natural Convection

The Grashof Number

Natural Convection over

Surfaces

PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF

CONVECTION

both require the presence of

a material medium but

convection requires fluid

motion.

Heat transfer through a fluid

is by convection in the

presence of bulk fluid motion

and by conduction in the

absence of it.

higher by convection than it is by conduction.

In fact, the higher the fluid velocity, the higher the

rate of heat transfer.

fluid sandwiched between

two parallel plates.

fluid properties dynamic viscosity, thermal

conductivity, density, and specific heat, as well as

the fluid velocity.

It also depends on the geometry and the roughness

of the solid surface, in addition to the type of fluid

flow (such as being streamlined or turbulent).

Newtons law

of cooling

Eq 6-1

Eq 6-2

the surface due to viscous effects, and there is no slip.

Boundary layer: The flow region adjacent to the wall in which

the viscous effects (and thus the velocity gradients) are

significant.

surface because of the no-slip condition.

9

Nusselt Number

Eq. 6-5

Lc characteristic length

the enhancement of heat

transfer through a fluid layer as

a result of convection relative to

conduction across the same

fluid layer.

of thickness L and temperature

difference T.

the more effective the

convection.

10

Outline

Chapter 6: Fundamental of

Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Convection

Classification of Fluid Flows

Velocity Boundary Layer

Thermal Boundary Layer

Convection

Parallel Flow over Flat Plates

Flow Across Cylinders and

Spheres

Flow Across Tube Banks

Convection

The Entrance Region

General Thermal Analysis

Laminar Flow in Tubes

Turbulent Flow in Tubes

Chapter 9: Natural Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Natural Convection

The Grashof Number

Natural Convection over

Surfaces

11

CLASSIFICATION OF FLUID

FLOWS

i) Internal versus External Flow

ii) Laminar versus Turbulent Flow

iii) Natural (or unforced) versus Forced

Flow

iv) Steady versus Unsteady Flow

12

Flow

A fluid flow is classified as

being internal and external,

depending on whether the fluid

is forced to flow in a confined

channel or over a surface.

13

Laminar flow: The highly ordered fluid motion

characterized by smooth layers of fluid. The flow of

high-viscosity fluids such as oils at low

velocities is typically laminar.

Turbulent flow: The highly disordered fluid motion

that typically occurs at high velocities and is

characterized by velocity fluctuations. The flow of

low-viscosity fluids such as air at high velocities

is typically turbulent.

Transitional flow: A flow that alternates between

being laminar and turbulent.

14

15

Reynolds Number

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends

on the geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity,

surface temperature, and type of fluid.

The flow regime depends mainly on the ratio of inertia

forces to viscous forces (Reynolds number).

Re =

=

=

Viscous forces

Eq. 6-13

length, = / is the kinematic viscosity, = dynamic

viscosity

16

at which the flow becomes turbulent.

The value of the critical Reynolds number is different

for different geometries and flow conditions.

17

Forced flow: A fluid is forced to flow over a surface

or in a pipe by external means such as a pump or

a fan.

Natural flow: Fluid motion is due to natural means

such as the buoyancy effect, which manifests itself

as the rise of warmer (and thus lighter) fluid and

the fall of cooler (and thus denser) fluid.

18

18

The term steady implies no change at a point in

time.

The opposite of steady is unsteady.

The term uniform implies no change in location

over a specified region.

19

19

Outline

Chapter 6: Fundamental of

Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Convection

Classification of Fluid Flows

Velocity Boundary Layer

Thermal Boundary Layer

Convection

Parallel Flow over Flat Plates

Flow Across Cylinders and

Spheres

Flow Across Tube Banks

Convection

The Entrance Region

General Thermal Analysis

Laminar Flow in Tubes

Turbulent Flow in Tubes

Chapter 9: Natural Convection

Physical Mechanism of

Natural Convection

The Grashof Number

Natural Convection over

Surfaces

20

Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow above the

plate bounded by in which the effects of the viscous shearing

forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.

The boundary layer thickness, , is typically defined as the

distance y from the surface at which, fluid velocity, u = 0.99V.

21

The flow region over the surface in which the temperature

variation in the direction normal to the surface is significant.

The thickness of the thermal boundary layer t at any location

along the surface is defined as the distance from the surface at

which the temperature difference T Ts equals 0.99(T Ts).

22

Prandtl Number

The relative thickness of the velocity and the thermal

boundary layers is best described by the

dimensionless parameter Prandtl number.

The ratio of momentum diffusivity (kinematic viscosity)

to thermal diffusivity

Eq. 6-12

23

both momentum and heat dissipate through the fluid at about the

same rate.

Heat diffuses very quickly in liquid metals (Pr << 1) and very

slowly in oils (Pr >> 1) relative to momentum.

Consequently the thermal boundary layer is much thicker for

liquid metals and much thinner for oils relative to the velocity

boundary layer.

24

Summary of Chapter 6

Physical Mechanism of Convection

Nusselt Number

Classification of Fluid Flows

Velocity Boundary Layer

Thermal Boundary Layer

Prandtl Number

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Reynolds Number

25

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